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1834 and 1835 United States House of Representatives elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1834 and 1835 U.S. House of Representatives elections

← 1832 & 1833 July 7, 1834 – November 5, 1835[a] 1836 & 1837 →

All 242[b] seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
122 seats were needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
James Knox Polk by GPA Healy, 1858.jpg
JohnBellSecretaryofWar.png
Leader James K. Polk John Bell
Party Jacksonian Anti-Jacksonian
Leader's seat Tennessee 9th Tennessee 7th
Last election 143 seats 63 seats
Seats won 148 80
Seat change Increase 5 Increase 17
Popular vote 802,422 704,229
Percentage 49.69% 43.61%

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Nullifier Anti-Masonic
Last election 9 seats 25 seats
Seats won 8[c] 5
Seat change Decrease 1 Decrease 20
Popular vote 19,151 50,330
Percentage 1.19% 3.12%

  Fifth party
 
Party Independent
Last election 0 seats
Seats won 1[d]
Seat change Increase 1
Popular vote 52,062
Percentage 3.22%

House024ElectionsMap.png

Speaker before election

John Bell
Jacksonian

Elected Speaker

James K. Polk
Jacksonian

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 24th Congress were held in 1834 and 1835 during Andrew Jackson's second term as President of the United States.

Jacksonians benefitted from the president's continued popularity and the tight party organization of the nascent Democratic Party to win a large majority of House seats for the new Congress. Their primary opponents, the Anti-Jacksonians, were coalescing and unifying as the Whig Party, reducing the influence of single-issue parties, the Anti-Masonic Party (an anti-Masonry movement) and the Nullifier Party (a John C. Calhoun-led states' rights party that supported South Carolina during the Nullification Crisis in 1832 and 1833). The Whig Party evolved from the National Republican Party and these minor parties. It appealed to diverse opponents of Jackson, including voters who perceived him as autocratic and brash, voters supporting greater spending and development on institutions and infrastructure, anti-Masons, and former Federalists. As the balance of power in the House remained unchanged, with Jacksonians holding 142 seats, this was the smallest loss by a President's party in the House as a result of the so-called six-year itch.

When the House convened in December 1835, future president James K. Polk, a staunch Jacksonian, was elected speaker. He defeated the incumbent speaker, John Bell, a Jacksonian who had split with the president on the national bank and other issues. Bell subsequently aligned himself with the Anti-Jacksonians in the 24th Congress.

Election summary

Michigan was admitted during this Congress, adding 1 seat.[1][e]

75 16 8 142
Anti-Jacksonian Anti-Masonic [f] Jacksonian
State Type Date Total
seats
Jacksonian Anti-Jacksonian Anti-Masonic Nullifier
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Delaware At-large November 11, 1834 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia At-large October 6, 1834 9 9 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois Districts August 4, 1834 3 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Louisiana Districts July 7–9, 1834 3 1 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maine Districts September 8, 1834 8 6 Decrease1 2 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Massachusetts Districts November 10, 1834 12 1 Steady 8 Decrease1 3 Increase1 0 Steady
New Jersey At-large October 14, 1834 6 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
New York Districts November 3–5, 1834 40 31 Decrease1 9 Increase9 0 Decrease8 0 Steady
Ohio Districts October 14, 1834 19 9 Decrease2 9 Increase3 1 Decrease1 0 Steady
Pennsylvania Districts October 14, 1834 28 17 Increase3 3 Decrease1 8 Decrease2 0 Steady
South Carolina Districts October 13–14, 1834 9 2 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady 7 Decrease1
Vermont Districts September 2, 1834 5 0 Steady 3 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
a Late electionsfter the March 4, 1835 beginning of the term.
New Hampshire At-large March 10, 1835 5 5 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia Districts April 1835 21 16 Increase2 5 Decrease2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Connecticut At-large April 9, 1835 6 6 Increase6 0 Decrease6 0 Steady 0 Steady
Alabama Districts August 3, 1835 5 3 Decrease1 1 Increase1 0 Steady 1 Steady
Indiana Districts August 3, 1835 7 6 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri At-large August 3, 1835 2 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Kentucky Districts August 5, 1835 13 4 Steady 9 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Tennessee Districts August 5–6, 1835 13 4 Decrease8 9 Increase8 0 Steady 0 Steady
North Carolina Districts August 13, 1835 13 6 Steady 7 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Rhode Island At-large August 25, 1835 2 0 Steady 0 Decrease1 2 Increase1 0 Steady
Maryland Districts October 5, 1835 8 4 Decrease2 4 Increase2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Michigan[g][e] At-large October 5, 1835 1 1 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Mississippi At-large November 3–5, 1835 2 1 Decrease1 1 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Total[b] 241 Increase1 142
58.9%
Steady 75
31.1%
Increase12 16
6.6%
Decrease9 8
3.3%
Decrease1
House seats
Anti-Jacksonian
31.1%
Anti-Masonic
6.6%
Jacksonian
58.9%
Nullifier
3.3%

