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65th United States Congress

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

65th United States Congress
64th ←
→ 66th

March 4, 1917 – March 4, 1919
Members96 senators
435 representatives
5 non-voting delegates
Senate majorityDemocratic
Senate PresidentThomas R. Marshall (D)
House majorityCoalition:
House SpeakerChamp Clark (D)
Special: March 5, 1917 – March 16, 1917
1st: April 2, 1917 – October 6, 1917
2nd: December 3, 1917 – November 21, 1918
3rd: December 2, 1918 – March 3, 1919

The 65th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C., from March 4, 1917, to March 4, 1919, during the fifth and sixth years of Woodrow Wilson's presidency. The apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the 1910 United States census.

The Senate maintained a Democratic majority. In the House, the Republicans had actually won a plurality, but as the Progressives and Socialist Representative Meyer London caucused with the Democrats, this gave them the operational majority of the nearly evenly divided chamber, thus giving the Democrats full control of Congress, and along with President Wilson maintaining an overall federal government trifecta.

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Major events

1918 flu pandemic

Major legislation

President Woodrow Wilson asking Congress to declare war on Germany on April 2, 1917.
After war was declared, war bond posters demonized Germany
Young men at the first national registration day held in association with the Selective Service Act of 1917.

Major resolutions

Constitutional amendments

The Eighteenth Amendment in the National Archives

Party summary


(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
End of previous congress 55 41 96 0
Begin 54 42 96 0
End 51 45
Final voting share 53.1% 46.9%
Beginning of next congress 47 49 96 0

House of Representatives

Affiliation Party
(Shading indicates control)
Democratic (D) Bull Moose (Prog.) Socialist (Soc.) Prohibition (Proh.) Republican (R) Other Vacant
End of previous Congress 227 4 1 1 200 1[a] 434 1
Begin 213 3 1 1 216 0 434 1
End 211 212 428 7
Final voting share 50.2% 0.2% 49.5% 0.0%
Beginning of the next Congress 191 0 1 1 238 1[b] 432 3


Senate leadership

Senate president
Senate president pro tempore


House leadership

House Speaker


Majority (Democratic) leadership

Minority (Republican) leadership


Skip to House of Representatives, below


Because of the 17th Amendment, starting in 1914 U.S. senators were directly elected instead of by the state legislatures. However, this did not affect the terms of U.S. senators whose terms had started before that Amendment took effect, In this Congress, Class 2 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1918; Class 3 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1920; and Class 1 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1922.

House of Representatives

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.


  • Replacements: 17
  • Deaths: 10
  • Resignations: 1
  • Vacancy: 0
  • Total seats with changes: 10
State Senator Reason for vacancy Successor Date of successor's installation
Harry Lane (D) Died May 23, 1917.
Successor was appointed.
Charles L. McNary (R) May 29, 1917
Paul O. Husting (D) Died October 21, 1917.
Successor was elected.
Irvine Lenroot (R) April 18, 1918
Francis G. Newlands (D) Died December 24, 1917.
Successor was appointed and subsequently elected.
Charles Henderson (D) January 12, 1918
James H. Brady (R) Died January 13, 1918.
Successor appointed and elected November 5, 1918.
John F. Nugent (D) January 22, 1918
New Jersey
William Hughes (D) Died January 30, 1918.
Successor appointed February 23, 1918, and elected November 5, 1918.
David Baird Sr. (R) February 23, 1918
Robert F. Broussard (D) Died April 12, 1918.
Successor was appointed.
Walter Guion (D) April 22, 1918
William J. Stone (D) Died April 14, 1918.
Successor was appointed.
Xenophon P. Wilfley (D) April 30, 1918
South Carolina
Benjamin Tillman (D) Died July 3, 1918.
Successor was appointed.
Christie Benet (D) July 6, 1918
New Hampshire
Jacob H. Gallinger (R) Died August 17, 1918.
Successor was appointed.
Irving W. Drew (R) September 2, 1918
Ollie M. James (D) Died August 28, 1918.
Successor was appointed.
George B. Martin (D) September 7, 1918
Walter Guion (D) Interim appointee replaced by elected successor. Edward Gay (D) November 6, 1918
Xenophon P. Wilfley (D) Interim appointee replaced by elected successor. Selden P. Spencer (R) November 6, 1918
New Hampshire
Irving W. Drew (R) Interim appointee replaced by elected successor. George H. Moses (R) November 6, 1918
Charles L. McNary (R) Interim appointee replaced by elected successor. Frederick W. Mulkey (R) November 6, 1918
South Carolina
Christie Benet (D) Interim appointee replaced by elected successor. William P. Pollock (D) November 6, 1918
Frederick W. Mulkey (R) Resigned December 17, 1918, to give successor preferential seniority.
Successor was appointed.
Charles L. McNary (R) December 18, 1918

