To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Battle of Liberty Place

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Battle of Liberty Place
Part of Reconstruction Era
Harpers1874LouisianaOutrage.jpg

The "Louisiana Outrages", as illustrated in Harper's Weekly, 1874
DateSeptember 14, 1874
LocationNew Orleans, Louisiana
Result Split party government
Belligerents
White League

Louisiana State Government

Casualties and losses
21+ killed
19 wounded[1]
11 killed
60 wounded[2]

The Battle of Liberty Place, or Battle of Canal Street, was an attempted insurrection by the Crescent City White League against the Reconstruction Era Louisiana state government on September 14, 1874, in New Orleans, which was the capital of Louisiana at the time. Five thousand members of the White League, a paramilitary organization of the Democratic Party, made up largely of Confederate veterans, fought against the outnumbered New Orleans Metropolitan Police and state militia. The insurgents held the statehouse, armory, and downtown for three days, retreating before arrival of Federal troops that restored the elected government. No insurgents were charged in the action. This was the last major event of violence stemming from the disputed 1872 gubernatorial election, after which Democrat John McEnery and Republican William Pitt Kellogg both claimed victory.

Among those injured in the fighting at Liberty Place was Algernon Sidney Badger, superintendent of the New Orleans Metropolitan Police. Born in Boston and a veteran of the Union Army, he had been living and working in New Orleans since the end of the war.[3]

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/3
    Views:
    6 330
    54 702
    447 667
  • Louisiana Radical: James Longstreet and Reconstruction (Lecture)
  • The Confederacy's Most Controversial Commander (2000)
  • Liberty`s Kids #09 Bunker Hill

