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1890 United States House of Representatives elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1890 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1888 June 3, 1890 – November 4, 1890 1892 →

All 332 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
167 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party Third party
 
CharlesFrederickCrisp.jpg
Thomas Brackett Reed - Brady-Handy.jpg
Jerry Simpson.jpg
Leader Charles Crisp Thomas Reed Jerry Simpson
Party Democratic Republican Populist
Leader's seat Georgia 3rd Maine 1st Kansas 7th
Last election 152 seats 179 seats New Party
Seats won 238[1][a] 86[1][a] 8[1][a]
Seat change Increase 86 Decrease 93 Increase 8
Popular vote 4,945,756 4,173,605 182,797
Percentage 50.71% 42.80% 1.87%
Swing Increase 2.03% Decrease 4.56%

House052ElectionMap.png
Map of U.S. House elections results from 1890 elections for 52nd Congress

Speaker before election

Thomas Reed
Republican

Elected Speaker

Charles Crisp
Democratic

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1890 for members of the 52nd Congress, taking place in the middle of President Benjamin Harrison's term.

A stagnant economy which became worse after the Panic of 1890, combined with a lack of support for then Representative William McKinley's (defeated in the election) steep tariff act, which favored large industries at the expense of consumers, led to a sharp defeat for Harrison's Republican Party, giving a large majority to the Democratic Party and presaging Harrison's defeat in the 1892 United States presidential election. The Republican-controlled Congress was highly criticized for its lavish spending, and it earned the unflattering nickname of The Billion Dollar Congress. Democrats promised to cut the outlandish budget.

Furthermore, aggressive Republican promotion of controversial English-only education laws enacted by Wisconsin and Illinois in 1889, accompanied by a surge in nativist and anti-Catholic sentiment within the state parties, had greatly hollowed out the party's support base in these former strongholds. A rare multi-confessional alliance of mainly German clergy rallied their flocks in defense of language and faith to the Democratic Party, which tore through incumbent Republican majorities in both states, capturing a total of 11 formerly Republican seats between them alone.[2] Bitterly divisive struggles over temperance laws had also been alienating immigrants from the increasingly prohibitionist Republican Party across the Midwest more broadly. Dramatic losses in the previous year's gubernatorial elections in Iowa and Ohio (which would lose another 14 Republican congressional seats between them during this election) were due in no small part to wet immigrant communities, especially Germans, expressing their resentment toward Republican efforts to ban or otherwise curtail alcohol consumption by throwing their support behind the Democratic candidates.[3]

This election also saw the Populist Party, a coalition of farmers and laborers who wanted to overhaul the nation's financial system, make a small mark on Congress.