House of Representatives

  • replacements: 23
  • Deaths: 15
  • Resignations: 12
  • Contested elections: 3
  • Total seats with changes: 31
District Vacated by Reason for vacancy Successor Date of successor's installation
New York 15th Vacant Rep. Michael F. Conry died during previous congress.
Successor was elected.
Thomas F. Smith (D) April 12, 1917
New Hampshire 1st Cyrus A. Sulloway (R) Died March 11, 1917.
Successor was elected.
Sherman E. Burroughs (R) May 29, 1917
Pennsylvania 28th Orrin D. Bleakley (R) Resigned April 3, 1917, after being convicted and fined under the Federal Corrupt Practices Act.
Successor was elected.
Earl H. Beshlin (D) November 6, 1917
North Dakota 1st Henry T. Helgesen (R) Died April 10, 1917.
Successor was elected.
John M. Baer (R) July 20, 1917
Massachusetts 6th Augustus P. Gardner (R) Resigned May 15, 1917, to join the U.S. Army.
Successor was elected.
Willfred W. Lufkin (R) November 6, 1917
Indiana 6th Daniel W. Comstock (R) Died May 19, 1917.
Successor was elected.
Richard N. Elliott (R) June 29, 1917
Connecticut 4th Ebenezer J. Hill (R) Died September 27, 1917.
Successor was elected.
Schuyler Merritt (R) November 6, 1917
Illinois 4th Charles Martin (D) Resigned October 28, 1917.
Successor was elected.
John W. Rainey (D) April 2, 1918
Michigan 2nd Mark R. Bacon (R) Lost contested election December 13, 1917.
Successor was elected.
Samuel Beakes (D) December 13, 1917
Georgia 4th William C. Adamson (D) Resigned December 18, 1917.
Successor was elected.
William C. Wright (D) January 6, 1918
Ohio 14th Ellsworth R. Bathrick (D) Died December 23, 1917.
Successor was elected.
Martin L. Davey (D) November 5, 1918
New York 7th John J. Fitzgerald (D) Resigned December 31, 1917.
Successor was elected.
John J. Delaney (D) March 5, 1918
New York 8th Daniel J. Griffin (D) Resigned December 31, 1917, after being elected Sheriff of Kings County, New York.
Successor was elected.
William E. Cleary (D) March 5, 1918
New York 22nd Henry Bruckner (D) Resigned December 31, 1917.
Successor was elected.
Anthony J. Griffin (D) March 5, 1918
New York 21st George M. Hulbert (D) Resigned January 1, 1918, to become Commissioner of Docks and director of the Port of New York.
Successor was elected.
Jerome F. Donovan (D) March 5, 1918
New Jersey 5th John H. Capstick (R) Died March 17, 1918.
Successor was elected.
William F. Birch (R) November 5, 1918
Virginia 1st William A. Jones (D) Died April 17, 1918.
Successor was elected.
S. Otis Bland (D) July 2, 1918
Wisconsin 11th Irvine Lenroot (R) Resigned April 17, 1918, after being elected to the U.S. Senate.
Successor was elected.
Adolphus P. Nelson (R) November 5, 1918
Wisconsin 6th James H. Davidson (R) Died August 6, 1918.
Successor was elected.
Florian Lampert (R) November 5, 1918
Maryland 2nd Fred Talbott (D) Died October 5, 1918.
Successor was elected.
Carville Benson (D) November 5, 1918
Missouri 10th Jacob E. Meeker (R) Died October 16, 1918.
Successor was elected.
Frederick Essen (R) November 5, 1918
Illinois 17th John Allen Sterling (R) Died October 17, 1918.
Successor was elected.
Seat remained vacant until next Congress.
Virginia 6th Carter Glass (D) Resigned December 6, 1918, after being appointed United States Secretary of the Treasury. James P. Woods (D) February 25, 1919
Pennsylvania At-large John R. K. Scott (R) Resigned January 5, 1919. Seat remained vacant until next Congress.
New York 4th Harry H. Dale (D) Resigned January 6, 1919, after being appointed judge of magistrate court. Seat remained vacant until next Congress.
Alaska Territory Charles A. Sulzer (D) Lost contested election January 7, 1919. James Wickersham (R) January 7, 1919
Pennsylvania 22nd Edward E. Robbins (R) Died January 25, 1919. Seat remained vacant until next Congress.
Missouri 5th William P. Borland (D) Died February 20, 1919. Seat remained vacant until next Congress.
North Carolina 10th Zebulon Weaver (D) Lost contested election March 1, 1919.
Successor was elected.
James J. Britt (R) March 1, 1919
Kentucky 8th Harvey Helm (D) Died March 3, 1919. Seat remained vacant until next Congress.
Texas 12th James C. Wilson (D) Resigned March 3, 1919, to become judge of United States District Court for the Northern District of Texas. Seat remained vacant until next Congress


Lists of committees and their party leaders for members of the House and Senate committees can be found through the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of this article. The directory after the pages of terms of service lists committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and, after that, House/Senate committee assignments. On the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.


House of Representatives

Joint committees



Legislative branch agency directors


House of Representatives

See also


  1. ^ Independent
  2. ^ Farmer–Labor Party
  3. ^ Hiram Johnson (R-California) did not take his seat until March 16, 1917, as he wanted to remain Governor of California. However, he was still elected and qualified as Senator.
This page was last edited on 6 December 2023, at 16:36
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