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List of African-American United States representatives

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Joseph Rainey (left) was the first African American to serve in the U.S. House; Shirley Chisholm (right) was the first African-American woman elected to the chamber.

The United States House of Representatives has had 154 elected African-American members, of whom 148 have been representatives from U.S. states and 6 have been delegates from U.S. territories and the District of Columbia.[1] The House of Representatives is the lower house of the bicameral United States Congress, which is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the term "African American" includes all individuals who identify with one or more nationalities or ethnic groups originating in any of the black racial groups of Africa.[2] The term is generally used for Americans with at least partial ancestry in any of the original peoples of sub-Saharan Africa. During the founding of the federal government, African Americans were consigned to a status of second-class citizenship or enslaved.[3] No African American served in federal elective office before the ratification in 1870 of the Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The Fifteenth Amendment prohibits the federal and state governments from denying any citizen the right to vote because of that citizen's race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

Joseph Rainey was the first African-American representative to be seated in the U.S. House. He served South Carolina's 1st congressional district beginning in 1870 during the Reconstruction era following the American Civil War. The first African-American woman to serve as a representative was Shirley Chisholm from New York's 12th congressional district in 1969 during the Civil Rights Movement.

Many African-American members of the House of Representatives serve majority-minority districts.[4] Some of these congressional districts are gerrymandered, limiting serious challenges to their re-election, and limiting their abilities to represent a larger, more diverse constituency.[4] The Voting Rights Act of 1965 includes restrictions on the ability of States to diminish minority representation during redistricting. In the elections of 2016 and 2018 an increasing number of non-majority minority districts have elected racial minority Representatives.

Overall, 30 of the 50 U.S. states, plus the U.S. Virgin Islands and the District of Columbia, have elected an African American to represent them in the U.S. House of Representatives, with Washington being the most recent to elect their first (in 2020); out of these, 21 states, plus the U.S. Virgin Islands and the District of Columbia, have elected an African-American woman to represent them in the U.S. House. Illinois's 1st congressional district has the longest continuous streak of electing African-American representatives, a tendency which has occurred since 1929 to the present. There currently are 55 African-American representatives and two African-American delegates in the United States House of Representatives, representing 28 states, plus the U.S. Virgin Islands and the District of Columbia. Most are members of the Congressional Black Caucus.

Reconstruction and early post-Reconstruction era, 1870–1887

(Note: Representatives are organized first in chronological order according to their first term in office, then second in alphabetical order according to their surname.)

Political party

  Republican

Representative Congressional district Took office Left office Party Congress Former slave? Note
Joseph Rainey
(1832–1887)
South Carolina's 1st December 12, 1870 March 3, 1879 Republican 41st
(1869–1871)
Yes Lost office during reelection.[1][5]
THRU
45th
(1877–1879)
Jefferson F. Long
(1836–1901)
Georgia's 4th January 16, 1871 March 3, 1871 Republican 41st
(1869–1871)
Yes Retired from office. [2][6]
Robert C. De Large
(1842–1874)
South Carolina's 2nd March 4, 1871 January 24, 1873 Republican 42nd
(1871–1873)
No Unseated from office in 1873 due to a contested election that involved Christopher C. Bowen, the previous seat holder.[7] [3][8]
Robert B. Elliott
(1842–1884)
South Carolina's 3rd March 4, 1871 November 1, 1874 Republican 42nd
(1871–1873)
No Resigned from office. [4][9]
43rd
(1873–1875)
Benjamin S. Turner
(1825–1894)
Alabama's 1st March 4, 1871 March 3, 1873 Republican 42nd
(1871–1873)
Yes Lost office during reelection. [5][10]
Josiah T. Walls
(1842–1905)
Florida's at-large March 4, 1871 January 29, 1873 Republican 42nd
(1871–1873)
Yes Unseated from office in 1873 and 1876 due to contested elections that involved Silas L. Niblack[11] and Jesse Finley,[12] respectively. [6][13]
March 4, 1873 March 3, 1875 43rd
(1873–1875)
Florida's 2nd March 4, 1875 April 19, 1876 44th
(1875–1877)
Richard H. Cain
(1825–1887)
South Carolina's at-large March 4, 1873 March 3, 1875 Republican 43rd
(1873–1875)
No Retired from office.[14]
South Carolina's 2nd March 4, 1877 March 3, 1879 45th
(1877–1879)
John R. Lynch
(1847–1939)
Mississippi's 6th March 4, 1873 March 3, 1877 Republican 43rd
(1873–1875)
Yes Lost office during reelection. [7][16]
44th
(1875–1877)
April 29, 1882 March 3, 1883 47th
(1881–1883)
Alonzo J. Ransier
(1834–1882)
South Carolina's 2nd March 3, 1873 March 3, 1875 Republican 43rd
(1873–1875)
No Retired from office. [8][17]
James T. Rapier
(1837–1883)
Alabama's 2nd March 4, 1873 March 3, 1875 Republican 43rd
(1873–1875)
No Lost office during reelection.[18]
Jeremiah Haralson
(1846–1916)
Alabama's 1st March 4, 1875 March 3, 1877 Republican 44th
(1875–1877)
Yes Lost office during reelection.[19]
John Adams Hyman
(1840–1891)
North Carolina's 2nd March 4, 1875 March 3, 1877 Republican 44th
(1875–1877)
Yes Lost office during re-nomination. [9][20]
Charles E. Nash
(1844–1913)
Louisiana's 6th March 4, 1875 March 3, 1877 Republican 44th
(1875–1877)
No Lost office during reelection. [10][21]
Robert Smalls
(1839–1915)
South Carolina's 5th March 4, 1875 March 3, 1879 Republican 44th
(1875–1877)
Yes Lost reelection and retired from office in final term. [11][23]
45th
(1877–1879)
July 19, 1882 March 3, 1883 47th
(1881–1883)
South Carolina's 7th March 18, 1884 March 3, 1887 48th
(1883–1885)
49th
(1885–1887)
James E. O'Hara
(1844–1905)
North Carolina's 2nd March 4, 1883 March 3, 1887 Republican 48th
(1883–1885)
No Lost office during reelection.[24]
49th
(1885–1887)