Special elections

Election summaries

238 8 86
Democratic P Republican
State Type Total
seats
Democratic Populist Republican
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District 8 8 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Decrease 1
Arkansas District 5 5 Increase 2 0 Decrease 1[b] 0 Decrease 1
California District 6 2 Steady 0 Steady 4 Steady
Colorado At-large 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady
Connecticut District 4 3 Increase 2 0 Steady 1 Decrease 2
Delaware At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Florida District 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia District 10 10 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Idaho[c] At-large 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady
Illinois District 20 14 Increase 7 0 Steady 6 Decrease 7
Indiana District 13 11 Increase 1 0 Steady 2 Decrease 1
Iowa District 11 6 Increase 5 0 Steady 5 Decrease 5
Kansas District 7 0 Steady 5 Increase 5 2 Decrease 5
Kentucky District 11 10 Increase 1 0 Steady 1 Decrease 1
Louisiana District 6 6 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Decrease 1
Maine[c] District 4 0 Steady 0 Steady 4 Steady
Maryland District 6 6 Increase 3 0 Steady 0 Decrease 3
Massachusetts District 12 7 Increase 5 0 Steady 5 Decrease 5
Michigan District 11 8 Increase 6 0 Steady 3 Decrease 6
Minnesota District 5 3 Increase 3 1 Increase 1 1 Decrease 4
Mississippi District 7 7 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri District 14 14 Increase 4 0 Steady 0 Decrease 4
Montana At-large 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Decrease 1
Nebraska District 3 1 Increase 1 2 Increase 2 0 Decrease 3
Nevada At-large 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady
New Hampshire District 2 2 Increase 2 0 Steady 0 Decrease 2
New Jersey District 7 5 Increase 2 0 Steady 2 Decrease 2
New York District 34 23 Increase 8 0 Steady 11 Decrease 8
North Carolina District 9 8 Increase 2 0 Steady 1 Decrease 2
North Dakota At-large 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady
Ohio District 21 14 Increase 9 0 Steady 7 Decrease 9
Oregon[c] At-large 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady
Pennsylvania District 28 11 Increase 4 0 Steady 17 Decrease 4
Rhode Island District 2 2 Increase 2 0 Steady 0 Decrease 2
South Carolina District 7 7 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
South Dakota At-large 2 0 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady
Tennessee District 10 8 Increase 1 0 Steady 2 Decrease 1
Texas District 11 11 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Vermont[c] District 2 0 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady
Virginia District 10 10 Increase 4 0 Steady 0 Decrease 4
Washington At-large 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady
West Virginia District 4 4 Increase 2 0 Steady 0 Decrease 2
Wisconsin District 9 8 Increase 6 0 Steady 1 Decrease 6
Wyoming[c] At-large 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady
Total 332 238[4]
71.7%
Increase 74 8[4]
2.4%
Increase 9 86[4]
25.9%
Decrease 83
House seats
Democratic
71.69%
Populist
2.41%
Republican
25.90%

The previous election of 1888 saw the election of one Labor Party representative in Arkansas.

  House seats by party holding plurality in state      80+% Democratic       80+% Republican     60+% to 80% Democratic    60+% to 80% Populist    60+% to 80% Republican     Up to 60% Democratic       Up to 60% Republican
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+% Democratic
 
  80+% Republican
  60+% to 80% Democratic
  60+% to 80% Populist
  60+% to 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
 
  Up to 60% Republican
  Net gain in party representation      6+ Democratic gain       6+ Republican gain     3-5 Democratic gain    3-5 Populist gain    3-5 Republican gain     1-2 Democratic gain    1-2 Populist gain    1-2 Republican gain     no net change
Net gain in party representation
  6+ Democratic gain
 
  6+ Republican gain
  3-5 Democratic gain
  3-5 Populist gain
  3-5 Republican gain
  1-2 Democratic gain
  1-2 Populist gain
  1-2 Republican gain
  no net change

Early election dates

In 1890, five states, with 9 seats among them, held elections early:

Idaho and Wyoming held elections for both the outgoing 51st Congress and the incoming 52nd Congress in 1890, having been admitted that year, and held future elections on the standard election day.

Alabama

Arkansas

California

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
California 1 Vacant Incumbent resigned October 1, 1890.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
California 2 Marion Biggs Democratic 1886 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
  • Green tickY Anthony Caminetti (Democratic) 49%
  • George I. Blanchard (Republican) 48.6%
  • J. S. Witherell (Prohibition) 2.4%
California 3 Joseph McKenna Republican 1884 Incumbent re-elected.
California 4 William W. Morrow Republican 1884 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
  • Green tickY John T. Cutting (Republican) 49.2%
  • Robert Ferral (Democratic) 45.1%
  • Thomas V. Cator (Socialist) 5.6%
  • Joseph Rowell (Prohibition) 0.2%
California 5 Thomas J. Clunie Democratic 1888 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
California 6 William Vandever Republican 1886 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
  • Green tickY William W. Bowers (Republican) 51.1%
  • W. J. Curtis (Democratic) 44.1%
  • O. R. Dougherty (Prohibition) 4.8%

Colorado

Connecticut

Delaware

Florida

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Florida 1 Robert H. M. Davidson Democratic 1876 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Florida 2 Robert Bullock Democratic 1888 Incumbent re-elected.

