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118th United States Congress

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

118th United States Congress
117th ←
→ 119th
A photo of the United States Capitol, with a sunrise in the background.

January 3, 2023 – January 3, 2025
Members100 senators
435 representatives
6 non-voting delegates
Senate majorityDemocratic
Senate PresidentKamala Harris (D)
House majorityRepublican
House Speaker
Sessions
1st: January 3, 2023 – January 3, 2024
2nd: January 3, 2024 – present
A small pin held onto an article of clothing with a Congressional seal on it
118th Congress House member pin

The 118th United States Congress is the current meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It convened in Washington, D.C., on January 3, 2023, and will end on January 3, 2025, during the third and fourth years of President Joe Biden's term in office.

In the 2022 midterm elections, the Republican Party won control of the House 222–213, taking the majority for the first time since the 115th Congress, while the Democratic Party gained one seat in the Senate, where they already had effective control, and giving them a 51–49 seat majority (with a caucus of 48 Democrats and three independents). With Republicans winning the House, the 118th Congress ended the federal government trifecta Democrats held in the 117th.[1]

This congress also features the first female Senate president pro tempore (Patty Murray), the first Black party leader (Hakeem Jeffries) in congressional history, and the longest-serving Senate party leaders (Mitch McConnell and Dick Durbin).[b]

The 118th Congress has been characterized as a uniquely ineffectual Congress, with its most notable events pointing towards political dysfunction.[2] The intense gridlock, particularly in the Republican-controlled House, where the Republican Conference's majority was often undercut by internal disputes amongst its members,[3] resulted in it passing the lowest number of laws for the first year of session since the Richard Nixon administration, and possibly ever.[4] The unproductive session demotivated many seasoned legislators, with five committee chairs amongst the dozens declaring resignations before the end of the session, three of whom were eligible to reprise their positions if the Republican Party retained their majority for 2025.[5]

The Congress began with a multi-ballot election for Speaker of the House, which had not happened since the 68th Congress in 1923. Kevin McCarthy was eventually elected speaker on the 15th ballot. After relying on Democratic votes to get out of a debt ceiling crisis and government shutdown threats, McCarthy became the first speaker to ever be removed from the role during a legislative session on October 3, 2023.[6] Following three failed attempts by various representatives to fill the post, on October 25, Mike Johnson was elected as speaker. Johnson would advance four more bipartisan continuing resolutions from November into March to avoid shutdowns.[7][8] Congress finalized the 2024 United States federal budget on March 23, 2024, through two separate minibus packages.[9] Following a contentious foreign aid vote, a motion to vacate against Johnson was defeated through a motion to table with bipartisan support.[10]

Partisan disciplinary actions have also increased. With the expulsion of New York Representative George Santos from the House in December 2023 over the opposition of the Speaker, this was the first congress since the 107th in which a member was expelled, and the first ever in which a Republican was. There was also an increase of censures passed in the House,[11] being the first congress with multiple censures since the 1983 congressional page sex scandal and the most in one year since 1870. In December 2023, House Republicans authorized an impeachment inquiry into Joe Biden,[12] followed by the impeachment of Alejandro Mayorkas in February 2024, the first time a cabinet secretary has been the target of impeachment proceedings since William W. Belknap in 1876, and only the second such cabinet impeachment in history.[13][14] The charges were dismissed by the Senate, the first time the Senate dismissed impeachment articles without trial after the reading.[15]

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Transcription

Major events

President Biden during his 2023 State of the Union Address with Vice President Kamala Harris and then House Speaker Kevin McCarthy
President Biden during his 2024 State of the Union Address with Vice President Harris and House Speaker Mike Johnson
Japanese Prime Minister Fumio Kishida addressing a joint session of Congress with Vice President Harris and House Speaker Mike Johnson

Major legislation

Enacted

Proposed (but not enacted)

