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1836 and 1837 United States House of Representatives elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1836 and 1837 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1834 / 1835 July 4, 1836 – November 7, 1837 1838 / 1839 →

All 242 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
122 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
James Knox Polk by GPA Healy, 1858.jpg
JohnBellSecretaryofWar.png
Leader James K. Polk John Bell
Party Democratic Whig
Leader's seat Tennessee 9th Tennessee 7th
Last election 143 seats 75 seats
Seats won 128[1][a] 100[1][a]
Seat change Decrease 15 Increase 25

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Anti-Masonic Nullifier
Last election 16 seats 8 seats
Seats won 7 6[a]
Seat change Decrease 9 Decrease 2

  Fifth party
 
Party Independent
Last election 0 seats
Seats won 1
Seat change Increase 1

Speaker before election

James K. Polk
Democratic

Elected Speaker

James K. Polk
Democratic

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 25th Congress were held at various dates in different states from July 1836 to November 1837.

Though Democrat Martin Van Buren was elected President in November 1836, Democrats lost seats. The newly organizing Whigs benefited from regional candidacies and issues and voter fatigue with outgoing two-term President Andrew Jackson. Jackson, a flamboyant public personality with a record of high-profile leadership and historic military success, often clashed with Congress and the Supreme Court. By comparison, Van Buren, a brilliant partisan organizer and political operative, was less charismatic in looks and demeanor. Voter support for the minor Anti-Masonic and Nullifier parties ebbed, but remained significant. One Independent, John Pope, was elected from Kentucky.[2]

Election summaries

State Type ↑ Date Total
seats
Democratic
[b]
Whig
[c]
Anti-Masonic Nullifier Independent
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Louisiana Districts July 4–6, 1836 3 1 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois Districts August 1, 1836 3 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri At-large August 1, 1836 2 2 Increase1 0 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Vermont Districts September 6, 1836 5 1 Increase1 4 Increase1 0 Decrease2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maine Districts September 12, 1836 8 6 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia At-large October 3, 1836 9 8 Decrease1 1 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
South Carolina Districts October 10–11, 1836 9 2 Steady 1 Increase1 0 Steady 6 Decrease1 0 Steady
Ohio Districts October 11, 1836 19 8 Decrease1 11 Increase2 0 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Pennsylvania Districts October 11, 1836 28 18 Increase1 3 Steady 7 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Delaware At-large November 8, 1836 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
New York Districts November 7–9, 1836 40 30 Decrease1 10 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Massachusetts Districts November 14, 1836 12 2 Increase1 10 Increase2 0 Decrease3 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Jersey At-large November 16, 1836 6 0 Decrease6 6 Increase6 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Late elections (after the March 4, 1837 beginning of the term)
New Hampshire At-large March 14, 1837 5 5 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Connecticut Districts April 3, 1837 6 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia Districts April 27, 1837 21 15 Decrease1 6 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland Districts July 26, 1837 8 4 Steady 4 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Tennessee District August 3, 1837 13 3 Decrease1 10 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Indiana Districts August 7, 1837 7 1 Decrease5 6 Increase5 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Kentucky District August 7, 1837 13 1 Decrease3 11 Increase2 0 Steady 0 Steady 1[d] Increase1
Alabama Districts August 8, 1837 5 3 Steady 2 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Decrease1 0 Steady
North Carolina District August 10, 1837 13 5 Decrease2 8 Increase2 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Michigan At-large August 22, 1837 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Rhode Island At-large August 29, 1837 2 0 Steady 2 Increase2 0 Decrease2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Later elections (after the September 4, 1837 beginning of special session)
Arkansas At-large October 2, 1837 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Mississippi At-large November 6–7, 1837[e] 2 0 Decrease2 2 Increase2 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Total[f] 242 128
52.9%
Decrease15 100
41.3%
Increase25 7
2.9%
Decrease9 6
2.5%
Decrease2 1
0.4%
Increase1
House seats
Anti-Masonic
2.89%
Democratic
52.89%
Independent
0.41%
Nullifier
2.48%
Whig
41.32%

Special elections

There were special elections in 1836 and 1837 to the 24th United States Congress and 25th United States Congress.

Special elections are sorted by date then district.

