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1876 and 1877 United States House of Representatives elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1876 and 1877 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1874 & 1875 June 5, 1876 – March 1877[a][b] 1878 & 1879 →

All 293 seats to the United States House of Representatives
147 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Samuel J. Randall - Brady-Handy.jpg
James Abram Garfield, photo portrait seated.jpg
Leader Samuel J. Randall James A. Garfield
Party Democratic Republican
Leader's seat Pennsylvania 3rd Ohio 19th
Last election 180 seats 103 seats
Seats won 155[1][c] 136[c]
Seat change Decrease 25 Increase 33
Popular vote 4,220,480 3,825,311
Percentage 51.27% 46.47%
Swing Increase 2.15% Increase 2.09%

  Third party
 
Party Independent
Last election 4 seats[d][e]
Seats won 2[f]
Seat change Decrease 2
Popular vote 96,318
Percentage 1.17%
Swing Decrease 3.27%

House045ElectionMap.png
Map of U.S. House elections results from 1876 elections for 45th Congress

Speaker before election

Vacancy
Democratic

Elected Speaker

Samuel Randall
Democratic

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1876 (with one state in 1877) for Representatives to the 45th Congress. These elections coincided with the (heavily contested) election of President Rutherford B. Hayes and the United States Centennial.

Hayes' Republican Party was able to recover from the Democratic Party many of the seats it had lost two years before as the economy improved slightly. However, the Democrats retained a majority and were able to use the disinterest of the people in Republican Reconstruction-led projects to help keep crucial seats. Republican Congressional leadership had a difficult time distancing itself from the corruption of the Grant administration or the legislature's impact on the economy downturn.

Election summaries

157 136
Democratic Republican
State Type Total
seats
Democratic Republican
Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District 8 8 Increase 2 0 Decrease 2
Arkansas District 4 4[g] Steady 0 Steady
California District 4 2 Decrease 1 2 Increase 1
Colorado At-large 1 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1
Connecticut District 4 3 Steady 1 Steady
Delaware At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady
Florida District 2 2 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1
Georgia District 9 9[g] Steady 0 Steady
Illinois District 19 8 Decrease 2 11 Increase 4
Indiana District 13 4 Decrease 4 9 Increase 4
Iowa District 9 0 Decrease 1 9 Increase 1
Kansas District 3 0 Decrease 1 3 Increase 1
Kentucky District 10 10 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1
Louisiana District 6 5 Increase 1 1 Decrease 1
Maine District 5 0 Steady 5 Steady
Maryland District 6 6 Steady 0 Steady
Massachusetts District 11 2 Decrease 1 9 Increase 4
Michigan District 9 1 Decrease 2 8 Increase 2
Minnesota District 3 0 Steady 3 Steady
Mississippi District 6 6 Increase 2 0 Decrease 2
Missouri District 13 9 Decrease 4 4 Increase 4
Nebraska At-large 1 0 Steady 1 Steady
Nevada At-large 1 0 Steady 1 Steady
New Hampshire[h] District 3 1 Decrease 1 2 Increase 1
New Jersey District 7 4 Decrease 1 3 Increase 1
New York District 33 16 Decrease 1 17 Increase 1
North Carolina District 8 7 Steady 1 Steady
Ohio District 20 8 Decrease 5 12 Increase 5
Oregon At-large 1 0 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1
Pennsylvania District 27 10 Decrease 7 17 Increase 7
Rhode Island District 2 0 Steady 2 Steady
South Carolina District 5 2 Increase 2 3 Decrease 2
Tennessee District 10 8 Decrease 1 2 Increase 1
Texas District 6 6 Steady 0 Steady
Vermont District 3 0 Steady 3 Steady
Virginia District 9 8 Steady 1 Steady
West Virginia District 3 3 Steady 0 Steady
Wisconsin District 8 3 Steady 5 Steady
Total 293 157[1][f]
53.6%
Decrease 27 136[1]
46.4%
Increase 31
Popular vote
Democratic
51.27%
Independent
1.17%
Republican
46.47%
Others
1.09%
House seats
Democratic
52.90%
Independent
0.68%
Republican
46.42%

The previous election included 4 Independents, in Illinois and Massachusetts.