Special elections

23rd Congress

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Connecticut at-large
3 seats on a general ticket
William W. Ellsworth Anti-Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent resigned July 8, 1834.
New member elected in 1834 and seated December 1, 1834.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Successor later lost re-election, see below.
Jabez W. Huntington Anti-Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent resigned August 16, 1834 to become judge of the Connecticut Supreme Court of Errors.
New member elected in 1834 and seated December 1, 1834.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Successor was not a candidate to the next term see below.
Samuel A. Foot Anti-Jacksonian 1833 Incumbent resigned May 9, 1834 to become Governor of Connecticut.
New member elected in 1834 and seated December 1, 1834.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Successor later lost re-election, see below.
Massachusetts 5 John Davis Anti-Jacksonian 1825 Incumbent resigned January 14, 1834 to become Governor of Massachusetts.
New member elected February 17, 1834.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Successor seated March 5, 1834 and later re-elected, see below.
Maryland 1 Littleton Dennis Anti-Jacksonian 1833 Incumbent died April 14, 1834.
New member elected May 29, 1834.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Successor seated June 9, 1834 and later re-elected, see below.
South Carolina 8 James Blair Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent died April 1, 1834.
New member elected June 3, 1834.
Jacksonian hold.
Successor later re-elected, see below.
Successor seated December 8, 1834.
Kentucky 5 Vacant 1833 election of Thomas Patrick Moore declared invalid.
House ordered new election.
New member elected August 4, 1834.
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
Successor seated December 1, 1834 and was not a candidate for the next term, see below.
Ohio 19 Humphrey H. Leavitt Jacksonian 1830 (Special) Incumbent resigned July 10, 1834 to become U.S. District Judge.
New member elected October 14, 1834.
Jacksonian hold.
Successor seated December 1, 1834 and also elected the same day to the next term, see below.
New York 3
Plural district with two seats
Dudley Selden Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent resigned July 2, 1834.
New member elected November 3, 1834.
Jacksonian hold.
Successor seated December 1, 1834.
Cornelius Lawrence Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent resigned May 14, 1834 to become Mayor of New York City.
New member elected November 3, 1834.
Jacksonian hold.
Successor seated December 1, 1834.
Ohio 1 Robert Todd Lytle Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent resigned March 10, 1834.
Incumbent re-elected November 8, 1834, having already lost re-election, see below.
Jacksonian hold.
Incumbent re-seated December 27, 1834.
Vermont 5 Benjamin F. Deming Anti-Masonic 1833 Incumbent died July 11, 1834.
Incumbent re-elected November 10, 1834.
Anti-Masonic hold.
Successor seated December 1, 1834 and also elected the same day to the next term, see below.
First ballot (September 2, 1834):

Second ballot (November 10, 1834):
Massachusetts 2 Rufus Choate Anti-Jacksonian 1830 Incumbent resigned June 30, 1834.
New member elected November 10, 1834.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Successor seated December 1, 1834 and also elected the same day to the next term, see below.
South Carolina 3
South Carolina 5
Louisiana 3
Virginia 5
Virginia 11
Illinois 1
Illinois 3
Louisiana 1

24th Congress

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
South Carolina 6 Warren R. Davis Nullifier 1826 Incumbent died January 29, 1835.
New member elected September 8, 1835.
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
Successor seated December 7, 1835.
Georgia at-large
4 seats on a general ticket
James M. Wayne Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent resigned January 13, 1835 to become Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.
New member elected October 5, 1835.
Jacksonian hold.
Successor seated December 7, 1835.
William Schley Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent resigned July 1, 1835.
New member elected October 5, 1835.
Jacksonian hold.
Successor seated December 7, 1835.
James C. Terrell Jacksonian 1834 Incumbent resigned July 8, 1835.
New member elected October 5, 1835.
Jacksonian hold.
Successor seated December 7, 1835.
John W. A. Sanford Jacksonian 1834 Incumbent resigned July 25, 1835.
New member elected October 5, 1835.
Jacksonian hold.
Successor seated December 7, 1835.
New York 3 Campbell P. White Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent resigned.
New member elected November 4, 1835.
Jacksonian hold.
Successor seated December 7, 1835.

