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J. William Stokes

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


James William Stokes
JWilliamStokes.jpg
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from South Carolina's 7th district
In office
November 3, 1896 – July 6, 1901
Preceded byHimself
Succeeded byAsbury F. Lever
In office
March 4, 1895 – June 1, 1896
Preceded byGeorge W. Murray
Succeeded byHimself
Member of South Carolina Senate
In office
1890
Personal details
Born(1853-12-12)December 12, 1853
Orangeburg, South Carolina
DiedJuly 6, 1901(1901-07-06) (aged 47)
Orangeburg, South Carolina
Political partyDemocratic
Alma materWashington and Lee University
Vanderbilt University
Professionteacher, farmer

James William Stokes (December 12, 1853 – July 6, 1901) was a U.S. Representative from South Carolina.

Born near Orangeburg, South Carolina, Stokes attended the common schools and was graduated from Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Virginia, in 1876. He taught school for 12 years.

He was graduated in medicine from Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. He engaged in agricultural pursuits in 1889. He served as president of the State Farmers' Alliance.

He served as member of the South Carolina Senate in 1890. He served as delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1892.

He was defeated by the African-American George W. Murray for election in 1892 to the Fifty-third Congress, but was successful in the 1894 election. He presented credentials as a Democratic Member-elect to the Fifty-fourth Congress and served from March 4, 1895, to June 1, 1896, when the seat was declared vacant.[further explanation needed]

Stokes was elected as Democrat in a special election to fill the vacancy thus caused. In 1895, South Carolina ratified a new constitution that disfranchised black voters. It became a one-party, Democratic state, with contests settled in the primaries. This situation continued until passage of federal civil rights legislation in the 1960s.

Stokes was re-elected as a Democrat to the Fifty-fifth, Fifty-sixth and Fifty-seventh Congresses and served from November 3, 1896, until his death in Orangeburg, South Carolina, July 6, 1901. He was interred in Sunnyside Cemetery.

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  • ✪ NCLEX Question Review - Cheyne-Stokes Respiration

Transcription

Hello guys, welcome again to another NCLEX question review. Today, the nurse notes documentation that a client is exhibiting change Stokes respirations. On assessment of the client, the nurse expects to note which of the following? Option A) Rhythmic respirations with periods of apnea. Option B) Regular rapid and deep, sustained respirations. Option C) Totally irregular respiration in rhythm and depth. Option D) Irregular respirations with pauses at the end of inspiration and expiration. Remember that normal breathing is a process of moving air in and out of the lungs 12 to 20 times per minute. This process moves air to facilitate gas exchange with the internal environment; mostly by bringing in oxygen and flushing out carbon dioxide. Cheyne-Stokes breathing is a type of abnormal breathing that's characterized by a gradual increase in breathing and then a decrease. This pattern is followed by a period of apnea where breathing temporarily stops; then the cycle then repeats itself. The condition was named after John Cheyne and William Stokes, the physicians who first described the condition in the 19th century. The pathophysiology of cheyne-Stokes breathing can be summarized as: Apnea leading to increased CO2 levels which causes excessive compensatory hyperventilation. This hyperventilation in turn causes a decrease in CO2 levels, which causes apnea, restarting the cycle. We could represent this cycle graphically. In this case, we can see a period of hyperventilation that is followed by a period of apnea; and then the cycle restarts again. The pattern repeats with each cycle usually taking from 30 seconds to two minutes. In our question we are provided with four options. Each one belongs to a specific condition. Rhythmic respirations with periods of apnea are usually seen during Cheyne-Stokes respirations and may indicate a metabolic dysfunction in the cerebral hemisphere or basal ganglia. Regular rapid and deep sustained respirations are usually seen during Neurogenic Hyperventilation, and they may indicate a dysfunction in the low-mid brain in middle pons. Totally irregular respiration in rhythm and depth are usually seen during Ataxic Respirations, and may indicate a dysfunction in the medulla. Irregular respirations with pauses at the end of inspiration and expiration are usually seen during Apneustic respirations and may indicate a dysfunction in the middle or caudal pons. As a strategy to answer this question focus on the subject, the characteristics of Cheyne-Stokes respirations. Recalling that periods of apnea occur with this type of respiration will help direct you to the correct answer. On the assessment of this client the nurse should expect to see rhythmic respirations with periods of apnea. If you chose option A, you chose correctly!! That's it for today guys, thanks again for watching this video make sure you subscribe to our channel for more NCLEX question reviews! If you have questions or concerns feel free to leave it in a comment below. Thanks for watching and see you on the next video!!

See also

Sources

  • United States Congress. "J. William Stokes (id: S000947)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
  • Memorial addresses on the life and character of J. William Stokes, late a representative from South Carolina delivered in the House of Representatives and Senate frontispiece 1902
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
George W. Murray
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from South Carolina's 7th congressional district

1895–1901
Succeeded by
Asbury F. Lever
This page was last edited on 25 December 2019, at 15:32
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