24th Congress

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates

25th Congress

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Mississippi at-large John F. H. Claiborne Democratic 1835 Mississippi elected its Representatives in November of odd numbered years (after the beginning of the congressional term). As Congress had been called to meet in September, the governor issued writs for a special election to fill vacancies until the regular election. Incumbents re-elected July 18, 1837.
Democratic hold.
Incumbent successors presented their credentials and were seated September 4, 1837.[4]
At their request the question of the validity of their election was referred to the Committee on Elections. The House decided October 3, 1837 they had been elected for the full term.[g]
Samuel J. Gholson Democratic 1836 (Special)

Mississippi

A special election was held in Mississippi on July 17–18, 1837. Its winners were Democrats John F. H. Claiborne and Samuel J. Gholson. The first session of the 25th Congress was a special session beginning on September 4, 1837, extending to October 16. In November, Mississippi held the regular election. Seargent Smith Prentiss, a Vicksburg lawyer and Whig, unexpectedly launched a vigorous, partisan campaign. He and fellow Whig Thomas J. Word won in an upset. Claiborne and Gholson then argued that the July result entitled them to serve full terms. With the Whig Party newly organizing, the closely divided House, in which Anti-Masons, Nullifiers, and the Independent tended to align more with Whigs and to oppose Democrats, agreed to hear Prentiss. He spoke for nine hours over three days, packing the gallery, drawing Senators, and earning a national reputation for oratory and public admiration from leading Whigs including Senators Clay and Webster. The Elections Committee then required a third election. Scheduled for April 1838, it confirmed the November result. Both Whigs were seated in May late in the second session, also serving for the third session.

Pennsylvania

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[h][5]
Pennsylvania 1 Joel B. Sutherland Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Pennsylvania 2
Plural district with 2 seats
Joseph R. Ingersoll Anti-Jacksonian 1834 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Whig gain.
James Harper Anti-Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Whig gain.
Pennsylvania 3 Michael W. Ash Jacksonian 1834 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Harper died March 18, 1837, leading to a special election, which was won by Naylor.
Pennsylvania 4
Plural district with 3 seats
William Hiester Anti-Masonic 1830 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Masonic hold.
Edward Darlington Anti-Masonic 1832 Incumbent re-elected.
David Potts Jr. Anti-Masonic 1830 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 5 Jacob Fry Jr. Jacksonian 1834 Incumbent re-elected as a Democrat.
Pennsylvania 6 Mathias Morris Anti-Jacksonian 1834 Incumbent re-elected as a Whig.
Pennsylvania 7 David D. Wagener Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected as a Democrat.
Pennsylvania 8 Edward B. Hubley Jacksonian 1834 Incumbent re-elected as a Democrat.
Pennsylvania 9 Henry A. P. Muhlenberg Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent re-elected as a Democrat.
Pennsylvania 10 William Clark Anti-Masonic 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Pennsylvania 11 Henry Logan Jacksonian 1834 Incumbent re-elected as a Democrat.
Pennsylvania 12 George Chambers Anti-Masonic 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Pennsylvania 13 Jesse Miller Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Pennsylvania 14 Joseph Henderson Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
  • William W. Potter (Democratic) 59.6%
  • John Williamson (Anti-Masonic) 38.2%
  • John Ashman (Anti-Masonic) 2.2%
Pennsylvania 15 Andrew Beaumont Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Pennsylvania 16 Joseph B. Anthony Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Pennsylvania 17 John Laporte Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Pennsylvania 18 Job Mann Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Masonic gain.
Pennsylvania 19 John Klingensmith Jr. Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected as a Democrat.
Pennsylvania 20 Andrew Buchanan Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected as a Democrat.
Pennsylvania 21 Thomas M. T. McKennan Anti-Masonic 1830 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 22 Harmar Denny Anti-Masonic 1829 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Masonic hold.
  • Richard Biddle (Anti-Masonic) 51.4%
  • Trevanion B. Dallas (Democratic) 48.6%
Pennsylvania 23 Samuel S. Harrison Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Pennsylvania 24 John Banks Anti-Masonic 1830 Incumbent resigned April 2, 1836.
New member elected.
Anti-Masonic hold.
  • Thomas Henry (Anti-Masonic) 56.1%
  • John R. Shannon (Democratic) 43.9%
Pennsylvania 25 John Galbraith Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Dubin (p. 119) records only 99 Whigs, with a vacancy in TN-04 (which was later filled by a Whig). Dubin also records 132 Democrats, and only 2 Nullifiers. Figures listed here defer to Martis (p. 94).
  2. ^ Previously Jacksonian
  3. ^ Previously Anti-Jacksonian
  4. ^ John Pope won as an Independent and would run later as a Whig.
  5. ^ After a disputed result, an April 23–24, 1838 second election confirmed the result of regular election.
  6. ^ Does not include state results listed above due to special election and Independent Representative.[3]
  7. ^ The decision was later recinded, leading to a new special election.
  8. ^ For plural districts, percent is based on assumption that each voter cast as many votes as there are seats.
  9. ^ Changed parties
  10. ^ a b c Joint Whig/Anti-Masonic ticket

References

  1. ^ a b Martis, p. 94.
  2. ^ Dubin, p. 117; Martis, p. 94; Moore, p. 966.
  3. ^ https://history.house.gov/Congressional-Overview/Profiles/25th
  4. ^ "Twenty-fifth Congress March 4, 1837, to March 3, 1839". Historian of the United States House of Representatives. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
  5. ^ Wilkes University Elections Statistics Project

Bibliography

External links

This page was last edited on 25 June 2019, at 17:42
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