Late post-Reconstruction, Populist, and early Jim Crow era, 1887–1929

(Note: Representatives are organized first in chronological order according to their first term in office, then second in alphabetical order according to their surname.)

Political party

  Republican

Representative Congressional district Took office Left office Party Congress Former slave? Note
Henry P. Cheatham
(1857–1935)
North Carolina's 2nd March 4, 1889 March 3, 1893 Republican 51st
(1889–1891)
Yes Lost office during reelection. [12][25]
52nd
(1891–1893)
John Mercer Langston
(1829–1897)
Virginia's 4th September 23, 1890 March 3, 1891 Republican 51st
(1889–1891)
No Lost office during reelection. [13][27]
Thomas E. Miller
(1849–1938)
South Carolina's 7th September 24, 1890 March 3, 1891 Republican 51st
(1889–1891)
No Lost office during reelection. [14][28][29]
George W. Murray
(1853–1926)
South Carolina's 7th March 4, 1893 March 3, 1895 Republican 53rd
(1893–1895)
Yes Lost office during reelection. [15][31]
South Carolina's 1st June 4, 1896 March 3, 1897 54th
(1895–1897)
George Henry White
(1852–1918)
North Carolina's 2nd March 4, 1897 March 3, 1901 Republican 55th
(1897–1899)
Yes Retired from office. [16][32]
56th
(1899–1901)

Late Jim Crow and Civil Rights era, 1929–1970

(Note: Representatives are organized first in chronological order according to their first term in office, then second in alphabetical order according to their surname.)

Political parties

  Democratic   Republican

Representative Congressional district Took office Left office Party Congress Note
Oscar Stanton De Priest
(1871–1951)
Illinois's 1st March 4, 1929 January 3, 1935 Republican 71st
(1929–1931)
Lost office during reelection. [17][33]
72nd
(1931–1933)
73rd
(1933–1935)
Arthur W. Mitchell
(1883–1968)
Illinois's 1st January 3, 1935 January 3, 1943 Democratic 74th
(1935–1937)
Retired from office. [18][34]
THRU
77th
(1941–1943)
William L. Dawson
(1886–1970)
Illinois's 1st January 3, 1943 November 9, 1970 Democratic 78th
(1943–1945)
Died while in office.[35]
THRU
91st
(1969–1971)
Adam Clayton Powell Jr.
(1908–1972)
New York's 22nd January 3, 1945 January 3, 1953 Democratic 79th
(1945–1947)
Lost office during renomination. [19][36]
THRU
82nd
(1951–1953)
New York's 16th January 3, 1953 January 3, 1963 83rd
(1953–1955)
THRU
87th
(1961–1963)
New York's 18th January 3, 1963 February 28, 1967 88th
(1963–1965)
89th
(1965–1967)
90th
(1967–1969)
April 11, 1967 January 3, 1971
91st
(1969–1971)
Charles Diggs
(1922–1998)
Michigan's 13th January 3, 1955 June 3, 1980 Democratic 84th
(1955–1957)
Resigned after being convicted of mail fraud. [20][37]
THRU
96th
(1979–1981)
Robert N. C. Nix Sr.
(1898–1987)
Pennsylvania's 4th June 4, 1958 January 3, 1963 Democratic 85th
(1957–1959)
Lost office during renomination. [21][38]
THRU
87th
(1961–1963)
Pennsylvania's 2nd January 3, 1963 January 3, 1979 88th
(1963–1965)
THRU
95th
(1977–1979)
Augustus F. Hawkins
(1907–2007)
California's 21st January 3, 1963 January 3, 1975 Democratic 88th
(1963–1965)
Retired from office. [22][39]
THRU
93rd
(1973–1975)
California's 29th January 3, 1975 January 3, 1991 94th
(1975–1977)
THRU
101st
(1989–1991)
John Conyers
(1929–2019)
Michigan's 1st January 3, 1965 January 3, 1993 Democratic 89th
(1965–1967)
Resigned after being accused of sexual harassment. [23][40]
THRU
102nd
(1991–1993)
Michigan's 14th January 3, 1993 January 3, 2013 103rd
(1993–1995)
THRU
112th
(2011–2013)
Michigan's 13th January 3, 2013 December 5, 2017 113th
(2013–2015)
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
Shirley Chisholm
(1924–2005)
New York's 12th January 3, 1969 January 3, 1983 Democratic 91st
(1969–1971)
Retired from office. [24][41]
THRU
97th
(1981–1983)
Bill Clay
(born 1931)
Missouri's 1st January 3, 1969 January 3, 2001 Democratic 91st
(1969–1971)
Retired from office. [25][42]
THRU
106th
(1999–2001)
Louis Stokes
(1925–2015)
Ohio's 21st January 3, 1969 January 3, 1993 Democratic 91st
(1969–1971)
Retired from office. [26][43]
THRU
102nd
(1991–1993)
Ohio's 11th January 3, 1993 January 3, 1999 103rd
(1993–1995)
THRU
105th
(1997–1999)
George W. Collins
(1925–1972)
Illinois's 6th November 3, 1970 December 8, 1972 Democratic 91st
(1969–1971)
Died while in office [27][44]
92nd
(1971–1973)

