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1894 United States House of Representatives elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1894 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1892 November 6, 1894[Note 1] 1896 →

All 356[Note 2] seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
179 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
Thomas Brackett Reed - Brady-Handy.jpg
Leader Thomas Brackett Reed Charles Frederick Crisp
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Maine 1st Georgia 3rd
Seats before 143 seats[Note 3] 220 seats[Note 4]
Seats won 253[1][Note 5] 93[1][Note 5]
Seat change Increase 110 Decrease 127

  Third party Fourth party
Party Populist Silver
Seats before 13 0
Seats won 9[1][Note 5] 1[1]
Seat change Decrease 4 Increase 1

Speaker before election

Charles Crisp

Elected Speaker

Thomas Reed

Elections to the United States House of Representatives in 1894 comprised a significant realigning election — a major Republican landslide that set the stage for the decisive election of 1896. The elections of members of the United States House of Representatives in 1894 came in the middle of President Grover Cleveland's second term. The nation was in its deepest economic depression ever following the Panic of 1893, so economic issues were at the forefront. In the spring, a major coal strike damaged the economy of the Midwest and Mid-Atlantic. It was accompanied by violence; the miners lost and many moved toward the Populist party. Immediately after the coal strike concluded, Eugene V. Debs led a nationwide railroad strike, called the Pullman Strike. It shut down the nation's transportation system west of Detroit for weeks, until President Cleveland's use of federal troops ended the strike. Debs went to prison (for disobeying a court order). Illinois's Governor John Peter Altgeld, a Democrat, broke bitterly with Cleveland.

The fragmented and disoriented Democratic Party was crushed everywhere outside the South, losing more than half its seats to the Republican Party. Even in the South, the Democrats lost seats to Republican-Populist electoral fusion in Alabama, Texas, Tennessee, and North Carolina.[2][3] The Democrats ultimately lost 127 seats in the election while the Republicans gained 130 seats (after the resolution of several contested elections). This is the largest swing in the history of the House of Representatives, and also makes the 1894 election the single largest midterm election victory in the entire history of the United States. (A political party would not suffer triple-digit losses again until 1932.)

The main issues revolved around the severe economic depression, which the Republicans blamed on the conservative Bourbon Democrats led by Cleveland. Cleveland supporters lost heavily, weakening their hold on the party and setting the stage for an 1896 takeover by the silverist wing of the party. The Populist Party ran candidates in the South and Midwest, but generally lost ground, outside Alabama, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas where state-level fusion with the Republicans was successful despite Populist and Republican antagonism at the national level. The Democrats tried to raise a religious issue, claiming the GOP was in cahoots with the American Protective Association. The allegations seem to have fallen flat as Catholics moved toward the GOP.[4]