Transcription

On behalf of the National Park Service I want to welcome you once again to Gettysburg National Military Park my name is Karlton Smith and I'll be with you this afternoon for the second of our Mid Winter talks this one specifically on the Louisiana radical James Longstreet in Reconstruction and if you think study the battle of Gettysburg can be confusing try going through Louisiana politics during Reconstruction and I'm just going to give you an overview of it gets a lot more complicated one go tell you so hopefully this will generate a little bit more study about what's going on in Louisiana but to study Louisiana or Longstreet in Reconstruction you have to start with the battle New Orleans in April 1862 then Flag Officer David Farragut is going to run past the forts guarding New Orleans and capture the largest city in the south there will be a federal presence in New Orleans throughout the rest of the Civil War and they start to spread that influence out from the city also keep in mind at this time the state capital is in New Orleans thats why a lot of these activities are taking place in New Orleans itself by December 8 1863 President Lincoln will issue his Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction under that plan when 10 percent of the citizens who voted in 186 taken oath of allegiance to the United States and abolish wavy from the state they can then organize a state government most Confederates are gonna be pardoned under Lincoln's proclamation but there is one major exception and the exceptions going to include all those who had resigned commissions in the army or navy to fight for the Confederacy so if you fall in that category you are not eligible for a part and that's going to include James Longstreet Michael Hahn is going to be elected governor in February 1864 and take office in March at that point he says he is invested with the same powers as the military governor on that date the constitution of 1864 will abolish slavery but it's gonna be up to the legislature the big question of black suffrage the convention willl adopt wardens of emancipation without compensation and the Constitution was ratified by September of 1864 Governor Hahn will resign to go to your senate but the radicals in congress refuse to seat him but Lieutenant Governor James Madison Wells becomes governor in March 1865 of course also in 1865 ex Confederates like James Longstreet are looking at some way to try to pick up their life again the first step for Longstreet is to try to go to Washington and get a pardon In November of 1865 he pays a visit to President Andrew Johnson and President Johnson according to the story tells Longstreet that there are three Confederates who would never receive pardons because they caused so much trouble they were Jefferson Davis Robert E Lee and James Longstreet Now Longstreet at this point apparently is looking to settle in Texas he has some land that he purchase before the war he has some relatives there he knows some of the people there one of his chief staff officers Thoms Goree lives in Texas but they start soon to work and he finds a whole bunch of ex Confederate generals living there including PGT Beauregard and John Hood so Longstreet will decide to make a home in New Orleans he also go is going to go into business with the Owen bothers both Owen brothers had served in the Washington Artillery under Longstreet's command and they form Longstreet Owen and company a brokerage business on March 1st of 1866 the Great Southern Life and Accident Insurance company of New Orleans will elect Longstreet its president he also becomes president of the Southern Hospital Association so Longstreet's reputation is still high in the South he is still this great general that led army's on many battlefields in December of 1867 Longstreet is named an honorary pallbearer for the removal of the remains of General Albert Sidney Johnston killed at Shiloh from the temporary resting vault in New Orleans to Austin Texas now the pallbearers are going to accompany the remains from New Orleans to Texas and there were no public ceremonies attending this apparently they went down there and removed the remains put him on a boat and shipped them out and that's it really is there were no public ceremonies is because they been disallowed by the department commander Major General Philip Henry Sheridan who is now commanding what's termed the Department of the Gulf but quarrels now start to develop between southern radicals and conservatives now Governor Wells himself has actually been elected as a Democrat but he tends to support the radicals the state and this point is being peacefully governed by the conservative majority but the problem is they've taken no steps towards black suffrage at this point so the radical minority were claimed to be the only loyal men in the state there are opposed to President Johnson's Reconstructin plan they want to remove the unrepentant if pardoned rebels who happen to hold nine tenths of the seats in the legislature they propose to reconvene the state convention to redraw the 1864 Constitution disenfranchised all who are taking part in the rebellion annul and voice all election since 1864 and enfranchise the black suffrage now on June 6 of 1866 Longstreet is asked to comment on some of these things that are going on and he responded I have no platform to address you if I approve Mr Johnson I'm called a traitor if toward the radicals I'm called a rebel therefore I must be content to remain on defense but eventually its gonna catch up with Longstreet the radicals will try to hold a new state convention in New Orleans on July 30 1866 that results in the New Orleans riot that day the convention was supposed to amend the 1864 constitution to ensure that black suffrage there opposed by the democratic majority and ex Confederate Veterans a white mob is going to form and attack both the black supporters and the convention itself Federal troops are called in to put this down the riot in New Orleans is similar to riots taking place in Memphis Tennessee and Galveston Texas area General Absolom Baird had been let in command of the troops in New Orleans General Sheridan had gone down to the Texas frontier because of Mexican troubles and Baird is gonna lack any definite orders from Washington and he's uncertain about what to do he does finally send troops and declares martial law after the riots it was reported had General Sheridan remained at his post or had even his second command General Baird acting in his absence brought his troops into the city as he agreed before the meeting of the Convention there would have been no riot to make the subject of a voluminous one-sided government report and pretext for the reconstruction acts of the Federal Government Sheridan returns to the city and he promptly backs the radicals he said in his report the immediate cause of this terrible riot was the assemblage of the Conservatives the remote cause was the bitter and antagonistic feelings in this community in November of 1866 the New York Herald is going to interview both Longstreet and John Hood about their feelings on this and the paper reported both of these great generals urge moderation forbearance and submission Longstreet more than Hood each urged that the duty and sake to the south demanded submission on the part of the Southern people the first reconstruction act will be passed on March 2nd 1867 also known the military government act this would divide the south in 5 military districts the 5th district consists of Louisiana and Texas under the command of General Sheridan the editor of the New Orleans times urges prudence on this this point and he solicits the views of former Confederate leaders in New