Modern era, 1971–present

Representatives

(Note: Representatives are organized first in chronological order according to their first term in office, then second in alphabetical order according to their surname.)

Political parties

  Democratic   Republican

Representative Congressional district Took office Left office Party Congress Note
Ron Dellums
(1935–2018)
California's 7th January 3, 1971 January 3, 1975 Democratic 92nd
(1971–1973)
Resigned from office. [28][45]
93rd
(1973–1975)
California's 8th January 3, 1975 January 3, 1993 94th
(1975–1977)
THRU
102nd
(1991–1993)
California's 9th January 3, 1993 February 6, 1998 103rd
(1993–1995)
THRU
105th
(1997–1999)
Ralph Metcalfe
(1910–1978)
Illinois's 1st January 3, 1971 October 10, 1978 Democratic 92nd
(1971–1973)
Died while in office.[46]
THRU
95th
(1977–1979)
Parren Mitchell
(1922–2007)
Maryland's 7th January 3, 1971 January 3, 1987 Democratic 92nd
(1971–1973)
Retired from office to run unsuccessfully for Lieutenant Governor of Maryland. [29][47]
THRU
99th
(1985–1987)
Charles Rangel
(born 1930)
New York's 18th January 3, 1971 January 3, 1973 Democratic 92nd
(1971–1973)
Retired from office. [30][48]
New York's 19th January 3, 1973 January 3, 1983 93rd
(1973–1975)
THRU
97th
(1981–1983)
New York's 16th January 3, 1983 January 3, 1993 98th
(1983–1985)
THRU
102nd
(1991–1993)
New York's 15th January 3, 1993 January 3, 2013 103rd
(1993–1995)
THRU
112th
(2011–2013)
New York's 13th January 3, 2013 January 3, 2017 113th
(2013–2015)
114th
(2015–2017)
Yvonne Brathwaite Burke
(born 1932)
California's 37th January 3, 1973 January 3, 1975 Democratic 93rd
(1973–1975)
Retired from office to run unsuccessfully for Attorney General of California. [31][49]
California's 28th January 3, 1975 January 3, 1979 94th
(1975–1977)
95th
(1977–1979)
Barbara Jordan
(1936–1996)
Texas's 18th January 3, 1973 January 3, 1979 Democratic 93rd
(1973–1975)
Retired from office. [32][50]
94th
(1975–1977)
95th
(1977–1979)
Andrew Young
(born 1932)
Georgia's 5th January 3, 1973 January 29, 1977 Democratic 93rd
(1973–1975)
Resigned to become the United States Ambassador to the United Nations. [33][51]
94th
(1975–1977)
95th
(1977–1979)
Cardiss Collins
(1931–2013)
Illinois's 7th June 5, 1973 January 3, 1997 Democratic 93rd
(1973–1975)
Retired from office. [34][52]
THRU
104th
(1995–1997)
Harold Ford Sr.
(born 1945)
Tennessee's 8th January 3, 1975 January 3, 1983 Democratic 94th
(1975–1977)
Retired from office.[35][53]
THRU
97th
(1981–1983)
Tennessee's 9th January 3, 1983 January 3, 1997 98th
(1983–1985)
THRU
104th
(1995–1997)
Julian Dixon
(1934–2000)
California's 28th January 3, 1979 January 3, 1993 Democratic 96th
(1979–1981)
Died in office. [36][54]
THRU
102nd
(1991–1993)
California's 32nd January 3, 1993 December 8, 2000 103rd
(1993–1995)
THRU
106th
(1999–2001)
William H. Gray III
(1941–2013)
Pennsylvania's 2nd January 3, 1979 September 11, 1991 Democratic 96th
(1979–1981)
Resigned to become President of the United Negro College Fund. [37][55]
THRU
102nd
(1991–1993)
Mickey Leland
(1944–1989)
Texas's 18th January 3, 1979 August 7, 1989 Democratic 96th
(1979–1981)
Died while in office. [38][56]
THRU
101st
(1989–1991)
Bennett Stewart
(1912–1988)
Illinois's 1st January 3, 1979 January 3, 1981 Democratic 96th
(1979–1981)
Lost office during renomination.[57]
George Crockett Jr.
(1909–1997)
Michigan's 13th November 4, 1980 January 3, 1991 Democratic 96th
(1979–1981)
Retired from office. [39][58]
THRU
101st
(1989–1991)
Mervyn Dymally
(1926–2012)
California's 31st January 3, 1981 January 3, 1993 Democratic 97th
(1981–1983)
Retired from office. [40][59]
THRU
102nd
(1991–1993)
Gus Savage
(1925–2015)
Illinois's 2nd January 3, 1981 January 3, 1993 Democratic 97th
(1981–1983)
Lost office during renomination.[60]
THRU
102nd
(1991–1993)
Harold Washington
(1922–1987)
Illinois's 1st January 3, 1981 April 30, 1983 Democratic 97th
(1981–1983)
Resigned to become Mayor of Chicago.[61]
98th
(1983–1985)
Katie Hall
(1938–2012)
Indiana's 1st November 2, 1982 January 3, 1985 Democratic 97th
(1981–1983)
Lost office during renomination. [41][62]
98th
(1983–1985)
Major Owens
(1936–2013)
New York's 12th January 3, 1983 January 3, 1993 Democratic 98th
(1983–1985)
Retired from office.[63]
THRU
102nd
(1991–1993)
New York's 11th January 3, 1993 January 3, 2007 103rd
(1993–1995)
THRU
109th
(2005–2007)
Edolphus Towns
(born 1934)
New York's 11th January 3, 1983 January 3, 1993 Democratic 98th
(1983–1985)
Retired from office. [42][64]
THRU
102nd
(1991–1993)
New York's 10th January 3, 1993 January 3, 2013 103rd
(1993–1995)
THRU
112th
(2011–2013)
Alan Wheat
(born 1951)
Missouri's 5th January 3, 1983 January 3, 1995 Democratic 98th
(1983–1985)
