To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Languages
Recent
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

List of African-American United States representatives

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Joseph Rainey (left) was the first African American to serve in the U.S. House; Shirley Chisholm (right) was the first African-American woman elected to the chamber.

The United States House of Representatives has had 156 elected African-American members, of whom 150 have been representatives from U.S. states and 6 have been delegates from U.S. territories and the District of Columbia.[1] The House of Representatives is the lower house of the bicameral United States Congress, which is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the term "African American" includes all individuals who identify with one or more nationalities or ethnic groups originating in any of the black racial groups of Africa.[2] The term is generally used for Americans with at least partial ancestry in any of the original peoples of sub-Saharan Africa. During the founding of the federal government, African Americans were consigned to a status of second-class citizenship or enslaved.[3] No African American served in federal elective office before the ratification in 1870 of the Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The Fifteenth Amendment prohibits the federal and state governments from denying any citizen the right to vote because of that citizen's race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

Joseph Rainey was the first African-American representative to be seated in the U.S. House. He served South Carolina's 1st congressional district beginning in 1870 during the Reconstruction era following the American Civil War. The first African-American woman to serve as a representative was Shirley Chisholm from New York's 12th congressional district in 1969 during the Civil Rights Movement.

Many African-American members of the House of Representatives serve majority-minority districts.[4] Some of these congressional districts are gerrymandered, limiting serious challenges to their re-election, and limiting their abilities to represent a larger, more diverse constituency.[4] The Voting Rights Act of 1965 includes restrictions on the ability of States to diminish minority representation during redistricting. In the elections of 2016 and 2018, an increasing number of non-majority-minority districts have elected racial minority representatives.

Overall, 30 of the 50 U.S. states, plus the U.S. Virgin Islands and the District of Columbia, have elected an African American to represent them in the U.S. House of Representatives, with Washington being the most recent to elect their first (in 2020); out of these, 21 states, plus the U.S. Virgin Islands and the District of Columbia, have elected an African-American woman to represent them in the U.S. House. Illinois's 1st congressional district has the longest continuous streak of electing African-American representatives, a tendency which has occurred since 1929 to the present. There currently are 56 African-American representatives and two African-American delegates in the United States House of Representatives, representing 28 states, plus the U.S. Virgin Islands and the District of Columbia. Most are members of the Congressional Black Caucus.

List of states represented by African-Americans or black people

State Current members Previous members Total First black member Political party of first black member Years with black members
Alabama 1 5 6 Benjamin S. Turner Republican 1871–1877, 1993–present
Alaska 0 0 0
Arizona 0 0 0
Arkansas 0 0 0
California 3 9 12 Augustus F. Hawkins Democratic 1963–present
Colorado 1 0 1 Joe Neguse Democratic 2019–present
Connecticut 1 1 2 Gary Franks Republican 1991–1997, 2019–present
Delaware 1 0 1 Lisa Blunt Rochester Democratic 2017–present
Florida 5 6 11 Josiah T. Walls Republican 1871–1876, 1993–present
Georgia 5 6 11 Jefferson F. Long Republican 1871, 1973–1977, 1987–present
Hawaii 0 0 0
Idaho 0 0 0
Illinois 4 12 16 Oscar Stanton DePriest Republican 1929–present
Indiana 1 2 3 Katie Hall Democratic 1982–1985, 1997–present
Iowa 0 0 0
Kansas 0 0 0
Kentucky 0 0 0
Louisiana 1 4 5 Charles E. Nash Republican 1875–1877, 1991–2009, 2011–present
Maine 0 0 0
Maryland 2 4 6 Parren Mitchell Democratic 1971–present
Massachusetts 1 0 1 Ayanna Pressley Democratic 2019–present
Michigan 1 7 8 Charles Diggs Democratic 1955–present
Minnesota 1 1 2 Keith Ellison Democratic–Farmer–Labor 2007–present
Mississippi 1 2 3 John R. Lynch Republican 1873–1877, 1882–1883, 1987–present
Missouri 2 3 5 Bill Clay Democratic 1969–present
Montana 0 0 0
Nebraska 0 0 0
Nevada 1 0 1 Steven Horsford Democratic 2013–2015, 2019–present
New Hampshire 0 0 0
New Jersey 2 1 3 Donald M. Payne Democratic 1989–present
New Mexico 0 0 0
New York 6 7 13 Adam Clayton Powell Jr. Democratic 1945–present
North Carolina 2 7 9 John Adams Hyman Republican 1875–1877, 1883–1887, 1889–1893, 1897–1901, 1992–present
North Dakota 0 0 0
Ohio 2 3 5 Louis Stokes Democratic 1969–present
Oklahoma 0 1 1 J.C. Watts Republican 1995–2003
Oregon 0 0 0
Pennsylvania 1 4 5 Robert N. C. Nix Sr. Democratic 1958–present
Rhode Island 0 0 0
South Carolina 1 9 10 Joseph Rainey Republican 1870–1879, 1882–1887, 1890–1891, 1893–1897, 1993–present
South Dakota 0 0 0
Tennessee 0 2 2 Harold Ford Sr. Democratic 1975–2007
Texas 5 4 9 Barbara Jordan Democratic 1973–present
Utah 1 1 2 Mia Love Republican 2015–2019, 2021–present
Vermont 0 0 0
Virginia 2 1 3 John Mercer Langston Republican 1890–1891, 1993–present
Washington 1 0 1 Marilyn Strickland Democratic 2021–present
West Virginia 0 0 0
Wisconsin 1 0 1 Gwen Moore Democratic 2005–present
Wyoming 0 0 0

Reconstruction and early post-Reconstruction era, 1870–1887

Political party

  Republican

Representative[a] Congressional district Took office Left office Party Congress Former slave? Note
Joseph Rainey
(1832–1887)
South Carolina's 1st December 12, 1870 March 3, 1879 Republican 41st
(1869–1871)
Yes Lost reelection[b][5]
THRU
45th
(1877–1879)
Jefferson F. Long
(1836–1901)
Georgia's 4th January 16, 1871 March 3, 1871 Republican 41st
(1869–1871)
Yes Retired[c][6]
Robert C. De Large
(1842–1874)
South Carolina's 2nd March 4, 1871 January 24, 1873 Republican 42nd
(1871–1873)
No Unseated in 1873 due to a contested election that involved Christopher C. Bowen, the previous seat holder.[7][d][8]
Robert B. Elliott
(1842–1884)
South Carolina's 3rd March 4, 1871 November 1, 1874 Republican 42nd
(1871–1873)
No Resigned[e][9]
43rd
(1873–1875)
Benjamin S. Turner
(1825–1894)
Alabama's 1st March 4, 1871 March 3, 1873 Republican 42nd
(1871–1873)
Yes Lost reelection[f][10]
Josiah T. Walls
(1842–1905)
Florida's at-large March 4, 1871 January 29, 1873 Republican 42nd
(1871–1873)
Yes Unseated in 1873 and 1876 due to contested elections that involved Silas L. Niblack[11] and Jesse Finley,[12] respectively.[g][13]
March 4, 1873 March 3, 1875 43rd
(1873–1875)
Florida's 2nd March 4, 1875 April 19, 1876 44th
(1875–1877)
Richard H. Cain
(1825–1887)
South Carolina's at-large March 4, 1873 March 3, 1875 Republican 43rd
(1873–1875)
No Retired[14]
South Carolina's 2nd March 4, 1877 March 3, 1879 45th
(1877–1879)
John R. Lynch
(1847–1939)
Mississippi's 6th March 4, 1873 March 3, 1877 Republican 43rd
(1873–1875)
Yes Lost reelection[h][16]
44th
(1875–1877)
April 29, 1882 March 3, 1883 47th
(1881–1883)
Alonzo J. Ransier
(1834–1882)
South Carolina's 2nd March 3, 1873 March 3, 1875 Republican 43rd
(1873–1875)
No Retired[i][17]
James T. Rapier
(1837–1883)
Alabama's 2nd March 4, 1873 March 3, 1875 Republican 43rd
(1873–1875)
No Lost reelection[18]
Jeremiah Haralson
(1846–1916)
Alabama's 1st March 4, 1875 March 3, 1877 Republican 44th
(1875–1877)
Yes Lost reelection[19]
John Adams Hyman
(1840–1891)
North Carolina's 2nd March 4, 1875 March 3, 1877 Republican 44th
(1875–1877)
Yes Lost renomination[j][20]
Charles E. Nash
(1844–1913)
Louisiana's 6th March 4, 1875 March 3, 1877 Republican 44th
(1875–1877)
No Lost reelection[k][21]
Robert Smalls
(1839–1915)
South Carolina's 5th March 4, 1875 March 3, 1879 Republican 44th
(1875–1877)
Yes Lost reelection[l][23]
45th
(1877–1879)
July 19, 1882 March 3, 1883 47th
(1881–1883)
Lost reelection
South Carolina's 7th March 18, 1884 March 3, 1887 48th
(1883–1885)
Retired
49th
(1885–1887)
James E. O'Hara
(1844–1905)
North Carolina's 2nd March 4, 1883 March 3, 1887 Republican 48th
(1883–1885)
No Lost reelection[24]
49th
(1885–1887)

