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List of United States Senators from Illinois

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Current delegation

Illinois was admitted to the Union on December 3, 1818, and has been represented in the United States Senate by 47 senators. Senators from Illinois are elected to Class 2 and Class 3.

The Senate twice refused to seat Frank L. Smith, in December 1926 for an appointed term and in March 1927 for an elected one, due to corruption, but he is included in this list because Smith and the Governor considered him to be a senator for approximately two years.

Of the eight African Americans ever to sit in the U.S. Senate since Reconstruction, three have held Illinois's Class 3 seat, including Barack Obama who went on to become the President of the United States. This makes Illinois the state with the most African-American senators. Illinois's current U.S. Senators are Democrats Dick Durbin (serving since 1997) and Tammy Duckworth (serving since 2017).

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Transcription

I’m Mr. Beat, and I’m running for governor of Kansas in 2018. Here’s Chris Christie, the former governor of New Jersey. At one time, he was one of the most popular governors in the United States. However, by the time he left office, his approval rating had dropped all the way down to 14%. (Chris Christie clip) Many in New Jersey say he is the worst governor in their state’s history. But what about the worst governors in other states? Based on my research, here are the 10 worst governors in American history that I could find. Oh, and before we get into this list, I didn’t include the governors who are currently in office or recently got out of office. What can I say? We are always biased to have hatred to more recent politicians. #10 Edwin Edwards Governor of Louisiana from 1972 to 1980, 1984 to 1988, and 1992 to 1996, serving 16 years total in office, or 5,784 days, the sixth-longest amount of time in office for any governor since the Constitution. Widely considered one of the most corrupt governors in American history, he actually got caught for racketeering, extortion, money laundering, mail fraud, wire fraud, and conspiracy. He went to federal prison for eight years. He was unapologetic about receiving illegal campaign donations. He was accused of obstruction of justice and bribery. The only reason why Edwards is not higher up on my list is because is dedication to civil rights and protecting minorities and the poor. #9 Joel Aldrich Matteson Or MATTson. Both pronunciations are correct. I'll call him Mattyson because that's more fun. Oh Louisiana and Illinois. You both have a long history of electing corrupt and just, plain horrible governors. And Matteson is one of them. Governor of Illinois from 1853 to 1857, he actually had a few accomplishments during his tenure. This was when Illinois began public education, and Matteson oversaw a strong economy and the reduction of the state’s debt. However, after he got out of office people started to find out about his shadiness. You see, while in office, Matteson had found essentially IOU money in the form of scrips to pay for the Illinois and Michigan Canal. Even though scrips had already been cashed in, Matteson found out they could be used again due to poor record keeping. So he took a bunch of them for himself and cashed them in later on. They were like blank checks from the state. It was later estimated, that Matteson stole at least $5 million this way, adjusted for inflation. He would have probably stolen more if it weren’t for getting caught. So Matteson stole a bunch of taxpayer money. Oh yeah, and Abraham Lincoln hated him, too, so there’s that. #8 Peter Hardeman Burnett California’s first governor, and probably its worst. He was also the first California governor to resign, in office for just 14 months, from late 1849 to early 1851. He wanted the American West for whites only, supporting laws that banned blacks from living in Oregon when he lived up there and trying to get laws passed in California to ban blacks from living there after it became a state under his watch. He was also outspokenly racist toward Native Americans and Chinese immigrants. He pushed for heavy taxes on immigrants and for Indian removal. Oh, and he wanted the death penalty for theft. Peter, you were not a good start for California. #7 George Wallace Yeah, you’ve probably heard of George Wallace, he’s one of the most infamous in American history and ran for President several times. He was even in Forrest Gump. But if you want a great bio about him, I recommend this video by Connor Higgins. He’s most infamously known for the “segregation now, segregation tomorrow, and segregation forever” and racist stuff of his tenure, in which he embraced the KKK and basically argued that blacks and whites being in the same room was one of the worst things ever. He even freaking stood in front of a door to prevent black students from attending classes at the University of Alabama. But here’s the thing...he lost his first race for governor because he criticized the KKK and spoke out for African Americans. Later in life, after being paralyzed in an assassination attempt, he reversed his ways also by condemning his past racism. This just makes me assume he said whatever the majority of people wanted to hear in his state to get elected. George Wallace, were you racist or were you not? Ok yeah I think he truly was, though. He was so power hungry he got his wife elected after he couldn’t run for re-election due to term limit laws, and to do so, he hid her cancer diagnosis from her. She ended up dying less than 200 days after she took office. The bottom line is, George Wallace was as us vs. them as one could get. He knew how to divide Americans not only in Alabama, but across the country. Wallace would be higher up on this list if not for changing later in life, asking forgiveness from African Americans. "I was wrong. Those days are over, and they ought to be over." #6 Orval Faubus From one Southern racist governor to another, but at least this one has a cool name. Faubus was governor or Arkansas from 1955 to 1967. Now Faubus really just had one major decision that tainted his legacy Similar to Wallace, he was more about his political power, starting out more moderate when it came to civil rights issues, then all of sudden taking a firm pro-segregation stance after the Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision. In 1957, he became internationally infamous in what is known as the Little Rock Crisis. After the federal government ordered racial desegregation, he was like, “nope,” sending the Arkansas National Guard to stop African Americans from