Georgia

Idaho

Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Kansas

Kentucky

Louisiana

Maine

Maryland

Massachusetts

Michigan

Mississippi

Missouri

Montana

Nebraska

Nevada

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New York

North Carolina

North Dakota

Ohio

The Ohio Legislature redistricted the state between censuses. Coupled with other Democratic gains, this redistricting gave the Democrats a nine-seat net gain.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates[5]
Ohio 1 Benjamin Butterworth Republican 1884 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 2 John A. Caldwell Republican 1888 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 3 Elihu S. Williams Republican 1886 Incumbent retired.
Republican loss.
Henry Lee Morey
Redistricted from the 7th district
Republican 1888 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 4 Samuel S. Yoder Democratic 1886 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Ohio 5 George E. Seney Democratic 1886 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Ohio 6 Melvin M. Boothman Republican 1886 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 7 William E. Haynes
Redistricted from the 10th district
Democratic 1888 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 8 Robert P. Kennedy Republican 1886 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 9 William C. Cooper Republican 1884 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican loss.
Joseph H. Outhwaite
Redistricted from the 13th district
Democratic 1884 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 10 Open seat New seat.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 11 Albert C. Thompson Republican 1886 Lost renomination.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 12 Jacob J. Pugsley Republican 1886 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 13 Open seat New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 14 Charles Preston Wickham Republican 1886 Incumbent retired.
Republican loss.
James W. Owens
Redistricted from the 16th district
Democratic 1888 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 15 Charles H. Grosvenor Republican 1886 Lost renomination.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 16 William McKinley
Redistricted from the 18th district
Republican 1886 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 17 Open seat New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 18 Joseph D. Taylor
Redistricted from the 17th district
Republican 1886 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 19 Ezra B. Taylor Republican 1880 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 20 Martin L. Smyser Republican 1888 Lost renomination.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 21 Theodore E. Burton Republican 1888 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

Oregon

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island

South Carolina

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
South Carolina 1 Samuel Dibble Democratic 1882 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
South Carolina 2 George D. Tillman Democratic 1878 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 3 James S. Cothran Democratic 1886 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
South Carolina 4 William H. Perry Democratic 1884 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
South Carolina 5 John J. Hemphill Democratic 1882 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 6 George W. Dargan Democratic 1882 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
South Carolina 7 Thomas E. Miller Republican 1888[d] Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

South Dakota

Tennessee

Texas

Utah

Vermont

Virginia

Washington

West Virginia

Wisconsin

Wyoming

Republican Clarence D. Clark was elected over Democrat George T. Buck in a single ballot both to finish the current term (ending 1891) and the next term (beginning 1891).[6]

Non-voting delegates

Oklahoma Territory

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Oklahoma Territory at-large New seat New seat.
New delegate elected to finish the current term.
Republican gain.
New seat.
New delegate elected to the next term.
Republican gain.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Dubin (pp. 293–94) counts 235 Democrats, 88 Republicans, and 8 Populists at the opening of the 52nd Congress.
  2. ^ One Labor Party member had been elected in 1888.
  3. ^ a b c d e Elections held early.
  4. ^ After disputed election.

References

  1. ^ a b c Martis, p. 144–145.
  2. ^ Jensen, Richard J. (1971). "5: The Winning of the Midwest: Social and Political Conflict, 1888-1896". Education, the Tariff, and the Melting Pot. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 122–153.
  3. ^ Jensen, p. ch. 4: Iowa, Wet or Dry?. pp. 89-121.
  4. ^ a b c Martis.
  5. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio. I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 592, 593.
  6. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=253636
  7. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=299870
  8. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=264142

Bibliography

External links

This page was last edited on 25 April 2020, at 07:45
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