Orleans the first one to respond is James Longstreet Longstreet wrote on March 18 the striking feature and the one that our people should keep in view is that we are a conquered people recognized in this fact fairly and squarely there is but one course let for wise men to pursue accept the terms that are offered us by the conquerors there can be no discredit on a conquered people for accepting the condition authored by their conquerors nor is there any occasion for feeling humiliation we have made an honest I hope that I might say a credible fight but we have lost let us come forward then and accept the ends involved in the struggle les us accept the terms as we are in duty bound to do and if there is a lack of good faith let it be upon others other Southern leaders are gonna voice Longstreet's sentiments including General Lee Wade Hampton former Governor Joe Brown of Georgia and George Patton of Alabama Congress though will past the second reconstruction act which established procedures for selecting delegates to a new state constitutional convention it was also later reported there when reconstruction hung over the South like a sword of Damocles 5 lieutenant generals of the Confederate Army held in meeting in New Orleans in General Hood's room to discuss the situation and publish to the South the easiest way to bury the yoke sad fate had placed upon the necks in this caucus of generals Longstreet was selected to write and publish a letter he did it there was somehow protest from ill informed people that men who advise Longstreet to do this did not face this opposition avoided this martyr let him bear the odium alone explanation after explanation by the authors saved General Longstreet that amounted to a public retraction that followed Longstreet firm as the rock of Gibraltar proudly declared that he had nothing to retract every old veteran of Longstreet's corps who reads this will say say that's just like old Pete he could have saved his popularity had he sacrifice principled but like the noble Roman that he was he could in weighing one against the other defiantly proclaim these walls these columns fly from the firm base as soon as I now Longstreet later denied this meeting ever took place but there is good evidence that it did and some people think Longstreet may have been a sense trying to cover for his other fellow generals that he's going to take this second letter on his own responsibility part of his second letter dated April 6 1867 states our duty resolves itself into two very simple propositions we leave ourselves from our present embarassments by returning to our allegiance in good faith to the general government under the process laid down by congress or seek protection under some foreign government those determined to remain should speed the work of reconstruction and put our people in condition to make their own laws and choose their own officers for their execution I am one of the particularly disenfranchised I have been informed from the highest authority though I am one of those who will be the last to receive amnesty I regard this as one of the results that belong to the hazards of revolution and I have no better cause of complaint than those who have lost their slaves the commander of the 5th Military District General Sheridan isn't going to waste a lot of time by setting his house in order he's going to impeach Governor Wells by June of 1867 he removes the Attorney General A.H. Herron and Mayor John T. Monroe of New Orleans all three are removed for impeding reconstruction elections for their replacements will not be held according to General Sheridan and he's going to a point Benjamin Franklin Flanders as Governor of Louisiana Longstreet in June of 1867 visits his uncle Augustus Baldwin long Sweden Oxford Mississippi now Augustus Longstreet is one of the leading literary lights of the South he's big in the Methodist Episcopal Church and well known for his educational abilities Longstreet has written a letter to Mr John NG Parker, now Parker adjusts hands with a brother-in-law of Benjamin Franklin Butler, the Beast Butler of New Orleans, not the best liked man in the South Butler though is now serving as a US congressman a very powerful congressmen and what Longstreet wants to do is publish this letter that he wrote to Parker so he reads the letter to Uncle Gus, and Uncle Gus reads the letter and hands it back and says it will ruin you son if you publish it we are not ready yet to hear such hard counsel but Longstreet's gonna go ahead and publish the letter anyway in part he wrote if I appreciate the principles of the Democratic Party its prominent features opposed to the enfranchisement of the colored man and denied the right to legislate upon the subject of suffrage except by the state's individually these two features have a tendency to exclude southern men from that party for the colored man is already enfranchised here and we cannot seek alliance with a party that would restrict his rights the exclusive right of the states to legislate points upon suffrage or make the enfranchisement of the blacks whether for a better or worse a fixture among us it appears therefore those who cry aloud us against this new order of things as a public calamity are those whose principles are fixed upon us without a remedy hence becomes us to insist that suffrage should be extended in all the states and fully tested the people of the North should adopt what they have forced upon us and if it would prove to be a mistake they should remove it by the remedy under republican principles of uniform laws appoint suffrage in other words of you people in North are going to force us to enfranchse the African-Americans then you better do the same thing in the north and Longstreet also fought the Democrats for fighting against this so he was urging the people of the South to join to ban the Democrats and join Republicans and this is gonna get Longstreet in the most trouble at that time now Longstreet's gonna write to General Lee and ask for his support in June 1867 Longstreet wrote I send my letters to ask that you would give the subject you're careful consideration in a consistent with your ideas give me your personal endorsement your opinion supporting my views will satisfy the people in position six months more if you can come to approve my views please write me or publish a letter to that effect since Longstreet told Lee he was gonna be out the state until October and because Lee had some personal matters to attend to he didn't respond to a Longstreet until October of 67 and when he does it's not something Longstreet's going to want to hear I have avoided all discussion of political questions since the cessation of hostilities and have in my own conduct in my recommendations to others endeavored to conform to existing conditions I consider this a part of wisdom as a duty but while I think we should act under the law and according to law imposed upon us I cannot think the course pursued by the dominant political party the best for the interest of the country and therefore cannot say so or give them my approval this is the reason why I could not comply with requests in your letter as far as anybody knows this will terminate the correspondence between Lee and Longstreet apparently when it came to politics they were on two different sides and they can't come together on June 19 1867 James Longstreet is granted a pardon by the federal government, but his political disabilities still exist it is reported that Longstreet got this pardon upon written and personal applications of many promise officers of the army including General Grant and some of his representatives there is one version of this where Grant had a cabinet meeting with Johnson, and