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{\*\pnseclvl1\pnucrm\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxta .}}{\*\pnseclvl2 \pnucltr\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxta .}}{\*\pnseclvl3\pndec\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxta .}}{\*\pnseclvl4\pnlcltr\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxta )}}{\*\pnseclvl5\pndec\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}{\*\pnseclvl6 \pnlcltr\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}{\*\pnseclvl7\pnlcrm\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}{\*\pnseclvl8\pnlcltr\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}{\*\pnseclvl9\pnlcrm\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}\pard\plain \ltrpar\s15\ql \li0\ri0\sb100\sa100\sbauto1\saauto1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid2319343 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24\alang1025 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs24\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 John Peter Altgeld became Illinois' first foreign-born governor after his election in 1892. Born in Germany but raised in Ohio, Altgeld found his way to Chicago after stops in Misso uri. In Chicago he invested in real estate and became rich. He turned his legal practice to the lucrative field of corporation law, then became a judge. In his 1892 campaign as the Democratic candidate for governor, Altgeld supported labor, but remained q u iet about the Haymarket affair. After his election however, Altgeld read the trail materials and pardoned the three remaining prisoners in a strongly worded statement that attacked the police and prosecutors. Altgeld's pardon inspired a frenzy of reproach among Republicans, whose newspapers called him a socialist and an anarchist. \par Altgeld's administration enforced labor legislation more thoroughly than his Republican predecessor's, and hired the reformer Florence Kelley as Chief Factory Inspector for the S tate of Illinois. Her close attention to working conditions outraged many industrialists, but it also brought issues of worker safety before the public as never before. \par Altgeld's urban r eform efforts took place as the rural uprising against the nation's emerging economic arrangements reached its high water mark. In the 1870s farmers, including many in Illinois, had formed Granges devoted to self-help and political lobbying. In the 1880s m any agriculturalists formed Farmer's Alliances, which established cooperative grain elevators and other ventures to free themselves from the power of highly organized businesses. Alliance meetings brought isolated farm families together to commiserate, li sten to speakers, and enjoy amusements. By 1890 many state Alliances ran their own slates of political candidates, which won nine seats in the House of Representatives and two in the Senate. \par By 1892 the Alliance had formed a new national political organization, the }{\field\fldedit{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 HYPERLINK "" }}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\ul\cf2\insrsid2319343 People's Party}}}\sectd \ltrsect\linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sectrsid9840608\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 , which many simply called }{\field\fldedit{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 HYPERLINK "" }}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\ul\cf2\insrsid2319343 "the Populists."}}}\sectd \ltrsect \linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sectrsid9840608\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 Its platform endorsed a national system of government crop warehouses, or subtreasuries, which would allow farmers to store their harvests until they found favorable prices. }{\field\fldedit{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 HYPERLINK "" }}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\ul\cf2\insrsid2319343 The Populists}}}\sectd \ltrsect\linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sectrsid9840608\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 also advocated an expansion of the American money supply through the free coinage of silver. In the preceding decades the federal government's retirement of Civil War "greenbacks" and insistence upon the gold standard had effectively deflated the America n dollar, placing an enormous strain upon debtors like farmers. }{\field\fldedit{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 HYPERLINK "" }}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\ul\cf2\insrsid2319343 The Populists}}}\sectd \ltrsect\linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sectrsid9840608\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 polled over one million votes and carried three states in an election that returned the Democrat Grover Cleveland to office after Benjamin Harrison's four-year interlude. \par Altgeld took office in 1893, just as workers were completing work on the structures and grounds of the World's Columbian Exposition. The exposition celebrated Christopher Columbus' landing in America four hundred years earlier, and celebrated American society, business and culture. Over twenty-seven million visitors streamed into Chicago to take it all in. \par The fair grounds themselve s covered 633 acres, and featured fourteen major buildings. Together these buildings, all designed in the neo-classical style and constructed of similar materials, comprised a striking collection that many visitors came to call the White City. The White C ity represented a considerable setback for the innovative designs of Louis Sullivan, who complained that the buildings would set architecture back by fifty years. \par At the fair's center visitors found a large reflecting pool, a fountain, and a classical stat ue. Major halls featured exhibits praising machinery, manufacturing, transportation, agriculture, electricity, and the liberal arts. A separate Woman's Building exhibited women's work and accomplishments. Another building, the Palace of Fine Arts, contain ed over 8000 works of art. Smaller buildings contained materials from American states and territories and over twenty foreign countries. \par The historian Frederick Jackson Turner delivered h is influential paper "The Significance of the Frontier in American History" at the American Historical Association's annual meeting, held in conjunction with the exposition. Turner remarked that the 1890 census had shown that Americans faced a new dilemma : they had run out of available land on the frontier. He argued that the frontier had served as a catalyst for American democracy and character, and wondered what would happen in a future bereft of this important part of the American experience. Turner's i mportant and controversial "frontier thesis" captured many Americans' gnawing