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1836 and 1837 United States House of Representatives elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1836 and 1837 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1834 / 1835 July 4, 1836 – November 7, 1837[a] 1838 / 1839 →

All 242 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
122 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
James Knox Polk by GPA Healy, 1858.jpg
JohnBellSecretaryofWar.png
Leader James K. Polk John Bell
Party Democratic Whig
Leader's seat Tennessee 9th Tennessee 7th
Last election 143 seats 75 seats
Seats won 128[1][b] 100[1][b]
Seat change Decrease 15 Increase 25

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Anti-Masonic Nullifier
Last election 16 seats 8 seats
Seats won 7 6[b]
Seat change Decrease 9 Decrease 2

  Fifth party
 
Party Independent
Last election 0 seats
Seats won 1
Seat change Increase 1

Speaker before election

James K. Polk
Democratic

Elected Speaker

James K. Polk
Democratic

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 25th Congress were held at various dates in different states from July 1836 to November 1837.

Though Democrat Martin Van Buren was elected President in November 1836, Democrats lost seats. The newly organizing Whigs benefited from regional candidacies and issues and voter fatigue with outgoing two-term President Andrew Jackson. Jackson, a flamboyant public personality with a record of high-profile leadership and historic military success, often clashed with Congress and the Supreme Court. By comparison, Van Buren, a brilliant partisan organizer and political operative, was less charismatic in looks and demeanor. Voter support for the minor Anti-Masonic and Nullifier parties ebbed, but remained significant. One Independent, John Pope, was elected from Kentucky.[2][1][3]

Election summaries

State Type ↑ Date Total
seats
Anti-Masonic Democratic
[c]
Independent Nullifier Whig
[d]
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Louisiana Districts August 1, 1836 3 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady
Illinois Districts August 1, 1836 3 0 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri At-large August 1, 1836 2 0 Steady 2 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Decrease1
Vermont Districts September 6, 1836 5 0 Decrease2 1 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady 4 Increase1
Maine Districts September 12, 1836 8 0 Steady 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady
Georgia At-large October 3, 1836 9 0 Steady 8 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Increase1
South Carolina Districts October 10–11, 1836 9 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady 6 Decrease1 1 Increase1
Ohio Districts October 11, 1836 19 0 Decrease1 8 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady 11 Increase2
Pennsylvania Districts October 11, 1836 28 7 Decrease1 18 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady 3 Steady
Delaware At-large November 8, 1836 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady
New York Districts November 7–9, 1836 40 0 Steady 30 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady 10 Increase1
Massachusetts Districts November 14, 1836 12 0 Decrease3 2 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady 10 Increase2
New Jersey At-large November 16, 1836 6 0 Steady 0 Decrease6 0 Steady 0 Steady 6 Increase6
Late elections (after the March 4, 1837 beginning of the term)
New Hampshire At-large March 14, 1837 5 0 Steady 5 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Connecticut Districts April 3, 1837 6 0 Steady 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia Districts April 27, 1837 21 0 Steady 15 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady 6 Increase1
Maryland Districts July 26, 1837 8 0 Steady 4 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 4 Steady
Tennessee Districts August 3, 1837 13 0 Steady 3 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady 10 Increase1
Indiana Districts August 7, 1837 7 0 Steady 1 Decrease5 0 Steady 0 Steady 6 Increase5
Kentucky Districts August 7, 1837 13 0 Steady 1 Decrease3 1[e] Increase1 0 Steady 11 Increase2
Alabama Districts August 8, 1837 5 0 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Decrease1 2 Increase1
North Carolina Districts August 10, 1837 13 0 Steady 5 Decrease2 0 Steady 0 Steady 8 Increase2
Michigan At-large August 22, 1837 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Rhode Island At-large August 29, 1837 2 0 Decrease2 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 2 Increase2
Later elections (after the September 4, 1837 beginning of special session)
Arkansas At-large October 2, 1837 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Mississippi At-large November 6–7, 1837[f] 2 0 Steady 0 Decrease2 0 Steady 0 Steady 2 Increase2
Total[g] 242 7
2.9%
Decrease9 128
52.9%
Decrease15 1
0.4%
Increase1 6
2.5%
Decrease2 100
41.3%
Increase25
House seats
Anti-Masonic
2.89%
Democratic
52.89%
Independent
0.41%
Nullifier
2.48%
Whig
41.32%

Special elections

There were special elections in 1836 and 1837 to the 24th United States Congress and 25th United States Congress.

Special elections are sorted by date then district.

