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41st United States Congress

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

41st United States Congress
40th ←
→ 42nd

March 4, 1869 – March 4, 1871
Members74 senators
243 representatives
9 non-voting delegates
Senate majorityRepublican
Senate PresidentSchuyler Colfax (R)
House majorityRepublican
House SpeakerJames G. Blaine (R)
1st: March 4, 1869 – April 10, 1869
2nd: December 6, 1869 – July 15, 1870
3rd: December 5, 1870 – March 4, 1871

The 41st United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1869, to March 4, 1871, during the first two years of Ulysses S. Grant's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the 1860 United States census. Both chambers had a Republican majority.

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  • Our Lost Constitution: The Willful Subversion of America’s Founding Document


Major events

Major legislation

Constitutional amendments

  • February 3, 1870: Fifteenth Amendment was ratified by the requisite number of states (then 28) to become part of the Constitution[2]

States readmitted

  • January 26, 1870: Virginia rejoined the Union
  • February 23, 1870: Mississippi rejoined the Union
  • March 30, 1870: Texas rejoined the Union
  • July 15, 1870: Georgia rejoined the Union, the last former Confederate state to be readmitted

Party summary

The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, and includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

During this Congress, Virginia, Mississippi, Texas, and Georgia were readmitted to representation.


(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
End of previous congress 9 57 0 66 8
Begin 9 57 0 66 8
End 12 62 740
Final voting share 16.2% 83.8% 0.0%
Beginning of next congress 16 55 1[a] 72 2

House of Representatives

(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
End of previous congress 45 170 2 3[b] 220 23
Begin 65 149 0 0 214 29
End 67 167 5 2394
Final voting share 28.0% 69.9% 2.1% 0.0%
Beginning of next congress 93 144 0 2[c] 239 2


President of the Senate
Schuyler Colfax


House of Representatives


This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed then by class and representatives are listed then by district.

Skip to House of Representatives, below


Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, "Class 1" meant their term began in this Congress, facing re-election in 1874; "Class 2" meant their term ended in this Congress, facing re-election in 1870; and "Class 3" meant their term began in the last Congress, facing re-election in 1872.

House of Representatives

The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.


  • Replacements: 6
  • Deaths: 2
  • Resignations:2
  • Interim appointments: 2
  • Seats of newly re-admitted states: 8
  • Total seats with changes: 14
Senate changes
Vacated by Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[d]
Virginia (1) Vacant Virginia re-admitted to the Union John F. Lewis (R) January 26, 1870
Virginia (2) John W. Johnston (D)
Mississippi (1) Vacant Mississippi re-admitted to the Union Adelbert Ames (R) February 23, 1870
Mississippi (2) Hiram R Revels (R)
Texas (1) Vacant Texas re-admitted to the Union James W. Flanagan (R) March 30, 1870
Texas (2) Morgan C. Hamilton (R) March 31, 1870
Georgia (3) Vacant Georgia re-admitted to the Union Joshua Hill (R) February 1, 1871
Georgia (2) Homer V. M. Miller (D) February 28, 1871
Maine (2) William P. Fessenden (R) Died September 8, 1869.
Successor appointed October 30, 1869.
Successor was subsequently elected January 19, 1870 to finish the term.
Lot M. Morrill (R) October 30, 1869
Iowa (2) James W. Grimes (R) Resigned December 6, 1869, because of failing health.
Successor elected January 18, 1870.
James B. Howell (R) January 18, 1870
Minnesota (2) Daniel S. Norton (R) Died July 13, 1870.
Successor appointed July 15, 1870.
William Windom (R) July 15, 1870
Missouri (3) Charles D. Drake (R) Resigned December 19, 1870, after being appointed chief justice of the United States Court of Claims.
Successor appointed December 19, 1870.
Daniel T. Jewett (R) December 19, 1870
Missouri (3) Daniel T. Jewett (R) Interim appointee retired.
Successor elected January 20, 1871.
Francis P. Blair Jr. (D) January 20, 1871
Minnesota (2) William Windom (R) Successor elected January 22, 1871. Ozora P. Stearns (R) January 22, 1871