unease about the very emergence of modern society celebrated so thoroughly in the exposition. \par In addition to educational exhibits, the fair also provided an opportunity for entertainment. The world's first Ferris Wheel appeared on the fair's Midway, as did a zoo, a swimming pool, and a fun house. Not only did foreign countries send official exhibitions, entrepre neurs also assembled displays portraying life in the villages of less prosperous nations. Many fair goers took side trips to see Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show, which had set up just outside the fair grounds. \par The fair made Chicago the nation's unofficial ca pital in the summer of 1893, but by the spring of 1894 the city was again principally known for its ongoing struggle between employers and workers. Laborers and tradesmen had poured into the city to help build the fair grounds, but as the fair wound down, the American economy entered another of its periodic depressions. The recent influx of workers made times especially hard in Chicago. A disappointed job seeker's assassination of Mayor Carter Harrison in October of 1893 again set Chicagoans on edge. Many feared that additional violence could not be far off. \par The industrialist George Pullman ignited this round of labor disputes in May of 1894. He had built a model community devoted to constructing his luxurious passenger rail cars south of the city. Pullman provided his workers with churches and cultural facilities, but denied them the opportunity to own their own homes or govern themselves. Pullman also made his town run at a distinct profit. All Pullman workers were obliged to live in the town and pay rent s some 25% higher than those in Chicago. \par When the depression of 1893 undermined Pullman's business, he cut workers' pay by up to 25%, but did not reduce their rents. Despite other businessmen's advice, he refused to negotiate with his hard-pressed workers. The Pullman employees went out on strike. \par The American Railway Union represented many railroad workers, and had just won an important victory by forcing the Great Northern Railroad to rescind most of its wage cuts. Although the vast majority of Pullman w orkers did not belong to the Union, its leader Eugene Debs decided to take up their cause. American Railway Union members refused to handle Pullman cars on any trains until the strike was resolved. \par The Union's actions spread to twenty-seven states and par alyzed much of the American railroad system. Pullman cars were popular features on passenger trains, and their boycott by railroad switchmen effectively prevented these trains from moving. Railroad managers, desperate to move traffic, took advantage of a federal law prohibiting strikers from interfering with the mails by adding mail cars to all trains including Pullman sleepers. \par Governor Altgeld refused to mobilize the Illinois militia ag ainst the Pullman strikers, but President Grover Cleveland, a fellow Democrat, came down decisively on the side of the railroads. His administration received a judge's injunction against the Union's actions, and called in the United States Army to enforce it. Crowds again gathered on the streets of Chicago to support strikers, and rioting broke out. When Altgeld protested the presence of federal troops he had not requested, five other governors supported his position. But Cleveland would not yield. On July 10, 1894 Eugene Debs surrendered to law enforcement officials. He faced charges of conspiring to violate the court injunction prohibiting his Union's strike, and served six months in prison. There he became a socialist who would revitalize that movement i n the Progressive Era. \par In 1895 the African-American political activist }{\field\fldedit{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 HYPERLINK "" }}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\ul\cf2\insrsid2319343 Ida B. Wells}}}\sectd \ltrsect\linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sectrsid9840608\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 removed to Chicago. Born a child of slaves in Mississippi in 1862, Wells found education and began teaching school as a teenager. Working as an educator in Memphis, }{\field\fldedit{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 HYPERLINK "" }}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\ul\cf2\insrsid2319343 Wells}}}\sectd \ltrsect\linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sectrsid9840608\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 challenged the southern practice of segregated facilities by suing a railroad, and became a journalist devoted to exposing blacks unfair lot in society. In 1892 three of her friends were lynched by white mobs, and } {\field\fldedit{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 HYPERLINK "" }}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\ul\cf2\insrsid2319343 Wells}}}\sectd \ltrsect \linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sectrsid9840608\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 wrote scathing exposes of the practice which received wide national attention. Facing intimidation and threats in Memphis, } {\field\fldedit{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 HYPERLINK "" }}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\ul\cf2\insrsid2319343 Wells}}}\sectd \ltrsect \linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sectrsid9840608\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 became a traveling lecturer before marrying the Chicago attorney and publisher Ferdinand L. Barnett. After 1895 } {\field\fldedit{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 HYPERLINK "" }}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\ul\cf2\insrsid2319343 Wells}}}\sectd \ltrsect \linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sectrsid9840608\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 largely confined herself to local political causes and raising her family. \par In the 1880s and 1890s African Americans in the South faced rapidly deteriorating social and political conditions. As white supremacists returned to power after the end of Reconstruction, blacks lost the vote and the few vestiges of social equality t hey had briefly enjoyed. Lynching also became a frequent white tactic in the struggle to return African Americans to powerlessness. In this era some African Americans, like }{\field\fldedit{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 HYPERLINK "" }}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\ul\cf2\insrsid2319343 Wells}}}\sectd \ltrsect\linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sectrsid9840608\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 , escaped the South and took up new lives in northern cities like Chicago. 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Election summaries