Retired from office to run unsuccessfully for the United States Senate seat in Missouri.[65]
THRU
103rd
(1993–1995)
Charles Hayes
(1918–1997)
Illinois's 1st August 23, 1983 January 3, 1993 Democratic 98th
(1983–1985)
Lost office during renomination. [43][66]
THRU
102nd
(1991–1993)
Alton Waldon
(born 1936)
New York's 6th June 10, 1986 January 3, 1987 Democratic 99th
(1985–1987)
Lost office during renomination. [44][67]
Mike Espy
(born 1953)
Mississippi's 2nd January 3, 1987 January 22, 1993 Democratic 100th
(1987–1989)
Resigned to become the United States Secretary of Agriculture.[68]
THRU
103rd
(1993–1995)
Floyd Flake
(born 1945)
New York's 6th January 3, 1987 November 17, 1997 Democratic 100th
(1987–1989)
Resigned to become a pastor at the Allen African Methodist Episcopal Church.[69]
THRU
105th
(1997–1999)
John Lewis
(1940–2020)
Georgia's 5th January 3, 1987 July 17, 2020 Democratic 100th
(1987–1989)
Died while in office. [45][70]
THRU
116th
(2019–2021)
Kweisi Mfume
(born 1948)
Maryland's 7th January 3, 1987 February 15, 1996 Democratic 100th
(1987–1989)
Resigned to become Executive Director of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). [46][71]
THRU
104th
(1995–1997)
May 5, 2020 Incumbent 116th
(2019–2021)
117th
(2021–2023)
Donald M. Payne
(1934–2012)
New Jersey's 10th January 3, 1989 March 6, 2012 Democratic 101st
(1989–1991)
Died while in office. [47][72]
THRU
112th
(2011–2013)
Craig Washington
(born 1941)
Texas's 18th December 9, 1989 January 3, 1995 Democratic 101st
(1989–1991)
Lost office during renomination. [48][73]
102nd
(1991–1993)
103rd
(1993–1995)
Barbara-Rose Collins
(born 1939)
Michigan's 13th January 3, 1991 January 3, 1993 Democratic 102nd
(1991–1993)
Lost office during renomination.[74]
Michigan's 15th January 3, 1993 January 3, 1997 103rd
(1993–1995)
104th
(1995–1997)
Gary Franks
(born 1953)
Connecticut's 5th January 3, 1991 January 3, 1997 Republican 102nd
(1991–1993)
Lost office during reelection. [49][75]
103rd
(1993–1995)
104th
(1995–1997)
William J. Jefferson
(born 1947)
Louisiana's 2nd January 3, 1991 January 3, 2009 Democratic 102nd
(1991–1993)
Lost office during reelection and convicted of bribery.[76]
THRU
110th
(2007–2009)
Maxine Waters
(born 1938)
California's 29th January 3, 1991 January 3, 1993 Democratic 102nd
(1991–1993)
[50][77]
California's 35th January 3, 1993 January 3, 2013 103rd
(1993–1995)
THRU
112th
(2011–2013)
California's 43rd January 3, 2013 Incumbent 113th
(2013–2015)
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Lucien Blackwell
(1931–2003)
Pennsylvania's 2nd November 5, 1991 January 3, 1995 Democratic 102nd
(1991–1993)
Lost office during renomination. [51][78]
103rd
(1993–1995)
Eva Clayton
(born 1934)
North Carolina's 1st November 3, 1992 January 3, 2003 Democratic 102nd
(1991–1993)
Retired from office. [52][79]
THRU
107th
(2001–2003)
Sanford Bishop
(born 1947)
Georgia's 2nd January 3, 1993 Incumbent Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
[80]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Corrine Brown
(born 1946)
Florida's 3rd January 3, 1993 January 3, 2013 Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
Lost office during renomination and convicted of fraud and tax-evasion.[81]
THRU
112th
(2011–2013)
Florida's 5th January 3, 2013 January 3, 2017 113th
(2013–2015)
114th
(2015–2017)
Jim Clyburn
(born 1940)
South Carolina's 6th January 3, 1993 Incumbent Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
[53][82]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Cleo Fields
(born 1962)
Louisiana's 4th January 3, 1993 January 3, 1997 Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
Retired from office. [54][83]
104th
(1995–1997)
Alcee Hastings
(1936–2021)
Florida's 23rd January 3, 1993 January 3, 2013 Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
Died while in office.[84][85]
THRU
112th
(2011–2013)
Florida's 20th January 3, 2013 April 6, 2021 113th
(2013–2015)
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Earl Hilliard
(born 1942)
Alabama's 7th January 3, 1993 January 3, 2003 Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
Lost office during renomination.[86]
THRU
107th
(2001–2003)
Eddie Bernice Johnson, Official Portrait, c112th Congress.jpg
Eddie Bernice Johnson
(born 1935)
Texas's 30th January 3, 1993 Incumbent Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
[55][87]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Cynthia McKinney
(born 1955)
Georgia's 11th January 3, 1993 January 3, 1997 Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
Lost office during renomination for the 2003 and 2007 terms.[88]
104th
(1995–1997)
Georgia's 4th January 3, 1997 January 3, 2003 105th
(1997–1999)