Alabama

Alabama elected its members August 3, 1835, after the beginning of the term but before the House convened.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Alabama 1
Alabama 2
Alabama 3
Alabama 4
Alabama 5

Connecticut

Connecticut elected its members April 9, 1835, after the beginning of the term but before the House convened.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Connecticut at-large
Plural district with 6 seats

Delaware

Delaware elected its member November 11, 1834.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Delaware at-large

Georgia

Elections were held October 6, 1834.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Georgia at-large
Plural district with 9 seats
James M. Wayne Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent re-elected but declined the seat.
Incumbent resigned January 13, 1835 to become Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.
William Schley Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected.
John E. Coffee Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected.
Seaborn Jones Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
Augustin S. Clayton Jacksonian 1831 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
George R. Gilmer Jacksonian 1820
1822 (Retired)
1832
Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
Richard H. Wilde Jacksonian 1814
1816 (Lost)
1824 (Special)
1824 (Retired)
1827 (Special)
Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
Thomas F. Foster Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
Roger L. Gamble Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.

Illinois

Illinois elected its members August 4, 1834.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Illinois 1
Illinois 2
Illinois 3

Indiana

Indiana elected its members August 3, 1835, after the beginning of the term but before the House convened.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Indiana 1
Indiana 2
Indiana 3
Indiana 4
Indiana 5
Indiana 6
Indiana 7

Kentucky

Kentucky elected its members August 5, 1835, after the beginning of the term but before the House convened.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Kentucky 1
Kentucky 2
Kentucky 3
Kentucky 4
Kentucky 5
Kentucky 6
Kentucky 7
Kentucky 8
Kentucky 9
Kentucky 10
Kentucky 11
Kentucky 12
Kentucky 13

Louisiana

Louisiana elected its members July 7–9, 1834.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Louisiana 1
Louisiana 2
Louisiana 3

Maine

Maine elected its members September 8, 1834.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Maine 1
Maine 2
Maine 3
Maine 4
Maine 5
Maine 6
Maine 7
Maine 8 Gorham Parks Democratic 1833 Incumbent re-elected.

Maryland

Maryland elected its members October 5, 1835, after the beginning of the term but before the House convened.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Maryland 1
Maryland 2
Maryland 3
Maryland 4
Maryland 5
Maryland 6
Maryland 7
Maryland 8

Massachusetts

Elections were held November 10, 1834, but at least one district's elections went to multiple ballots into 1835.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Massachusetts 1
Massachusetts 2
Massachusetts 3
Massachusetts 4
Massachusetts 5
Massachusetts 6
Massachusetts 7
Massachusetts 8
Massachusetts 9
Massachusetts 10 William Baylies Whig[i] 1808
1809 (Lost election contest)
1812
1816 (Retired)
1833
Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected on the third ballot.
Democratic gain.
First ballot (November 10, 1834):

Second ballot (December 15, 1834):

Third ballot (January 7, 1835):
Massachusetts 11 John Reed Jr. Anti-Masonic[i] 1812
1816 (Lost)
1820
Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 12 John Quincy Adams Anti-Masonic 1830 Incumbent re-elected.

Michigan

Michigan elected its member October 5, 1835, after the beginning of the term but before the House convened.

The House refused to admit the member from Michigan due to a conflict with Ohio, so he was seated only as a non-voting delegate until January 27, 1837.

