To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Languages
Recent
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

1894 United States House of Representatives elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1894 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1892 November 6, 1894[Note 1] 1896 →

All 356[Note 2] seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
179 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Thomas Brackett Reed - Brady-Handy.jpg
CharlesFrederickCrisp.jpg
Leader Thomas Brackett Reed Charles Frederick Crisp
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Maine 1st Georgia 3rd
Seats before 143 seats[Note 3] 220 seats[Note 4]
Seats won 253[1][Note 5] 93[1][Note 5]
Seat change Increase 110 Decrease 127

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Populist Silver
Seats before 13 0
Seats won 9[1][Note 5] 1[1]
Seat change Decrease 4 Increase 1

Speaker before election

Charles Crisp
Democratic

Elected Speaker

Thomas Reed
Republican

Elections to the United States House of Representatives in 1894 comprised a significant realigning election — a major Republican landslide that set the stage for the decisive election of 1896. The elections of members of the United States House of Representatives in 1894 came in the middle of President Grover Cleveland's second term. The nation was in its deepest economic depression ever following the Panic of 1893, so economic issues were at the forefront. In the spring, a major coal strike damaged the economy of the Midwest and Mid-Atlantic. It was accompanied by violence; the miners lost and many moved toward the Populist party. Immediately after the coal strike concluded, Eugene V. Debs led a nationwide railroad strike, called the Pullman Strike. It shut down the nation's transportation system west of Detroit for weeks, until President Cleveland's use of federal troops ended the strike. Debs went to prison (for disobeying a court order). Illinois's Governor John Peter Altgeld, a Democrat, broke bitterly with Cleveland.

The fragmented and disoriented Democratic Party was crushed everywhere outside the South, losing more than half its seats to the Republican Party. Even in the South, the Democrats lost seats to Republican-Populist electoral fusion in Alabama, Texas, Tennessee, and North Carolina.[2][3] The Democrats ultimately lost 127 seats in the election while the Republicans gained 130 seats (after the resolution of several contested elections). This is the largest swing in the history of the House of Representatives, and also makes the 1894 election the single largest midterm election victory in the entire history of the United States. (A political party would not suffer triple-digit losses again until 1932.)

The main issues revolved around the severe economic depression, which the Republicans blamed on the conservative Bourbon Democrats led by Cleveland. Cleveland supporters lost heavily, weakening their hold on the party and setting the stage for an 1896 takeover by the silverist wing of the party. The Populist Party ran candidates in the South and Midwest, but generally lost ground, outside Alabama, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas where state-level fusion with the Republicans was successful despite Populist and Republican antagonism at the national level. The Democrats tried to raise a religious issue, claiming the GOP was in cahoots with the American Protective Association. The allegations seem to have fallen flat as Catholics moved toward the GOP.[4]

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    Views:
    7 773
    4 933
    757
    13 310
    36 500
  • ✪ Illinois in the Gilded Age, 1866-1896: 1893 Chicago's World Fair, 1892-1895
  • ✪ 2. America in 1850: The Age of Transformation
  • ✪ Celebrating the 125th Anniversary of the US Board on Geographic Names: Traditions & Transitions
  • ✪ Senator Elizabeth Warren and Paul Krugman in Conversation
  • ✪ History: UKRAINE