attending Little Rock Central High School. President Eisenhower had to send in federal troops to escort them in. And then at the end of the year, the school shut down. What’s frustrating about Faubus is that he really didn’t seem that racist. He just stubbornly did the wrong thing fueled the hatred of blacks in the South. And he never apologized for it, like Wallace did. #5 Lilburn Boggs Governor of Missouri from 1836 to 1840 Boggs is best known for Missouri Executive Order 44, or as many Mormons call it, the “Extermination Order.” It was a response to the growing violence during what became known as the 1838 Mormon War, a series of clashes between Mormons and those they threatened in northeast Missouri. Governor Boggs issued the order to drive Mormons out of the state because of their “open and avowed defiance of the laws, and of having made war upon the people of this State.” He also added, “The Mormons must be treated as enemies, and must be exterminated or driven from the State if necessary for the public peace.” Geez, dude. And yep, it worked. The Mormons fled to the town of Nauvoo, Illinois. Other great stuff about Boggs. He wasted a bunch of taxpayer money building a new capitol. Oh, and he almost caused a war with Iowa Territory due to a border dispute. Actually, it was known as a war. The Honey War. Awwww, what a sweet name for a war. #4 Len Small Well, here we go. Another Illinois governor. In office during the Roaring Twenties, from 1921 to 1929. His corruption started long before he was governor, back when he was the Illinois Treasurer. He was charged with embezzling over a million dollars through money laundering, by “misplacing” state funds into a fake bank. He went to trial for it while he was governor, and despite there being pretty good evidence that he was guilty, got off scot-free. Coincidentally, eight of the jurors who said he was not guilty in his trial later got cushy state jobs, and so did the brothers of the judge in that case. Coincidence? In 1925, when the Illinois Supreme Court said that yep, Small was guilty and he had to pay back that $1 million after all, Small fought back with a legal team and forced his own state employees to help pay for his defense. Small pardoned or released more than 1000 convicted felons, including a dude who was convicted of kidnapping young girls and making them slaves in which they were forced to be prostitutes. Also, Small released a bootlegger who later became the leader of one of the most powerful bootlegging gangs in Chicago. Oh Lenny. I can’t make this stuff up, can I? #3 Wilson Lumpkin Another great name, another bad governor. He was in office for the lovely state of Georgia from 1831 to 1835. He thought his biggest accomplishment, you know, something he was most proud of, was the removal of the peaceful Cherokee Indians from north Georgia. Yep, he was proud of kicking the Cherokee off their land, which led to the Trail of Tears and eventual death of 4,000 people. Wow, Wilson. Just wow. Did I mention he went against the Supreme Court by kicking them out? Check out that decision, by the way, I have a video about that called Worcester v. Georgia. He encouraged white settlers to take their land while they were still there. And did I mention he was a big supporter of slavery? Of course he was. And speaking of slavery... For #2, it’s a tie. In fact, 28 governors all tie for #2 on this list. They are the 28 Southern governors who all agreed to secede from the Union and become leaders in the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. Here are their names. I’m not going to read them off for you, but all of them declared allegiance to the Confederacy in the name of preserving the institution of slavery. I’m not going to call them traitors, because they didn’t think they were traitors. But they were wrong, and in my opinion, they do not deserve to be honored. And this last one will likely surprise you… #1 Brigham Young If you’re one of his 1,000 direct descendants, I’m pretty sure you are going to be offended by what I’m about to say. And if you’re Mormon, well I talked trash about Boggs earlier so hopefully this evens out. In case you didn’t know, Brigham Young was governor of the Territory of Utah from 1851 to 1858. Governor? Dictator might be a better word. I mean, he had absolute power. And there was no separation of church and state, it was a theocracy. After he led his Mormon followers into what is now known as Utah, and before the Feds go involved, whatever he said went. He argued slavery was a “divine institution.” Yep, people forget Utah used to allow slavery. Ok, and obviously the polygamy thing. He had 55 wives, for crying out loud. After he couldn’t convert the local Native American population to the Church of Latter Day Saints, he basically ordered to kill them. Yep. Genocide. Ethnic cleansing. And under his watch, the Mountain Meadows Massacre happened. Just Google it. It’s horrific, and it caused him to step down as governor. When the federal government came to challenge him during the Utah War, Young declared marital law and told his followers they may have to burn down their homes, hide in the woods, and conduct guerilla warfare to defend their way of life. He maybe started out as a nice guy, but in the end I think the power corrupted him, as power tends to do. So that’s it. I’m sure that last one surprised you, probably because you didn’t realize how horrible Brigham Young was or maybe you didn't realize he was a governor for a short while. He does have tons of monuments out there celebrating him and even a university named after him that’s one of the biggest universities in the country. Before I go, I want to point out that I was fairly out of my comfort zone when researching for this video There are so many governors in American history. that it's really hard to keep track of them. Plus, there's a lot of really bad ones and a lot of governors that we don't know much about in the early years. So if there are any governors that I did not include, that I totally missed please let me know in the comments. I will not be offended. Just let it all out. I do have a list of honorable mentions. Or should I say "DIShonorable mentions." That I included in the description of this video. They didn't quite make the cut. But as far as I know, this is the only video out there about the worst governors in American history. And thank you to Ian for giving me the idea. This video is dedicated to him. And to his mom. Thank you to you both for your support on Patreon. It means so much. I'll be back with a new episode of Supreme Court Briefs next week. Thank you for watching. And there's just one more thing. I'm really not running for Kansas governor in 2018. I just made that up.