254 1 9 93
Republican S P Democratic
State Type Total
Republican Democratic Populist Silver
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District 9 2 Increase 2 5 Decrease 4 2 Increase 2 0 Steady
Arkansas District 6 0 Steady 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
California District 7 6 Increase 3 1 Decrease 2 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Colorado District 2 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 1 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Connecticut District 4 4 Increase 3 0 Decrease 3 0 Steady 0 Steady
Delaware At-large 1 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Florida District 2 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia District 11 0 Steady 11 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Idaho At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois District[Note 6] 22 22 Increase 11 0 Decrease 11 0 Steady 0 Steady
Indiana District 13 13 Increase 11 0 Decrease 11 0 Steady 0 Steady
Iowa District 11 11 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Kansas District
8 7 Increase 4 0 Steady 1 Decrease 4 0 Steady
Kentucky District 11 6 Increase 5 5 Decrease 5 0 Steady 0 Steady
Louisiana District 6 0 Steady 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maine[Note 7] District 4 4 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland District 6 3 Increase 3 3 Decrease 3 0 Steady 0 Steady
Massachusetts District 13 12 Increase 3 1 Decrease 3 0 Steady 0 Steady
Michigan District 12 12 Increase 5 0 Decrease 5 0 Steady 0 Steady
Minnesota District 7 7 Increase 3 0 Decrease 2 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Mississippi District 7 0 Steady 7 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri District 15 11 Increase 9 4 Decrease 9 0 Steady 0 Steady
Montana At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Nebraska District 6 5 Increase 2 0 Decrease 1 1 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Nevada At-large 1 0 Steady 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 1 Increase 1
New Hampshire District 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Jersey District 8 8 Increase 6 0 Decrease 6 0 Steady 0 Steady
New York District 34 30 Increase 16 4 Decrease 16 0 Steady 0 Steady
North Carolina District 9 3 Increase 2 2 Decrease 6 4 Increase 4 0 Steady
North Dakota At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Ohio District 21 19 Increase 9 2 Decrease 9 0 Steady 0 Steady
Oregon[Note 7] District 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District
+2 at-large
30 28 Increase 8 2 Decrease 8 0 Steady 0 Steady
Rhode Island District 2 2 Increase 2 0 Decrease 2 0 Steady 0 Steady
South Carolina District 7 1 Steady 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
South Dakota At-large 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Tennessee District 10 4 Increase 2 6 Decrease 2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Texas District 13 1 Increase 1 12 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Vermont[Note 7] District 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia District 10 2 Increase 2 8 Decrease 2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Washington At-large 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
West Virginia District 4 4 Increase 4 0 Decrease 4 0 Steady 0 Steady
Wisconsin District 10 10 Increase 6 0 Decrease 6 0 Steady 0 Steady
Wyoming At-large 1 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Total[Note 2] 356 253[1]
Increase 110 93[1]
Decrease 107 9[1]
Decrease 4 1[1]
Increase 1
House seats
  House seats by party holding plurality in state      80+% Democratic       80+% Republican     60+ to 80% Democratic       60+ to 80% Republican     Up to 60% Democratic    Up to 60% Populist    Up to 60% Republican
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+% Democratic
  80+% Republican
  60+ to 80% Democratic
  60+ to 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Populist
  Up to 60% Republican
  Net gain in party representation      6+ Democratic gain       6+ Republican gain     3 to 5 Democratic gain       3 to 5 Republican gain     1 to 2 Democratic gain    1 to 2 Populist gain    1 to 2 Republican gain     no net change
Net gain in party representation
  6+ Democratic gain
  6+ Republican gain
  3 to 5 Democratic gain
  3 to 5 Republican gain
  1 to 2 Democratic gain
  1 to 2 Populist gain
  1 to 2 Republican gain
  no net change