  House seats by party holding plurality in state    .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  80+% Democratic    80+% Republican     60+ to 80% Democratic    60+ to 80% Republican     Up to 60% Democratic    Up to 60% Republican
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+% Democratic
  80+% Republican
  60+ to 80% Democratic
  60+ to 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican
  Net gain in party representation      6+ Democratic gain    6+ Republican gain     3-5 Democratic gain    3-5 Republican gain     1-2 Democratic gain    1-2 Republican gain     no net change
Net gain in party representation
  6+ Democratic gain
  6+ Republican gain
  3-5 Democratic gain
  3-5 Republican gain
  1-2 Democratic gain
  1-2 Republican gain
  no net change

Election dates

In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform nationwide date for choosing Presidential electors.[2] This law did not affect election dates for Congress, which remained within the jurisdiction of State governments, but over time, the states moved their congressional elections to this date as well. In 1876–77, there were still 8 states with earlier election dates, and 1 state with a later election date.

Elections before Election Day (United States):

Standard Election Day:

  • November 7, 1876

Election after Election Day:

Special elections

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Connecticut 3 Henry H. Starkweather Republican 1867 Incumbent died January 28, 1876.
New member elected April 12, 1876.
Republican hold.
Winner later re-elected to the next term, see below.
Connecticut 4 William Henry Barnum Democratic 1867 Incumbent resigned May 18, 1876 when elected U.S. senator.
New member elected November 7, 1876.
Democratic hold.
Winner also elected to the next term, see below.
Indiana 2

Alabama

Alabama redistricted and eliminated its at-large seats, going from 6 districts and 2 at-large seats to 8 districts. The state also elected a full delegation of Democrats, voting out the two Republicans.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Alabama 1 Charles Hays
Redistricted from the 4th district
Republican 1872 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Alabama 2 New district New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Alabama 3 Jeremiah Norman Williams
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Alabama 4 Jeremiah Haralson
Redistricted from the 1st district
Republican 1874 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Alabama 5 New district New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Alabama 6 Goldsmith W. Hewitt Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Burwell Boykin Lewis
Redistricted from the at-large district
Democratic 1874 Incumbent lost renomination.
Democratic loss.
Alabama 7 William Henry Forney
Redistricted from the at-large district
Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Taul Bradford
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
Democratic loss.
John H. Caldwell
Redistricted from the 5th district
Democratic 1872 Incumbent retired.
Democratic loss.
Alabama 8 New district New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

Arkansas

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Arkansas 1 Lucien C. Gause Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Arkansas 2 William F. Slemons Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Arkansas 3 William W. Wilshire Democratic 1872
1874 (Lost contest)
1874
Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Arkansas 4 Thomas M. Gunter Democratic 1872 Incumbent re-elected.

California

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
California 1 William Adam Piper Democratic 1875 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
  • Green tickY Horace Davis (Republican) 53.3%
  • William A. Piper (Democratic) 46.7%
California 2 Horace F. Page Republican 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
California 3 John K. Luttrell Democratic 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
California 4 Peter D. Wigginton Democratic 1875 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.

Colorado

There were two elections to the new state of Colorado.

44th Congress

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Colorado at-large New district New seat.
New member elected.
Republican gain.

45th Congress

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Colorado at-large James B. Belford Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Election was later successfully challenged by the challenger.

Connecticut

Connecticut had been electing is members late in the cycle, even after the terms had begun. But starting in 1876, the state joined the others in electing its members on the November 7, 1876 Election Day. The delegation remained 3 Democrats and 1 Republican.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Connecticut 1 George M. Landers Democratic 1875 Incumbent re-elected.
Connecticut 2 James Phelps Democratic 1875 Incumbent re-elected.
Connecticut 3 John T. Wait Republican 1876 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Connecticut 4 William Henry Barnum Democratic 1867 Incumbent resigned May 18, 1876 when elected U.S. senator.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Winner also elected to finish the current next term.

Delaware

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Delaware at-large James Williams Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.

Florida

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Florida 1 William J. Purman Republican 1872 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Florida 2 Jesse J. Finley Democratic 1874[i] Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.[j]
Republican gain.