House bills
Senate bills

Major resolutions

Adopted

Proposed

Vetoed

  • H.J.Res. 27: Providing for congressional disapproval under chapter 8 of title 5, United States Code, of the rule submitted by the Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Department of Defense and the Environmental Protection Agency relating to "Revised Definition of 'Waters of the United States'".
  • H.J.Res. 30: Providing for congressional disapproval under chapter 8 of title 5, United States Code, of the rule submitted by the Department of Labor relating to "Prudence and Loyalty in Selecting Plan Investments and Exercising Shareholder Rights".
  • H.J.Res. 39: Disapproving the rule submitted by the Department of Commerce relating to "Procedures Covering Suspension of Liquidation, Duties and Estimated Duties in Accord With Presidential Proclamation 10414".
  • H.J.Res. 42: Disapproving the action of the District of Columbia Council in approving the Comprehensive Policing and Justice Reform Amendment Act of 2022.
  • H.J.Res. 45: Providing for congressional disapproval under chapter 8 of title 5, United States Code, of the rule submitted by the Department of Education relating to "Waivers and Modifications of Federal Student Loans".
  • H.J.Res. 98: Providing for congressional disapproval under chapter 8 of title 5, United States Code, of the rule submitted by the National Labor Relations Board relating to "Standard for Determining Joint Employer Status".
  • S.J.Res. 11: Providing for congressional disapproval under chapter 8 of title 5, United States Code, of the rule submitted by the Environmental Protection Agency relating to "Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles: Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle Standards".
  • S.J.Res. 32: Providing for congressional disapproval under chapter 8 of title 5, United States Code, of the rule submitted by the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection relating to "Small Business Lending Under the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (Regulation B)".
  • S.J.Res. 38: Providing for congressional disapproval under chapter 8 of title 5, United States Code, of the rule submitted by the Federal Highway Administration relating to "Waiver of Buy America Requirements for Electric Vehicle Chargers".

Party summary

Resignations and new members are discussed in the "Changes in membership" section:
Number of members of Congress by age,
118th Congress

Senate

Overview of Senate membership by party
  Party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic Independent* Republican
End of previous Congress[c] 48 2 50 100 0
Begin (January 3, 2023) 48 3 49 100 0
January 8, 2023[d] 48 99 1
January 23, 2023[d] 49 100 0
September 29, 2023[e] 47 99 1
October 3, 2023[e] 48 100 0
Current voting share 51.0% 49.0%  
  • All three self-identified independents caucus with the Democrats.

House of Representatives

Overview of House membership by party
  Party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic Republican
End of previous Congress 216 213 429 6
Begin (January 3, 2023)[f] 212 222 434 1
March 7, 2023[f] 213 435 0
May 31, 2023[g] 212 434 1
September 15, 2023[h] 221 433 2
November 13, 2023[g] 213 434 1
November 28, 2023[h] 222 435 0
December 1, 2023[i] 221 434 1
December 31, 2023[j] 220 433 2
January 21, 2024[k] 219 432 3
February 2, 2024[l] 212 431 4
February 28, 2024[i] 213 432 3
March 22, 2024[m] 218 431 4
April 20, 2024[n] 217 430 5
April 24, 2024[o] 212 429 6
May 6, 2024[l] 213 430 5
TBD, 2024[j] 218 431 4
Current voting share 49.5% 50.5%
Non-voting members 3 3[p] 6 0

Leadership

Note: Democrats refer to themselves as a "caucus"; Republicans refer to themselves as a "conference".

Senate

Senate President
Kamala Harris (D)
Senate President pro tempore
Patty Murray (D)

Presiding

Majority (Democratic)

Minority (Republican)

House of Representatives

House Speaker
Kevin McCarthy (R),
from January 7 to October 3, 2023
Patrick McHenry (R),
from October 3 to October 25, 2023 (as Speaker pro tempore)
Mike Johnson (R),
from October 25, 2023

Presiding

Majority (Republican)

Minority (Democratic)

Members

Senate

The numbers refer to their Senate classes. All class 3 seats were contested in the November 2022 elections. In this Congress, class 3 means their term commenced in 2023, requiring re-election in 2028; class 1 means their term ends with this Congress, requiring re-election in 2024; and class 2 means their term began in the last Congress, requiring re-election in 2026.