Late post-Reconstruction, Populist, and early Jim Crow era, 1887–1929

Political party

  Republican

Representative[a] Congressional district Took office Left office Party Congress Former slave? Note
Henry P. Cheatham
(1857–1935)
North Carolina's 2nd March 4, 1889 March 3, 1893 Republican 51st
(1889–1891)
Yes Lost reelection[m][25]
52nd
(1891–1893)
John Mercer Langston
(1829–1897)
Virginia's 4th September 23, 1890 March 3, 1891 Republican 51st
(1889–1891)
No Lost reelection[n][27]
Thomas E. Miller
(1849–1938)
South Carolina's 7th September 24, 1890 March 3, 1891 Republican 51st
(1889–1891)
No Lost reelection[o][28][29]
George W. Murray
(1853–1926)
South Carolina's 7th March 4, 1893 March 3, 1895 Republican 53rd
(1893–1895)
Yes Lost reelection[p][31]
South Carolina's 1st June 4, 1896 March 3, 1897 54th
(1895–1897)
George Henry White
(1852–1918)
North Carolina's 2nd March 4, 1897 March 3, 1901 Republican 55th
(1897–1899)
Yes Retired[q][32]
56th
(1899–1901)

Late Jim Crow and Civil Rights era, 1929–1970

Political parties

  Democratic   Republican

Representative[a] Congressional district Took office Left office Party Congress Note
Oscar Stanton De Priest
(1871–1951)
Illinois's 1st March 4, 1929 January 3, 1935 Republican 71st
(1929–1931)
Lost reelection[r][33]
72nd
(1931–1933)
73rd
(1933–1935)
Arthur W. Mitchell
(1883–1968)
Illinois's 1st January 3, 1935 January 3, 1943 Democratic 74th
(1935–1937)
Retired[s][34]
THRU
77th
(1941–1943)
William L. Dawson
(1886–1970)
Illinois's 1st January 3, 1943 November 9, 1970 Democratic 78th
(1943–1945)
Died in office[35]
THRU
91st
(1969–1971)
Adam Clayton Powell Jr.
(1908–1972)
New York's 22nd January 3, 1945 January 3, 1953 Democratic 79th
(1945–1947)
Lost renomination[t][36]
THRU
82nd
(1951–1953)
New York's 16th January 3, 1953 January 3, 1963 83rd
(1953–1955)
THRU
87th
(1961–1963)
New York's 18th January 3, 1963 February 28, 1967 88th
(1963–1965)
89th
(1965–1967)
90th
(1967–1969)
April 11, 1967 January 3, 1971
91st
(1969–1971)
Charles Diggs
(1922–1998)
Michigan's 13th January 3, 1955 June 3, 1980 Democratic 84th
(1955–1957)
Resigned after being convicted of mail fraud[u][37]
THRU
96th
(1979–1981)
Robert N. C. Nix Sr.
(1898–1987)
Pennsylvania's 4th June 4, 1958 January 3, 1963 Democratic 85th
(1957–1959)
Lost renomination[v][38]
THRU
87th
(1961–1963)
Pennsylvania's 2nd January 3, 1963 January 3, 1979 88th
(1963–1965)
THRU
95th
(1977–1979)
Augustus F. Hawkins
(1907–2007)
California's 21st January 3, 1963 January 3, 1975 Democratic 88th
(1963–1965)
Retired[w][39]
THRU
93rd
(1973–1975)
California's 29th January 3, 1975 January 3, 1991 94th
(1975–1977)
THRU
101st
(1989–1991)
John Conyers
(1929–2019)
Michigan's 1st January 3, 1965 January 3, 1993 Democratic 89th
(1965–1967)
Resigned after being accused of sexual harassment.[x][40]
THRU
102nd
(1991–1993)
Michigan's 14th January 3, 1993 January 3, 2013 103rd
(1993–1995)
THRU
112th
(2011–2013)
Michigan's 13th January 3, 2013 December 5, 2017 113th
(2013–2015)
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
Shirley Chisholm
(1924–2005)
New York's 12th January 3, 1969 January 3, 1983 Democratic 91st
(1969–1971)
Retired[y][41]
THRU
97th
(1981–1983)
Bill Clay
(born 1931)
Missouri's 1st January 3, 1969 January 3, 2001 Democratic 91st
(1969–1971)
Retired[z][42]
THRU
106th
(1999–2001)
Louis Stokes
(1925–2015)
Ohio's 21st January 3, 1969 January 3, 1993 Democratic 91st
(1969–1971)
Retired[aa][43]
THRU
102nd
(1991–1993)
Ohio's 11th January 3, 1993 January 3, 1999 103rd
(1993–1995)
THRU
105th
(1997–1999)
George W. Collins
(1925–1972)
Illinois's 6th November 3, 1970 December 8, 1972 Democratic 91st
(1969–1971)
Died in office[ab][44]
92nd
(1971–1973)