Early election dates

In 1894, three states, with 8 seats among them, held elections early:

Special elections

Sorted first by election date, then by state and district.

District Vacator Reason for Vacancy Candidates
Representative Party First elected
Virginia 7 Charles T. O'Ferrall Democratic 1884 (Special) Incumbent resigned December 28, 1893, after being elected Governor of Virginia.
New member elected January 30, 1894.
Democratic hold.
Smith S. Turner (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
New York 14 John R. Fellows Democratic 1890 Incumbent resigned December 31, 1893 to become District Attorney of New York City.
New member elected January 30, 1894.
Republican gain.
Lemuel E. Quigg (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Pennsylvania at-large William Lilly Republican 1892 Incumbent died December 1, 1893.
New member elected February 26, 1894.
Republican hold.
Galusha A. Grow (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
South Carolina 1 William H. Brawley Democratic 1890 Incumbent resigned February 12, 1894 to become judge for the United States District Court for the District of South Carolina.
New member elected April 12, 1894.
Democratic hold.
James F. Izlar (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Maryland 1 Robert F. Bratton Democratic 1892 Incumbent died May 10, 1894.
New member elected November 6, 1894.
Democratic hold.
W. Laird Henry (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Ohio 3 George W. Houk Democratic 1890 Incumbent died February 9, 1894.
New member elected May 21, 1894.
Democratic hold.
Paul J. Sorg (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Wisconsin 7 George B. Shaw Republican 1892 Incumbent died August 27, 1894.
New member elected November 5, 1894.
Republican hold.
Michael Griffin (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Alabama 3 William C. Oates Democratic 1880 Incumbent resigned November 5, 1894, after being elected Governor of Alabama.
New member elected November 6, 1894.
Democratic hold.
George P. Harrison Jr. (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Kentucky 9 Thomas H. Paynter Democratic 1888 Incumbent resigned January 5, 1895 having been elected to the Kentucky Court of Appeals.
New member elected November 6, 1894, but didn't take his seat until March 4, 1895.
Republican gain.
Samuel J. Pugh (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Maryland 5 Barnes Compton Democratic 1884
1890 (Lost election contest)
Incumbent resigned May 15, 1894, to become a naval officer.
New member elected November 6, 1894.
Republican gain.
Charles E. Coffin (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Arkansas 2 Clifton R. Breckinridge Democratic 1882 Incumbent resigned August 14, 1894, to become U.S. Minister to Russia.
New member elected December 3, 1894.
Democratic hold.
John S. Little (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Kentucky 10 Marcus C. Lisle Democratic 1892 Incumbent died July 7, 1894.
New member elected December 3, 1894.
Democratic hold.
William M. Beckner (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Louisiana 4 Newton C. Blanchard Democratic 1880 Incumbent resigned March 12, 1894 to become the U.S. Senate.
New member elected December 3, 1894.
Democratic hold.
Henry W. Ogden (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Ohio 2 John A. Caldwell Republican 1888 Incumbent resigned April 4, 1894 to become Mayor of Cincinnati.
New member elected December 3, 1894.
Republican hold.
Jacob H. Bromwell (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
New York 15 Ashbel P. Fitch Democratic 1886 Incumbent resigned December 26, 1893 to become New York City Comptroller.
New member elected December 30, 1894.
Democratic hold.
Isidor Straus (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
California 1 Thomas J. Geary Democratic 1890 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
John All Barham (Republican) 41.1%
Thomas J. Geary (Democratic) 37.0%
Roger F. Grigsby (Populist) 19.7%
J. R. Gregory (Prohibition)
California 2 Anthony Caminetti Democratic 1890 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Grove L. Johnson (Republican) 43.0%
Anthony Caminetti (Democratic) 35.1%
Burdelli Cornell (Populist) 20.0%
Elam Briggs (Prohibition) 1.9%
California 3 Warren B. English Democratic 1892[Note 8] Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Samuel G. Hilborn (Republican) 45.5%
Warren B. English (Democratic) 37.8%
W. A. Vann (Populist) 14.9%
L. B. Scranton (Prohibition) 1.8%
California 4 James G. Maguire Democratic 1892 Incumbent re-elected. James G. Maguire (Democratic) 48.3%
Thomas Bowles Shannon (Republican) 32.0%
B. K. Collier (Populist) 18.4%
Joseph Rowell (Prohibition) 1.3%
California 5 Eugene F. Loud Republican 1890 Incumbent re-elected. Eugene F. Loud (Republican) 36.8%
Joseph P. Kelly (Democratic) 23.0%
James T. Rogers (Populist) 21.5%
James Denman (Prohibition) 18.7%
California 6 Marion Cannon Populist 1892 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
James McLachlan (Republican) 44.3%
George S. Patton (Democratic) 27.6%
W. C. Bowman (Populist) 23.1%
J. E. McComas (Prohibition) 5.0%
California 7 William W. Bowers Republican 1890 Incumbent re-elected. William W. Bowers (Republican) 42.9%
W. H. Alford (Democratic) 28.2%
J. L. Gilbert (Populist) 25.0%
W. H. Somers (Prohibition) 3.9%