Contents

List of senators

Class 2

Class 2 U.S. senators belong to the electoral cycle that were elected for three U.S. Congresses in the first elections of 1818, and then the seat was contested every three Congresses (six years) thereafter. The seat in recent years have been contested in 1996, 2002, 2008, and 2014. The next election will be in 2020.

C
o
n
g
r
e
s
s

Class 3

Class 3 U.S. senators belong to the electoral cycle that were elected for one United States Congress in the first elections of 1818, and then the seat was contested every three Congresses (six years) thereafter. The seat in recent years have been contested in 1998, 2004, 2010, and 2016. The next election will be in 2022.

# Senator Party Years in office Electoral history T
e
r
m
T
e
r
m
Electoral history Years in office Party Senator #
1
JBThomas.jpg

Jesse B. Thomas
Democratic-
Republican
December 3, 1818 –
March 3, 1829
Elected October 7, 1818. 1 15th 1 Elected October 7, 1818. December 3, 1818 –
March 3, 1824
Democratic-
Republican
Ninian.Edwards.png

Ninian Edwards
1
16th 2 Re-elected in early February 1819.

Resigned.
17th
Crawford
Democratic-
Republican
Re-elected in 1823.

Retired.
2 18th Adams-Clay
Democratic-
Republican
  March 4, 1824 –
November 24, 1824
Vacant
Elected to finish Edwards's term.

Retired.
November 24, 1824 –
March 3, 1825
Crawford
Democratic-
Republican
JMcLean-Senator.jpg

John McLean
2
Anti-Jacksonian 19th 3 Elected in 1825. March 4, 1825 –
December 12, 1835
Jacksonian
EliasKane.jpg

Elias Kane
3
20th
2
JMcLean-Senator.jpg

John McLean
Jacksonian March 4, 1829 –
October 14, 1830
Elected in 1829.

Died.
3 21st
Vacant October 14, 1830 –
November 12, 1830
 
3
DJ Baker-Senator.jpg

David J. Baker
Jacksonian November 12, 1830 –
December 11, 1830
Appointed to continue McLean's term.

Retired.
4
JMRobinson-Senator.jpg

John M. Robinson
Jacksonian December 11, 1830 –
March 3, 1841
Elected to finish McLean's term.
22nd 4 Re-elected in 1831.

Died.
23rd
Re-elected in 1835.

Retired.
4 24th
  December 12, 1835 –
December 30, 1835
Vacant
Appointed to finish Kane's term.

Lost election to full term.
December 30, 1835 –
March 3, 1837
Jacksonian
William Lee Davidson Ewing bioguide.jpg

William Lee D. Ewing
4
Democratic 25th 5 Elected in 1837.