Modern era, 1971–present

Representatives

Political parties

  Democratic   Republican

Representative[a] Congressional district Took office Left office Party Congress Note
Ron Dellums
(1935–2018)
California's 7th January 3, 1971 January 3, 1975 Democratic 92nd
(1971–1973)
Resigned[ac][45]
93rd
(1973–1975)
California's 8th January 3, 1975 January 3, 1993 94th
(1975–1977)
THRU
102nd
(1991–1993)
California's 9th January 3, 1993 February 6, 1998 103rd
(1993–1995)
THRU
105th
(1997–1999)
Ralph Metcalfe
(1910–1978)
Illinois's 1st January 3, 1971 October 10, 1978 Democratic 92nd
(1971–1973)
Died in office[ad][48]
THRU
95th
(1977–1979)
Parren Mitchell
(1922–2007)
Maryland's 7th January 3, 1971 January 3, 1987 Democratic 92nd
(1971–1973)
Retired to run unsuccessfully for Lieutenant Governor of Maryland.[ae][49]
THRU
99th
(1985–1987)
Charles Rangel
(born 1930)
New York's 18th January 3, 1971 January 3, 1973 Democratic 92nd
(1971–1973)
Retired[af][50]
New York's 19th January 3, 1973 January 3, 1983 93rd
(1973–1975)
THRU
97th
(1981–1983)
New York's 16th January 3, 1983 January 3, 1993 98th
(1983–1985)
THRU
102nd
(1991–1993)
New York's 15th January 3, 1993 January 3, 2013 103rd
(1993–1995)
THRU
112th
(2011–2013)
New York's 13th January 3, 2013 January 3, 2017 113th
(2013–2015)
114th
(2015–2017)
Yvonne Brathwaite Burke
(born 1932)
California's 37th January 3, 1973 January 3, 1975 Democratic 93rd
(1973–1975)
Retired to run unsuccessfully for Attorney General of California.[ag][51]
California's 28th January 3, 1975 January 3, 1979 94th
(1975–1977)
95th
(1977–1979)
Barbara Jordan
(1936–1996)
Texas's 18th January 3, 1973 January 3, 1979 Democratic 93rd
(1973–1975)
Retired[ah][52]
94th
(1975–1977)
95th
(1977–1979)
Andrew Young
(born 1932)
Georgia's 5th January 3, 1973 January 29, 1977 Democratic 93rd
(1973–1975)
Resigned to become the United States Ambassador to the United Nations.[ai][53]
94th
(1975–1977)
95th
(1977–1979)
Cardiss Collins
(1931–2013)
Illinois's 7th June 5, 1973 January 3, 1997 Democratic 93rd
(1973–1975)
Retired[aj][54]
THRU
104th
(1995–1997)
Harold Ford Sr.
(born 1945)
Tennessee's 8th January 3, 1975 January 3, 1983 Democratic 94th
(1975–1977)
Retired[ak][55]
THRU
97th
(1981–1983)
Tennessee's 9th January 3, 1983 January 3, 1997 98th
(1983–1985)
THRU
104th
(1995–1997)
Julian Dixon
(1934–2000)
California's 28th January 3, 1979 January 3, 1993 Democratic 96th
(1979–1981)
Died in office[al][56]
THRU
102nd
(1991–1993)
California's 32nd January 3, 1993 December 8, 2000 103rd
(1993–1995)
THRU
106th
(1999–2001)
William H. Gray III
(1941–2013)
Pennsylvania's 2nd January 3, 1979 September 11, 1991 Democratic 96th
(1979–1981)
Resigned to become President of the United Negro College Fund.[am][57]
THRU
102nd
(1991–1993)
Mickey Leland
(1944–1989)
Texas's 18th January 3, 1979 August 7, 1989 Democratic 96th
(1979–1981)
Died in office[an][58]
THRU
101st
(1989–1991)
Bennett Stewart
(1912–1988)
Illinois's 1st January 3, 1979 January 3, 1981 Democratic 96th
(1979–1981)
Lost renomination[59]
George Crockett Jr.
(1909–1997)
Michigan's 13th November 4, 1980 January 3, 1991 Democratic 96th
(1979–1981)
Retired[ao][60]
THRU
101st
(1989–1991)
Mervyn Dymally
(1926–2012)
California's 31st January 3, 1981 January 3, 1993 Democratic 97th
(1981–1983)
Retired[ap][61]
THRU
102nd
(1991–1993)
Gus Savage
(1925–2015)
Illinois's 2nd January 3, 1981 January 3, 1993 Democratic 97th
(1981–1983)
Lost renomination.[62]
THRU
102nd
(1991–1993)
Harold Washington
(1922–1987)
Illinois's 1st January 3, 1981 April 30, 1983 Democratic 97th
(1981–1983)
Resigned to become Mayor of Chicago[63]
98th
(1983–1985)
Katie Hall
(1938–2012)
Indiana's 1st November 2, 1982 January 3, 1985 Democratic 97th
(1981–1983)
Lost renomination[aq][64]
98th
(1983–1985)
Major Owens
(1936–2013)
New York's 12th January 3, 1983 January 3, 1993 Democratic 98th
(1983–1985)
Retired[65]
THRU
102nd
(1991–1993)
New York's 11th January 3, 1993 January 3, 2007 103rd
(1993–1995)
THRU
109th
(2005–2007)
Edolphus Towns
(born 1934)
New York's 11th January 3, 1983 January 3, 1993 Democratic 98th
(1983–1985)
Retired[ar][66]
THRU
102nd
(1991–1993)
New York's 10th January 3, 1993 January 3, 2013 103rd
(1993–1995)
THRU
112th
(2011–2013)
Alan Wheat
(born 1951)
Missouri's 5th January 3, 1983 January 3, 1995 Democratic 98th
(1983–1985)
Retired to run unsuccessfully for the United States Senate[67]
THRU
103rd
(1993–1995)
Charles Hayes
(1918–1997)
Illinois's 1st August 23, 1983 January 3, 1993 Democratic 98th
(1983–1985)
Lost renomination[as][68]
THRU
102nd
(1991–1993)
Alton Waldon
(born 1936)
New York's 6th June 10, 1986 January 3, 1987 Democratic 99th
(1985–1987)
Lost renomination[at][69]
Mike Espy
(born 1953)
Mississippi's 2nd January 3, 1987 January 22, 1993 Democratic 100th
(1987–1989)
Resigned to become the United States Secretary of Agriculture.[70]
THRU
103rd
(1993–1995)
Floyd Flake
(born 1945)
New York's 6th January 3, 1987 November 17, 1997 Democratic 100th
(1987–1989)
Resigned to become a pastor at the Allen African Methodist Episcopal Church.[71]
THRU
105th
(1997–1999)
John Lewis
(1940–2020)
Georgia's 5th January 3, 1987 July 17, 2020 Democratic 100th
(1987–1989)
Died in office[au][72]
THRU
116th
(2019–2021)
Kweisi Mfume
(born 1948)
Maryland's 7th January 3, 1987 February 15, 1996 Democratic 100th
(1987–1989)
Resigned to become Executive Director of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).[av][73]
THRU
104th
(1995–1997)
May 5, 2020 Incumbent 116th
(2019–2021)
117th
(2021–2023)
Donald M. Payne
(1934–2012)
New Jersey's 10th January 3, 1989 March 6, 2012 Democratic 101st
(1989–1991)
Died in office[aw][74]
THRU
112th
(2011–2013)
Craig Washington
(born 1941)
Texas's 18th December 9, 1989 January 3, 1995 Democratic 101st
(1989–1991)
Lost renomination[ax][75]
102nd
(1991–1993)
103rd
(1993–1995)
Barbara-Rose Collins
(1939–2021)
Michigan's 13th January 3, 1991 January 3, 1993 Democratic 102nd
(1991–1993)
Lost renomination[76]
Michigan's 15th January 3, 1993 January 3, 1997 103rd
(1993–1995)
104th
(1995–1997)
Gary Franks
(born 1953)
Connecticut's 5th January 3, 1991 January 3, 1997 Republican 102nd
(1991–1993)
Lost reelection[ay][77]
103rd
(1993–1995)
104th
(1995–1997)
William J. Jefferson
(born 1947)
Louisiana's 2nd January 3, 1991 January 3, 2009 Democratic 102nd
(1991–1993)
Lost reelection after being indicted for bribery, of which he was later convicted.[78]
THRU
110th
(2007–2009)
Maxine Waters
(born 1938)
California's 29th January 3, 1991 January 3, 1993 Democratic 102nd
(1991–1993)
[az][79]
California's 35th January 3, 1993 January 3, 2013 103rd
(1993–1995)
THRU
112th
(2011–2013)
California's 43rd January 3, 2013 Incumbent 113th
(2013–2015)
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Lucien Blackwell
(1931–2003)
Pennsylvania's 2nd November 5, 1991 January 3, 1995 Democratic 102nd
(1991–1993)
Lost renomination[ba][80]
103rd
(1993–1995)
Eva Clayton
(born 1934)
North Carolina's 1st November 3, 1992 January 3, 2003 Democratic 102nd
(1991–1993)
Retired[bb][81]
THRU
107th
(2001–2003)
Sanford Bishop
(born 1947)
Georgia's 2nd January 3, 1993 Incumbent Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
[82]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Corrine Brown
(born 1946)
Florida's 3rd January 3, 1993 January 3, 2013 Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
Lost renomination after being indicted for fraud and tax-evasion, of which she was later convicted[83]
THRU
112th
(2011–2013)
Florida's 5th January 3, 2013 January 3, 2017 113th
(2013–2015)
114th
(2015–2017)
Jim Clyburn
(born 1940)
South Carolina's 6th January 3, 1993 Incumbent Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
[bc][84]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Cleo Fields
(born 1962)
Louisiana's 4th January 3, 1993 January 3, 1997 Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
Retired[bd][85]
104th
(1995–1997)
Alcee Hastings
(1936–2021)
Florida's 23rd January 3, 1993 January 3, 2013 Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
Died in office[86][87]
THRU
112th
(2011–2013)
Florida's 20th January 3, 2013 April 6, 2021 113th
(2013–2015)
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Earl Hilliard
(born 1942)
Alabama's 7th January 3, 1993 January 3, 2003 Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
Lost renomination[88]
THRU
107th
(2001–2003)
Eddie Bernice Johnson, Official Portrait, c112th Congress.jpg
Eddie Bernice Johnson
(born 1935)
Texas's 30th January 3, 1993 Incumbent Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
[be][89]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Cynthia McKinney
(born 1955)
Georgia's 11th January 3, 1993 January 3, 1997 Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
Lost renomination in 2002 and 2006[90]
104th
(1995–1997)
Georgia's 4th January 3, 1997 January 3, 2003 105th
(1997–1999)
THRU
107th
(2001–2003)
January 3, 2005 January 3, 2007 109th
(2005–2007)
Carrie Meek
(1926–2021)
Florida's 17th January 3, 1993 January 3, 2003 Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
Retired[bf][91]
THRU
107th
(2001–2003)
Mel Reynolds
(born 1952)
Illinois's 2nd January 3, 1993 October 1, 1995 Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
Resigned after being convicted on 12 counts of sexual assault, obstruction of justice and solicitation of child pornography and being sentenced to five years in prison.[92]
104th
(1995–1997)
Bobby Rush
(born 1946)
Illinois's 1st January 3, 1993 Incumbent Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
[93]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Bobby Scott
(born 1947)
Virginia's 3rd January 3, 1993 Incumbent Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
[94]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Walter R. Tucker III
(born 1957)
California's 37th January 3, 1993 December 15, 1995 Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
Resigned after being convicted of tax-evasion and extortion[bg][95]
104th
(1995–1997)
Melvinwatt.jpg
Mel Watt
(born 1945)
North Carolina's 12th January 3, 1993 January 6, 2014 Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
Resigned to become Director of the Federal Housing Finance Agency[bh][96]
THRU
113th
(2013–2015)
Albert Wynn
(born 1951)
Maryland's 4th January 3, 1993 May 31, 2008 Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
Resigned after losing renomination.[97]
THRU
110th
(2007–2009)
Bennie Thompson
(born 1948)
Mississippi's 2nd April 13, 1993 Incumbent Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
[bi][98]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Chaka Fattah
(born 1956)
Pennsylvania's 2nd January 3, 1995 June 23, 2016 Democratic 104th
(1995–1997)
Resigned following loss of renomination and convictions for racketeering, fraud, and money laundering.[99]
THRU
114th
(2015–2017)
SheilaJackson.JPG
Sheila Jackson Lee
(born 1950)
Texas's 18th January 3, 1995 Incumbent Democratic 104th
(1995–1997)
[100]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
J. C. Watts
(born 1957)
Oklahoma's 4th January 3, 1995 January 3, 2003 Republican 104th
(1995–1997)
Retired from office.[bj][101]
THRU
107th
(2001–2003)
Jesse Jackson Jr.
(born 1965)
Illinois's 2nd December 12, 1995 November 21, 2012 Democratic 104th
(1995–1997)
Resigned after being convicted of wire and mail fraud[bk][102]
THRU
112th
(2011–2013)
Juanita Millender-McDonald
(1938–2007)
California's 37th March 26, 1996 April 22, 2007 Democratic 104th