THRU
107th
(2001–2003)
January 3, 2005 January 3, 2007 109th
(2005–2007)
Carrie Meek
(born 1926)
Florida's 17th January 3, 1993 January 3, 2003 Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
Retired from office. [56][89]
THRU
107th
(2001–2003)
Mel Reynolds
(born 1952)
Illinois's 2nd January 3, 1993 October 1, 1995 Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
Resigned after being convicted on 12 counts of sexual assault, obstruction of justice and solicitation of child pornography and being sentenced to five years in prison.[90]
104th
(1995–1997)
Bobby Rush
(born 1946)
Illinois's 1st January 3, 1993 Incumbent Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
[91]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Bobby Scott
(born 1947)
Virginia's 3rd January 3, 1993 Incumbent Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
[92]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Walter R. Tucker III
(born 1957)
California's 37th January 3, 1993 December 15, 1995 Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
Resigned after being convicted of tax-evasion and extortion. [57][93]
104th
(1995–1997)
Melvinwatt.jpg
Mel Watt
(born 1945)
North Carolina's 12th January 3, 1993 January 6, 2014 Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
Resigned to become Director of the Federal Housing Finance Agency. [58][94]
THRU
113th
(2013–2015)
Albert Wynn
(born 1951)
Maryland's 4th January 3, 1993 May 31, 2008 Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
Resigned following loss of renomination.[95]
THRU
110th
(2007–2009)
Bennie Thompson
(born 1948)
Mississippi's 2nd April 13, 1993 Incumbent Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
[59][96]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Chaka Fattah
(born 1956)
Pennsylvania's 2nd January 3, 1995 June 23, 2016 Democratic 104th
(1995–1997)
Resigned following loss of renomination and convictions for racketeering, fraud, and money laundering.[97]
THRU
114th
(2015–2017)
SheilaJackson.JPG
Sheila Jackson Lee
(born 1950)
Texas's 18th January 3, 1995 Incumbent Democratic 104th
(1995–1997)
[98]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
J. C. Watts
(born 1957)
Oklahoma's 4th January 3, 1995 January 3, 2003 Republican 104th
(1995–1997)
Retired from office. [60][99]
THRU
107th
(2001–2003)
Jesse Jackson Jr.
(born 1965)
Illinois's 2nd December 12, 1995 November 21, 2012 Democratic 104th
(1995–1997)
Resigned after being convicted of wire and mail fraud. [61][100]
THRU
112th
(2011–2013)
Juanita Millender-McDonald
(1938–2007)
California's 37th March 26, 1996 April 22, 2007 Democratic 104th
(1995–1997)
Died while in office. [62][101]
THRU
110th
(2007–2009)
Elijah Cummings
(1951–2019)
Maryland's 7th April 16, 1996 October 17, 2019 Democratic 104th
(1995–1997)
Died while in office. [63][102]
THRU
116th
(2019–2021)
Julia Carson
(1938–2007)
Indiana's 10th January 3, 1997 January 3, 2003 Democratic 105th
(1997–1999)
Died while in office. [64][103]
THRU
107th
(2001–2003)
Indiana's 7th January 3, 2003 December 15, 2007 108th
(2003–2005)
THRU
110th
(2007–2009)
Danny K. Davis
(born 1941)
Illinois's 7th January 3, 1997 Incumbent Democratic 105th
(1997–1999)
[104]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Harold Ford Jr.
(born 1970)
Tennessee's 9th January 3, 1997 January 3, 2007 Democratic 105th
(1997–1999)
Retired from office to run unsuccessfully for the United States Senate seat from Tennessee. [65][105]
THRU
109th
(2005–2007)
Carolyn Cheeks Kirkpatrick, official portrait, 111th Congress.jpg
Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick
(born 1945)
Michigan's 15th January 3, 1997 January 3, 2003 Democratic 105th
(1997–1999)
Lost office during renomination. [66][106]
THRU
107th
(2001–2003)
Michigan's 13th January 3, 2003 January 3, 2011 108th
(2003–2005)
THRU
111th
(2009–2011)
Gregory Meeks
(born 1953)
New York's 6th February 3, 1998 January 3, 2013 Democratic 105th
(1997–1999)
[67][107]
THRU
112th
(2011–2013)
New York's 5th January 3, 2013 Incumbent 113th
(2013–2015)
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Barbara Lee
(born 1946)
California's 9th April 7, 1998 January 3, 2013 Democratic 105th
(1997–1999)
[68][108]
THRU
112th
(2011–2013)
California's 13th January 3, 2013 Incumbent 113th
(2013–2015)
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Stephanie Tubbs Jones
(1949–2008)
Ohio's 11th January 3, 1999 August 20, 2008 Democratic 106th
(1999–2001)
Died while in office.[109]
THRU
110th
(2007–2009)
Lacy Clay
(born 1956)
Missouri's 1st January 3, 2001 January 3, 2021 Democratic 107th
(2001–2003)
Lost office during renomination. [69][110]
THRU
116th
(2019–2021)
Diane Watson
(born 1933)