Transcription

{\rtf1\adeflang1025\ansi\ansicpg1252\uc1\adeff31507\deff0\stshfdbch31506\stshfloch31506\stshfhich31506\stshfbi31507\deflang1033\deflangfe1033\themelang1033\themelangfe0\themelangcs0{\fonttbl{\f0\fbidi \froman\fcharset0\fprq2{\*\panose 02020603050405020304}Times New Roman;}{\f34\fbidi \froman\fcharset0\fprq2{\*\panose 02040503050406030204}Cambria Math;} {\f37\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2{\*\panose 020f0502020204030204}Calibri;}{\flomajor\f31500\fbidi \froman\fcharset0\fprq2{\*\panose 02020603050405020304}Times New Roman;} {\fdbmajor\f31501\fbidi \froman\fcharset0\fprq2{\*\panose 02020603050405020304}Times New Roman;}{\fhimajor\f31502\fbidi \froman\fcharset0\fprq2{\*\panose 02040503050406030204}Cambria;} {\fbimajor\f31503\fbidi \froman\fcharset0\fprq2{\*\panose 02020603050405020304}Times New Roman;}{\flominor\f31504\fbidi \froman\fcharset0\fprq2{\*\panose 02020603050405020304}Times New Roman;} {\fdbminor\f31505\fbidi \froman\fcharset0\fprq2{\*\panose 02020603050405020304}Times New Roman;}{\fhiminor\f31506\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2{\*\panose 020f0502020204030204}Calibri;} {\fbiminor\f31507\fbidi \froman\fcharset0\fprq2{\*\panose 02020603050405020304}Times New Roman;}{\f39\fbidi \froman\fcharset238\fprq2 Times New Roman CE;}{\f40\fbidi \froman\fcharset204\fprq2 Times New Roman Cyr;} {\f42\fbidi \froman\fcharset161\fprq2 Times New Roman Greek;}{\f43\fbidi \froman\fcharset162\fprq2 Times New Roman Tur;}{\f44\fbidi \froman\fcharset177\fprq2 Times New Roman (Hebrew);}{\f45\fbidi \froman\fcharset178\fprq2 Times New Roman (Arabic);} {\f46\fbidi \froman\fcharset186\fprq2 Times New Roman Baltic;}{\f47\fbidi \froman\fcharset163\fprq2 Times New Roman (Vietnamese);}{\f379\fbidi \froman\fcharset238\fprq2 Cambria Math CE;}{\f380\fbidi \froman\fcharset204\fprq2 Cambria Math Cyr;} {\f382\fbidi \froman\fcharset161\fprq2 Cambria Math Greek;}{\f383\fbidi \froman\fcharset162\fprq2 Cambria Math Tur;}{\f386\fbidi \froman\fcharset186\fprq2 Cambria Math Baltic;}{\f409\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset238\fprq2 Calibri CE;} {\f410\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset204\fprq2 Calibri Cyr;}{\f412\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset161\fprq2 Calibri Greek;}{\f413\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset162\fprq2 Calibri Tur;}{\f416\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset186\fprq2 Calibri Baltic;} {\flomajor\f31508\fbidi \froman\fcharset238\fprq2 Times New Roman CE;}{\flomajor\f31509\fbidi \froman\fcharset204\fprq2 Times New Roman Cyr;}{\flomajor\f31511\fbidi \froman\fcharset161\fprq2 Times New Roman Greek;} {\flomajor\f31512\fbidi \froman\fcharset162\fprq2 Times New Roman Tur;}{\flomajor\f31513\fbidi \froman\fcharset177\fprq2 Times New Roman (Hebrew);}{\flomajor\f31514\fbidi \froman\fcharset178\fprq2 Times New Roman (Arabic);} {\flomajor\f31515\fbidi \froman\fcharset186\fprq2 Times New Roman Baltic;}{\flomajor\f31516\fbidi \froman\fcharset163\fprq2 Times New Roman (Vietnamese);}{\fdbmajor\f31518\fbidi \froman\fcharset238\fprq2 Times New Roman CE;} {\fdbmajor\f31519\fbidi \froman\fcharset204\fprq2 Times New Roman Cyr;}{\fdbmajor\f31521\fbidi \froman\fcharset161\fprq2 Times New Roman Greek;}{\fdbmajor\f31522\fbidi \froman\fcharset162\fprq2 Times New Roman Tur;} {\fdbmajor\f31523\fbidi \froman\fcharset177\fprq2 Times New Roman (Hebrew);}{\fdbmajor\f31524\fbidi \froman\fcharset178\fprq2 Times New Roman (Arabic);}{\fdbmajor\f31525\fbidi \froman\fcharset186\fprq2 Times New Roman Baltic;} {\fdbmajor\f31526\fbidi \froman\fcharset163\fprq2 Times New Roman (Vietnamese);}{\fhimajor\f31528\fbidi \froman\fcharset238\fprq2 Cambria CE;}{\fhimajor\f31529\fbidi \froman\fcharset204\fprq2 Cambria Cyr;} {\fhimajor\f31531\fbidi \froman\fcharset161\fprq2 Cambria Greek;}{\fhimajor\f31532\fbidi \froman\fcharset162\fprq2 Cambria Tur;}{\fhimajor\f31535\fbidi \froman\fcharset186\fprq2 Cambria Baltic;} {\fbimajor\f31538\fbidi \froman\fcharset238\fprq2 Times New Roman CE;}{\fbimajor\f31539\fbidi \froman\fcharset204\fprq2 Times New Roman Cyr;}{\fbimajor\f31541\fbidi \froman\fcharset161\fprq2 Times New Roman Greek;} {\fbimajor\f31542\fbidi \froman\fcharset162\fprq2 Times New Roman Tur;}{\fbimajor\f31543\fbidi \froman\fcharset177\fprq2 Times New Roman (Hebrew);}{\fbimajor\f31544\fbidi \froman\fcharset178\fprq2 Times New Roman (Arabic);} {\fbimajor\f31545\fbidi \froman\fcharset186\fprq2 Times New Roman Baltic;}{\fbimajor\f31546\fbidi \froman\fcharset163\fprq2 Times New Roman (Vietnamese);}{\flominor\f31548\fbidi \froman\fcharset238\fprq2 Times New Roman CE;} {\flominor\f31549\fbidi \froman\fcharset204\fprq2 Times New Roman Cyr;}{\flominor\f31551\fbidi \froman\fcharset161\fprq2 Times New Roman Greek;}{\flominor\f31552\fbidi \froman\fcharset162\fprq2 Times New Roman Tur;} {\flominor\f31553\fbidi \froman\fcharset177\fprq2 Times New Roman (Hebrew);}{\flominor\f31554\fbidi \froman\fcharset178\fprq2 Times New Roman (Arabic);}{\flominor\f31555\fbidi \froman\fcharset186\fprq2 Times New Roman Baltic;} {\flominor\f31556\fbidi \froman\fcharset163\fprq2 Times New Roman (Vietnamese);}{\fdbminor\f31558\fbidi \froman\fcharset238\fprq2 Times New Roman CE;}{\fdbminor\f31559\fbidi \froman\fcharset204\fprq2 Times New Roman Cyr;} {\fdbminor\f31561\fbidi \froman\fcharset161\fprq2 Times New Roman Greek;}{\fdbminor\f31562\fbidi \froman\fcharset162\fprq2 Times New Roman Tur;}{\fdbminor\f31563\fbidi \froman\fcharset177\fprq2 Times New Roman (Hebrew);} {\fdbminor\f31564\fbidi \froman\fcharset178\fprq2 Times New Roman (Arabic);}{\fdbminor\f31565\fbidi \froman\fcharset186\fprq2 Times New Roman Baltic;}{\fdbminor\f31566\fbidi \froman\fcharset163\fprq2 Times New Roman (Vietnamese);} {\fhiminor\f31568\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset238\fprq2 Calibri CE;}{\fhiminor\f31569\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset204\fprq2 Calibri Cyr;}{\fhiminor\f31571\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset161\fprq2 Calibri Greek;}{\fhiminor\f31572\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset162\fprq2 Calibri Tur;} {\fhiminor\f31575\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset186\fprq2 Calibri Baltic;}{\fbiminor\f31578\fbidi \froman\fcharset238\fprq2 Times New Roman CE;}{\fbiminor\f31579\fbidi \froman\fcharset204\fprq2 Times New Roman Cyr;} {\fbiminor\f31581\fbidi \froman\fcharset161\fprq2 Times New Roman Greek;}{\fbiminor\f31582\fbidi \froman\fcharset162\fprq2 Times New Roman Tur;}{\fbiminor\f31583\fbidi \froman\fcharset177\fprq2 Times New Roman (Hebrew);} {\fbiminor\f31584\fbidi \froman\fcharset178\fprq2 Times New Roman (Arabic);}{\fbiminor\f31585\fbidi \froman\fcharset186\fprq2 Times New Roman Baltic;}{\fbiminor\f31586\fbidi \froman\fcharset163\fprq2 Times New Roman (Vietnamese);}} {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;\red0\green0\blue128;\red0\green128\blue128;\red0\green128\blue0; \red128\green0\blue128;\red128\green0\blue0;\red128\green128\blue0;\red128\green128\blue128;\red192\green192\blue192;}{\*\defchp \f31506\fs22 }{\*\defpap \ql \li0\ri0\sa200\sl276\slmult1 \widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 }\noqfpromote {\stylesheet{\ql \li0\ri0\sa200\sl276\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \af31507\afs22\alang1025 \ltrch\fcs0 \f31506\fs22\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 \snext0 \sqformat \spriority0 \styrsid9840608 Normal;}{\*\cs10 \additive \ssemihidden \sunhideused \spriority1 Default Paragraph Font;}{\* \ts11\tsrowd\trftsWidthB3\trpaddl108\trpaddr108\trpaddfl3\trpaddft3\trpaddfb3\trpaddfr3\tblind0\tblindtype3\tscellwidthfts0\tsvertalt\tsbrdrt\tsbrdrl\tsbrdrb\tsbrdrr\tsbrdrdgl\tsbrdrdgr\tsbrdrh\tsbrdrv \ql \li0\ri0\sa200\sl276\slmult1 \widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \af31507\afs22\alang1025 \ltrch\fcs0 \f31506\fs22\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 \snext11 \ssemihidden \sunhideused \sqformat Normal Table;}{ \s15\ql \li0\ri0\sb100\sa100\sbauto1\saauto1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24\alang1025 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs24\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 \sbasedon0 \snext15 \spriority0 \styrsid11814469 intro;}{\*\cs16 \additive \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \ul\cf2 \sbasedon10 \ssemihidden \sunhideused \styrsid11814469 Hyperlink;}{\*\cs17 \additive \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \sbasedon10 \spriority0 \styrsid9797404 spelle;}{\*\cs18 \additive \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \sbasedon10 \spriority0 \styrsid153371 grame;}}{\*\pgptbl {\pgp\ipgp0\itap0\li0\ri0\sb0\sa0}{\pgp\ipgp0\itap0\li0\ri0\sb0\sa0}{\pgp\ipgp0\itap0\li0\ri0\sb0\sa0 }{\pgp\ipgp0\itap0\li0\ri0\sb0\sa0}{\pgp\ipgp0\itap0\li0\ri0\sb0\sa0}{\pgp\ipgp0\itap0\li0\ri0\sb0\sa0}{\pgp\ipgp0\itap0\li0\ri0\sb0\sa0}{\pgp\ipgp0\itap0\li0\ri0\sb0\sa0}{\pgp\ipgp0\itap0\li0\ri0\sb0\sa0}{\pgp\ipgp0\itap0\li0\ri0\sb0\sa0}{\pgp\ipgp0 \itap0\li0\ri0\sb0\sa0}{\pgp\ipgp0\itap0\li0\ri0\sb0\sa0}{\pgp\ipgp0\itap0\li0\ri0\sb0\sa0}{\pgp\ipgp0\itap0\li0\ri0\sb0\sa0}}{\*\rsidtbl \rsid153371\rsid725965\rsid1324809\rsid1394397\rsid1903590\rsid2319343\rsid3872832\rsid4460321\rsid4738608 \rsid8066208\rsid9797404\rsid9840608\rsid11814469\rsid15336118\rsid16017237}{\mmathPr\mmathFont34\mbrkBin0\mbrkBinSub0\msmallFrac0\mdispDef1\mlMargin0\mrMargin0\mdefJc1\mwrapIndent1440\mintLim0\mnaryLim1}{\info{\author a1548234}{\operator a1548234} {\creatim\yr2011\mo2\dy15\hr10\min51}{\revtim\yr2011\mo2\dy15\hr10\min51}{\version2}{\edmins0}{\nofpages3}{\nofwords1530}{\nofchars8721}{\*\company Founder's Memorial Library}{\nofcharsws10231}{\vern32771}}{\*\xmlnstbl {\xmlns1 http://schemas.microsoft.co m/office/word/2003/wordml}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl1440\margr1440\margt1440\margb1440\gutter0\ltrsect \widowctrl\ftnbj\aenddoc\trackmoves1\trackformatting1\donotembedsysfont1\relyonvml0\donotembedlingdata0\grfdocevents0\validatexml1\showplaceholdtext0\ignoremixedcontent0\saveinvalidxml0\showxmlerrors1\noxlattoyen \expshrtn\noultrlspc\dntblnsbdb\nospaceforul\formshade\horzdoc\dgmargin\dghspace180\dgvspace180\dghorigin1440\dgvorigin1440\dghshow1\dgvshow1 \jexpand\viewkind1\viewscale100\pgbrdrhead\pgbrdrfoot\splytwnine\ftnlytwnine\htmautsp\nolnhtadjtbl\useltbaln\alntblind\lytcalctblwd\lyttblrtgr\lnbrkrule\nobrkwrptbl\snaptogridincell\allowfieldendsel\wrppunct \asianbrkrule\rsidroot11814469\newtblstyruls\nogrowautofit\usenormstyforlist\noindnmbrts\felnbrelev\nocxsptable\indrlsweleven\noafcnsttbl\afelev\utinl\hwelev\spltpgpar\notcvasp\notbrkcnstfrctbl\notvatxbx\krnprsnet\cachedcolbal \nouicompat \fet0 {\*\wgrffmtfilter 2450}\nofeaturethrottle1\ilfomacatclnup0\ltrpar \sectd \ltrsect\linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sectrsid9840608\sftnbj {\*\pnseclvl1\pnucrm\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxta .}}{\*\pnseclvl2 \pnucltr\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxta .}}{\*\pnseclvl3\pndec\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxta .}}{\*\pnseclvl4\pnlcltr\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxta )}}{\*\pnseclvl5\pndec\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}{\*\pnseclvl6 \pnlcltr\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}{\*\pnseclvl7\pnlcrm\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}{\*\pnseclvl8\pnlcltr\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}{\*\pnseclvl9\pnlcrm\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}\pard\plain \ltrpar\s15\ql \li0\ri0\sb100\sa100\sbauto1\saauto1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid2319343 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24\alang1025 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs24\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 John Peter Altgeld became Illinois' first foreign-born governor after his election in 1892. Born in Germany but raised in Ohio, Altgeld found his way to Chicago after stops in Misso uri. In Chicago he invested in real estate and became rich. He turned his legal practice to the lucrative field of corporation law, then became a judge. In his 1892 campaign as the Democratic candidate for governor, Altgeld supported labor, but remained q u iet about the Haymarket affair. After his election however, Altgeld read the trail materials and pardoned the three remaining prisoners in a strongly worded statement that attacked the police and prosecutors. Altgeld's pardon inspired a frenzy of reproach among Republicans, whose newspapers called him a socialist and an anarchist. \par Altgeld's administration enforced labor legislation more thoroughly than his Republican predecessor's, and hired the reformer Florence Kelley as Chief Factory Inspector for the S tate of Illinois. Her close attention to working conditions outraged many industrialists, but it also brought issues of worker safety before the public as never before. \par Altgeld's urban r eform efforts took place as the rural uprising against the nation's emerging economic arrangements reached its high water mark. In the 1870s farmers, including many in Illinois, had formed Granges devoted to self-help and political lobbying. In the 1880s m any agriculturalists formed Farmer's Alliances, which established cooperative grain elevators and other ventures to free themselves from the power of highly organized businesses. Alliance meetings brought isolated farm families together to commiserate, li sten to speakers, and enjoy amusements. By 1890 many state Alliances ran their own slates of political candidates, which won nine seats in the House of Representatives and two in the Senate. \par By 1892 the Alliance had formed a new national political organization, the }{\field\fldedit{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 HYPERLINK "http://dig.lib.niu.edu/gildedage/populism.html" }}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\ul\cf2\insrsid2319343 People's Party}}}\sectd \ltrsect\linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sectrsid9840608\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 , which many simply called }{\field\fldedit{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 HYPERLINK "http://dig.lib.niu.edu/gildedage/populism.html" }}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\ul\cf2\insrsid2319343 "the Populists."}}}\sectd \ltrsect \linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sectrsid9840608\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 Its platform endorsed a national system of government crop warehouses, or subtreasuries, which would allow farmers to store their harvests until they found favorable prices. }{\field\fldedit{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 HYPERLINK "http://dig.lib.niu.edu/gildedage/populism.html" }}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\ul\cf2\insrsid2319343 The Populists}}}\sectd \ltrsect\linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sectrsid9840608\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 also advocated an expansion of the American money supply through the free coinage of silver. In the preceding decades the federal government's retirement of Civil War "greenbacks" and insistence upon the gold standard had effectively deflated the America n dollar, placing an enormous strain upon debtors like farmers. }{\field\fldedit{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 HYPERLINK "http://dig.lib.niu.edu/gildedage/populism.html" }}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\ul\cf2\insrsid2319343 The Populists}}}\sectd \ltrsect\linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sectrsid9840608\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 polled over one million votes and carried three states in an election that returned the Democrat Grover Cleveland to office after Benjamin Harrison's four-year interlude. \par Altgeld took office in 1893, just as workers were completing work on the structures and grounds of the World's Columbian Exposition. The exposition celebrated Christopher Columbus' landing in America four hundred years earlier, and celebrated American society, business and culture. Over twenty-seven million visitors streamed into Chicago to take it all in. \par The fair grounds themselve s covered 633 acres, and featured fourteen major buildings. Together these buildings, all designed in the neo-classical style and constructed of similar materials, comprised a striking collection that many visitors came to call the White City. The White C ity represented a considerable setback for the innovative designs of Louis Sullivan, who complained that the buildings would set architecture back by fifty years. \par At the fair's center visitors found a large reflecting pool, a fountain, and a classical stat ue. Major halls featured exhibits praising machinery, manufacturing, transportation, agriculture, electricity, and the liberal arts. A separate Woman's Building exhibited women's work and accomplishments. Another building, the Palace of Fine Arts, contain ed over 8000 works of art. Smaller buildings contained materials from American states and territories and over twenty foreign countries. \par The historian Frederick Jackson Turner delivered h is influential paper "The Significance of the Frontier in American History" at the American Historical Association's annual meeting, held in conjunction with the exposition. Turner remarked that the 1890 census had shown that Americans faced a new dilemma : they had run out of available land on the frontier. He argued that the frontier had served as a catalyst for American democracy and character, and wondered what would happen in a future bereft of this important part of the American experience. Turner's i mportant and controversial "frontier thesis" captured many Americans' gnawing unease about the very emergence of modern society celebrated so thoroughly in the exposition. \par In addition to educational exhibits, the