House of Representatives

All 435 seats were filled by election in November 2022. Additionally, six non-voting members were elected from the American territories and Washington, D.C.[t]

The numbers refer to the congressional district of the given state in this Congress. Eight new congressional districts were created or re-created, while eight others were eliminated, as a result of the 2020 United States census.[u][v]

Changes in membership

Senate changes

Senate changes
State
(class)
Vacated by Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[w]
Nebraska
(2)
Ben Sasse
(R)
Incumbent resigned January 8, 2023, to become the president of the University of Florida.[38]
Successor was appointed January 12, 2023, to continue the term.[53][x]
Pete Ricketts
(R)
January 23, 2023
California
(1)
Dianne Feinstein
(D)
Incumbent died September 29, 2023.[39]
Successor was appointed October 1, 2023, to continue the term.[55]
Laphonza Butler
(D)
October 3, 2023
California
(1)
Laphonza Butler
(D)
Appointment to expire in November or December 2024, following a special election.[56]
Successor will be elected November 5, 2024, to finish the term ending with this Congress.[57]
TBD

House of Representatives changes

House changes
District Vacated by Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[w]
Virginia 4 Vacant Incumbent Donald McEachin (D) died November 28, 2022, before the beginning of this Congress.
A special election was held on February 21, 2023.[58]
Jennifer McClellan
(D)
March 7, 2023
Rhode Island 1 David Cicilline
(D)
Incumbent resigned May 31, 2023, to become CEO of the Rhode Island Foundation.
A special election was held on November 7, 2023.[43]
Gabe Amo
(D)
November 13, 2023
Utah 2 Chris Stewart
(R)
Incumbent resigned September 15, 2023, due to his wife's health issues.
A special election was held on November 21, 2023.[45]
Celeste Maloy
(R)
November 28, 2023
New York 3 George Santos
(R)
Incumbent expelled December 1, 2023.[59]
A special election was held on February 13, 2024.
Tom Suozzi
(D)
February 28, 2024
California 20 Kevin McCarthy
(R)
Incumbent resigned December 31, 2023.[60]
A special election was held on May 21, 2024.
Vince Fong
(R)
TBD, 2024
Ohio 6 Bill Johnson
(R)
Incumbent resigned January 21, 2024, to become president of Youngstown State University.[61][62]
A special election will be held with primaries on March 19, 2024, and the general election on June 11, 2024.
TBD
New York 26 Brian Higgins
(D)
Incumbent resigned February 2, 2024, to become president of Shea's Performing Arts Center.[63]
A special election was held on April 30, 2024.[64]
Tim Kennedy
(D)
May 6, 2024
Colorado 4 Ken Buck
(R)
Incumbent resigned March 22, 2024.[65]
A special election will be held on June 25, 2024.
TBD
Wisconsin 8 Mike Gallagher
(R)
Incumbent resigned on April 20, 2024.[66]
A special election will be held on November 5, 2024.[67]
TBD
New Jersey 10 Donald Payne Jr.
(D)
Incumbent died on April 24, 2024.[68]
A special election will be held on September 18, 2024.
TBD

Committees

Section contents: Senate, House, Joint

Senate committees

Standing committees

Committee Chair Ranking Member/Vice Chair
Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry Debbie Stabenow (D-MI) John Boozman (R-AR)
Appropriations Patty Murray (D-WA) Susan Collins (R-ME)
Armed Services Jack Reed (D-RI) Roger Wicker (R-MS)
Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs Sherrod Brown (D-OH) Tim Scott (R-SC)
Budget Sheldon Whitehouse (D-RI) Chuck Grassley (R-IA)
Commerce, Science and Transportation Maria Cantwell (D-WA) Ted Cruz (R-TX)
Energy and Natural Resources Joe Manchin (D-WV) John Barrasso (R-WY)
Environment and Public Works Tom Carper (D-DE) Shelley Moore Capito (R-WV)
Finance Ron Wyden (D-OR) Mike Crapo (R-ID)
Foreign Relations Bob Menendez (D-NJ) until September 22, 2023
Ben Cardin (D-MD) from September 25, 2023
Jim Risch (R-ID)
Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Bernie Sanders (I-VT) Bill Cassidy (R-LA)
Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Gary Peters (D-MI) Rand Paul (R-KY)
Judiciary Dick Durbin (D-IL) Lindsey Graham (R-SC)
Rules and Administration Amy Klobuchar (D-MN) Deb Fischer (R-NE)
Small Business and Entrepreneurship Ben Cardin (D-MD) until September 25, 2023
Jeanne Shaheen (D-NH) from September 27, 2023
Joni Ernst (R-IA)
Veterans' Affairs Jon Tester (D-MT) Jerry Moran (R-KS)