Retired.
March 4, 1837 –
March 3, 1843
Democratic
RYoung.jpg

Richard M. Young
5
26th
5
SMcRoberts-Senator.jpg

Samuel McRoberts
Democratic March 4, 1841 –
March 27, 1843
Elected in 1841.

Died.
5 27th
28th 6 Elected in 1843.

Lost renomination.
March 4, 1843 –
March 3, 1849
Democratic
SBreese.jpg

Sidney Breese
6
Vacant March 27, 1843 –
August 16, 1843
 
6
James Semple.jpg

James Semple
Democratic August 16, 1843 –
March 3, 1847
Appointed to continue McRoberts's term.

Elected December 11, 1844 to finish McRoberts's term.[1]

Retired.
29th
7
SADouglas.jpg

Stephen A. Douglas
Democratic March 4, 1847 –
June 3, 1861
Elected in 1846. 6 30th
31st 7 Elected January 13, 1849.[2]

Election voided.[3]
March 4, 1849 –
March 15, 1849
Democratic
James Shields - Brady-Handy.jpg

James Shields
7
  March 15, 1849 –
October 27, 1849
Vacant
Elected to finish his own term.

Lost re-election.
October 27, 1849 –
March 3, 1855
Democratic
James Shields - Brady-Handy.jpg

James Shields
32nd
Re-elected in 1852. 7 33rd
34th 8 Elected in 1854 or 1855. March 4, 1855 –
March 3, 1873
Democratic
Lyman Trumbull - Brady-Handy.jpg

Lyman Trumbull
8
35th Republican
Re-elected in 1859.

Died.
8 36th
37th 9 Re-elected in 1861.
Vacant June 3, 1861 –
June 26, 1861
 
8
Orville Hickman Browning - Brady-Handy.jpg

Orville Browning
Republican June 26, 1861 –
January 12, 1863
Appointed to continue Douglas's term.

Lost election to finish Douglas's term.
9
William Alexander Richardson - Brady-Handy.jpg

William A. Richardson
Democratic January 12, 1863 –
March 3, 1865
Elected to finish Douglas's term.

Retired.
38th
10
Richard.Yates.1.jpg

Richard Yates
Republican March 4, 1865 –
March 3, 1871
Elected in 1864 or 1865.

Retired.
9 39th
40th 10 Re-elected in 1867.

[Data unknown/missing.]
41st
11
John Alexander Logan.jpg

John A. Logan
Republican March 4, 1871 –
March 3, 1877
Elected in 1870 or 1871.

Lost re-election.
10 42nd Liberal
Republican
43rd 11 Elected in 1872 or 1873.

Retired.
March 4, 1873 –
March 3, 1879
Republican
Richard James Oglesby.jpg

Richard J. Oglesby
9
44th
12
DDavis.jpg

David Davis
Independent March 4, 1877 –
March 3, 1883
Election year unknown.

Retired.
11 45th
46th 12 Elected in 1879. March 4, 1879 –
March 3, 1885
Republican
John Alexander Logan.jpg

John A. Logan
10
47th
13
Shelby Moore Cullom - Brady-Handy.jpg

Shelby Moore Cullom
Republican March 4, 1883 –
March 3, 1913
Elected in 1882. 12 48th
49th 13 Legislature failed to elect.
Re-elected late in 1885.

Died.
May 19, 1885 –
December 26, 1886
Republican
John Alexander Logan.jpg

John A. Logan
  December 26, 1886 –
January 19, 1887
Vacant
Elected to finish Logan's term.

Retired.
January 19, 1887 –
March 3, 1891
Republican
C.B.Farwell.jpg

Charles B. Farwell
11
50th
Re-elected in 1888. 13 51st
52nd 14 Elected in 1890.

Retired.
March 4, 1891 –
March 3, 1897
Democratic
John.M.Palmer.jpg

John M. Palmer
12
53rd
Re-elected in 1894. 14 54th
55th 15 Elected January 20, 1897.[4]

Retired.
March 4, 1897 –
March 3, 1903
Republican
WEMason.jpg

William E. Mason
13
56th
Re-elected January 22, 1901. 15 57th
58th 16 Elected January 20, 1903.

Lost re-election.
March 4, 1903 –
March 3, 1909
Republican
AHopkins.jpg

Albert J. Hopkins
14
59th
Re-elected January 22, 1907.[5]

Lost renomination.
16 60th
61st 17   March 4, 1909 –
June 18, 1909
Vacant
Elected May 26, 1909, but ineligible until resignation from U.S. House.