South Carolina

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
South Carolina 1 Joseph Rainey Republican 1870 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 2 Edmund W. M. Mackey Independent Republican 1874 Seat declared vacant July 19, 1876 due to contested election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
South Carolina 3 Solomon L. Hoge Republican 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
South Carolina 4 Alexander S. Wallace Republican 1868 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
South Carolina 5 Robert Smalls Republican 1874 Incumbent re-elected.

Tennessee

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Tennessee 1 William McFarland Democratic 1874 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Tennessee 2 Jacob M. Thornburgh Republican 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 3 George G. Dibrell Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 4 Haywood Y. Riddle Democratic 1875 (special) Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 5 John M. Bright Democratic 1870 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 6 John F. House Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 7 Washington C. Whitthorne Democratic 1870 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 8 John D. C. Atkins Democratic 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 9 William P. Caldwell Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.

Wisconsin

Wisconsin elected eight members of congress on Election Day, November 7, 1876.[22][23]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[citation needed]
Wisconsin 1 Charles G. Williams Republican 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
Wisconsin 2 Lucien B. Caswell Republican 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Wisconsin 3 Henry S. Magoon Republican 1870 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Wisconsin 4 William Pitt Lynde Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Wisconsin 5 Samuel D. Burchard Democratic 1874 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Wisconsin 6 Alanson M. Kimball Republican 1874 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Wisconsin 7 Jeremiah McLain Rusk Republican 1870 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Wisconsin 8 George W. Cate Democratic 1874 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Regular elections, not specials
  2. ^ Most states held their elections November 7, 1876.
  3. ^ a b There is a significant discrepancy for the party totals in the U.S House resulting from the 1874 elections between Dubin (p. 241, who records 150 Democrats, 2 Independent Democrats, and 141 Republicans), and Martis (pp. 130–131). The discrepancy seems to be accounted for by the fact that Dubin's party figures represent the party totals on the first day of the 45th United States Congress, while Martis' figures take into account the results of later contested elections (all of which were decided in favor of the Democratic candidates who challenged the election results).
  4. ^ Included 1 Independent Democrat.
  5. ^ Included 3 Independent Republicans.
  6. ^ a b Includes 2 Independent Democrats
  7. ^ a b Includes 1 Independent Democrat.
  8. ^ Elections held late
  9. ^ After disputed election
  10. ^ The election in the Florida's 2nd district was extremely close, with initial returns showing a difference between the two candidates of only 3 votes. Finley challenged Bisbee's election and was eventually seated on February 20, 1879.

References

  1. ^ a b c Martis, p. 130–131.
  2. ^ Statutes at Large, 28th Congress, 2nd Session, p. 721.
  3. ^ "Our Campaigns - CT District 4 - Special Election Race - Nov 07, 1876". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  4. ^ "Our Campaigns - AL District 1 Race - Nov 07, 1876". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  5. ^ "Our Campaigns - AL District 2 Race - Nov 07, 1876". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  6. ^ "Our Campaigns - AL - District 03 Race - Nov 07, 1876". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  7. ^ "Our Campaigns - AL District 4 Race - Nov 07, 1876". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  8. ^ "Our Campaigns - AL District 5 Race - Nov 07, 1876". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  9. ^ "Our Campaigns - AL District 6 Race - Nov 07, 1876". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  10. ^ "Our Campaigns - AL District 7 Race - Nov 07, 1876". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  11. ^ "Our Campaigns - AL District 8 Race - Nov 07, 1876". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  12. ^ "Our Campaigns - CT District 04 Race - Nov 07, 1876". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved January 30, 2021.
  13. ^ "TN - District 01". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  14. ^ "TN - District 02". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  15. ^ "TN - District 03". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  16. ^ "TN - District 04". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  17. ^ "TN - District 05". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  18. ^ "TN - District 06". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  19. ^ "TN - District 07". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  20. ^ "TN - District 08". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  21. ^ "TN - District 09". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  22. ^ "Wisconsin U.S. House Election Results" (PDF). Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 5, 2012. Retrieved May 24, 2020.
  23. ^ Bashford, R. M., ed. (1878). "Official Directory: Members of Congress". The legislative manual of the state of Wisconsin (Report). Madison, Wisconsin: State of Wisconsin. pp. 449–452. Retrieved July 18, 2020.

Bibliography

External links

This page was last edited on 23 February 2021, at 08:19
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