Select, permanent select and special committees

Committee Chair Ranking Member/Vice Chair
Aging (Special) Bob Casey Jr. (D-PA) Mike Braun (R-IN)
Ethics (Select) Chris Coons (D-DE) James Lankford (R-OK)
Indian Affairs (Permanent Select) Brian Schatz (D-HI) Lisa Murkowski (R-AK)
Intelligence (Select) Mark Warner (D-VA) Marco Rubio (R-FL)
International Narcotics Control (Permanent Caucus) Sheldon Whitehouse (D-RI) Chuck Grassley (R-IA)

House of Representatives committees

Committee Chair Ranking Member
Agriculture Glenn Thompson (R-PA) David Scott (D-GA)
Appropriations Kay Granger (R-TX) until April 10, 2024
Tom Cole (R-OK) from April 10, 2024
Rosa DeLauro (D-CT)
Armed Services Mike Rogers (R-AL) Adam Smith (D-WA)
Budget Jodey Arrington (R-TX) Brendan Boyle (D-PA)
Education and the Workforce Virginia Foxx (R-NC) Bobby Scott (D-VA)
Energy and Commerce Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R-WA) Frank Pallone (D-NJ)
Ethics Michael Guest (R-MS) Susan Wild (D-PA)
Financial Services Patrick McHenry (R-NC) Maxine Waters (D-CA)
Foreign Affairs Michael McCaul (R-TX) Gregory Meeks (D-NY)
Homeland Security Mark Green (R-TN) Bennie Thompson (D-MS)
House Administration Bryan Steil (R-WI) Joe Morelle (D-NY)
Intelligence (Permanent Select) Mike Turner (R-OH) Jim Himes (D-CT)
Judiciary Jim Jordan (R-OH) Jerry Nadler (D-NY)
Natural Resources Bruce Westerman (R-AR) Raúl Grijalva (D-AZ)
Oversight and Reform James Comer (R-KY) Jamie Raskin (D-MD)
Rules Tom Cole (R-OK) until April 10, 2024
Michael C. Burgess (R-TX) from April 10, 2024
Jim McGovern (D-MA)
Science, Space and Technology Frank Lucas (R- OK) Zoe Lofgren (D-CA)
Small Business Roger Williams (R-TX) Nydia Velázquez (D-NY)
Transportation and Infrastructure Sam Graves (R-MO) Rick Larsen (D-WA)
Veterans' Affairs Mike Bost (R-IL) Mark Takano (D-CA)
Ways and Means Jason Smith (R-MO) Richard Neal (D-MA)

Joint committees

Committee Chair Vice Chair Ranking Member Vice Ranking Member
Economic Sen. Martin Heinrich (D-NM) Rep. David Schweikert (R-AZ) Rep. Don Beyer (D-VA) Sen. Mike Lee (R-UT)
Library Sen. Amy Klobuchar (D-MN) Rep. Bryan Steil (R-WI) Rep. Joe Morelle (D-NY) Sen. Deb Fischer (R-NE)
Printing Rep. Bryan Steil (R-WI) Sen. Amy Klobuchar (D-MN) Sen. Deb Fischer (R-NE) Rep. Joe Morelle (D-NY)
Taxation[y] Rep. Jason Smith (R-MO) Sen. Ron Wyden (D-OR) Sen. Mike Crapo (R-ID) Rep. Richard Neal (D-MA)