(1995–1997)
Died in office[bl][103]
THRU
110th
(2007–2009)
Elijah Cummings
(1951–2019)
Maryland's 7th April 16, 1996 October 17, 2019 Democratic 104th
(1995–1997)
Died in office[bm][104]
THRU
116th
(2019–2021)
Julia Carson
(1938–2007)
Indiana's 10th January 3, 1997 January 3, 2003 Democratic 105th
(1997–1999)
Died in office[bn][105]
THRU
107th
(2001–2003)
Indiana's 7th January 3, 2003 December 15, 2007 108th
(2003–2005)
THRU
110th
(2007–2009)
Danny K. Davis
(born 1941)
Illinois's 7th January 3, 1997 Incumbent Democratic 105th
(1997–1999)
[106]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Harold Ford Jr.
(born 1970)
Tennessee's 9th January 3, 1997 January 3, 2007 Democratic 105th
(1997–1999)
Retired to run unsuccessfully for the United States Senate[bo][107]
THRU
109th
(2005–2007)
Carolyn Cheeks Kirkpatrick, official portrait, 111th Congress.jpg
Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick
(born 1945)
Michigan's 15th January 3, 1997 January 3, 2003 Democratic 105th
(1997–1999)
Lost renomination[bp][108]
THRU
107th
(2001–2003)
Michigan's 13th January 3, 2003 January 3, 2011 108th
(2003–2005)
THRU
111th
(2009–2011)
Gregory Meeks
(born 1953)
New York's 6th February 3, 1998 January 3, 2013 Democratic 105th
(1997–1999)
[bq][109]
THRU
112th
(2011–2013)
New York's 5th January 3, 2013 Incumbent 113th
(2013–2015)
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Barbara Lee
(born 1946)
California's 9th April 7, 1998 January 3, 2013 Democratic 105th
(1997–1999)
[br][110]
THRU
112th
(2011–2013)
California's 13th January 3, 2013 Incumbent 113th
(2013–2015)
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Stephanie Tubbs Jones
(1949–2008)
Ohio's 11th January 3, 1999 August 20, 2008 Democratic 106th
(1999–2001)
Died in office[111]
THRU
110th
(2007–2009)
Lacy Clay
(born 1956)
Missouri's 1st January 3, 2001 January 3, 2021 Democratic 107th
(2001–2003)
Lost renomination[bs][112]
THRU
116th
(2019–2021)
Diane Watson
(born 1933)
California's 32nd June 5, 2001 January 3, 2003 Democratic 107th
(2001–2003)
Retired[bt][113]
California's 33rd January 3, 2003 January 3, 2011 108th
(2003–2005)
THRU
111th
(2009–2011)
Frank Ballance
(1942–2019)
North Carolina's 1st January 3, 2003 June 11, 2004 Democratic 108th
(2003–2005)
Resigned after being convicted of mail fraud and money laundering[114]
Artur Davis
(born 1967)
Alabama's 7th January 3, 2003 January 3, 2011 Democratic 108th
(2003–2005)
Retired to run unsuccessfully for the Democratic nomination for Governor of Alabama.[bu][115]
THRU
111th
(2009–2011)
Denise Majette
(born 1955)
Georgia's 4th January 3, 2003 January 3, 2005 Democratic 108th
(2003–2005)
Retired from office to run unsuccessfully for the United States Senate[116]
Kendrick Meek
(born 1966)
Florida's 17th January 3, 2003 January 3, 2011 Democratic 108th
(2003–2005)
Retired from office to run unsuccessfully for the United States Senate[bv][117]
THRU
111th
(2009–2011)
David Scott
(born 1945)
Georgia's 13th January 3, 2003 Incumbent Democratic 108th
(2003–2005)
[118]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
G. K. Butterfield
(born 1947)
North Carolina's 1st July 20, 2004 Incumbent Democratic 108th
(2003–2005)
[bw][119]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Emanuel Cleaver
(born 1944)
Missouri's 5th January 3, 2005 Incumbent Democratic 109th
(2005–2007)
[bx][120]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Al Green
(born 1947)
Texas's 9th January 3, 2005 Incumbent Democratic 109th
(2005–2007)
[121]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Gwen Moore
(born 1951)
Wisconsin's 4th January 3, 2005 Incumbent Democratic 109th
(2005–2007)
[by]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Yvette Clarke
(born 1964)
New York's 11th January 3, 2007 January 3, 2013 Democratic 110th
(2007–2009)
[123]
THRU
112th
(2011–2013)
New York's 9th January 3, 2013 Incumbent 113th
(2013–2015)
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Keith Ellison
(born 1963)
Minnesota's 5th January 3, 2007 January 3, 2019 Democratic 110th
(2007–2009)
Retired to run successfully for Attorney General of Minnesota[bz][124]
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
Hank Johnson
(born 1954)
Georgia's 4th January 3, 2007 Incumbent Democratic 110th
(2007–2009)
[125]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Laura Richardson
(born 1962)
California's 37th August 21, 2007 January 3, 2013 Democratic 110th
(2007–2009)
Lost reelection[ca][126]
111th
(2009–2011)
112th
(2011–2013)
André Carson
(born 1974)
Indiana's 7th March 11, 2008 Incumbent Democratic 110th
(2007–2009)
[cb][127]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Donna Edwards
(born 1958)
Maryland's 4th June 17, 2008 January 3, 2017 Democratic 110th
(2007–2009)
Retired to run unsuccessfully for the Democratic nomination for the United States Senate[cc][128]
THRU
114th
(2015–2017)
Marcia Fudge
(born 1952)
Ohio's 11th November 18, 2008 March 10, 2021 Democratic 110th
(2007–2009)
Resigned to become Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.[cd][129]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Karen Bass
(born 1953)
California's 33rd January 3, 2011 January 3, 2013 Democratic 112th
(2011–2013)
[130]
California's 37th January 3, 2013 Incumbent 113th
(2013–2015)
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Hansen Clarke
(born 1957)
Michigan's 13th January 3, 2011 January 3, 2013 Democratic 112th
(2011–2013)
Lost renomination[131]
Cedric Richmond
(born 1973)
Louisiana's 2nd January 3, 2011 January 15, 2021 Democratic 112th
(2011–2013)
Resigned to become Senior Advisor to the President and Director of the Office of Public Engagement[ce][132]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Tim Scott
(born 1965)
South Carolina's 1st January 3, 2011 January 2, 2013 Republican 112th
(2011–2013)
Resigned to become United States Senator following appointment.[cf][133]
Terri Sewell
(born 1965)
Alabama's 7th January 3, 2011 Incumbent Democratic 112th
(2011–2013)
[cg][134]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Allen West
(born 1961)
Florida's 22nd January 3, 2011 January 3, 2013 Republican 112th
(2011–2013)
Lost reelection[135]
Frederica Wilson
(born 1942)
Florida's 17th January 3, 2011 January 3, 2013 Democratic 112th
(2011–2013)
[136]
Florida's 24th January 3, 2013 Incumbent 113th
(2013–2015)
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Donald Payne Jr.
(born 1958)
New Jersey's 10th November 6, 2012 Incumbent Democratic 112th
(2011–2013)
[ch][137]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Joyce Beatty
(born 1950)
Ohio's 3rd January 3, 2013 Incumbent Democratic 113th
(2013–2015)
[138]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Steven Horsford
(born 1973)
Nevada's 4th January 3, 2013 January 3, 2015 Democratic 113th
(2013–2015)
Lost reelection[ci][139]
January 3, 2019 Incumbent 116th
(2019–2021)
117th
(2021–2023)
Hakeem Jeffries
(born 1970)
New York's 8th January 3, 2013 Incumbent Democratic 113th
(2013–2015)
[140]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Marc Veasey
(born 1971)
Texas's 33rd January 3, 2013 Incumbent Democratic 113th
(2013–2015)
[141]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Robin Kelly
(born 1956)
Illinois's 2nd April 9, 2013 Incumbent Democratic 113th
(2013–2015)
[cj][142]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Alma Adams
(born 1946)
North Carolina's 12th November 12, 2014 Incumbent Democratic 113th
(2013–2015)
[ck][143]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Bonnie Watson Coleman
(born 1945)
New Jersey's 12th January 3, 2015 Incumbent Democratic 114th
(2015–2017)
[144]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Will Hurd
(born 1977)
Texas's 23rd January 3, 2015 January 3, 2021 Republican 114th
(2015–2017)
Retired[145]
115th
(2017–2019)
116th
(2019–2021)
Brenda Lawrence
(born 1954)
Michigan's 14th January 3, 2015 Incumbent Democratic 114th
(2015–2017)
[146]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Mia Love
(born 1975)
Utah's 4th January 3, 2015 January 3, 2019 Republican 114th
(2015–2017)
Lost reelection[cl][148]
115th
(2017–2019)
Dwight Evans
(born 1954)
Pennsylvania's 2nd November 8, 2016 Incumbent Democratic 114th
(2015–2017)
[cm][149]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Anthony G. Brown
(born 1961)
Maryland's 4th January 3, 2017 Incumbent Democratic 115th
(2017–2019)
[150]
116th
(2019–2021)
117th
(2021–2023)
Val Demings
(born 1957)
Florida's 10th January 3, 2017 Incumbent Democratic 115th
(2017–2019)
[151]
116th
(2019–2021)
117th
(2021–2023)
Al Lawson
(born 1948)
Florida's 5th January 3, 2017 Incumbent Democratic 115th
(2017–2019)
[152]
116th
(2019–2021)
117th
(2021–2023)
Donald McEachin
(born 1961)
Virginia's 4th January 3, 2017 Incumbent Democratic 115th
(2017–2019)
[153]
116th
(2019–2021)
117th
(2021–2023)
Lisa Blunt Rochester
(born 1962)
Delaware's at-large January 3, 2017 Incumbent Democratic 115th
(2017–2019)
[cn][154][155]
116th
(2019–2021)
117th
(2021–2023)
Brenda Jones
(born 1959)
Michigan's 13th November 29, 2018 January 3, 2019 Democratic 115th
(2017–2019)
Lost nomination to the next term[co][156]
Colin Allred
(born 1983)
Texas's 32nd January 3, 2019 Incumbent Democratic 116th
(2019–2021)
[157]
117th
(2021–2023)
Antonio Delgado
(born 1977)
New York's 19th January 3, 2019 May 25, 2022 Democratic 116th
(2019–2021)
Resigned to become Lieutenant Governor of New York.
117th
(2021–2023)
Jahana Hayes
(born 1973)
Connecticut's 5th January 3, 2019 Incumbent Democratic 116th
(2019–2021)
[cp][158]
117th
(2021–2023)
Lucy McBath
(born 1960)
Georgia's 6th January 3, 2019 Incumbent Democratic 116th
(2019–2021)
[159]
117th
(2021–2023)
Joe Neguse
(born 1984)
Colorado's 2nd January 3, 2019 Incumbent Democratic 116th
(2019–2021)
[cq][160][161]
117th
(2021–2023)
Ilhan Omar
(born 1981)
Minnesota's 5th January 3, 2019 Incumbent Democratic 116th
(2019–2021)
[cr][162]
117th
(2021–2023)
Ayanna Pressley
(born 1974)
Massachusetts's 7th January 3, 2019 Incumbent Democratic 116th
(2019–2021)
[cs][163]
117th
(2021–2023)
Lauren Underwood
(born 1986)
Illinois's 14th January 3, 2019 Incumbent Democratic 116th
(2019–2021)
[164]
117th
(2021–2023)
Kwanza Hall
(born 1971)
Georgia's 5th December 3, 2020 January 3, 2021 Democratic 116th
(2019–2021)
Retired[ct][165]
Jamaal Bowman
(born 1976)
New York's 16th January 3, 2021 Incumbent Democratic 117th
(2021–2023)
[166]
Cori Bush
(born 1976)
Missouri's 1st January 3, 2021 Incumbent Democratic 117th
(2021–2023)
[167]
Byron Donalds
(born 1978)
Florida's 19th January 3, 2021 Incumbent Republican 117th
(2021–2023)
[168]
Mondaire Jones
(born 1987)
New York's 17th January 3, 2021 Incumbent Democratic 117th
(2021–2023)
[169]
Burgess Owens
(born 1951)
Utah's 4th January 3, 2021 Incumbent Republican 117th
(2021–2023)
[170]
Marilyn Strickland
(born 1962)
Washington's 10th January 3, 2021 Incumbent Democratic 117th
(2021–2023)
[cu][171]
Ritchie Torres
(born 1988)
New York's 15th January 3, 2021 Incumbent Democratic 117th
(2021–2023)
[cv][172][173]
Nikema Williams
(born 1978)
Georgia's 5th January 3, 2021 Incumbent Democratic 117th
(2021–2023)
[174]
Troy Carter
(born 1963)
Louisiana's 2nd May 11, 2021 Incumbent Democratic 117th
(2021–2023)
[175]
Shontel Brown
(born 1975)
Ohio's 11th November 4, 2021 Incumbent Democratic 117th
(2021–2023)
[176]
Sheila Cherfilus-McCormick
(born 1979)
Florida's 20th January 18, 2022 Incumbent Democratic 117th
(2021–2023)
[177]