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Florida 1 Stephen R. Mallory Democratic 1890 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Stephen M. Sparkman (Democratic) 85.3%
D. L. McKinnon (Populist) 14.7%
Florida 2 Charles Merian Cooper Democratic 1892 Incumbent re-elected. Charles Merian Cooper (Democratic) 79.8%
Montholom Atkinson (Populist) 20.2%


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates[5]
Ohio 1 Bellamy Storer Republican 1890 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 2 Jacob H. Bromwell Republican 1894 (s) Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 3 Paul J. Sorg Democratic 1894 (s) Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 4 Fernando C. Layton Democratic 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 5 Dennis D. Donovan Democratic 1892 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 6 George W. Hulick Republican 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 7 George W. Wilson Republican 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 8 Luther M. Strong Republican 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 9 Byron F. Ritchie Democratic 1892 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 10 Hezekiah S. Bundy Republican 1893 (s) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 11 Charles H. Grosvenor Republican 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 12 Joseph H. Outhwaite Democratic 1892 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 13 Darius D. Hare Democratic 1892 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 14 Michael D. Harter Democratic 1892 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 15 H. Clay Van Voorhis Republican 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 16 Albert J. Pearson Democratic 1892 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 17 James A. D. Richards Democratic 1892 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 18 George P. Ikirt Democratic 1892 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 19 Stephen A. Northway Republican 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 20 William J. White Republican 1892 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 21 Tom L. Johnson Democratic 1890 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.

South Carolina

District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 George W. Murray
Redistricted from the 7th district
Republican 1892 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Murray successfully challenged Elliott's election and was awarded the seat on June 4, 1896.
William Elliott (Democratic) 59.1%
George W. Murray (Republican) 40.9%
South Carolina 2 W. Jasper Talbert Democratic 1892 Incumbent re-elected. W. Jasper Talbert (Democratic) 99.5%
Others 0.5%
South Carolina 3 Asbury Latimer Democratic 1892 Incumbent re-elected. Asbury Latimer (Democratic) 81.3%
Robert Moorman (Republican) 13.9%
Others 4.8%
South Carolina 4 George W. Shell Democratic 1890 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Stanyarne Wilson (Democratic) 75.1%
Lawson D. Melton (Republican) 24.7%
Others 0.2%
South Carolina 5 Thomas J. Strait Democratic 1892 Incumbent re-elected. Thomas J. Strait (Democratic) 67.6%
G. G. Alexander (Republican) 17.0%
W. R. Davie (Independent) 12.8%
Others 2.6%
South Carolina 6 John L. McLaurin Democratic 1892 Incumbent re-elected. John L. McLaurin (Democratic) 76.9%
J. P. Wilson (Republican) 23.1%
South Carolina 7 None (Open seat due to redistricting) New member elected.
Democratic gain.
The election was voided on June 1, 1896 due to electoral fraud.
J. William Stokes (Democratic) 73.0%
T. B. Johnson (Republican) 26.3%
Others 0.7%

See also


  1. ^ Three states held early elections between June 4 and September 10.
  2. ^ a b Includes late elections.
  3. ^ Includes two vacancies
  4. ^ Includes five vacancies
  5. ^ a b c Dubin (p. 312) counts 244 Republicans, 105 Democrats, 7 Populists, and 1 Silver at the opening of the 54th Congress, before the results of several contested elections were overturned in favor of Republican (and a few Populist) candidates. Dubin counts 253 Republicans, 93 Democrats, 9 Populists, and 1 Silver at the start of the 2nd session of the 54th Congress, which closely matches Martis' figure (pp. 148–49). Dubin's figure includes Utah, which held its election in 1895 and is therefore not covered in this article.
  6. ^ At-large seats eliminated in redistricting.
  7. ^ a b c Elections held early.
  8. ^ After contested election.


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Martis, pp. 148–49. Martis's figure includes Utah, which held its election in 1895 and is therefore not covered in this article.
  2. ^ The New York Times TimesMachine: Senate and House Secured; Republican Control in the Next Congress Assured.
  3. ^ "African-Americans and Populism". Archived from the original on June 22, 2006. Retrieved 2010-07-02.
  4. ^ Jensen (1971), Chap. 9.
  5. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio. I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 656–57.


External links

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