Officers and officials

Congressional officers

Senate officers

House of Representatives officers

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Removed in a vote of the House.
  2. ^ McConnell has served as Senate Republican Leader since January 3, 2007, and Durbin has served as Senate Democratic Whip since January 3, 2005.
  3. ^ a b In Arizona: Kyrsten Sinema left the Democratic Party to become an independent politician on December 9, 2022. Effective January 3, 2023, Sinema does not participate in either political party caucus but keeps her seniority and continues to receive committee assignments through the Democrats.[36][37]
  4. ^ a b c d In Nebraska: Ben Sasse (R) resigned on January 8, 2023, to become President of the University of Florida.[38] Pete Ricketts (R) was appointed to fill the vacancy on January 12, 2023, and took office on January 23.
  5. ^ a b c d In California: Dianne Feinstein (D) died on September 29, 2023.[39] Laphonza Butler (D) was appointed to fill the vacancy on October 1, 2023, and took office on October 3.[40]
  6. ^ a b c In Virginia's 4th district: Donald McEachin (D) died during the previous Congress, and Jennifer McClellan (D) was elected February 21, 2023. She was sworn in on March 7.[41][42]
  7. ^ a b c d In Rhode Island's 1st district: David Cicilline (D) resigned on May 31, 2023, and Gabe Amo (D) was elected November 7, 2023. He was sworn in on November 13.[43]
  8. ^ a b c d In Utah's 2nd district: Chris Stewart (R) resigned on September 15, 2023, due to his wife's health issues,[44][45] and Celeste Maloy (R) was elected November 21, 2023. She was sworn in on November 28, 2023.[46]
  9. ^ a b c d In New York's 3rd district: George Santos (R) was expelled on December 1, 2023. Tom Suozzi (D) was elected February 13, 2024. He was sworn in on February 28, 2024.[47]
  10. ^ a b c d In California's 20th district: Kevin McCarthy (R) resigned on December 31, 2023. Vince Fong (R) was elected May 21, 2024. He will be sworn in TBD, 2024.
  11. ^ a b In Ohio's 6th district: Bill Johnson (R) resigned on January 21, 2024. A special election will be held on June 11, 2024.
  12. ^ a b c d In New York's 26th district: Brian Higgins (D) resigned on February 2, 2024. Tim Kennedy (D) was elected April 30, 2024. He was sworn in on May 6, 2024.
  13. ^ a b In Colorado's 4th district: Ken Buck (R) resigned on March 22, 2024. A special election will be held on June 25, 2024.
  14. ^ a b In Wisconsin's 8th district: Mike Gallagher (R) resigned on April 20, 2024. The seat will remain vacant for the rest of the congress.
  15. ^ a b In New Jersey's 10th district: Donald Payne Jr. (D) died on April 24, 2024. A special election will be held on September 18, 2024.
  16. ^ Includes a New Progressive Party member who is also affiliated as a Republican.
  17. ^ Since 1920, the Senate Democratic leader has also concurrently served as the Democratic Caucus chairperson; this is an unwritten tradition.
  18. ^ In California, There are two elections, a special election to fill the seat for the final two months of this congress, and a general election for a full term starting with the 119th Congress. Butler is not running to finish the final two months of the current term.
  19. ^ a b c d e f The Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party (DFL) is the Minnesota affiliate of the U.S. Democratic Party and its members are counted as Democrats.
  20. ^ a b Puerto Rico's non-voting member, the Resident Commissioner, is elected every four years. Jenniffer González was last elected in 2020.
  21. ^ The new districts created were: Colorado's 8th; Florida's 28th; North Carolina's 14th; Oregon's 6th; Texas's 37th; Texas's 38th. The districts re-created were: Montana's 1st; Montana's 2nd.
  22. ^ The eliminated districts were: California's 53rd; Illinois's 18th; Michigan's 14th; Montana's at-large; New York's 27th; Ohio's 16th; Pennsylvania's 18th; West Virginia's 3rd.
  23. ^ a b When seated or oath administered, not necessarily when service began.
  24. ^ Ricketts serves as senator on an interim basis, until a special election, which will be held on November 5, 2024, concurrently with the presidential election and the general election for Nebraska's class 1 senator. The winner of the special election will complete the remainder of Sasse's term, which expires on January 3, 2027, when the winner of the 2026 regular election will commence a full term.[54]
  25. ^ The Joint Taxation Committee leadership rotate the chair and vice chair and the ranking members between the House and Senate at the start of each session in the middle of the congressional term. The first session leadership is shown here.