Election voided.
June 18, 1909 –
July 13, 1912
Republican
William Lorimer, Illinois Senator, GGB photo.jpg

William Lorimer
15
62nd
  July 13, 1912 –
March 26, 1913
Vacant
Vacant March 4, 1913 –
March 26, 1913
Legislature failed to elect. 17 63rd
14
Hamilton lewis.jpg

J. Hamilton Lewis
Democratic March 26, 1913 –
March 3, 1919
Elected March 26, 1913 to finish the vacant term.

Lost re-election.
Elected March 26, 1913 to finish Lorimer's term. March 26, 1913 –
March 3, 1921
Republican
Lawrence Yates Sherman.jpg

Lawrence Y. Sherman
16
64th 18 Re-elected in 1914.

Retired.
65th
15
Joseph Medill McCormick.jpg

Joseph M. McCormick
Republican March 4, 1919 –
February 25, 1925
Elected in 1918.

Lost renomination and died just before the end of the term.
18 66th
67th 19 Elected in 1920.

Lost renomination and died just before the end of the term.
March 4, 1921 –
December 7, 1926
Republican
William Brown McKinley.jpg

William B. McKinley
17
68th
16
Charles.S.Deneen.jpg

Charles S. Deneen
Republican February 26, 1925 –
March 3, 1931
Appointed to finish McCormick's term, having already been elected to the next term.
Elected in 1924.

Lost renomination.
19 69th
Appointed to continue McKinley's term.

Not seated/resigned.[6]
December 7, 1926 Republican
Frank L. Smith.jpg

Frank L. Smith
18
  December 7, 1926 –
December 3, 1928
Vacant
70th 20
Elected to finish the term.

Lost re-election.
December 3, 1928 –
March 3, 1933
Republican
Otis Ferguson Glenn.jpg

Otis F. Glenn
19
71st
17
Hamilton lewis.jpg

J. Hamilton Lewis
Democratic March 4, 1931 –
April 9, 1939
Elected in 1930. 20 72nd
73rd 21 Elected in 1932.

Retired.
March 4, 1933 –
January 3, 1939
Democratic
WilliamDieterich.jpg

William H. Dieterich
20
74th
Re-elected in 1936.

Died.
21 75th
76th 22 Elected in 1938. January 3, 1939 –
January 3, 1951
Democratic
ScottWikeLucas.jpg

Scott W. Lucas
21
Vacant April 9, 1939 –
April 14, 1939
 
18
James Slattery.jpg

James M. Slattery
Democratic April 14, 1939 –
November 21, 1940
Appointed to continue Lewis's term.

Lost election to finish Lewis's term.
19
CWBrooks-Senator.jpg

Charles W. Brooks
Republican November 22, 1940 –
January 3, 1949
Elected to finish Lewis's term.
77th
Re-elected in 1942.

Lost re-election.
22 78th
79th 23 Re-elected in 1944.

Lost re-election.
80th
20
Paul Douglas.JPG

Paul Douglas
Democratic January 3, 1949 –
January 3, 1967
Elected in 1948. 23 81st
82nd 24 Elected in 1950. January 3, 1951 –
September 7, 1969
Republican
EverettDirksen.jpg

Everett Dirksen
22
83rd
Re-elected in 1954. 24 84th
85th 25 Re-elected in 1956.
86th
Re-elected in 1960.

Lost re-election.
25 87th
88th 26 Re-elected in 1962.
89th
21
Charles Percy.jpg

Charles H. Percy
Republican January 3, 1967 –
January 3, 1985
Elected in 1966. 26 90th
91st 27 Re-elected in 1968.

Died.
  September 7, 1969 –
September 17, 1969
Vacant
Appointed to continue Dirksen's term.

Lost election to finish Dirksen's term.
September 17, 1969 –
November 3, 1970
Republican
Ralph T. Smith.jpg

Ralph Tyler Smith
23
  November 3, 1970 –
November 17, 1970
Vacant
Elected to finish Dirksen's term. November 17, 1970 –
January 3, 1981
Democratic
AdlaistevensonIII.jpg

Adlai Stevenson III
24
92nd
Re-elected in 1972. 27 93rd
94th 28 Re-elected in 1974.

Retired.
95th
Re-elected in 1978.