24th Congress

Note: In some sources, parties are listed as "Democrats" and "Whigs." However, they are listed here as "Jacksonian" and "Anti-Jacksonian" (respectively) to conform to the party names as they were regarded during the 24th United States Congress.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Connecticut at-large Zalmon Wildman Jacksonian 1835 Incumbent died December 10, 1835.
New member elected in early 1836.
Jacksonian hold.
Successor seated April 29, 1836.[5]
Successor also later elected to the next term, see below.
Arkansas at-large New seat Arkansas was admitted to the Union on June 15, 1836.
New member elected August 1, 1836.[6]
Jacksonian gain.
Successor seated December 5, 1836.[5]
Successor also later elected to the next term, see below.
Connecticut at-large Andrew T. Judson Jacksonian 1835 Incumbent resigned July 4, 1836 to become judge of the United States District Court for the District of Connecticut.
New member elected in mid-to-late 1836.
Jacksonian hold.
Successor seated December 5, 1836.[5]
Successor also later elected to the next term, see below.
North Carolina 12 James Graham Jacksonian 1833 Seat declared vacant March 29, 1836.
Incumbent re-elected August 4, 1836.[8]
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
Incumbent seated December 5, 1836.[5]
Incumbent also later elected to the next term, see below.
South Carolina 4 James H. Hammond Nullifier 1834 Incumbent resigned February 26, 1836 because of ill-health.
New member elected October 10, 1836.[9]
Nullifier hold.
Successor seated December 19, 1836.[5]
Successor also elected the same day to the next term, see below.
Pennsylvania 24 John Banks Anti-Masonic 1830 Incumbent resigned March 31, 1836.
New member elected October 11, 1836.[10]
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
Successor seated December 5, 1836.[5]
Successor was not a candidate the same day for the next term, see below.
South Carolina 8 Richard I. Manning Jacksonian 1834 (Special) Incumbent died May 1, 1836.
New member elected October 11, 1836.[12]
Jacksonian hold.
Successor seated December 19, 1836.[5]
Successor elected the same day for the next term, see below.
Georgia at-large John E. Coffee Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent died September 25, 1836.
New member elected October 30, 1836.[13]
Nullifier gain.
Successor seated December 26, 1836.[5]
Successor had already been elected to the next term, see below.
Pennsylvania 13 Jesse Miller Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent resigned October 30, 1836.
New member elected November 4, 1836.[14]
Jacksonian hold.
Successor seated December 5, 1836.[5]
Successor had not been a candidate for the next term, see below.
Mississippi at-large David Dickson Jacksonian 1835 Incumbent died July 31, 1836.
New member elected November 7, 1836.[15]
Jacksonian hold.
Successor seated January 7, 1837.[5]
Successor was not later elected to the next term, see below.
New York 17 Samuel Beardsley Jacksonian 1830 Incumbent resigned March 29, 1836.
New member elected November 7–9, 1836.[16]
Jacksonian hold.
Successor seated December 5, 1836.[5]
Successor was not a candidate the same day for the next term, see below.
New York 30 Philo C. Fuller Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent resigned September 2, 1836.
New member elected November 9, 1836.[17]
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
Successor seated December 6, 1836.[5]
Successor was not a candidate the same day for the next term, see below.
New Jersey at-large Philemon Dickerson Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent resigned November 3, 1836 to become Governor of New Jersey.
New member elected November 15–16, 1836.[18]
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
Successor seated December 5, 1836.[5]
Successor was not a candidate the same day for the next term, see below.
Georgia at-large George W. Towns Jacksonian 1834 Incumbent resigned September 1, 1836.
New member elected January 2, 1837.[19]
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
Successor seated January 31, 1837.[5]
Successor had already lost election to the next term, see below.
Indiana 6 George L. Kinnard Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent died November 26, 1836.
New member elected January 2, 1837.
Anti-Jacksonian gain.[20]
Successor seated January 25, 1837.[5]
Successor also later elected to the next term, see below.