fair also provided an opportunity for entertainment. The world's first Ferris Wheel appeared on the fair's Midway, as did a zoo, a swimming pool, and a fun house. Not only did foreign countries send official exhibitions, entrepre neurs also assembled displays portraying life in the villages of less prosperous nations. Many fair goers took side trips to see Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show, which had set up just outside the fair grounds. \par The fair made Chicago the nation's unofficial ca pital in the summer of 1893, but by the spring of 1894 the city was again principally known for its ongoing struggle between employers and workers. Laborers and tradesmen had poured into the city to help build the fair grounds, but as the fair wound down, the American economy entered another of its periodic depressions. The recent influx of workers made times especially hard in Chicago. A disappointed job seeker's assassination of Mayor Carter Harrison in October of 1893 again set Chicagoans on edge. Many feared that additional violence could not be far off. \par The industrialist George Pullman ignited this round of labor disputes in May of 1894. He had built a model community devoted to constructing his luxurious passenger rail cars south of the city. Pullman provided his workers with churches and cultural facilities, but denied them the opportunity to own their own homes or govern themselves. Pullman also made his town run at a distinct profit. All Pullman workers were obliged to live in the town and pay rent s some 25% higher than those in Chicago. \par When the depression of 1893 undermined Pullman's business, he cut workers' pay by up to 25%, but did not reduce their rents. Despite other businessmen's advice, he refused to negotiate with his hard-pressed workers. The Pullman employees went out on strike. \par The American Railway Union represented many railroad workers, and had just won an important victory by forcing the Great Northern Railroad to rescind most of its wage cuts. Although the vast majority of Pullman w orkers did not belong to the Union, its leader Eugene Debs decided to take up their cause. American Railway Union members refused to handle Pullman cars on any trains until the strike was resolved. \par The Union's actions spread to twenty-seven states and par alyzed much of the American railroad system. Pullman cars were popular features on passenger trains, and their boycott by railroad switchmen effectively prevented these trains from moving. Railroad managers, desperate to move traffic, took advantage of a federal law prohibiting strikers from interfering with the mails by adding mail cars to all trains including Pullman sleepers. \par Governor Altgeld refused to mobilize the Illinois militia ag ainst the Pullman strikers, but President Grover Cleveland, a fellow Democrat, came down decisively on the side of the railroads. His administration received a judge's injunction against the Union's actions, and called in the United States Army to enforce it. Crowds again gathered on the streets of Chicago to support strikers, and rioting broke out. When Altgeld protested the presence of federal troops he had not requested, five other governors supported his position. But Cleveland would not yield. On July 10, 1894 Eugene Debs surrendered to law enforcement officials. He faced charges of conspiring to violate the court injunction prohibiting his Union's strike, and served six months in prison. There he became a socialist who would revitalize that movement i n the Progressive Era. \par In 1895 the African-American political activist }{\field\fldedit{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 HYPERLINK "http://dig.lib.niu.edu/gildedage/idabwells/index.html" }}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\ul\cf2\insrsid2319343 Ida B. Wells}}}\sectd \ltrsect\linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sectrsid9840608\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 removed to Chicago. Born a child of slaves in Mississippi in 1862, Wells found education and began teaching school as a teenager. Working as an educator in Memphis, }{\field\fldedit{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 HYPERLINK "http://dig.lib.niu.edu/gildedage/idabwells/index.html" }}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\ul\cf2\insrsid2319343 Wells}}}\sectd \ltrsect\linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sectrsid9840608\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 challenged the southern practice of segregated facilities by suing a railroad, and became a journalist devoted to exposing blacks unfair lot in society. In 1892 three of her friends were lynched by white mobs, and } {\field\fldedit{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 HYPERLINK "http://dig.lib.niu.edu/gildedage/idabwells/index.html" }}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\ul\cf2\insrsid2319343 Wells}}}\sectd \ltrsect \linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sectrsid9840608\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 wrote scathing exposes of the practice which received wide national attention. Facing intimidation and threats in Memphis, } {\field\fldedit{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 HYPERLINK "http://dig.lib.niu.edu/gildedage/idabwells/index.html" }}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\ul\cf2\insrsid2319343 Wells}}}\sectd \ltrsect \linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sectrsid9840608\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 became a traveling lecturer before marrying the Chicago attorney and publisher Ferdinand L. Barnett. After 1895 } {\field\fldedit{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 HYPERLINK "http://dig.lib.niu.edu/gildedage/idabwells/index.html" }}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\ul\cf2\insrsid2319343 Wells}}}\sectd \ltrsect \linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sectrsid9840608\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 largely confined herself to local political causes and raising her family. \par In the 1880s and 1890s African Americans in the South faced rapidly deteriorating social and political conditions. As white supremacists returned to power after the end of Reconstruction, blacks lost the vote and the few vestiges of social equality t hey had briefly enjoyed. Lynching also became a frequent white tactic in the struggle to return African Americans to powerlessness. In this era some African Americans, like }{\field\fldedit{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 HYPERLINK "http://dig.lib.niu.edu/gildedage/idabwells/index.html" }}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\ul\cf2\insrsid2319343 Wells}}}\sectd \ltrsect\linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sectrsid9840608\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 , escaped the South and took up new lives in northern cities like Chicago. This movement would accelerate in the twentieth century. \par }\pard\plain \ltrpar\ql \li0\ri0\sa200\sl276\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \af31507\afs22\alang1025 \ltrch\fcs0 \f31506\fs22\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31507 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9840608 \par }{\*\themedata 504b030414000600080000002100828abc13fa0000001c020000130000005b436f6e74656e745f54797065735d2e786d6cac91cb6ac3301045f785fe83d0b6d8 72ba28a5d8cea249777d2cd20f18e4b12d6a8f843409c9df77ecb850ba082d74231062ce997b55ae8fe3a00e1893f354e9555e6885647de3a8abf4fbee29bbd7 2a3150038327acf409935ed7d757e5ee14302999a654e99e393c18936c8f23a4dc072479697d1c81e51a3b13c07e4087e6b628ee8cf5c4489cf1c4d075f92a0b 44d7a07a83c82f308ac7b0a0f0fbf90c2480980b58abc733615aa2d210c2e02cb04430076a7ee833dfb6ce62e3ed7e14693e8317d8cd0433bf5c60f53fea2fe7 065bd80facb647e9e25c7fc421fd2ddb526b2e9373fed4bb902e182e97b7b461e6bfad3f010000ffff0300504b030414000600080000002100a5d6a7e7c00000 00360100000b0000005f72656c732f2e72656c73848fcf6ac3300c87ef85bd83d17d51d2c31825762fa590432fa37d00e1287f68221bdb1bebdb4fc7060abb08 84a4eff7a93dfeae8bf9e194e720169aaa06c3e2433fcb68e1763dbf7f82c985a4a725085b787086a37bdbb55fbc50d1a33ccd311ba548b63095120f88d94fbc 52ae4264d1c910d24a45db3462247fa791715fd71f989e19e0364cd3f51652d73760ae8fa8c9ffb3c330cc9e4fc17faf2ce545046e37944c69e462a1a82fe353 bd90a865aad41ed0b5b8f9d6fd010000ffff0300504b0304140006000800000021006b799616830000008a0000001c0000007468656d652f7468656d652f7468 656d654d616e616765722e786d6c0ccc4d0ac3201040e17da17790d93763bb284562b2cbaebbf600439c1a41c7a0d29fdbd7e5e38337cedf14d59b4b0d592c9c 070d8a65cd2e88b7f07c2ca71ba8da481cc52c6ce1c715e6e97818c9b48d13df49c873517d23d59085adb5dd20d6b52bd521ef2cdd5eb9246a3d8b4757e8d3f7 29e245eb2b260a0238fd010000ffff0300504b03041400060008000000210096b5ade296060000501b0000160000007468656d652f7468656d652f7468656d65 312e786d6cec594f6fdb3614bf0fd87720746f6327761a07758ad8b19b2d4d1bc46e871e698996d850a240d2497d1bdae38001c3ba618715d86d87615b8116d8 