Lost re-election.
28 96th
97th 29 Elected in 1980. January 3, 1981 –
January 3, 1993
Democratic
Alan John Dixon.jpg

Alan J. Dixon
25
98th
22
Paul Simon (US Senator from Illinois).jpg

Paul Simon
Democratic January 3, 1985 –
January 3, 1997
Elected in 1984. 29 99th
100th 30 Re-elected in 1986.

Lost renomination.
101st
Re-elected in 1990.

Retired.
30 102nd
103rd 31 Elected in 1992.

Lost re-election.
January 3, 1993 –
January 3, 1999
Democratic
Sen. Carol Moseley Braun.jpg

Carol Moseley Braun
26
104th
23
Richard Durbin official photo.jpg

Dick Durbin
Democratic January 3, 1997 –
Present
Elected in 1996. 31 105th
106th 32 Elected in 1998.

Retired.
January 3, 1999 –
January 3, 2005
Republican
Peter Fitzgerald.jpg

Peter Fitzgerald
27
107th
Re-elected in 2002. 32 108th
109th 33 Elected in 2004.

Resigned to become U.S. President.
January 3, 2005 –
November 16, 2008
Democratic
BarackObamaportrait.jpg

Barack Obama
28
110th
  November 16, 2008 –
January 12, 2009
Vacant
Re-elected in 2008. 33 111th
Appointed to continue Obama's term.[7]

Retired when successor qualified.
January 12, 2009 –
November 29, 2010
Democratic
Sen Roland Burris.jpg

Roland Burris
29
Elected to finish Obama's term.[8] November 29, 2010 –
January 3, 2017
Republican
Senator Mark Kirk official portrait crop.jpg

Mark Kirk
30
112th 34 Elected to full term in 2010.[8]

Lost re-election.
113th
Re-elected in 2014. 34 114th
115th 35 Elected in 2016. January 3, 2017 –
Present
Democratic
Tammy Duckworth, official portrait, 115th Congress (cropped).jpg

Tammy Duckworth
31
116th
To be determined in the 2020 election. 35 117th
118th 36 To be determined in the 2022 election.
# Senator Party Years in office Electoral history T
e
r
m
  T
e
r
m
Electoral history Years in office Party Senator #
Class 2 Class 3

Living former Senators

As of January 2019, there are six living former Senators. The most recent senator to die was Alan J. Dixon (served 1981–1993) on July 6, 2014. The most recently serving senator to die was Paul Simon (served 1985–1997) on December 9, 2003.

Senator Class Term of office Date of birth (and age)
Adlai Stevenson III 3 November 17, 1970 – January 3, 1981 (1930-10-10) October 10, 1930 (age 88)
Carol Moseley Braun 3 January 3, 1993 – January 3, 1999 (1947-08-16) August 16, 1947 (age 71)
Peter Fitzgerald 3 January 3, 1999 – January 3, 2005 (1960-10-20) October 20, 1960 (age 58)
Barack Obama 3 January 3, 2005 – November 16, 2008 (1961-08-04) August 4, 1961 (age 57)
Roland Burris 3 January 12, 2009 – November 29, 2010 (1937-08-03) August 3, 1937 (age 81)
Mark Kirk 3 November 29, 2010 – January 3, 2017 (1959-09-15) September 15, 1959 (age 59)

Notes

  1. ^ Byrd, p. 101.
  2. ^ Polk, James (1853). The Statesman's Manual: The Addresses and Messages of the Presidents of the United States, Inaugural, Annual, and Special, from 1789 to 1851. E. Walker. p. 1890. Retrieved May 16, 2018.
  3. ^ Shields was not seated because he had not been a citizen for the required nine years. He reached that mark on October 21, 1849, so his subsequent election was accepted by the Senate.
  4. ^ "Mason in Illinois". The New York Times. January 21, 1897. p. 2.
  5. ^ "NO CHOICE IN RHODE ISLAND". The New York Times. January 23, 1907. p. 1.
  6. ^ When Smith presented his credentials to serve the remainder of McKinely's term, the Senate refused to seat him based on what it saw as an election rife with fraud and corruption When Smith returned with his credentials for the term he was elected to, the Senate again refused to seat him for the same reasons. Smith and the Governor considered him to be the rightful senator, but he resigned in February 1928. The Senate does not consider him to have been a senator.
  7. ^ Burris was appointed on December 30, 2008, but was certified late because his appointment was disputed.
  8. ^ a b Kirk was elected to fill the remainder of Barack Obama's term in a special election held the same day as the general election for the next term, which he also won.

References

See also

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