House delegates (non-voting members)

Political parties

  Democratic   Republican   Independent

Delegate[cw] Congressional district Took office Left office Party Congress Note
Walter Fauntroy
(born 1933)
District of Columbia's at-large March 23, 1971 January 3, 1991 Democratic 92nd
(1971–1973)
Retired to run unsuccessfully for Mayor of the District of Columbia.[cx][178]
THRU
101st
(1989–1991)
Melvin H. Evans
(1917–1984)
Virgin Islands' at-large January 3, 1979 January 3, 1981 Republican 96th
(1979–1981)
Lost reelection[cy][179]
Eleanor Holmes Norton
(born 1937)
District of Columbia's at-large January 3, 1991 Incumbent Democratic 102nd
(1991–1993)
[180]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)
Victor O. Frazer
(born 1943)
Virgin Islands' at-large January 3, 1995 January 3, 1997 Independent 104th
(1995–1997)
Lost reelection[181]
Donna Christian-Christensen
(born 1945)
Virgin Islands' at-large January 3, 1997 January 3, 2015 Democratic 105th
(1997–1999)
Retired to run unsuccessfully for Governor of Virgin Islands.[cz][182]
THRU
113th
(2013–2015)
Stacey Plaskett
(born 1966)
Virgin Islands' at-large January 3, 2015 Incumbent Democratic 114th
(2015–2017)
[183]
THRU
117th
(2021–2023)

African Americans elected to the House of Representatives, but not seated

Political party

  Republican

Representative–elect Congressional district Year elected Party Congress Former slave? Note
John Willis Menard
(1838–1893)
Louisiana's 2nd 1868 Republican 41st
(1869–1871)
No Denied seat due to a contested election that involved white Democrat Caleb S. Hunt, but was permitted to address the House while in session, the first African American to do so.[da][185]
P. B. S. Pinchback
(1837–1921)
Louisiana's at-large 1872 Republican 43rd
(1873–1875)
No Denied seat due to a contested election that involved white Liberal Republican George A. Sheridan.[186][187]