25th Congress

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Pennsylvania 3 Francis J. Harper Democratic 1836 Incumbent died March 18, 1837, having just been seated as a new member.
New member elected June 29, 1837.
Whig gain.
Successor seated September 4, 1837.[21]
Mississippi at-large John F. H. Claiborne Democratic 1835 Mississippi elected its members in November of odd numbered years (after the beginning of the congressional term). As Congress had been called to meet in September, the governor issued writs for a special election to fill vacancies until the regular election.
Incumbents re-elected July 18, 1837.
Democratic hold.
Incumbent successors presented their credentials and were seated September 4, 1837.[21]
At their request the question of the validity of their election was referred to the Committee on Elections. The House decided October 3, 1837 they had been elected for the full term.[h]
Samuel J. Gholson Democratic 1836 (Special)
Tennessee 4 James I. Standifer Whig 1823
1825 (Lost)
1827 (Lost)
1829
Incumbent died August 20, 1837.
New member elected September 14, 1837.[23]
Whig hold.
Successor seated October 6, 1837.[21]
  • Green tickY William Stone (Whig) 27.01%
  • Thomas Brown (Unknown) 20.60%
  • Miles Vernon (Unknown) 17.84%
  • T. Nixon Vandyke (Unknown) 13.51%
  • John Rice (Democratic) 9.85%
  • John Miller (Democratic) 7.28%
  • Archibald R. Turk (Unknown) 3.92%[23]
Ohio 17 Andrew W. Loomis Whig 1836 Incumbent resigned October 20, 1837.
New member elected November 30, 1837.[24]
Whig hold.
Successor seated December 20, 1837.[21]

Alabama

[Data unknown/missing.]

Arkansas

[Data unknown/missing.]

Connecticut

Connecticut went from six at-large seats to six districts for the first time. Elections were held April 3, 1837, after the new term began but before the Congress convened. All incumbents from the at-large district were re-elected in districts.

[Data unknown/missing.]

Delaware

[Data unknown/missing.]

Georgia

[Data unknown/missing.]

Illinois

[Data unknown/missing.]

Indiana

[Data unknown/missing.]

Kentucky

[Data unknown/missing.]

Louisiana

[Data unknown/missing.]

Maine

[Data unknown/missing.]

Maryland

[Data unknown/missing.]

Massachusetts

[Data unknown/missing.]

Michigan

[Data unknown/missing.]

Mississippi

A special election was held in Mississippi on July 17–18, 1837. Its winners were Democrats John F. H. Claiborne and Samuel J. Gholson. The first session of the 25th Congress was a special session beginning on September 4, 1837, extending to October 16. In November, Mississippi held the regular election. Seargent Smith Prentiss, a Vicksburg lawyer and Whig, unexpectedly launched a vigorous, partisan campaign. He and fellow Whig Thomas J. Word won in an upset. Claiborne and Gholson then argued that the July result entitled them to serve full terms. With the Whig Party newly organizing, the closely divided House, in which Anti-Masons, Nullifiers, and the Independent tended to align more with Whigs and to oppose Democrats, agreed to hear Prentiss. He spoke for nine hours over three days, packing the gallery, drawing Senators, and earning a national reputation for oratory and public admiration from leading Whigs including Senators Clay and Webster. The Elections Committee then required a third election. Scheduled for April 1838, it confirmed the November result. Both Whigs were seated in May late in the second session, also serving for the third session.

Missouri

[Data unknown/missing.]

New Hampshire

[Data unknown/missing.]

New Jersey

[Data unknown/missing.]

New York

[Data unknown/missing.]

North Carolina

[Data unknown/missing.]

Ohio

[Data unknown/missing.]

Pennsylvania

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[i][25]
Pennsylvania 1 Joel B. Sutherland Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Pennsylvania 2
Plural district with 2 seats
Joseph R. Ingersoll Anti-Jacksonian 1834 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Whig gain.
James Harper Anti-Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Whig gain.
Pennsylvania 3 Michael W. Ash Jacksonian 1834 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Harper died March 18, 1837, leading to a special election, which was won by Naylor.
Pennsylvania 4
Plural district with 3 seats
William Hiester Anti-Masonic 1830 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Masonic hold.
Edward Darlington Anti-Masonic 1832 Incumbent re-elected.
David Potts Jr. Anti-Masonic 1830 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 5 Jacob Fry Jr. Jacksonian 1834 Incumbent re-elected as a Democrat.
Pennsylvania 6 Mathias Morris Anti-Jacksonian 1834 Incumbent re-elected as a Whig.
Pennsylvania 7 David D. Wagener Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected as a Democrat.
Pennsylvania 8 Edward B. Hubley Jacksonian 1834 Incumbent re-elected as a Democrat.
Pennsylvania 9 Henry A. P. Muhlenberg Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent re-elected as a Democrat.
Pennsylvania 10 William Clark Anti-Masonic 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Pennsylvania 11 Henry Logan Jacksonian 1834 Incumbent re-elected as a Democrat.
Pennsylvania 12 George Chambers Anti-Masonic 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Pennsylvania 13 Jesse Miller Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Pennsylvania 14 Joseph Henderson Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
  • Green tickY William W. Potter (Democratic) 59.6%
  • John Williamson (Anti-Masonic) 38.2%
  • John Ashman (Anti-Masonic) 2.2%
Pennsylvania 15 Andrew Beaumont Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Pennsylvania 16 Joseph B. Anthony Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Pennsylvania 17 John Laporte Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Pennsylvania 18 Job Mann Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Masonic gain.
Pennsylvania 19 John Klingensmith Jr. Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected as a Democrat.
Pennsylvania 20 Andrew Buchanan Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected as a Democrat.
Pennsylvania 21 Thomas M. T. McKennan Anti-Masonic 1830 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 22 Harmar Denny Anti-Masonic 1829 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Masonic hold.
Pennsylvania 23 Samuel S. Harrison Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Pennsylvania 24 John Banks Anti-Masonic 1830 Incumbent resigned April 2, 1836.
New member elected.
Anti-Masonic hold.
  • Green tickY Thomas Henry (Anti-Masonic) 56.1%
  • John R. Shannon (Democratic) 43.9%
Pennsylvania 25 John Galbraith Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