California's 32nd June 5, 2001 January 3, 2003 Democratic 107th
(2001–2003)
Retired from office. [70][111]
California's 33rd January 3, 2003 January 3, 2011 108th
(2003–2005)
THRU
111th
(2009–2011)
Frank Ballance
(1942–2019)
North Carolina's 1st January 3, 2003 June 11, 2004 Democratic 108th
(2003–2005)
Resigned after being convicted of mail fraud and money laundering.[112]
Artur Davis
(born 1967)
Alabama's 7th January 3, 2003 January 3, 2011 Democratic 108th
(2003–2005)
Retired from office to run unsuccessfully for the Democratic nomination for Governor of Alabama. [71][113]
THRU
111th
(2009–2011)
Denise Majette
(born 1955)
Georgia's 4th January 3, 2003 January 3, 2005 Democratic 108th
(2003–2005)
Retired from office to run unsuccessfully for the United States Senate seat from Georgia.[114]
Kendrick Meek
(born 1966)
Florida's 17th January 3, 2003 January 3, 2011 Democratic 108th
(2003–2005)
Retired from office to run unsuccessfully for the United States Senate seat from Florida. [72][115]
THRU
111th
(2009–2011)
David Scott
(born 1945)
Georgia's 13th January 3, 2003 Incumbent Democratic 108th
(2003–2005)
[116]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
G. K. Butterfield
(born 1947)
North Carolina's 1st July 20, 2004 Incumbent Democratic 108th
(2003–2005)
[73][117]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Emanuel Cleaver
(born 1944)
Missouri's 5th January 3, 2005 Incumbent Democratic 109th
(2005–2007)
[74][118]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Al Green
(born 1947)
Texas's 9th January 3, 2005 Incumbent Democratic 109th
(2005–2007)
[119]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Gwen Moore
(born 1951)
Wisconsin's 4th January 3, 2005 Incumbent Democratic 109th
(2005–2007)
[75]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Yvette Clarke
(born 1964)
New York's 11th January 3, 2007 January 3, 2013 Democratic 110th
(2007–2009)
[121]
THRU
112th
(2011–2013)
New York's 9th January 3, 2013 Incumbent 113th
(2013–2015)
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Keith Ellison
(born 1963)
Minnesota's 5th January 3, 2007 January 3, 2019 Democratic 110th
(2007–2009)
Retired from office to run successfully for Attorney General of Minnesota. [76][122]
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
Hank Johnson
(born 1954)
Georgia's 4th January 3, 2007 Incumbent Democratic 110th
(2007–2009)
[123]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Laura Richardson
(born 1962)
California's 37th August 21, 2007 January 3, 2013 Democratic 110th
(2007–2009)
Lost office during reelection. [77][124]
111th
(2009–2011)
112th
(2011–2013)
André Carson
(born 1974)
Indiana's 7th March 11, 2008 Incumbent Democratic 110th
(2007–2009)
[78][125]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Donna Edwards
(born 1958)
Maryland's 4th June 17, 2008 January 3, 2017 Democratic 110th
(2007–2009)
Retired from office to run unsuccessfully for the Democratic nomination for the United States Senate seat from Maryland. [79][126]
THRU
114th
(2015–2017)
Marcia Fudge
(born 1952)
Ohio's 11th November 18, 2008 March 10, 2021 Democratic 110th
(2007–2009)
Resigned to become Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. [80][127]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Karen Bass
(born 1953)
California's 33rd January 3, 2011 January 3, 2013 Democratic 112th
(2011–2013)
[128]
California's 37th January 3, 2013 Incumbent 113th
(2013–2015)
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Hansen Clarke
(born 1957)
Michigan's 13th January 3, 2011 January 3, 2013 Democratic 112th
(2011–2013)
Lost office during renomination.[129]
Cedric Richmond
(born 1973)
Louisiana's 2nd January 3, 2011 January 15, 2021 Democratic 112th
(2011–2013)
Resigned to become Senior Advisor to the President and Director of the Office of Public Engagement. [81][130]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Tim Scott
(born 1965)
South Carolina's 1st January 3, 2011 January 2, 2013 Republican 112th
(2011–2013)
Appointed to Senate by South Carolina Governor Nikki Haley to replace Jim DeMint. [82][131]
Terri Sewell
(born 1965)
Alabama's 7th January 3, 2011 Incumbent Democratic 112th
(2011–2013)
[83][132]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Allen West
(born 1961)
Florida's 22nd January 3, 2011 January 3, 2013 Republican 112th
(2011–2013)
Lost office during reelection.[133]
Frederica Wilson
(born 1942)
Florida's 17th January 3, 2011 January 3, 2013 Democratic 112th
(2011–2013)
[134]
Florida's 24th January 3, 2013 Incumbent 113th
(2013–2015)
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Donald Payne Jr.
(born 1958)
New Jersey's 10th November 6, 2012 Incumbent Democratic 112th