See also

Federal government

State and local government

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Representatives are organized first in chronological order according to their first term in office, then second in alphabetical order according to their surname.
  2. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by resignation of Benjamin Whittemore. First African American to serve in the United States House of Representatives and the first to serve in Congress from South Carolina.
  3. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by the House of Representatives denial to seat Samuel F. Gove. First African American to serve in Congress from Georgia.
  4. ^ The seat remained vacant until March 1873.
  5. ^ Elected in November 1874 to the South Carolina House of Representatives.
  6. ^ First African American to serve in Congress from Alabama.
  7. ^ First African American to serve in Congress from Florida.
  8. ^ Seated in Congress after contested election that involved James Chalmers in 1882.[15] First African American to serve in the United States House of Representatives from Mississippi. Youngest member of the 43rd United States Congress at age 26.
  9. ^ Lieutenant Governor of South Carolina (1870-1872)
  10. ^ First African American to serve in Congress from North Carolina.
  11. ^ First African American to serve in Congress from Louisiana.
  12. ^ Seated in Congress after contested election that involved George Tillman in 1882.[22] Elected in 1884 to fill vacancy caused by death of Edmund Mackey.
  13. ^ Brother-in-law of George Henry White.
  14. ^ Seated in Congress after the contested election that involved Edward Venable in September 1890.[26] First African American to serve in Congress from Virginia.
  15. ^ Seated in Congress after contested election that involved William Elliott in September 1890.
  16. ^ Seated in Congress after contested election that involved William Elliott in June 1896.[30] Distant relative of Jim Clyburn.
  17. ^ Brother-in-law of Henry P. Cheatham. The last African American to serve in Congress from a Southern state until Barbara Jordan from Texas and Andrew Young from Georgia in 1973.
  18. ^ First African American to serve in Congress from Illinois and the first to serve from outside the southern states.
  19. ^ First African American to be elected to Congress as a member of the Democratic party.
  20. ^ Excluded from membership in the 90th United States Congress in February 1967. Reelected to fill vacancy caused by exclusion from membership, but did not take oath of office. First African American to serve in Congress from New York.
  21. ^ First African American to serve in Congress from Michigan. The first person to serve as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 91st United States Congress during the first session.
  22. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of Earl Chudoff in 1958. First African American to serve in Congress from Pennsylvania.
  23. ^ First African American to serve in Congress from California.
  24. ^ First African American to become Dean of the United States House of Representatives.
  25. ^ First African-American woman to serve in Congress and the first African-American woman to run as a presidential candidate in 1972.
  26. ^ His son, Lacy Clay, succeeded him in office. First African American to serve in Congress from Missouri.
  27. ^ First African American to serve in Congress from Ohio. Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 92nd United States Congress during the second session and in the 93rd United States Congress during the first session.
  28. ^ Elected to Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Daniel Ronan. Collins' wife, Cardiss Collins, filled the vacancy caused by his death.
  29. ^ Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 101st United States Congress.
  30. ^ First African-American Catholic in the United States Congress. Metcalfe converted to the Catholic Church in 1932, while an undergraduate at Marquette University.[46][47]
  31. ^ First African American to serve in Congress from Maryland. Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 95th United States Congress.
  32. ^ Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 93rd United States Congress during the second session and in the 94th United States Congress during the first session.
  33. ^ First woman to serve as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 94th United States Congress during the second session.
  34. ^ First African American to serve in Congress from Texas. Along with Andrew Young from Georgia, the first African American to serve in Congress from a Southern state since George Henry White from North Carolina in 1901.
  35. ^ Along with Barbara Jordan from Texas, the first African American to serve in Congress from a Southern state since George Henry White from North Carolina in 1901.
  36. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by the death of her husband, George W. Collins. Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 96th United States Congress.
  37. ^ His son, Harold Ford Jr. succeeded him in office. First African American to serve in Congress from Tennessee.
  38. ^ Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 98th United States Congress.
  39. ^ Served as chair for the House Democratic Caucus during the 101st United States Congress and House Democratic Whip during the 102nd United States Congress.
  40. ^ Served as chair for the Congressional Black Caucus in the 99th United States Congress.
  41. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of Charles Diggs.
  42. ^ Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 100th United States Congress.
  43. ^ Elected to Congress to fill vacancy caused by the death of Adam Benjamin Jr. First African American to serve in Congress from Indiana.
  44. ^ Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 102nd United States Congress.
  45. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by resignation of Harold Washington.
  46. ^ Elected to Congress to fill vacancy caused by the death of Joseph Addabbo.
  47. ^ Served as Democratic chief whip in the 102nd through 109th Congresses. Also, served as the Democratic Senior Chief Deputy Whip in the 110th through 112th Congresses.
  48. ^ Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 103rd United States Congress. Also, served as co-chair of the Democratic Policy Committee in the 104th United States Congress. Subsequently elected to fill vacancy caused by death of Elijah Cummings.
  49. ^ His son, Donald Payne Jr., succeeded him in office. First African American to serve in Congress from New Jersey. Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 104th United States Congress.
  50. ^ Elected to office to fill vacancy caused by death of Mickey Leland.
  51. ^ First African American to serve in Congress from Connecticut.
  52. ^ Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 105th United States Congress. Served as vice chair of the Democratic Steering Committee in the 105th through 108th Congresses. Served as Democratic chief deputy whip in the 106th through 112th Congresses.
  53. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of William H. Gray.
  54. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by death of Walter B. Jones Sr. Served as co-chair of the Democratic Policy Committee in the 104th United States Congress.
  55. ^ Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 106th United States Congress. Served as vice chair of the House Democratic Caucus in the 108th through 109th Congresses. Served as House majority whip in the 110th through 111th Congresses. Served as the Assistant Democratic Leader in the 112th United States Congress. Distant relative of George W. Murray.
  56. ^ Youngest member of the 103rd United States Congress at age 30.
  57. ^ Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 107th United States Congress.
  58. ^ Her son, Kendrick Meek, succeeded her in office.
  59. ^ Tucker was sentenced to 27 months in prison.
  60. ^ Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 109th United States Congress.
  61. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by resignation of Mike Espy.
  62. ^ First African American to serve in Congress from Oklahoma. Served as chair of the House Republican Conference in the 106th through 107th Congresses.
  63. ^ He was sentenced to 30 months in federal prison. Elected to fill vacancy caused by resignation of Mel Reynolds.
  64. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by resignation of Walter Tucker.
  65. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by resignation of Kweisi Mfume. Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 108th United States Congress.
  66. ^ Carson's grandson, André Carson, filled the vacancy caused by her death.
  67. ^ Succeeded his father, Harold Ford Sr., in office. Youngest member of the 105th United States Congress at age 26.
  68. ^ Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 110th United States Congress.
  69. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by resignation of Floyd H. Flake.
  70. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by resignation of Ron Dellums. Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 111th United States Congress.
  71. ^ Succeeded his father, Bill Clay, in office.
  72. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by death of Julian C. Dixon.
  73. ^ Became a member of the Republican Party in 2012.
  74. ^ Succeeded his mother, Carrie P. Meek, in office.
  75. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of Frank Ballance. Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 114th United States Congress.
  76. ^ Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 112th United States Congress.
  77. ^ First African American to serve in Congress from Wisconsin.[122]
  78. ^ First African American to serve in Congress from Minnesota and the first Muslim to serve in Congress.
  79. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by death of Juanita Millender-McDonald. In 2012 was reprimanded due to use of Congressional office staff in 2010 House election campaign.
  80. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by the death of his grandmother, Julia Carson.
  81. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by resignation of Albert Wynn.
  82. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by death of Stephanie Tubbs Jones. Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 113th United States Congress.
  83. ^ Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 115th United States Congress.
  84. ^ Served as Republican assistant majority whip in the 112th United States Congress. First African American to serve in both chambers of the United States Congress.
  85. ^ Served as Democratic senior whip in the 112th United States Congress.
  86. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by the death of his father, Donald M. Payne.
  87. ^ First African American to serve in Congress from Nevada.
  88. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of Jesse Jackson Jr.
  89. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of Mel Watt.
  90. ^ First female African-American Republican to serve in Congress, first African American to serve in Congress from Utah and first Haitian American to serve in Congress. Also the first African-American Latter Day Saint elected to Congress after converting in 1998.[147]
  91. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of Chaka Fattah.
  92. ^ First African American to serve in Congress from Delaware.
  93. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by resignation of John Conyers.
  94. ^ First African-American woman to serve in Congress from Connecticut.
  95. ^ First African American to serve in Congress from Colorado and first Eritrean American to serve in Congress.
  96. ^ First Somali-American to serve in Congress. Along with Rashida Tlaib, the first Muslim-American woman to serve in Congress.
  97. ^ First African-American woman to serve in Congress from Massachusetts.
  98. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by the death of John Lewis, for a term that ended at the conclusion of the 116th United States Congress on January 3, 2021.
  99. ^ First African American to serve in Congress from Washington. Also first Afro-Asian woman elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.[171]
  100. ^ First LGBTQ African American to serve in Congress.[172]
  101. ^ Delegates are organized first in chronological order according to their first term in office, then second in alphabetical order according to their surname.
  102. ^ First African American to serve as a delegate for the District of Columbia. Elected to serve in Congress after the District of Columbia was authorized to elect a Delegate by the District of Columbia Delegate Act of 1970. Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 97th United States Congress.
  103. ^ First African American to serve in Congress from the Virgin Islands.
  104. ^ First woman elected to serve in Congress from the Virgin Islands.
  105. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by death of James Mann.[184] First African American elected to Congress, but denied seat.