District Incumbent This race
Delegate Party First elected Results Candidates
Michigan at-large New seat Michigan was admitted to the Union on January 26, 1837.
New member elected October 5, 1835.[21]
Jacksonian gain.
The house refused to admit the member due to a conflict with Ohio, so he was seated only as a non-voting delegate until January 27, 1837.[22]

Mississippi

Mississippi elected its members November 3–5, 1835, after the beginning of the term but before the House convened.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Mississippi 1
Plural district with 2 seats

Missouri

Missouri elected its members August 3, 1835, after the beginning of the term but before the House convened.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Missouri 1
Plural district with 2 seats

New Hampshire

New Hampshire elected its members March 10, 1835, after the beginning of the term but before the House convened.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New Hampshire 1
Plural district with 5 seats

New Jersey

New Jersey elected its members October 14, 1834.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New Jersey 1
Plural district with 6 seats

New York

New York elected its members November 3–5, 1834.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New York 1
New York 2
New York 3
New York 4
New York 5
New York 6
New York 7
New York 8
New York 9
New York 10
New York 11
New York 12
New York 13
New York 14
New York 15
New York 16
New York 17
New York 18
New York 19
New York 20
New York 21
New York 22
New York 23
New York 24
New York 25
New York 26
New York 27
New York 28
New York 29
New York 30
New York 31
New York 32
New York 33
New York 34
New York 35
New York 36
New York 37
New York 38
New York 39
New York 40

North Carolina

North Carolina elected its members August 13, 1835, after the beginning of the term but before the House convened.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
North Carolina 1
North Carolina 2
North Carolina 3
North Carolina 4
North Carolina 5
North Carolina 6
North Carolina 7
North Carolina 8
North Carolina 9
North Carolina 10
North Carolina 11
North Carolina 12 James Graham Anti-Jacksonian 1833 Election result was disputed.
House Committee on Elections awarded the election to the challenger, the full House voted to unseat the incumbent but then declined to seat the challenger, leaving the seat vacant.
Anti-Jacksonian loss.[23]
North Carolina 13

Ohio

Ohio elected its members October 14, 1834.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Ohio 1
Ohio 2
Ohio 3
Ohio 4
Ohio 5
Ohio 6
Ohio 7
Ohio 8
Ohio 9
Ohio 10
Ohio 11
Ohio 12
Ohio 13
Ohio 14
Ohio 15
Ohio 16
Ohio 17
Ohio 18
Ohio 19

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania elected its members October 14, 1834.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[24][j]
Pennsylvania 1 Joel B. Sutherland Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 2
Plural district with 2 seats
Horace Binney Anti-Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
James Harper Anti-Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 3 John G. Watmough Anti-Jacksonian 1830 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Jacksonian gain.
Pennsylvania 4
Plural district with 3 seats
William Hiester Anti-Masonic 1830 Incumbent re-elected.
Edward Darlington Anti-Masonic 1832 Incumbent re-elected.
David Potts Jr. Anti-Masonic 1830 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 5 Joel K. Mann Jacksonian 1830 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
Pennsylvania 6 Robert Ramsey Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
Pennsylvania 7 David D. Wagener Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 8 Henry King Jacksonian 1830 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
Pennsylvania 9 Henry A. P. Muhlenberg Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 10 William Clark Anti-Masonic 1832 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 11 Charles A. Barnitz Anti-Masonic 1832 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Jacksonian gain.
Pennsylvania 12 George Chambers Anti-Masonic 1832 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 13 Jesse Miller Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Jesse Miller (Jacksonian) 51.4%
  • Thomas Whiteside (Anti-Masonic) 48.6%
Pennsylvania 14 Joseph Henderson Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 15 Andrew Beaumont Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 16 Joseph B. Anthony Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 17 John Laporte Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 18 George Burd Anti-Jacksonian 1830 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Jacksonian gain.
Pennsylvania 19 Richard Coulter Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
Pennsylvania 20 Andrew Stewart Anti-Masonic 1820
1828 (Lost)
1830
Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Jacksonian gain.
Pennsylvania 21 Thomas M. T. McKennan Anti-Masonic 1830 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 22 Harmar Denny Anti-Masonic 1829 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 23 Samuel S. Harrison Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 24 John Banks Anti-Masonic 1830 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY John Banks (Anti-Masonic) 52.2%
  • Samuel Power (Jacksonian) 47.8%
Pennsylvania 25 John Galbraith Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected.