a5fb34d93a6c1dd0afb0475292c5585e9236d88aad3e2412f9e3fbff1e1fa9abd7eec70c1d1221294fda5efd72cd4324f1794093b0eddd1ef62fad79482a9c04 98f184b4bd2991deb58df7dfbb8ad755446282607d22d771db8b944ad79796a40fc3585ee62949606ecc458c15bc8a702910f808e8c66c69b9565b5d8a314d3c 94e018c8de1a8fa94fd05093f43672e23d06af89927ac06762a049136785c10607758d9053d965021d62d6f6804fc08f86e4bef210c352c144dbab999fb7b471 7509af678b985ab0b6b4ae6f7ed9ba6c4170b06c788a705430adf71bad2b5b057d03606a1ed7ebf5babd7a41cf00b0ef83a6569632cd467faddec9699640f671 9e76b7d6ac355c7c89feca9cccad4ea7d36c65b258a206641f1b73f8b5da6a6373d9c11b90c537e7f08dce66b7bbeae00dc8e257e7f0fd2badd5868b37a088d1 e4600ead1ddaef67d40bc898b3ed4af81ac0d76a197c86826828a24bb318f3442d8ab518dfe3a20f000d6458d104a9694ac6d88728eee2782428d60cf03ac1a5 193be4cbb921cd0b495fd054b5bd0f530c1931a3f7eaf9f7af9e3f45c70f9e1d3ff8e9f8e1c3e3073f5a42ceaa6d9c84e5552fbffdeccfc71fa33f9e7ef3f2d1 17d57859c6fffac327bffcfc793510d26726ce8b2f9ffcf6ecc98baf3efdfdbb4715f04d814765f890c644a29be408edf3181433567125272371be15c308d3f2 8acd249438c19a4b05fd9e8a1cf4cd296699771c393ac4b5e01d01e5a30a787d72cf1178108989a2159c77a2d801ee72ce3a5c545a6147f32a99793849c26ae6 6252c6ed637c58c5bb8b13c7bfbd490a75330f4b47f16e441c31f7184e140e494214d273fc80900aedee52ead87597fa824b3e56e82e451d4c2b4d32a423279a 668bb6690c7e9956e90cfe766cb37b077538abd27a8b1cba48c80acc2a841f12e698f13a9e281c57911ce298950d7e03aba84ac8c154f8655c4f2af074481847 bd804859b5e696007d4b4edfc150b12addbecba6b18b148a1e54d1bc81392f23b7f84137c2715a851dd0242a633f900710a218ed715505dfe56e86e877f0034e 16bafb0e258ebb4faf06b769e888340b103d3311da9750aa9d0a1cd3e4efca31a3508f6d0c5c5c398602f8e2ebc71591f5b616e24dd893aa3261fb44f95d843b 5974bb5c04f4edafb95b7892ec1108f3f98de75dc97d5772bdff7cc95d94cf672db4b3da0a6557f70db629362d72bcb0431e53c6066acac80d699a6409fb44d0 8741bdce9c0e4971624a2378cceaba830b05366b90e0ea23aaa241845368b0eb9e2612ca8c742851ca251ceccc70256d8d87265dd96361531f186c3d9058edf2 c00eafe8e1fc5c509031bb4d680e9f39a3154de0accc56ae644441edd76156d7429d995bdd88664a9dc3ad50197c38af1a0c16d684060441db02565e85f3b966 0d0713cc48a0ed6ef7dedc2dc60b17e92219e180643ed27acffba86e9c94c78ab90980d8a9f0913ee49d62b512b79626fb06dccee2a432bbc60276b9f7dec44b 7904cfbca4f3f6443ab2a49c9c2c41476dafd55c6e7ac8c769db1bc399161ee314bc2e75cf8759081743be1236ec4f4d6693e5336fb672c5dc24a8c33585b5fb 9cc24e1d4885545b58463634cc5416022cd19cacfccb4d30eb45296023fd35a458598360f8d7a4003bbaae25e331f155d9d9a5116d3bfb9a95523e51440ca2e0 088dd844ec6370bf0e55d027a012ae264c45d02f708fa6ad6da6dce29c255df9f6cae0ec38666984b372ab5334cf640b37795cc860de4ae2816e95b21be5ceaf 8a49f90b52a51cc6ff3355f47e0237052b81f6800fd7b802239daf6d8f0b1571a8426944fdbe80c6c1d40e8816b88b8569082ab84c36ff0539d4ff6dce591a26 ade1c0a7f669880485fd484582903d284b26fa4e2156cff62e4b9265844c4495c495a9157b440e091bea1ab8aaf7760f4510eaa69a6465c0e04ec69ffb9e65d0 28d44d4e39df9c1a52ecbd3607fee9cec7263328e5d661d3d0e4f62f44acd855ed7ab33cdf7bcb8ae889599bd5c8b3029895b6825696f6af29c239b75a5bb1e6 345e6ee6c28117e73586c1a2214ae1be07e93fb0ff51e133fb65426fa843be0fb515c187064d0cc206a2fa926d3c902e907670048d931db4c1a44959d366ad93 b65abe595f70a75bf03d616c2dd959fc7d4e6317cd99cbcec9c58b34766661c7d6766ca1a9c1b327531486c6f941c638c67cd22a7f75e2a37be0e82db8df9f30 254d30c1372581a1f51c983c80e4b71ccdd28dbf000000ffff0300504b0304140006000800000021000dd1909fb60000001b010000270000007468656d652f74 68656d652f5f72656c732f7468656d654d616e616765722e786d6c2e72656c73848f4d0ac2301484f78277086f6fd3ba109126dd88d0add40384e4350d363f24 51eced0dae2c082e8761be9969bb979dc9136332de3168aa1a083ae995719ac16db8ec8e4052164e89d93b64b060828e6f37ed1567914b284d262452282e3198 720e274a939cd08a54f980ae38a38f56e422a3a641c8bbd048f7757da0f19b017cc524bd62107bd5001996509affb3fd381a89672f1f165dfe514173d9850528 a2c6cce0239baa4c04ca5bbabac4df000000ffff0300504b01022d0014000600080000002100828abc13fa0000001c0200001300000000000000000000000000 000000005b436f6e74656e745f54797065735d2e786d6c504b01022d0014000600080000002100a5d6a7e7c0000000360100000b000000000000000000000000 002b0100005f72656c732f2e72656c73504b01022d00140006000800000021006b799616830000008a0000001c00000000000000000000000000140200007468 656d652f7468656d652f7468656d654d616e616765722e786d6c504b01022d001400060008000000210096b5ade296060000501b000016000000000000000000 00000000d10200007468656d652f7468656d652f7468656d65312e786d6c504b01022d00140006000800000021000dd1909fb60000001b010000270000000000 00000000000000009b0900007468656d652f7468656d652f5f72656c732f7468656d654d616e616765722e786d6c2e72656c73504b050600000000050005005d010000960a00000000} {\*\colorschememapping 3c3f786d6c2076657273696f6e3d22312e302220656e636f64696e673d225554462d3822207374616e64616c6f6e653d22796573223f3e0d0a3c613a636c724d 617020786d6c6e733a613d22687474703a2f2f736368656d61732e6f70656e786d6c666f726d6174732e6f72672f64726177696e676d6c2f323030362f6d6169 6e22206267313d226c743122207478313d22646b3122206267323d226c743222207478323d22646b322220616363656e74313d22616363656e74312220616363 656e74323d22616363656e74322220616363656e74333d22616363656e74332220616363656e74343d22616363656e74342220616363656e74353d22616363656e74352220616363656e74363d22616363656e74362220686c696e6b3d22686c696e6b2220666f6c486c696e6b3d22666f6c486c696e6b222f3e} {\*\latentstyles\lsdstimax267\lsdlockeddef0\lsdsemihiddendef1\lsdunhideuseddef1\lsdqformatdef0\lsdprioritydef99{\lsdlockedexcept \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdqformat1 \lsdpriority0 \lsdlocked0 Normal; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdqformat1 \lsdpriority9 \lsdlocked0 heading 1;\lsdqformat1 \lsdpriority9 \lsdlocked0 heading 2;\lsdqformat1 \lsdpriority9 \lsdlocked0 heading 3;\lsdqformat1 \lsdpriority9 \lsdlocked0 heading 4; \lsdqformat1 \lsdpriority9 \lsdlocked0 heading 5;\lsdqformat1 \lsdpriority9 \lsdlocked0 heading 6;\lsdqformat1 \lsdpriority9 \lsdlocked0 heading 7;\lsdqformat1 \lsdpriority9 \lsdlocked0 heading 8;\lsdqformat1 \lsdpriority9 \lsdlocked0 heading 9; \lsdpriority39 \lsdlocked0 toc 1;\lsdpriority39 \lsdlocked0 toc 2;\lsdpriority39 \lsdlocked0 toc 3;\lsdpriority39 \lsdlocked0 toc 4;\lsdpriority39 \lsdlocked0 toc 5;\lsdpriority39 \lsdlocked0 toc 6;\lsdpriority39 \lsdlocked0 toc 7; \lsdpriority39 \lsdlocked0 toc 8;\lsdpriority39 \lsdlocked0 toc 9;\lsdqformat1 \lsdpriority35 \lsdlocked0 caption;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdqformat1 \lsdpriority10 \lsdlocked0 Title;\lsdpriority1 \lsdlocked0 Default Paragraph Font; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdqformat1 \lsdpriority11 \lsdlocked0 Subtitle;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdqformat1 \lsdpriority22 \lsdlocked0 Strong;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdqformat1 \lsdpriority20 \lsdlocked0 Emphasis; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority59 \lsdlocked0 Table Grid;\lsdunhideused0 \lsdlocked0 Placeholder Text;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdqformat1 \lsdpriority1 \lsdlocked0 No Spacing; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority60 \lsdlocked0 Light Shading;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority61 \lsdlocked0 Light List;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority62 \lsdlocked0 Light Grid; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority63 \lsdlocked0 Medium Shading 1;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority64 \lsdlocked0 Medium Shading 2;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority65 \lsdlocked0 Medium List 1; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority66 \lsdlocked0 Medium List 2;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority67 \lsdlocked0 Medium Grid 1;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority68 \lsdlocked0 Medium Grid 2; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority69 \lsdlocked0 Medium Grid 3;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority70 \lsdlocked0 Dark List;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority71 \lsdlocked0 Colorful Shading; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority72 \lsdlocked0 Colorful List;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority73 \lsdlocked0 Colorful Grid;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority60 \lsdlocked0 Light Shading Accent 1; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority61 \lsdlocked0 Light List Accent 1;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority62 \lsdlocked0 Light Grid Accent 1;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority63 \lsdlocked0 Medium Shading 1 Accent 1; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority64 \lsdlocked0 Medium Shading 2 Accent 1;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority65 \lsdlocked0 Medium List 1 Accent 1;\lsdunhideused0 \lsdlocked0 Revision; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdqformat1 \lsdpriority34 \lsdlocked0 List Paragraph;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdqformat1 \lsdpriority29 \lsdlocked0 Quote;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdqformat1 \lsdpriority30 \lsdlocked0 