Grant basically said to Johnson if your don't grand longer pardon I'm going to resign and you can imagine the pressure that brings on Johnson to grant a pardon the Washington National Intelligencer wrote this we believe is the first case of the exercise of the pardon prerogative where the party left United States Army to enter of that the Confederacy and despite Longstreet's protest, this pardon is seen as a reward for his support of the military government act and the radicals so now Longstreet is seen as supporting reconstruction in a sense and Republican Party two things you don't want you in the south but in a private letter written in July of 1864 Longstreet probably put this a little bit better he said my politics is to save what little is left of us and our go to work to improve that little as best we may I believe that the course that some politicians have pursued tends to increase our humiliation and distress and leads us to greater trouble in to refinance or have confiscation and expatriation since the negro has been given the privilege of voting is all important that we should exercise influence over that vote as to prevent it from being injurious to us and we can only do that as Republicans as there is no principle at issue now that should keep us from the Republican party it seems to me that our duty to ourselves and to all our friends requires that our party should an alliance with the Republican party none has worked more than I nor lost more I think that time has come for peace and I am not willing to lose more blood or means if there are any in the country inclined to fight this question I hope not to be included in that number I should not have used them for their views and I hope that they would not deny me the right to withdraw from the contest for so what Longstreet is saying in this private letter is the African American American South is going to vote and we can't do anything to change that but who are they going to vote for both going to vote for Republicans so if we the old leaders of the South control the Republican party we control the African-American vote and that way we can get things more to our liking but that doesn't come across in Longstreet's public statements in his public statements seemed just to support the Republican cause and that's it Congress will pass a third reconstruction act, where the district commanders will have the power to remove officials from any so-called state or government thereof and General Sheridan's quick to act on that on August first he removed the entire New Orleans Board of Aldermen in August 13th remove the New Orleans City Treasurer by that time even Washington believed Sheridan had gone a little bit too far he isrecalled to Washington in his place the 5th district commander is going be Winfield Scott Hancock now Hancock doesn't report to New Orleans until November 21st of 1867 with the local paper reported that General Longstreet paid him a visit one day and Hancock was entertaining a group of friends at the time but he took Longstreet into the parlor to meet them and he announced Hancock announced ladies and gentlemen allow me to introduce to you a gallant gentleman to whom I am indebted for an ungraceful limp and whom I had the misfortune to wing in the same combat Hancock is injured in Pickett's Charge, Longstreet's gonna be shot by his own men who were trying to push back Hancock at the Wilderness the paper also said though the company was composed exclusively of ladies and gentlemen whose sympathies were on the Union side in the late war the entrance excited a profound and pleasurable sensation Hancock in his turn will appoint Joshua Baker as Governor of Louisiana in December of 1867 Longstreet will close out his con- brokerage business of Longstreet Owens and company in March of 1868 former Union General now representative from Illinois John Logan is opposed to relieving Longstreet of disabilities simply as Logan said because he wrote a letter accepting the situation Logan wanted better evidence of Longstreet's repentance because if all it took was to write a letter Logan said that every rebel general would write a letter to relieve the disability under the law the Disability Act had been introduced by another former Union General John F Farnsworth and originally it was to relieve certain citizens of North Carolina of disabilities but with add-ons and everything else it included citizens from Alabama and Georgia Longstreet's appointment to West Point is from Alabama and his commission as Confederate General comes through the state of Alabama so Longstreet is covered of course he grew up partly in Georgia so Longstreet was covered under both states the act is gonna pass and Longstreet is now relieved of all political disabilities which means he can hold any type of office he wants to at the same time back in Louisiana Henry Warmoth is elected governor of Louisiana at the age of 26 one of the youngest governors in American history a new reconstruction Constitution was ratified and Warmoth takes office on July 13 1868 in August 1868 Longstreet will visit one of his former staff officers, John W Fairfax at his home at Oak Hill near Leesburg Virginia the local paper wrote why general Longstreet was at the hotel no one called on him although many of his own command lived here for the simple reason we see as we suppose that Congress had seen fit to remove his political disabilities and because he was patriotic enough to refer the Republican to the Democratic on June 12 1868 in New York Tribune was interviewing General Longstreet who is in New York at the time and they wanted his opinion on the upcoming presidential election and the Negro in the New South on General Grant Longstreet said he is my man I believe he is a fair man I think he is above meanness his silence is grand now he will answer the question about the Negroes but keep in mind this is a nineteenth-century right after the Civil War and so Longstreet said they'd like to have a white man come out in the field and tell them what to do as far as Negroe supremacy went Longstreet said that can never be it is silly to think of it they can never be stronger than they are today and the whites of the South know it but they are misled by the politicians Longstreet is talking to several prominent businessman in New York looking for business opportunities included that is one William Barkley Parsons who is an engineer Parsons will take the occasion to write to General Lee asking General Lee for Longstreet's address why Parsons didn't have it I don't know he might just be taken the opportunity to write to General Lee hoping to get a letter back from him and General Lee answers it and Lee responds I have always been attained a high opinion of General Longstreet's character and should rejoice at any good that may befall him I do not know whether the position you referred to would be agreeable to him or not Longstreet's gonna be in Washington DC on March 4th 1869 for the first inauguration of his good friend General Grant and on March 10th Longstreet is gonna be nominated for the post of surveyor of the Port of New Orleans with a salary of $6,000 a year Senator William B. Brownlow from Tennessee who served in parts of the Civil War made a terrible onslaught on Longstreet reciting his services to the rebellion and his course toward Union men in Tennessee in maintaining his confirmation for so important and lucrative position will be an insult to the dead and an insult to the living both of Pennsylvania Senator's Simon Cameron and Thomas Scott also cited Longstreet's alleged cruel and heartless conduct while marching through Pennsylvania to Gettysburg now where they got there I don't know because I've never read of any cruel