(2011–2013)
[84][135]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Joyce Beatty
(born 1950)
Ohio's 3rd January 3, 2013 Incumbent Democratic 113th
(2013–2015)
[136]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Steven Horsford
(born 1973)
Nevada's 4th January 3, 2013 January 3, 2015 Democratic 113th
(2013–2015)
Lost office during reelection. [85][137]
January 3, 2019 Incumbent 116th
(2019–2021)
117th
(2021–2023)
Hakeem Jeffries
(born 1970)
New York's 8th January 3, 2013 Incumbent Democratic 113th
(2013–2015)
[138]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Marc Veasey
(born 1971)
Texas's 33rd January 3, 2013 Incumbent Democratic 113th
(2013–2015)
[139]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Robin Kelly
(born 1956)
Illinois's 2nd April 9, 2013 Incumbent Democratic 113th
(2013–2015)
[86][140]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Alma Adams
(born 1946)
North Carolina's 12th November 12, 2014 Incumbent Democratic 113th
(2013–2015)
[87][141]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Bonnie Watson Coleman
(born 1945)
New Jersey's 12th January 3, 2015 Incumbent Democratic 114th
(2015–2017)
[142]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Will Hurd
(born 1977)
Texas's 23rd January 3, 2015 January 3, 2021 Republican 114th
(2015–2017)
Retired from office.[143]
115th
(2017–2019)
116th
(2019–2021)
Brenda Lawrence
(born 1954)
Michigan's 14th January 3, 2015 Incumbent Democratic 114th
(2015–2017)
[144]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Mia Love
(born 1975)
Utah's 4th January 3, 2015 January 3, 2019 Republican 114th
(2015–2017)
Lost office during reelection. [88][145]
115th
(2017–2019)
Dwight Evans
(born 1954)
Pennsylvania's 2nd November 8, 2016 Incumbent Democratic 114th
(2015–2017)
[89][146]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Anthony G. Brown
(born 1961)
Maryland's 4th January 3, 2017 Incumbent Democratic 115th
(2017–2019)
[147]
116th
(2019–2021)
117th
(2021–2023)
Val Demings
(born 1957)
Florida's 10th January 3, 2017 Incumbent Democratic 115th
(2017–2019)
[148]
116th
(2019–2021)
117th
(2021–2023)
Al Lawson
(born 1948)
Florida's 5th January 3, 2017 Incumbent Democratic 115th
(2017–2019)
[149]
116th
(2019–2021)
117th
(2021–2023)
Donald McEachin
(born 1961)
Virginia's 4th January 3, 2017 Incumbent Democratic 115th
(2017–2019)
[150]
116th
(2019–2021)
117th
(2021–2023)
Lisa Blunt Rochester
(born 1962)
Delaware's at-large January 3, 2017 Incumbent Democratic 115th
(2017–2019)
[90][151][152]
116th
(2019–2021)
117th
(2021–2023)
Brenda Jones
(born 1959)
Michigan's 13th November 29, 2018 January 3, 2019 Democratic 115th
(2017–2019)
[91][153]
Colin Allred
(born 1983)
Texas's 32nd January 3, 2019 Incumbent Democratic 116th
(2019–2021)
[154]
117th
(2021–2023)
Antonio Delgado
(born 1977)
New York's 19th January 3, 2019 Incumbent Democratic 116th
(2019–2021)
[155]
117th
(2021–2023)
Jahana Hayes
(born 1973)
Connecticut's 5th January 3, 2019 Incumbent Democratic 116th
(2019–2021)
[92][156]
117th
(2021–2023)
Lucy McBath
(born 1960)
Georgia's 6th January 3, 2019 Incumbent Democratic 116th
(2019–2021)
[157]
117th
(2021–2023)
Joe Neguse
(born 1984)
Colorado's 2nd January 3, 2019 Incumbent Democratic 116th
(2019–2021)
[93][158][159]
117th
(2021–2023)
Ilhan Omar
(born 1981)
Minnesota's 5th January 3, 2019 Incumbent Democratic 116th
(2019–2021)
[94][160]
117th
(2021–2023)
Ayanna Pressley
(born 1974)
Massachusetts's 7th January 3, 2019 Incumbent Democratic 116th
(2019–2021)
[95][161]
117th
(2021–2023)
Lauren Underwood
(born 1986)
Illinois's 14th January 3, 2019 Incumbent Democratic 116th
(2019–2021)
[162]
117th
(2021–2023)
Kwanza Hall
(born 1971)
Georgia's 5th December 3, 2020 January 3, 2021 Democratic 116th
(2019–2021)
Retired. [96][163]
Jamaal Bowman
(born 1976)
New York's 16th January 3, 2021 Incumbent Democratic 117th
(2021–2023)
[164]
Cori Bush
(born 1976)
Missouri's 1st January 3, 2021 Incumbent Democratic 117th
(2021–2023)
[165]
Byron Donalds
(born 1978)
Florida's 19th January 3, 2021 Incumbent Republican 117th
(2021–2023)
[166]
Mondaire Jones
(born 1987)
New York's 17th January 3, 2021 Incumbent Democratic 117th
(2021–2023)
[167]
Burgess Owens
(born 1951)
Utah's 4th January 3, 2021 Incumbent Republican 117th
(2021–2023)
[168]
Marilyn Strickland
(born 1962)
Washington's 10th January 3, 2021 Incumbent Democratic 117th
(2021–2023)
[97][169]
Ritchie Torres
(born 1988)
New York's 15th January 3, 2021 Incumbent Democratic 117th
(2021–2023)
[170][171]
Nikema Williams
(born 1978)
Georgia's 5th January 3, 2021 Incumbent Democratic 117th
(2021–2023)
[172]
Troy Carter
(born 1963)
Louisiana's 2nd May 11, 2021 Incumbent Democratic 117th
(2021–2023)
[173]