House of Representatives

House changes
District Vacated by Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[d]
South Carolina 3rd Vacant Contested election with J.P. Reed. Reed was never seated. House declared Hoge entitled to seat. Solomon L. Hoge (R) April 8, 1869
Wyoming Territory At-large Vacant Territory organized in previous congress and remained vacant until December 6, 1869 Stephen F. Nuckolls (D) December 6, 1869
Virginia 2nd Vacant Virginia re-admitted into the Union James H. Platt Jr. (R) January 26, 1870
Virginia 3rd Charles H. Porter (R)
Virginia 4th George Booker (C)
Virginia 5th Robert Ridgway (C) January 27, 1870
Virginia 6th William Milnes Jr. (C)
Virginia 8th James K. Gibson (C) January 28, 1870
Virginia 1st Richard S. Ayer (R) January 31, 1870
Virginia 7th Lewis McKenzie (C)
Pennsylvania 21st Vacant Contested election with Henry D. Foster. House declared neither was entitled to seat. House then declared Covode duly elected February 9, 1870 John Covode (R) February 9, 1870
Mississippi 1st Vacant Mississippi re-admitted into the Union George E. Harris (R) February 23, 1870
Mississippi 2nd Joseph L. Morphis (R)
Mississippi 3rd Henry W. Barry (R)
Mississippi 4th George C. McKee (R)
Mississippi 5th Legrand W. Perce (R)
Texas 1st Vacant Texas re-admitted into the Union George W. Whitmore (R) March 30, 1870
Texas 2nd John C. Conner (D) March 31, 1870
Texas 3rd William T. Clark (R)
Texas 4th Edward Degener (R)
Louisiana 4th Vacant Contested election with Michael Ryan. House declared neither was entitled to seat. Elected to seat thus caused Joseph P. Newsham (R) May 23, 1870
South Carolina 4th Vacant Contested election with William D. Simpson. Simpson was never seated. House declared Wallace entitled to seat. Alexander S. Wallace (R) May 27, 1870
Louisiana 1st Vacant Contested election with Louis St. Martin. House declared neither was entitled to seat. Elected to seat thus caused J. Hale Sypher (R) November 7, 1870
Georgia 1st Vacant Vacancy caused by House declaring Joseph W. Clift not entitled to seat William W. Paine (D) December 22, 1870
Georgia 2nd Vacancy caused by House declaring Nelson Tift not entitled to seat Richard H. Whiteley (R)
Georgia 3rd Vacancy caused by House declaring William P. Edwards not entitled to seat Marion Bethune (R)
Georgia 4th Vacancy caused by House declaring Samuel F. Gove not entitled to seat Jefferson F. Long (R)
Georgia 5th Vacancy caused by House declaring Charles H. Prince not entitled to seat Stephen A. Corker (D)
Georgia 6th Failure to elect William P. Price (D)
Georgia 7th Vacancy caused by House declaring Pierce M. B. Young not entitled to seat. He was subsequently elected to fill the vacancy thus caused Pierce M. B. Young (D)
Illinois 3rd Elihu B. Washburne (R) Resigned March 6, 1869, after being appointed United States Secretary of State Horatio C. Burchard (R) December 6, 1869
Massachusetts 7th George S. Boutwell (R) Resigned March 12, 1869, after being appointed United States Secretary of the Treasury George M. Brooks (R) November 2, 1869
Pennsylvania 3rd John Moffet (D) Lost contested election April 9, 1869 Leonard Myers (R) April 9, 1869
Wisconsin 2nd Benjamin F. Hopkins (R) Died January 1, 1870 David Atwood (R) February 23, 1870
Ohio 10th Truman H. Hoag (D) Died February 5, 1870 Erasmus D. Peck (R) April 23, 1870
New York 11th George W. Greene (D) Lost contested election February 17, 1870 Charles Van Wyck (R) February 17, 1870
South Carolina 1st Benjamin F. Whittemore (R) Resigned February 24, 1870, pending an investigation of certain appointments to the US Military and Naval Academies Joseph Rainey (R) December 12, 1870
Kentucky 3rd Jacob Golladay (D) Resigned February 28, 1870 Joseph H. Lewis (D) May 10, 1870
North Carolina 4th John T. Deweese (R) Resigned February 28, 1870, pending an investigation of certain appointments to the US Military and Naval Academies John Manning Jr. (D) December 7, 1870
Pennsylvania 5th John R. Reading (D) Lost contested election April 13, 1870 Caleb N. Taylor (R) April 13, 1870
North Carolina 2nd David Heaton (R) Died June 25, 1870 Joseph Dixon (R) December 5, 1870
New York 28th Noah Davis (R) Resigned July 15, 1870, before being appointed U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York Charles H. Holmes (R) December 6, 1870
Iowa 2nd William Smyth (R) Died September 30, 1870 William P. Wolf (R) December 6, 1870
Virginia 5th Robert Ridgway (C) Died October 16, 1870 Richard T. W. Duke (C) November 8, 1870
Ohio 3rd Robert C. Schenck (R) Resigned January 5, 1871, after being appointed U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom Vacant Not filled this Congress
Pennsylvania 21st John Covode (R) Died January 11, 1871 Vacant Not filled this Congress
Illinois At-large John A. Logan (R) Resigned at end of congress March 3, 1871, after being elected to the US Senate for the following term Vacant Not filled this Congress
Michigan 4th Thomas W. Ferry (R) Resigned at end of congress March 3, 1871, after being elected to the US Senate for the following term Vacant Not filled this Congress


Lists of committees and their party leaders for members of the House and Senate committees can be found through the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of this article. The directory after the pages of terms of service lists committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and, after that, House/Senate committee assignments. On the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.


House of Representatives

Joint committees



Legislative branch agency directors


House of Representatives

See also


  1. ^ Liberal Republican
  2. ^ Independent Republican,
    & Conservative Republican
  3. ^ Liberal Republican &
    Independent Republican
  4. ^ a b When seated or oath administered, not necessarily when service began.


  1. ^ "Ceremony at "Wedding of the Rails," May 10, 1869 at Promontory Point, Utah". World Digital Library. May 10, 1869. Retrieved July 21, 2013.
  2. ^ Huckabee, David C. (September 30, 1997). "Ratification of Amendments to the U.S. Constitution" (PDF). Congressional Research Service reports. Washington D.C.: Congressional Research Service, The Library of Congress.


  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

External links

This page was last edited on 5 December 2023, at 15:53
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