or heartless conduct on Longstreet's behalf but that's what they were alleging two of Longstreet's biggest supporters are gonna be William Pitt Kellogg Senator from Louisiana and Frederick Sawyer Republican Senator from South Carolina the nomination will be confirmed on April 3rd in a vote of 25 to 10 after nine hours of debate so this wasn't a slam dunk for President Grant meanwhile on April 5th of 1870 Governor Warmoth will sign the Militia Bill this now gives him control the of Metropolitan Police of New Orleans the state militia the appointment of all election officials through a device called the Returning Board and and in theory control of most powerful court in New Orleans Perish also known as the 8th district court the Louisiana Legislature on March 16 1870 passed a bill to extend the charter for the New Orleans and Northeastern Railroad on April 2nd General Longstreet is elected a director of the Company on April 7th elected a vice president and the next day he's elected the president pretty quick rise he's also named Adjutant-General of Louisiana on May 13th 1870 with all these appointments Longstreet has a salary between 10,000 and 15,000 dollars a year pretty good especially for an ex-Confederate trying to make his way in the world now but there is strife building up even between the Louisiana Republicans at this point because they expected all the Democrats would be replaced with true Republicans they wanted for example to replace James Casey as collector of customs in New Orleans now that one is gonna be a little tough considering that Casey is President Grant's brother-in-law probably not going to happen they will even level criticism at General Longstreet they said General Longstreet the surveyor of the port like other new converts is overzealous and would serve the party if he could but not only does he lack capacity for efficient political influence but such is the utter contempt in which he is held by Federals and Confederates that they consider there is no Sounders in him the DeSoto start the out warm or support but instead he's going to pour it James Casey so as since warmer than once to present support in all this the opposition to Walmart now forms the wrong what's called the custom house gang by this time the military districts of Nepal east and a new department the Gulf consisting of Louisiana Arkansas Mississippi and three-fourths in florida is organized and placed on the command brevet Major General William H a 'very made myself in every of course is trying to get some clarification as to what he should do in case trouble breaks out now he refers to his immediate superior in St. Louis General Henry Halleck and General Halleck sends back the message you will use the troops in your command to preserve order as your judgment may be proper without referring to these headquarters will reporting such actions that you take no further instructions are deemed necessary Lieutenant Governor Done will die unexpectedly on November 22nd 1871 and PBS Pinchback an African-American is elected lieutenant governor in December of 1871 the Louisiana legislature schedules to meet on January 1st 1872 on January 8th Longstreet is assigned to the immediate command and supervision of the entire militia police and all civil forces in the state of Louisiana within the city of New Orleans that's in case there is trouble he deems it judicious to organize young men of the city into the militia and to arm them notwithstanding the fact they were soldiers in the Confederate Army and we now have as of February 1st 1872 2500 Confederates in the volunteer militia of the state that's as well as 2500 Colored Men all under the command of General Longstreet and General Longstreet is in daily communication with General Baird and he's very objective about all this he's not seemingly taking sides in fact when General Edwards called to get testimony to Congress he was asked which side was Longstreet on and he responded I cannot say that he represents either so Longstreet is there to preserve order no matter who's who's responsible for it on March 5 1872 Longstreet will resign as surveyor of customs saying he found it inconsistent with my views of sound Republican philosophy to approve the efforts of prominent federal officers in this city to displace by violence the civil authority of the state as I can identify myself with such adventurers it seems fitting that I withdraw from this offers as soon as you may be pleased to appoint a successor on March 12 he also resigned as president of the New Orleans and Northeastern Railroad on April 19 1872 he resigned as the Adjutant General of the state he said I had no special reason for withdrawing from the office except my wish to be untrammeled in the approaching political canvas because things in Louisiana could get very ugly and very confusing because there are no less than five possible statewide tickets though last-ditch Democrats under John McEnery the Custom House headed by Senator William Kellog who backed Longstreet's appointment the Pinchback Republicans led by the Lieutenant Governor the Liberal Republicans led by D.B. Penn and something called the Reform Party led by George Williams now these five parties will eventually come together and form two fusion parties which really are kind of strange when you look at it because you had the McEnery-Penn supported by Last Ditch Democrats Reform Democrats and Liberal Republicans Kellogg and the Custom House Factoin is backed by Pinchback Republicans Liberal Republicans who cannot support the Democrats the Republicans have split that's why I say this is touching the surface Longstreet in October of 1872 stated that he bagged the Liberal Republian movement but could not support the Democratic Fusion ticket he said I am not a Democrat nor have I been a member of that party on the contrary I have been Republican and have consistently so announced myself now the events of the last six months clearly indicate to my mind that there was more liberality in the Republican Party than has been developed by the move that has been called the liberal movement I cannot therefore find reason and logic or sentiment for passing the line between the Democratic party and myself and 1872 election is so filled with fraud and corruption that nobody knows who won this is the situation they are in so Warmoth is going to convene the returning board on November 12 1872 to try to sort it out Warmoth is of course elected president of the board with Judge John Lynch as the secretary Warmoth now moves that Lieutenant Governor Pinchback and Senator TC Anderson be declared ineligible because they were candidate for office the board will decide to adjourn until the next day so the next day November 13 the Board meets again the state's chief justice is there to administer the oath of office Pinchback is going to retire when he is ruled ineligible and Senator Anderson is missing on that day for the second day in a row so he's completely missing in action FJ Herron the secretary of state was removed by Warmoth on questoinable charges Herron then propose that Longstreet and Judge Jacob Hawkins fill the vacancies on the board Warmoth turns around and nominates two of his own men Lynch and Hawkins now withdraw with Lynch taking the minutes of the meetings as evidence that he and Herron were members of the legal board claim that they along with Longstreet Judge Hawkins and Senator Anderson are the legal returning board for the state of Louisiana Warmoth responds by appointing his own returning board so now we have two returning boards decide who won the election and also Warmoth will sign an election bill passed in the preceding session of the legislature which provided for returning board consisting