References

  1. ^ "Republicans win control of the House, NBC News projects, overtaking Democrats by a slim margin". NBC News. November 16, 2022. Retrieved November 17, 2022.
  2. ^ Binder, Sarah (December 26, 2023). "Why Congress's 2023 was so dismal". Good Authority.
  3. ^ Garrity, Kelly (November 15, 2023). "Why Republicans Are on the Verge of Fistfights". Politico. Retrieved November 17, 2023.
  4. ^ "Capitol Hill stunner: 2023 led to fewest laws in decades". Axios. 2023.
  5. ^ Wong, Scott (February 22, 2024). "Republican dysfunction drives a wave of House retirements". NBC News.
  6. ^ "House makes history, removes McCarthy as Speaker". The Hill. October 3, 2023.
  7. ^ "President Joe Biden signs bill to avoid a partial government shutdown". AP News. January 19, 2024. Retrieved January 21, 2024.
  8. ^ Yilek, Caitlin (March 1, 2024). "Biden signs short-term funding bill to avert government shutdown". CBS News.
  9. ^ Wondra, Jan (March 23, 2024). "CONGRESS FINALLY PASSES BIPARTISAN FUNDING BILLS FOR FISCAL YEAR 2024". Ark Valley Voice.
  10. ^ Schnell, Mychael (May 8, 2024). "House blocks Greene's resolution to oust Johnson". The Hill.
  11. ^ Schnell, Mychael (December 6, 2023). "GOP advances Bowman censure resolution, teeing up final vote". The Hill.
  12. ^ "Biden impeachment inquiry authorized by House Republicans, despite lack of evidence". Reuters. 2023.
  13. ^ Beitsch, Rebecca (February 6, 2024). "In stunner, House GOP bid to impeach Mayorkas fails". The Hill.
  14. ^ a b Parkinson, Josh; Peller, Lauren; Ali, Ayesha (February 13, 2024). "House Republicans impeach Homeland Security Secretary Mayorkas in historic, controversial vote". ABC News. Archived from the original on February 14, 2024. Retrieved February 14, 2024.
  15. ^ Nazzaro, Miranda (April 18, 2024). "Cruz: Democrats tossed '2 centuries of precedent' by rejecting Mayorkas articles of impeachment". The Hill.
  16. ^ "House Speaker Election Coverage: House adjourns after McCarthy suffers defeat on third ballot". The Hill. January 3, 2023. Retrieved January 3, 2023.
  17. ^ McCartney, Allison; Parlapiano, Alicia; Wu, Ashley; Zhang, Christine; Williams, Josh; Cochrane, Emily; Murphy, John-Michael (January 6, 2023). "Vote Count: McCarthy Elected House Speaker After 15 Ballots". The New York Times. Retrieved January 9, 2023.
  18. ^ "House Republicans vote to remove Rep. Ilhan Omar from the Foreign Affairs Committee". NPR. February 2, 2023. Retrieved November 9, 2023.
  19. ^ "In rowdy scene, House censures Rep. Adam Schiff over Trump-Russia investigations". Associated Press. June 21, 2023. Retrieved November 9, 2023.
  20. ^ "Harris ties Calhoun's 191-year-old record for breaking Senate ties". Roll Call. July 12, 2023. Retrieved July 18, 2023.
  21. ^ "Dianne Feinstein: Senator died of natural causes Friday morning". The San Francisco Chronicle. September 29, 2023. Retrieved September 29, 2023.
  22. ^ Greve, Joan E. (October 3, 2023). "Kevin McCarthy ousted as US House speaker by hard-right Republicans". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved October 3, 2023.
  23. ^ "Joe Biden, In Oval Office Primetime Address, Makes Case For Renewed Support For Israel And Ukraine: "American Leadership Is What Holds The World Together"". Deadline Hollywood. October 19, 2023. Retrieved October 19, 2023.
  24. ^ "House elects Mike Johnson as Speaker, ending GOP chaos". The Hill. October 25, 2023. Retrieved October 25, 2023.
  25. ^ Jorgensen, Sarah (November 7, 2023). "Tlaib again faces censure resolutions over Israel comments | CNN Politics". CNN. Retrieved November 8, 2023.
  26. ^ Breuninger, Kevin (December 1, 2023). "Rep. George Santos expelled from Congress for corruption, cutting GOP majority". CNBC. Retrieved December 1, 2023.
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