Rhode Island

Rhode Island elected its members August 25, 1835, after the beginning of the term but before the House convened.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Rhode Island 1
Plural district with 2 seats

South Carolina

South Carolina elected its members October 13–14, 1834.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
South Carolina 1
South Carolina 2
South Carolina 3
South Carolina 4
South Carolina 5
South Carolina 6
South Carolina 7
South Carolina 8
South Carolina 9

Tennessee

Tennessee elected its members August 5–6, 1835, after the beginning of the term but before the House convened.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Tennessee 1
Tennessee 2
Tennessee 3
Tennessee 4
Tennessee 5
Tennessee 6
Tennessee 7
Tennessee 8
Tennessee 9
Tennessee 10
Tennessee 11
Tennessee 12
Tennessee 13

Vermont

Vermont elected its members September 2, 1834.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Vermont 1
Vermont 2
Vermont 3
Vermont 4
Vermont 5

Virginia

Virginia elected its members April 1835, after the beginning of the term but before the House convened.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Virginia 1
Virginia 2
Virginia 3
Virginia 4
Virginia 5
Virginia 6
Virginia 7
Virginia 8
Virginia 9 William P. Taylor Anti-Jacksonian 1833 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Jacksonian gain.
Virginia 10
Virginia 11
Virginia 12
Virginia 13
Virginia 14
Virginia 15
Virginia 16
Virginia 17
Virginia 18
Virginia 19
Virginia 20
Virginia 21

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Excludes states admitted during the 24th Congress.
  2. ^ a b Includes late elections.
  3. ^ Seven were elected in South Carolina under "Southern Rights" label and one elected in North Carolina as a "States Rights Whig."
  4. ^ William Henry Ashley, of Missouri was elected as an Independent.
  5. ^ a b The House refused to admit the member from Michigan due to a conflict with Ohio, so he was seated only as a non-voting delegate until January 27, 1837.
  6. ^ There were 8 Nullifiers.
  7. ^ New state
  8. ^ a b Source did not provide vote count
  9. ^ a b Changed from Anti-Jacksonian
  10. ^ a b c For plural districts, percent is based on assumption that each voter cast as many votes as there are seats

References

  1. ^ Stat. 50
  2. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 5 - Special Election Race - Feb 17, 1834". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  3. ^ "Our Campaigns - MD District 1 Race - May 29, 1834". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  4. ^ "Our Campaigns - SC - District 09 Special Election Race - Jun 02, 1834". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  5. ^ "Our Campaigns - KY - District 05 Special Election Race - Aug 04, 1834". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  6. ^ "Our Campaigns - OH District 19 - Special Election Race - Oct 14, 1834". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  7. ^ "Our Campaigns - NY District 3 - Special Election Race - Nov 03, 1834". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  8. ^ "Our Campaigns - OH District 01 - Special Election Race - Nov 08, 1834". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  9. ^ "Our Campaigns - VT - District 05 - Special Election - First Trial Race - Sep 02, 1834". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  10. ^ "Our Campaigns - VT - District 05 - Special Election - Second Trial Race - Nov 10, 1834". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  11. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 2 - Special Election Race - Nov 10, 1834". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  12. ^ "Our Campaigns - SC - District 08 Special Election Race - Sep 07, 1835". OurCampaigns.com. Retrieved October 26, 2020.
  13. ^ "Our Campaigns - GA At-Large - Special Election Race - Oct 05, 1835". OurCampaigns.com.
  14. ^ "Our Campaigns - NY District 3 - Special Election Race - Nov 02, 1835". OurCampaigns.com. Retrieved October 26, 2020.
  15. ^ "Our Campaigns - GA At Large Race - Oct 06, 1834". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved October 25, 2020.
  16. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=722911
  17. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 10 - 1st Trial Race - Nov 10, 1834". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  18. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 10 - 2nd Trial Race - Dec 15, 1834". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  19. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 10 - 3rd Trial Race - Jan 07, 1835". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  20. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 12 Race - Nov 10, 1834". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  21. ^ a b "MI - District 01". January 11, 2010. Retrieved August 14, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  22. ^ "Twenty-Fourth Congress March 4, 1835, to March 3, 1837". Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. Retrieved August 12, 2019.
  23. ^ "N. Carolina Contested Election". The Weekly Standard. Raleigh, North Carolina. March 17, 1836. Retrieved May 29, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
  24. ^ "Wilkes University Elections Statistics Project" (PDF).

Bibliography

External links

This page was last edited on 22 November 2020, at 01:00
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