References

  1. ^ "Black Americans in Congress". Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. Retrieved June 20, 2017.
  2. ^ "2020 Census Questions: Race". Archived from the original on March 12, 2020.
  3. ^ "Time Line of African American History, 1881-1900". Library of Congress. Retrieved October 22, 2007.
  4. ^ a b Terkel, Amanda (September 27, 2012). "Senate Likely To Remain Without Black Members For Years". HuffPost. Retrieved February 9, 2013.
  5. ^ "Rainey, Joseph Hayne, (1832 - 1887)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  6. ^ "Long, Jefferson Franklin, (1836 - 1901)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  7. ^ Rowell, Chester Harvey (1901). A Historical and Legal Digest of all the Contested Election Cases in the House of Representatives of the United States from the First to the Fifty-sixth Congress, 1789-1901. United States. Congress. House. Committee on House Administration. Subcommittee on Elections. p. 282. ISBN 9785880686292.
  8. ^ "De Large, Robert Carlos, (1842 - 1874)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  9. ^ "Elliott, Robert Brown, (1842 - 1884)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  10. ^ "Turner, Benjamin Sterling, (1825 - 1894)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  11. ^ Rowell, Chester Harvey (1901). A Historical and Legal Digest of all the Contested Election Cases in the House of Representatives of the United States from the First to the Fifty-sixth Congress, 1789-1901. United States. Congress. House. Committee on House Administration. Subcommittee on Elections. pp. 282–283. ISBN 9785880686292.
  12. ^ Rowell, Chester Harvey (1901). A Historical and Legal Digest of all the Contested Election Cases in the House of Representatives of the United States from the First to the Fifty-sixth Congress, 1789-1901. United States. Congress. House. Committee on House Administration. Subcommittee on Elections. pp. 305–308. ISBN 9785880686292.
  13. ^ "Walls, Josiah Thomas, (1842 - 1905)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  14. ^ "Cain, Richard Harvey, (1825 - 1887)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  15. ^ Rowell, Chester Harvey (1901). A Historical and Legal Digest of all the Contested Election Cases in the House of Representatives of the United States from the First to the Fifty-sixth Congress, 1789-1901. United States. Congress. House. Committee on House Administration. Subcommittee on Elections. pp. 375–378. ISBN 9785880686292.
  16. ^ "Lynch, John Roy, (1847 - 1939)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  17. ^ "Ransier, Alonzo Jacob, (1834 - 1882)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  18. ^ "Rapier, James Thomas, (1837 - 1883)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  19. ^ "Haralson, Jeremiah, (1846 - 1916)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  20. ^ "Hyman, John Adams, (1840 - 1891)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  21. ^ "Nash, Charles Edmund, (1844 - 1913)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  22. ^ Rowell, Chester Harvey (1901). A Historical and Legal Digest of all the Contested Election Cases in the House of Representatives of the United States from the First to the Fifty-sixth Congress, 1789-1901. United States. Congress. House. Committee on House Administration. Subcommittee on Elections. pp. 381–384. ISBN 9785880686292.
  23. ^ "Smalls, Robert, (1839 - 1915)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  24. ^ "O'Hara, James Edward, (1844 - 1905)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  25. ^ "Cheatham, Henry Plummer, (1857 - 1935)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  26. ^ Rowell, Chester Harvey (1901). A Historical and Legal Digest of all the Contested Election Cases in the House of Representatives of the United States from the First to the Fifty-sixth Congress, 1789-1901. United States. Congress. House. Committee on House Administration. Subcommittee on Elections. pp. 458–460. ISBN 9785880686292.
  27. ^ "Langston, John Mercer, (1829 - 1897)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  28. ^ Rowell, Chester Harvey (1901). A Historical and Legal Digest of all the Contested Election Cases in the House of Representatives of the United States from the First to the Fifty-sixth Congress, 1789-1901. United States. Congress. House. Committee on House Administration. Subcommittee on Elections. pp. 461–464. ISBN 9785880686292.
  29. ^ "Miller, Thomas Ezekiel, (1849 - 1938)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  30. ^ Rowell, Chester Harvey (1901). A Historical and Legal Digest of all the Contested Election Cases in the House of Representatives of the United States from the First to the Fifty-sixth Congress, 1789-1901. United States. Congress. House. Committee on House Administration. Subcommittee on Elections. pp. 543–546. ISBN 9785880686292.
  31. ^ "Murray, George Washington, (1853 - 1926)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  32. ^ "White, George Henry, (1852 - 1918)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  33. ^ "De Priest, Oscar Stanton, (1871 - 1951)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  34. ^ "Mitchell, Arthur Wergs, (1883 - 1968)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  35. ^ "Dawson, William Levi, (1886 - 1970)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  36. ^ "Powell, Adam Clayton, Jr., (1908 - 1972)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  37. ^ "Diggs, Charles Coles, Jr., (1922 - 1998)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  38. ^ "Nix, Robert Nelson Cornelius, Sr., (1898 - 1987)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  39. ^ "Hawkins, Augustus Freeman (Gus), (1907 - 2007)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  40. ^ "Conyers, John, Jr., (1929 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  41. ^ "Chisholm, Shirley Anita, (1924 - 2005)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  42. ^ "Clay, William Lacy, Sr., (1931 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  43. ^ "Stokes, Louis, (1925 - 2015)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  44. ^ "Collins, George Washington, (1925 - 1972)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  45. ^ "Dellums, Ronald V., (1935–)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  46. ^ Metcalfe, Ralph H. (1938). "A Race Well Run". Catholicism.org.
  47. ^ Rhoads, Mark (November 13, 2006). "Illinois Hall of Fame: Ralph Metcalfe". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  48. ^ "Metcalfe, Ralph Harold, (1910–1978)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  49. ^ "Mitchell, Parren James, (1922–2007)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  50. ^ "Rangel, Charles B., (1930–)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  51. ^ "Burke, Yvonne Brathwaite, (1932–)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  52. ^ "Jordan, Barbara Charline, (1936–1996)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  53. ^ "Young, Andrew Jackson, Jr., (1932–)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  54. ^ "Collins, Cardiss, (1931–2013)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  55. ^ "Ford, Harold Eugene, (1945–)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  56. ^ "Dixon, Julian Carey, (1934–2000)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  57. ^ "Gray, William Herbert, III, (1941–2013)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  58. ^ "Leland, George Thomas (Mickey), (1944 - 1989)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  59. ^ "Stewart, Bennett McVey, (1912–1988)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  60. ^ "Crockett, George William, Jr., (1909–1997)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  61. ^ "Dymally, Mervyn Malcolm, (1926–2012)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  62. ^ "Savage, Gus, (1925–2015)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  63. ^ "Washington, Harold, (1922–1987)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  64. ^ "Hall, Katie Beatrice, (1938–2012)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  65. ^ "Owens, Major Robert Odell, (1936 - 2013)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  66. ^ "Towns, Edolphus, (1934 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  67. ^ "Wheat, Alan Dupree, (1951 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  68. ^ "Hayes, Charles Arthur, (1918 - 1997)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  69. ^ "Waldon, Alton R., Jr., (1936 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  70. ^ "Espy, Alphonso Michael (Mike), (1953 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  71. ^ "Flake, Floyd Harold, (1945 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  72. ^ "Lewis, John R., (1940–2020)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  73. ^ "Mfume, Kweisi, (1948 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  74. ^ "Payne, Donald Milford, (1934 - 2012)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  75. ^ "Washington, Craig Anthony, (1941 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  76. ^ "Collins, Barbara-Rose, (1939 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  77. ^ "Franks, Gary A., (1953 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  78. ^ "Jefferson, William Jennings, (1947 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  79. ^ "Waters, Maxine, (1938 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  80. ^ "Blackwell, Lucien Edward, (1931 - 2003)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  81. ^ "Clayton, Eva M., (1934 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  82. ^ "Bishop, Sanford Dixon, Jr., (1947 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  83. ^ "Brown, Corrine, (1946 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  84. ^ "Clyburn, James Enos, (1940 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  85. ^ "Fields, Cleo, (1962 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  86. ^ Man, Anthony (April 6, 2021). "Congressman Alcee Hastings, after career of triumph, calamity and comeback, dies at 84". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved April 6, 2021.