Intense Quote; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority66 \lsdlocked0 Medium List 2 Accent 1;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority67 \lsdlocked0 Medium Grid 1 Accent 1;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority68 \lsdlocked0 Medium Grid 2 Accent 1; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority69 \lsdlocked0 Medium Grid 3 Accent 1;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority70 \lsdlocked0 Dark List Accent 1;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority71 \lsdlocked0 Colorful Shading Accent 1; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority72 \lsdlocked0 Colorful List Accent 1;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority73 \lsdlocked0 Colorful Grid Accent 1;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority60 \lsdlocked0 Light Shading Accent 2; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority61 \lsdlocked0 Light List Accent 2;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority62 \lsdlocked0 Light Grid Accent 2;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority63 \lsdlocked0 Medium Shading 1 Accent 2; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority64 \lsdlocked0 Medium Shading 2 Accent 2;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority65 \lsdlocked0 Medium List 1 Accent 2;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority66 \lsdlocked0 Medium List 2 Accent 2; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority67 \lsdlocked0 Medium Grid 1 Accent 2;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority68 \lsdlocked0 Medium Grid 2 Accent 2;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority69 \lsdlocked0 Medium Grid 3 Accent 2; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority70 \lsdlocked0 Dark List Accent 2;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority71 \lsdlocked0 Colorful Shading Accent 2;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority72 \lsdlocked0 Colorful List Accent 2; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority73 \lsdlocked0 Colorful Grid Accent 2;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority60 \lsdlocked0 Light Shading Accent 3;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority61 \lsdlocked0 Light List Accent 3; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority62 \lsdlocked0 Light Grid Accent 3;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority63 \lsdlocked0 Medium Shading 1 Accent 3;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority64 \lsdlocked0 Medium Shading 2 Accent 3; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority65 \lsdlocked0 Medium List 1 Accent 3;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority66 \lsdlocked0 Medium List 2 Accent 3;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority67 \lsdlocked0 Medium Grid 1 Accent 3; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority68 \lsdlocked0 Medium Grid 2 Accent 3;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority69 \lsdlocked0 Medium Grid 3 Accent 3;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority70 \lsdlocked0 Dark List Accent 3; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority71 \lsdlocked0 Colorful Shading Accent 3;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority72 \lsdlocked0 Colorful List Accent 3;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority73 \lsdlocked0 Colorful Grid Accent 3; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority60 \lsdlocked0 Light Shading Accent 4;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority61 \lsdlocked0 Light List Accent 4;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority62 \lsdlocked0 Light Grid Accent 4; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority63 \lsdlocked0 Medium Shading 1 Accent 4;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority64 \lsdlocked0 Medium Shading 2 Accent 4;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority65 \lsdlocked0 Medium List 1 Accent 4; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority66 \lsdlocked0 Medium List 2 Accent 4;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority67 \lsdlocked0 Medium Grid 1 Accent 4;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority68 \lsdlocked0 Medium Grid 2 Accent 4; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority69 \lsdlocked0 Medium Grid 3 Accent 4;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority70 \lsdlocked0 Dark List Accent 4;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority71 \lsdlocked0 Colorful Shading Accent 4; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority72 \lsdlocked0 Colorful List Accent 4;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority73 \lsdlocked0 Colorful Grid Accent 4;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority60 \lsdlocked0 Light Shading Accent 5; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority61 \lsdlocked0 Light List Accent 5;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority62 \lsdlocked0 Light Grid Accent 5;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority63 \lsdlocked0 Medium Shading 1 Accent 5; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority64 \lsdlocked0 Medium Shading 2 Accent 5;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority65 \lsdlocked0 Medium List 1 Accent 5;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority66 \lsdlocked0 Medium List 2 Accent 5; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority67 \lsdlocked0 Medium Grid 1 Accent 5;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority68 \lsdlocked0 Medium Grid 2 Accent 5;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority69 \lsdlocked0 Medium Grid 3 Accent 5; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority70 \lsdlocked0 Dark List Accent 5;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority71 \lsdlocked0 Colorful Shading Accent 5;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority72 \lsdlocked0 Colorful List Accent 5; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority73 \lsdlocked0 Colorful Grid Accent 5;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority60 \lsdlocked0 Light Shading Accent 6;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority61 \lsdlocked0 Light List Accent 6; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority62 \lsdlocked0 Light Grid Accent 6;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority63 \lsdlocked0 Medium Shading 1 Accent 6;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority64 \lsdlocked0 Medium Shading 2 Accent 6; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority65 \lsdlocked0 Medium List 1 Accent 6;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority66 \lsdlocked0 Medium List 2 Accent 6;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority67 \lsdlocked0 Medium Grid 1 Accent 6; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority68 \lsdlocked0 Medium Grid 2 Accent 6;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority69 \lsdlocked0 Medium Grid 3 Accent 6;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority70 \lsdlocked0 Dark List Accent 6; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority71 \lsdlocked0 Colorful Shading Accent 6;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority72 \lsdlocked0 Colorful List Accent 6;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdpriority73 \lsdlocked0 Colorful Grid Accent 6; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdqformat1 \lsdpriority19 \lsdlocked0 Subtle Emphasis;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdqformat1 \lsdpriority21 \lsdlocked0 Intense Emphasis; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdqformat1 \lsdpriority31 \lsdlocked0 Subtle Reference;\lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdqformat1 \lsdpriority32 \lsdlocked0 Intense Reference; \lsdsemihidden0 \lsdunhideused0 \lsdqformat1 \lsdpriority33 \lsdlocked0 Book Title;\lsdpriority37 \lsdlocked0 Bibliography;\lsdqformat1 \lsdpriority39 \lsdlocked0 TOC Heading;}}{\*\datastore 010500000200000018000000 4d73786d6c322e534158584d4c5265616465722e352e3000000000000000000000060000 d0cf11e0a1b11ae1000000000000000000000000000000003e000300feff090006000000000000000000000001000000010000000000000000100000feffffff00000000feffffff0000000000000000ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffffdfffffffeffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff52006f006f007400200045006e00740072007900000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000016000500ffffffffffffffffffffffffec69d9888b8b3d4c859eaf6cd158be0f000000000000000000000000107d 119b30cdcb01feffffff00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000ffffffffffffffffffffffff00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000ffffffffffffffffffffffff0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000ffffffffffffffffffffffff000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000105000000000000}}