of five people chosen by the senate so now you have the possibility of a third returning board coming into action on January 23rd 1873 the Louisiana Supreme Court will rule in favor of the Lynch board, which basically consisted of Warmoth Herron Lynch Longstreet and Hawkins so that's Longstreet's connection with the Lynch board the legislature meets on December 9 1872 to vote on impeachment of Governor Warmoth and Pinchback is elected the acting governor the Lynch board showed that Kellog had been elected governor the Warmoth and McEnery forces now joined together to move to try to prevent Pinchback from taking office if they can keep Pinchback out of office they might stand a chance at keeping Kellogg out of office as well on December 12 1872 Grant steps in and recognizes the Pinchback forces as the lawful government of Louisiana to which he would send all necessary assistance to prevent disaster and bloodshed on December 12 Pinchback appoints Longstreet to command the state militia, the state militia refuses Longstreet's demand to turn over their arms and ammunition they will surrender they say to any authorized federal officer so General Emory commanding the troops in New Orleans will assemble the officers at the state arsenal the arsenal is peacefully evacuated and the next day the arsenal was delivered over to General Longstreet on January 13 1873 both Kellogg and McEnery take the oath of office as governor of Louisiana so now you have two state governments going on the U.S. Congress was trying to decide what to do about this whole thing there was a motion to just set aside the 1872 election and have it all over again which sounds like the smart thing to do but that motion was voted down so instead Grant issued a statement that if Congress can't decide he will recognize the Kellogg government on March 5 of 1873 the Metropolitan Police under orders of Governor Kellogg become part of the state militia and could be increased in numbers and mustered with the militia of the state as a metropolitan brigade all acting under the orders of General Longstreet on March 5 1873 will occur the Battle of Cabildo and this was an effort of the Conservatives to take over the police station on Jackson Square they're gonna be stopped by the police and General Longstreet who are backed up by federal troops Longstreet will also seize the home where the McEnery legislature was meeting and arrested everybody who was found there Kellogg released everybody the next day and on May 23rd Grant will publicly now recognized the Kellogg government and all that now results in a partial state of guerrilla warfare throughout Louisiana on April 13th 1873 for example will occur the Colfax Riot or the Colfax Massacre excuse me although officially according to state marker is not the Colfax Massacre it's the Colfax Riot I will let you read that first sentence so you can decide if this was a riot or a massacre on June 1st of 1873 Longstreet is gonna be appointed a member of the Levee Commission of Engineers he also gets involved in a controversy with an old friend Colonel Robert E Withers who had stated that Longstreet not only accepted the Radical Republican plan of Reconstruction but went over for money so Longstreet's now one of those dirty scallywags going after this thing just for money more than anything else Longstreet replied in the Richmond Street Journal the charge of Colonel Withers as stated is so vague and indefinite I can find nothing to reply to except general denial and the record of my motive so announced by me from time to time there has been no room at any time for doubt as to my motives in regard to our politics if Colonel Withers knows the record as he claims to know it he makes grave allegations as matters of fact he knew that when he made his charge it was not true if he made them in ignorance or reckless disregard of facts he is equally culpable in order however to place the matter beyond question or doubt I propose that Colonel Withers give the names of the parties to the transaction and the time and place of its occurrence so as to give me something tangible and remarkably Colonel Withers had no reply, so the controversy ends rather quickly by April 27 1874 the Wight League is now formed in Louisiana on August 30th 1874 they will pull off the Coushatta massacre where six Republican officeholders were dragged out of their homes and executed on September 3rd Governor Kellog declares martial law in the area President Grant directs that all Federal troops will be stationed at different convenient points in your district for the purpose of giving you all need for aid in discharge of your official duties you understand of course that no interference whatever is hereby intended with any political or party action not in violation with the law and this is one of the times you have to wonder about army logic there is some logic to it but you kind of have to question it sometimes serving in Louisiana for the last four years has been the Nineteenth US Infantry so all the officers there presumably know what the situation is they know who the leaders are they know who they can trust and everything else it's at this point though that the army now decides to relieve the 19th Infantry and replace it with the 3rd Infantry who knows absolutely nothing about what is going on down there and commanding the 3rd Infantry is Colonel DeLancy Floyd-Jones a veteran of Gettysburg The Metropolitan Police on September 11th and 12th are going to seize arms and ammunition meant for the Conservatives Lt. Colonel John Brooke another Gettysburg veteran is second in command of the 3rd US Infantry he is sent to New Orleans with four companies to protect the custom house cause thats Federal property on September 14 1874 a mass meeting is called for 11 a.m. at the Henry Clay statue on Canal Street the major resolution coming out is claiming that the November 4th 1872 election of McEnery as governor was legal and that McEnery is governor and DP Penn is the lieutenant governor this resolution is sent by a committee of five to Governor Kellogg and Governor Kellog refuses to see the callers Penn is now acting as governor because McEnery has decided not to come into the city Penn acting as governor issues a proclamation to all citizens to arm and assemble General Frederick Ogden was placed in command of the mustering White Leaguers and McEnery militia the streets leading into canal street are barricaded Longstreet and Algeron Badger are gonna lead 500 Metropolitan Police up Canal Street near the custom house where Kellogg and his advisors are taking refuge from the oncoming mob one report is Longstreet rode out about four o'clock in the afternoon Longstreet rode out to meet the leaders and commanded them to keep the peace and go home the insurgents instead seized Longstreet pulled him from this horse and made him a prisoner when the fighting actually commenced, Longstreet was wounded by a spent bullet another version says Longstreet was shot from his horse while trying to escape but in any case Longstreet is now a prisoner in the state house but is going to be released the next day the ensuing Battle of Liberty Place is going to be very short the police demoralized by the loss of forty or fifty men will retreat to the custom house the next day the police and colored militia all surrender all state and city property was seized by the insurgents all Kellogg officials were replaced by McEnery supporters the next day on September 15 General Grant calls on all disorderly persons to submit to the consular authorities and cooperate in upholding the law and preserving the peace and General Emory now moves in with Federal forces on September 18th Emory is able to notify Kellogg of the surrender