  87. ^ "Hastings, Alcee Lamar, (1936 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  88. ^ "Hilliard, Earl Frederick, (1942 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  89. ^ "Johnson, Eddie Bernice, (1935 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  90. ^ "McKinney, Cynthia Ann, (1955 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  91. ^ "Meek, Carrie P., (1926 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  92. ^ "Reynolds, Mel, (1952 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  93. ^ "Rush, Bobby L., (1946 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  94. ^ "Scott, Robert Cortez, (1947 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  95. ^ "Tucker, Walter R., III, (1957 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  96. ^ "Watt, Melvin L., (1945 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  97. ^ "Wynn, Albert Russell, (1951 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  98. ^ "Thompson, Bennie, (1948 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  99. ^ "Fattah, Chaka, (1956 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  100. ^ "Jackson Lee, Sheila, (1950 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  101. ^ "Watts, Julius Caesar, Jr. (J. C.), (1957 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  102. ^ "Jackson, Jesse L., Jr., (1965 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  103. ^ "Millender-McDonald, Juanita, (1938 - 2007)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  104. ^ "Cummings, Elijah Eugene, (1951 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  105. ^ "Carson, Julia May, (1938 - 2007)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  106. ^ "Davis, Danny K., (1941 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  107. ^ "Ford, Harold, Jr., (1970 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  108. ^ "Kilpatrick, Carolyn Cheeks, (1945 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  109. ^ "Meeks, Gregory W., (1953 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  110. ^ "Lee, Barbara, (1946 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  111. ^ "Jones, Stephanie Tubbs, (1949 - 2008)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  112. ^ "Clay, William Lacy, Jr., (1956 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  113. ^ "Watson, Diane Edith, (1933 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  114. ^ "Ballance, Frank W., Jr., (1942 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  115. ^ "Davis, Artur, (1967 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Archived from the original on March 10, 2013. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  116. ^ "Majette, Denise L., (1955 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  117. ^ "Meek, Kendrick B., (1966 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  118. ^ "Scott, David, (1945 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  119. ^ "Butterfield, George Kenneth, Jr. (G.K.), (1947 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
  120. ^ "Cleaver, Emanuel, II, (1944 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  121. ^ "Green, Al, (1947 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  122. ^ "Moore, Gwendolynne S. (Gwen), (1951 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  123. ^ "Clarke, Yvette Diane, (1964 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  124. ^ "Ellison, Keith, (1963 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  125. ^ "Johnson, Hank, (1954 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  126. ^ "Richardson, Laura, (1962 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  127. ^ "Carson, André, (1974 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  128. ^ "Edwards, Donna F., (1958 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  129. ^ "Fudge, Marcia L., (1952 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  130. ^ "Bass, Karen, (1953 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  131. ^ "Clarke, Hansen, (1957 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  132. ^ "Richmond, Cedric, (1973 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  133. ^ "Scott, Tim, (1965 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  134. ^ "Sewell, Terri, (1965 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  135. ^ "West, Allen, (1961 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  136. ^ "Wilson, Frederica, (1942 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  137. ^ "Payne, Donald, Jr., (1958 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  138. ^ "Beatty, Joyce, (1950 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  139. ^ "Horsford, Steven, (1973 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  140. ^ "Jeffries, Hakeem, (1970 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  141. ^ "Veasey, Marc, (1971 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved November 17, 2014.
  142. ^ "Kelly, Robin L., (1956 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  143. ^ "Adams, Alma, (1946 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved November 13, 2014.
  144. ^ "Watson Coleman, Bonnie, (1945 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
  145. ^ "Hurd, William Ballard, (1977 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
  146. ^ "Lawrence, Brenda L., (1954 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
  147. ^ Love, David A. (December 18, 2013). "Mia Love poised to make a political comeback". The Grio. Archived from the original on November 5, 2014.
  148. ^ "Love, Ludmya Bourdeau (Mia), (1975 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
  149. ^ "Evans, Dwight, (1954 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved January 3, 2017.
  150. ^ "Brown, Anthony Gregory, (1961 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved January 3, 2017.
  151. ^ "Demings, Valdez Butler, (1957 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved January 3, 2017.
  152. ^ "Lawson, Alfred Jr., (1948 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved January 3, 2017.
  153. ^ "McEachin, Aston Donald, (1961 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved January 3, 2017.
  154. ^ Byrne, Tom (November 9, 2016). "Blunt Rochester Scores History-making Win in Delaware's U.S. House Race". Delaware Public Media. Retrieved 26 May 2017.
  155. ^ "Blunt Rochester, Lisa, (1962 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved January 3, 2017.
  156. ^ Burke, Melissa Nann (November 29, 2018). "Jones Sworn into Congress After Deal Reached". The Detroit News. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
  157. ^ Jeffers, Gromer Jr. (November 6, 2018). "Democrat Colin Allred Grabs Dallas-area U.S. House Seat From GOP's Pete Sessions". Dallas Morning News. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  158. ^ Altimari, Daniela; Lurye, Rebecca (November 6, 2018). "Jahana Hayes Wins, Becomes 1st Black Woman From Connecticut In Congress". Hartford Courant. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  159. ^ "Mother On a Mission: Gun Control Advocate Lucy McBath Wins House Race". Yahoo Finance. November 8, 2018. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  160. ^ Bounds, Amy (November 7, 2018). "Joe Neguse Wins 2nd Congressional District Seat, Becomes Colorado's 1st Black Congressman". The Denver Post. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  161. ^ "Joe Neguse Becomes First African-American To Represent Colorado In Congress". CBS Denver. November 6, 2018. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  162. ^ Cole, Devan; Serfaty, Sunlen (January 3, 2019). "On the Eve of Her Swearing-in to Congress, Rep.-elect Ilhan Omar Remembers Arriving as a Refugee to the US". CNN. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
  163. ^ Kole, William J. (November 6, 2018). "Ayanna Pressley is Officially Massachusetts's First Black Congresswoman". Associated Press. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  164. ^ Keilman, John; Gutowski, Christy; McCoppin, Robert (November 7, 2018). "Lauren Underwood On Stunning Upset Against 4-term GOP Congressman: 'Together We Have Built a Movement'". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  165. ^ King, Michael (December 3, 2020). "Kwanza Hall Sworn in as U.S. Congressman". 11 Alive. Retrieved December 6, 2020.
  166. ^ "Election 2020: Democrat Jamaal Bowman Wins Race In 16th Congressional District". CBSN New York. November 3, 2020. Retrieved November 10, 2020.
  167. ^ "Missouri's First Black Congresswoman-elect Cori Bush: 'This is Our Moment'". Yahoo! News. November 7, 2020. Retrieved November 10, 2020.
  168. ^ Williams, Amy Bennett (November 3, 2020). "'Blessed and Highly Favored' Byron Donalds Wins Election for U.S. Congressional District 19, Pledges Water Quality No. 1 Priority". Naples Daily News. Retrieved November 10, 2020.
  169. ^ Avery, Dan (November 5, 2020). "Mondaire Jones Joins Ritchie Torres as First Gay Black Men Elected to Congress". NBC News. Retrieved November 10, 2020.
  170. ^ Marcos, Christina (November 16, 2020). "Mcadams Concedes to Owens in Competitive Utah District". The Hill. Retrieved November 16, 2020.
  171. ^ a b "Marilyn Strickland's Black and Korean American Roots are Historic 1st for Congress". NBC News. The Associated Press. November 6, 2020. Retrieved November 10, 2020.
  172. ^ a b Rogers, Alex (November 4, 2020). "Ritchie Torres Wins House Race and Will Become First Black Member of Congress Who Identifies as Gay". International Business Times. Retrieved November 10, 2020.
  173. ^ Graeber, Dan (November 4, 2020). "Who Is Ritchie Torres? New York's New Congressman Makes History". CNN. Retrieved November 10, 2020.
  174. ^ Hargett-Robinson, Adisa (November 6, 2020). "Nikema Williams Wins John Lewis' Congressional Seat". ABC News. Retrieved November 10, 2020.
  175. ^ Marcos, Cristina (May 11, 2021). "Carter sworn in as House member to replace Richmond, padding Democrats' majority". The Hill. Retrieved May 11, 2020.
  176. ^ DeNatale, Dave "Dino"; Simmons, Brandon; Sloop, Hope (November 4, 2021). "Shontel Brown sworn in as representative for Ohio's 11th Congressional District". WKYC Studios. Retrieved November 5, 2021.
  177. ^ Burke, Peter (January 18, 2022). "Sheila Cherfilus-McCormick sworn in as Florida's newest member of Congress". Associated Press. Retrieved 19 January 2022.
  178. ^ "Fauntroy, Walter Edward, (1933 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  179. ^ "Evans, Melvin Herbert, (1917 - 1984)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  180. ^ "Norton, Eleanor Holmes, (1937 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  181. ^ "Frazer, Victor O., (1943 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  182. ^ "Christensen, Donna Marie, (1945 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  183. ^ "Plaskett, Stacey M., (1966 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
  184. ^ Rowell, Chester Harvey (1901). A Historical and Legal Digest of all the Contested Election Cases in the House of Representatives of the United States from the First to the Fifty-sixth Congress, 1789–1901. United States. Congress. House. Committee on House Administration. Subcommittee on Elections. pp. 226–228. ISBN 9785880686292.
  185. ^ Office of the Historian. "John Willis Menard of Louisiana became the first African American to address the U.S. House, February 27, 1869". Historical Highlights, History, Art & Archives. Office of the Clerk, House of Representatives of the United States. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  186. ^ Rowell, Chester Harvey (1901). A Historical and Legal Digest of all the Contested Election Cases in the House of Representatives of the United States from the First to the Fifty-sixth Congress, 1789–1901. United States. Congress. House. Committee on House Administration. Subcommittee on Elections. pp. 293–297. ISBN 9785880686292.
  187. ^ Office of the Historian. "'Crafting an Identity,' Fifteenth Amendment in Flesh and Blood". Black Americans in Congress. Office of the Clerk, House of Representatives of the United States. Retrieved August 7, 2013.

Further reading

External links

This page was last edited on 24 August 2022, at 13:45
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.