Contents

Election summaries

254 1 9 93
Republican S P Democratic
State Type Total
seats
Republican Democratic Populist Silver
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District 9 2 Increase 2 5 Decrease 4 2 Increase 2 0 Steady
Arkansas District 6 0 Steady 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
California District 7 6 Increase 3 1 Decrease 2 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Colorado District 2 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 1 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Connecticut District 4 4 Increase 3 0 Decrease 3 0 Steady 0 Steady
Delaware At-large 1 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Florida District 2 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia District 11 0 Steady 11 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Idaho At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois District[Note 6] 22 22 Increase 11 0 Decrease 11 0 Steady 0 Steady
Indiana District 13 13 Increase 11 0 Decrease 11 0 Steady 0 Steady
Iowa District 11 11 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Kansas District
+at-large
8 7 Increase 4 0 Steady 1 Decrease 4 0 Steady
Kentucky District 11 6 Increase 5 5 Decrease 5 0 Steady 0 Steady
Louisiana District 6 0 Steady 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maine[Note 7] District 4 4 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland District 6 3 Increase 3 3 Decrease 3 0 Steady 0 Steady
Massachusetts District 13 12 Increase 3 1 Decrease 3 0 Steady 0 Steady
Michigan District 12 12 Increase 5 0 Decrease 5 0 Steady 0 Steady
Minnesota District 7 7 Increase 3 0 Decrease 2 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Mississippi District 7 0 Steady 7 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri District 15 11 Increase 9 4 Decrease 9 0 Steady 0 Steady
Montana At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Nebraska District 6 5 Increase 2 0 Decrease 1 1 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Nevada At-large 1 0 Steady 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 1 Increase 1
New Hampshire District 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Jersey District 8 8 Increase 6 0 Decrease 6 0 Steady 0 Steady
New York District 34 30 Increase 16 4 Decrease 16 0 Steady 0 Steady
North Carolina District 9 3 Increase 2 2 Decrease 6 4 Increase 4 0 Steady
North Dakota At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Ohio District 21 19 Increase 9 2 Decrease 9 0 Steady 0 Steady
Oregon[Note 7] District 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District
+2 at-large
30 28 Increase 8 2 Decrease 8 0 Steady 0 Steady
Rhode Island District 2 2 Increase 2 0 Decrease 2 0 Steady 0 Steady
South Carolina District 7 1 Steady 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
South Dakota At-large 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Tennessee District 10 4 Increase 2 6 Decrease 2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Texas District 13 1 Increase 1 12 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Vermont[Note 7] District 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia District 10 2 Increase 2 8 Decrease 2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Washington At-large 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
West Virginia District 4 4 Increase 4 0 Decrease 4 0 Steady 0 Steady
Wisconsin District 10 10 Increase 6 0 Decrease 6 0 Steady 0 Steady
Wyoming At-large 1 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Total[Note 2] 356 253[1]
71.1%
Increase 110 93[1]
26.1%
Decrease 107 9[1]
2.5%
Decrease 4 1[1]
0.3%
Increase 1
House seats
Republican
71.1%
Democratic
26.1%
Populist
2.5%
Silver
0.3%
  House seats by party holding plurality in state      80+% Democratic       80+% Republican     60+ to 80% Democratic       60+ to 80% Republican     Up to 60% Democratic    Up to 60% Populist    Up to 60% Republican
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+% Democratic
 
  80+% Republican
  60+ to 80% Democratic
 
  60+ to 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Populist
  Up to 60% Republican
  Net gain in party representation      6+ Democratic gain       6+ Republican gain     3 to 5 Democratic gain       3 to 5 Republican gain     1 to 2 Democratic gain    1 to 2 Populist gain    1 to 2 Republican gain     no net change
Net gain in party representation
  6+ Democratic gain
 
  6+ Republican gain
  3 to 5 Democratic gain
 
  3 to 5 Republican gain
  1 to 2 Democratic gain
  1 to 2 Populist gain
  1 to 2 Republican gain
  no net change

Early election dates

In 1894, three states, with 8 seats among them, held elections early:

Special elections

Sorted first by election date, then by state and district.