of both McEnery and Penn so the insurgency is now brought to an end on September 19th it is reported that General Longstreet and his military staff left the custom house unarmed and on foot and proceeded to the Statehouse General Longstreet then talked with Colonel Brooke until Governor Kellogg arrived and soon after the state house was transferred by Brooke to Kellogg in an interview with the New Orleans Picayune on September 17th Kellogg tried to place responsibility for the Battle of Liberty Place on Longstreet's shoulders the New Orleans Picayune reported there was a coolness existing between General Longstreet and Kellogg since the fight of September 14 growing out of orders given up on that day concerning the fight General Longstreet we have heard it said intends that Kellogg was responsible for the advance and route of the Metropolitan's on that day while Kellogg resents the charges and asserts that Longstreet was the bungler now one early biographer of Longstreet stated that Longstreet if nothing else even in this situation was a good soldier and he probably would not have acted without some words or instructions from Kellogg and given Kellogg's reputation for "honesty" the facts tend to support Longstreet's contention that he's acting under some type of instruction from Kellogg Longstreet's going to resume work on the Levee Commission and retain his commission as major general of the state militia but was relieved from active duty he also retains his position on the returning board now he is subjected to a lot of criticisms about this the Louisville Commercial for example September 1874 that Longstreet is held in high esteem by most of the country but denounced by rebels and their sympathizers because when the cause for which he had fought was overthrown he took the course which he and many others of his comrades thought best for the good of his people and section which he only had the moral courage to adhere to and make public there is another election in November of 1874 Longstreet's gonna resign before it the results are published on December 24 1874 and the report of the 1874 elections is characterized as being more infamous than the 1872 election how that could be I don't know the legislature was set to convene on January 4th 1875 General Sheridan who is now in command of the Department of Missouri just happens at this point to be sent by General Grant on a tour of certain southern states with orders to assume command of the Military Division of the South or any portion of that division should he see proper to do so in other words the word is out now that if there is any disturbance in New Orleans General Sheridan is gonna be the one to handle it and nobody wants that Longstreet is gonna be present at the State House on January 4th 1875 to witness the alleged insurgents being prevented by the state militia from interfering with the organization of the legislature by the Kellogg forces ill health and action in public office are starting to take their toll Longstreet in this sense has no choice but to sink or swim with Republicans that Democrats aren't gonna have anything to do with his brother William who's living near Gainesville Georgia invited Longstreet to come to Georgia his adopted state on May 12 1875 Longstreet wrote to his former aide Thomas Goree in Texas I presume that the difference in our politics is not so great as appears if shifted to the bottom the end that we seek I know is the same the restoration of the Southern people to their natural and proper influence the the best and most expeditious means of arriving at this end has led us only to diffusion and in Louisiana particularly in New Orleans the most violent Democrats now admit that mine would have been the best policy for that state is too late though now and affairs will have to drag along in that state in late June and early July 1875 the New York Times wrote an article about General Longstreet and he was described as a very gallant soldier whose course since the war has shown anything else but devotion to the cause for which he fought so well his beard is now gray and here is Longstreet in the war and Longstreet in 1875 soldiers who knew him during the war say it was black and very long extending almost to his waist you can see it didn't quite come down to the waist but was kinda long he now wears the Burnside whiskers mustache and sidebeard he has said not to be so large as he was doing the war and is represented as being very much otherwise changed in his appearance there is a gubernatorial election in Louisiana in 1876 and again both Stephen Packard the Republican and former Confederate general Francis Nicholls the democrat will claim to have won the governorship but now this governorship but now this governorship is tied in with the presidential election of 1876 between Rutherford B. Hayes and Samuel Tilden and it's gonna be a compromise the compromise was that all disputed electoral votes would go to Hayes giving him the presidency as a payback for that Hayes will agree to recognize Nicholls as the governor of Louisiana and once that happens white majority rule is re-established in Louisiana and Louisiana like many other Southern states start to adopt Black Codes at that point in the post-Louisiana years Longstreet serves as a Deputy director of Internal Revenue a Postmaster of Gainesville Georgia Minister to Turkey and a U.S. Marshall for the Northern District of Georgia Benjamin H. Hill had served as both a Confederate senator during the war and a U.S. Senator after the war he passed away in 1884 and in 1886 the city of Atlanta would dedicate a monument to Hill and among the VIPs invited to attend this is former President Jefferson Davis so President Davis is up in the platform on May 1st of 1886 he's introduced by Henry C Grady the editor of the Atlanta Constitution as Grady is speaking right down one of these streets towards the platform in the faded full gray uniform of a Confederate lieutenant general uninvited unexpected and probably unwanted by some was James Longstreet who came at the urging of his wife he rode up to the platform and dismounted Longstreet will walk across the platform straight toward Davis who is seated under the canopy the Atlanta Constitution reported when General Longstreet was within about 10 feet of the canopy were Mr Davis sat the old gentleman arose and hastened to meet the general when the two came together Mr. Davis threw his arms around Longstreet's neck and the two great leaders embraced with great emotions the meaning of the reconciliation was clear and it immediately had a profound effect upon the thousands of veterans who saw it with a great shout they showed their joy so we've gone through the Civil War the years of Reconstruction we are now moving into the years of Reconciliation that's a reconciliation not just between the two sections but between even leaders of the Lost Cause after this period Longstreet suffered the death of his wife Maria Longstreet they had been married for 41 years in 1895 he published his memoirs Manassas to Appomattox He will marry Helen Dortch who was 42 years the general's junior he was born in 1821 she was born 1863 and actually I made a mistake she died in 1962 she was 99 she wanted to be 100 and she was one year short of it in 1897 Longstreet was appointed a railroad commissioner and on January 2 1904 he dies in his home at Gainesville Georgia at the age of 82 actually just two weeks short of his 83rd birthday in 1904 though former Confederate General Clement A. Evans is going to state now that the old fighter is dead in his bed to forget his mistakes if he made any and remember only the great things of his life which indeed were many and to honor him for for their sake