Rhode Island

[Data unknown/missing.]

South Carolina

[Data unknown/missing.]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
South Carolina 4 James H. Hammond Nullifier [Data unknown/missing.] Incumbent resigned February 26, 1836 because of ill-health.
New member elected October 10, 1836.
Nullifier hold.
Successor also elected the same day to finish the current term.

Tennessee

[Data unknown/missing.]

Vermont

[Data unknown/missing.]

Virginia

[Data unknown/missing.]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Not including special elections
  2. ^ a b c Dubin (p. 119) records only 99 Whigs, with a vacancy in TN-04 (which was later filled by a Whig). Dubin also records 132 Democrats, and only 2 Nullifiers. Figures listed here defer to Martis (p. 94).
  3. ^ Previously Jacksonian
  4. ^ Previously Anti-Jacksonian
  5. ^ John Pope won as an Independent and would run later as a Whig.
  6. ^ After a disputed result, an April 23–24, 1838 second election confirmed the result of regular election.
  7. ^ Does not include state results listed above due to special election and Independent Representative.[4]
  8. ^ The decision was later recinded, leading to a new special election.
  9. ^ For plural districts, percent is based on assumption that each voter cast as many votes as there are seats.
  10. ^ Changed parties
  11. ^ a b c Joint Whig/Anti-Masonic ticket

References

  1. ^ a b c Martis, p. 94.
  2. ^ Dubin, p. 117.
  3. ^ Moore, p. 966.
  4. ^ https://history.house.gov/Congressional-Overview/Profiles/25th
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Twenty-Fourth Congress March 4, 1835, to March 3, 1837". Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. Retrieved August 12, 2019.
  6. ^ a b "AR - At Large - Initial Election". October 28, 2007. Retrieved August 13, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  7. ^ Guide to U.S. Elections, p. 566
  8. ^ a b "NC District 12 - Special Election". December 15, 2006. Retrieved August 13, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  9. ^ a b "SC - District 04 Special Election". November 17, 2008. Retrieved August 13, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  10. ^ a b "PA District 24 - Special Election". June 2, 2007. Retrieved August 13, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  11. ^ a b Dubin, p. 113.
  12. ^ a b "SC - District 09 Special Election". November 19, 2008. Retrieved August 13, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  13. ^ a b "GA At-Large - Special Election". February 15, 2011. Retrieved August 13, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  14. ^ a b "PA District 13 - Special Election". January 10, 2009. Retrieved August 14, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  15. ^ a b "MS - At Large Special Election". February 5, 2013. Retrieved August 12, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  16. ^ a b "NY District 17 - Special Election". April 22, 2011. Retrieved August 13, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  17. ^ http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=Y000042
  18. ^ a b "NJ At-Large - Special Election". February 13, 2011. Retrieved August 14, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  19. ^ a b "GA At-Large - Special Election". February 15, 2011. Retrieved August 13, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  20. ^ a b "IN - District 06 Special Election". January 23, 2013. Retrieved August 14, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  21. ^ a b c d "Twenty-fifth Congress March 4, 1837, to March 3, 1839". Historian of the United States House of Representatives. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
  22. ^ http://staffweb.wilkes.edu/harold.cox/rep/Congress%201836.pdf
  23. ^ a b "TN - District 04 Special Election". February 10, 2010. Retrieved August 14, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  24. ^ a b "OH District 17 - Special Election". May 8, 2006. Retrieved August 14, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  25. ^ Wilkes University Elections Statistics Project
  26. ^ "SC - District 04". November 17, 2008. Retrieved August 13, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.

Bibliography

External links

This page was last edited on 28 October 2019, at 12:10
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