District Vacator Reason for Vacancy Candidates
Representative Party First elected
Virginia 7 Charles T. O'Ferrall Democratic 1884 (Special) Incumbent resigned December 28, 1893, after being elected Governor of Virginia.
New member elected January 30, 1894.
Democratic hold.
Smith S. Turner (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
New York 14 John R. Fellows Democratic 1890 Incumbent resigned December 31, 1893 to become District Attorney of New York City.
New member elected January 30, 1894.
Republican gain.
Lemuel E. Quigg (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Pennsylvania at-large William Lilly Republican 1892 Incumbent died December 1, 1893.
New member elected February 26, 1894.
Republican hold.
Galusha A. Grow (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
South Carolina 1 William H. Brawley Democratic 1890 Incumbent resigned February 12, 1894 to become judge for the United States District Court for the District of South Carolina.
New member elected April 12, 1894.
Democratic hold.
James F. Izlar (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Maryland 1 Robert F. Bratton Democratic 1892 Incumbent died May 10, 1894.
New member elected November 6, 1894.
Democratic hold.
W. Laird Henry (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Ohio 3 George W. Houk Democratic 1890 Incumbent died February 9, 1894.
New member elected May 21, 1894.
Democratic hold.
Paul J. Sorg (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Wisconsin 7 George B. Shaw Republican 1892 Incumbent died August 27, 1894.
New member elected November 5, 1894.
Republican hold.
Michael Griffin (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Alabama 3 William C. Oates Democratic 1880 Incumbent resigned November 5, 1894, after being elected Governor of Alabama.
New member elected November 6, 1894.
Democratic hold.
George P. Harrison Jr. (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Kentucky 9 Thomas H. Paynter Democratic 1888 Incumbent resigned January 5, 1895 having been elected to the Kentucky Court of Appeals.
New member elected November 6, 1894, but didn't take his seat until March 4, 1895.
Republican gain.
Samuel J. Pugh (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Maryland 5 Barnes Compton Democratic 1884
1890 (Lost election contest)
1890
Incumbent resigned May 15, 1894, to become a naval officer.
New member elected November 6, 1894.
Republican gain.
Charles E. Coffin (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Arkansas 2 Clifton R. Breckinridge Democratic 1882 Incumbent resigned August 14, 1894, to become U.S. Minister to Russia.
New member elected December 3, 1894.
Democratic hold.
John S. Little (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Kentucky 10 Marcus C. Lisle Democratic 1892 Incumbent died July 7, 1894.
New member elected December 3, 1894.
Democratic hold.
William M. Beckner (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Louisiana 4 Newton C. Blanchard Democratic 1880 Incumbent resigned March 12, 1894 to become the U.S. Senate.
New member elected December 3, 1894.
Democratic hold.
Henry W. Ogden (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Ohio 2 John A. Caldwell Republican 1888 Incumbent resigned April 4, 1894 to become Mayor of Cincinnati.
New member elected December 3, 1894.
Republican hold.
Jacob H. Bromwell (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
New York 15 Ashbel P. Fitch Democratic 1886 Incumbent resigned December 26, 1893 to become New York City Comptroller.
New member elected December 30, 1894.
Democratic hold.
Isidor Straus (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]

California

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
California 1 Thomas J. Geary Democratic 1890 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
John All Barham (Republican) 41.1%
Thomas J. Geary (Democratic) 37.0%
Roger F. Grigsby (Populist) 19.7%
J. R. Gregory (Prohibition)
California 2 Anthony Caminetti Democratic 1890 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Grove L. Johnson (Republican) 43.0%
Anthony Caminetti (Democratic) 35.1%
Burdelli Cornell (Populist) 20.0%
Elam Briggs (Prohibition) 1.9%
California 3 Warren B. English Democratic 1892[Note 8] Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Samuel G. Hilborn (Republican) 45.5%
Warren B. English (Democratic) 37.8%
W. A. Vann (Populist) 14.9%
L. B. Scranton (Prohibition) 1.8%
California 4 James G. Maguire Democratic 1892 Incumbent re-elected. James G. Maguire (Democratic) 48.3%
Thomas Bowles Shannon (Republican) 32.0%
B. K. Collier (Populist) 18.4%
Joseph Rowell (Prohibition) 1.3%
California 5 Eugene F. Loud Republican 1890 Incumbent re-elected. Eugene F. Loud (Republican) 36.8%
Joseph P. Kelly (Democratic) 23.0%
James T. Rogers (Populist) 21.5%
James Denman (Prohibition) 18.7%
California 6 Marion Cannon Populist 1892 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
James McLachlan (Republican) 44.3%
George S. Patton (Democratic) 27.6%
W. C. Bowman (Populist) 23.1%
J. E. McComas (Prohibition) 5.0%
California 7 William W. Bowers Republican 1890 Incumbent re-elected. William W. Bowers (Republican) 42.9%
W. H. Alford (Democratic) 28.2%
J. L. Gilbert (Populist) 25.0%
W. H. Somers (Prohibition) 3.9%

Florida

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida 1 Stephen R. Mallory Democratic 1890 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Stephen M. Sparkman (Democratic) 85.3%
D. L. McKinnon (Populist) 14.7%
Florida 2 Charles Merian Cooper Democratic 1892 Incumbent re-elected. Charles Merian Cooper (Democratic) 79.8%
Montholom Atkinson (Populist) 20.2%

Ohio

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[5]
Ohio 1 Bellamy Storer Republican 1890 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 2 Jacob H. Bromwell Republican 1894 (s) Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 3 Paul J. Sorg Democratic 1894 (s) Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 4 Fernando C. Layton Democratic 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 5 Dennis D. Donovan Democratic 1892 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 6 George W. Hulick Republican 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 7 George W. Wilson Republican 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 8 Luther M. Strong Republican 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 9 Byron F. Ritchie Democratic 1892 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 10 Hezekiah S. Bundy Republican 1893 (s) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 11 Charles H. Grosvenor Republican 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 12 Joseph H. Outhwaite Democratic 1892 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 13 Darius D. Hare Democratic 1892 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 14 Michael D. Harter Democratic 1892 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 15 H. Clay Van Voorhis Republican 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 16 Albert J. Pearson Democratic 1892 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 17 James A. D. Richards Democratic 1892 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 18 George P. Ikirt Democratic 1892 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 19 Stephen A. Northway Republican 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 20 William J. White Republican 1892 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 21 Tom L. Johnson Democratic 1890 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.

South Carolina

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 George W. Murray
Redistricted from the 7th district
Republican 1892 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Murray successfully challenged Elliott's election and was awarded the seat on June 4, 1896.
William Elliott (Democratic) 59.1%
George W. Murray (Republican) 40.9%
South Carolina 2 W. Jasper Talbert Democratic 1892 Incumbent re-elected. W. Jasper Talbert (Democratic) 99.5%
Others 0.5%
South Carolina 3 Asbury Latimer Democratic 1892 Incumbent re-elected. Asbury Latimer (Democratic) 81.3%
Robert Moorman (Republican) 13.9%
Others 4.8%
South Carolina 4 George W. Shell Democratic 1890 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Stanyarne Wilson (Democratic) 75.1%
Lawson D. Melton (Republican) 24.7%
Others 0.2%
South Carolina 5 Thomas J. Strait Democratic 1892 Incumbent re-elected. Thomas J. Strait (Democratic) 67.6%
G. G. Alexander (Republican) 17.0%
W. R. Davie (Independent) 12.8%
Others 2.6%
South Carolina 6 John L. McLaurin Democratic 1892 Incumbent re-elected. John L. McLaurin (Democratic) 76.9%
J. P. Wilson (Republican) 23.1%
South Carolina 7 None (Open seat due to redistricting) New member elected.
Democratic gain.
The election was voided on June 1, 1896 due to electoral fraud.
J. William Stokes (Democratic) 73.0%
T. B. Johnson (Republican) 26.3%
Others 0.7%

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Three states held early elections between June 4 and September 10.
  2. ^ a b Includes late elections.
  3. ^ Includes two vacancies
  4. ^ Includes five vacancies
  5. ^ a b c Dubin (p. 312) counts 244 Republicans, 105 Democrats, 7 Populists, and 1 Silver at the opening of the 54th Congress, before the results of several contested elections were overturned in favor of Republican (and a few Populist) candidates. Dubin counts 253 Republicans, 93 Democrats, 9 Populists, and 1 Silver at the start of the 2nd session of the 54th Congress, which closely matches Martis' figure (pp. 148–49). Dubin's figure includes Utah, which held its election in 1895 and is therefore not covered in this article.
  6. ^ At-large seats eliminated in redistricting.
  7. ^ a b c Elections held early.
  8. ^ After contested election.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Martis, pp. 148–49. Martis's figure includes Utah, which held its election in 1895 and is therefore not covered in this article.
  2. ^ The New York Times TimesMachine: Senate and House Secured; Republican Control in the Next Congress Assured.
  3. ^ "African-Americans and Populism". Archived from the original on June 22, 2006. Retrieved 2010-07-02.
  4. ^ Jensen (1971), Chap. 9.
  5. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio. I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 656–57.

Bibliography

External links

This page was last edited on 9 September 2019, at 00:31
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.