House delegates (non-voting members)

(Note: Delegates are organized first in chronological order according to their first term in office, then second in alphabetical order according to their surname.)

Political parties

  Democratic   Republican   Independent

Delegate Congressional district Took office Left office Party Congress Note
Walter Fauntroy
(born 1933)
District of Columbia's at-large March 23, 1971 January 3, 1991 Democratic 92nd
(1971–1973)
Retired from office to run unsuccessfully for Mayor of the District of Columbia. [98][174]
THRU
101st
(1989–1991)
Melvin H. Evans
(1917–1984)
Virgin Islands' at-large January 3, 1979 January 3, 1981 Republican 96th
(1979–1981)
Lost office during reelection. [99][175]
Eleanor Holmes Norton
(born 1937)
District of Columbia's at-large January 3, 1991 Incumbent Democratic 102nd
(1991–1993)
[176]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Victor O. Frazer
(born 1943)
Virgin Islands' at-large January 3, 1995 January 3, 1997 Independent 104th
(1995–1997)
Lost office during reelection.[177]
Donna Christian-Christensen
(born 1945)
Virgin Islands' at-large January 3, 1997 January 3, 2015 Democratic 105th
(1997–1999)
Retired from office to run unsuccessfully for Governor of Virgin Islands. [100][178]
THRU
113th
(2013–2015)
Stacey Plaskett
(born 1966)
Virgin Islands' at-large January 3, 2015 Incumbent Democratic 114th
(2015–2017)
[179]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)

African Americans elected to the House of Representatives, but not seated

Political party

  Republican

Representative–elect Congressional district Took office Left office Party Congress Former slave? Note
John Willis Menard
(1838–1893)
Louisiana's 2nd Elected in 1868, but denied seat Republican 41st
(1869–1871)
No Denied seat due to a contested election that involved Caleb S. Hunt, but was permitted to address the House while in session.[101][181]
P. B. S. Pinchback
(1837–1921)
Louisiana's at-large Elected in 1872, but denied seat Republican 43rd
(1873–1875)
No Denied seat due to a contested election that involved George A. Sheridan.[182][183]

See also

Federal government

State and local government

References

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Further reading

External links

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