Contents

Background

The "Battle of Liberty Place" was the name given to the insurrection by its white Democratic supporters, as part of their story of the struggle to overturn Republicans and the Reconstruction government. They viewed the government as corrupt and illegal.[4] In the election of 1872, John McEnery, a Democrat, was supported by a coalition of Democrats and anti-Grant Republicans, including Republican Gov. Henry C. Warmoth. Warmoth's opponents in the Republican Party remained loyal to President Grant, and supported the Republican Party nominee, William Pitt Kellogg.

Governor Warmoth had appointed the State Returning Board, which administered elections; it declared McEnery the winner. A rival board endorsed Kellogg, who had charged election fraud because of the violence and intimidation that took place at and near the polls, as Democrats tried to suppress black voting. The legislature impeached Warmoth from office and removed him for "stealing" the election. Lieutenant Governor P. B. S. Pinchback became governor for the last 35 days of Warmoth's term. Both McEnery and Kellogg had inaugural parties and certified lists of appointed local officeholders. The federal government eventually certified Kellogg as the governor of the state. Similarly, Republican C. C. Antoine was certified lieutenant-governor over Democrat Davidson Bradfute Penn.

In an earlier violent incident related to the disputed election, in April 1873 the Colfax massacre occurred at the courthouse in Grant Parish, when a white militia attacked freedmen defending appointed Republican officeholders. This action was also related to political tensions between Democratic whites and Republican blacks. In Colfax, three whites and a total of 150 blacks were killed, at least 50 of the latter after having been taken prisoner.

James Longstreet after the Civil War
James Longstreet after the Civil War

In 1874 McEnery and his allies formed a "rump" legislature in New Orleans, then the location of state government. The paramilitary White League entered the city with a force of 5,000 to seat McEnery; they fought against 3,500 police and state militia for control. The White League defeated the state militia, inflicting about 100 casualties. The insurgents occupied the state house and armory for three days, and turned out Governor Kellogg. When former Confederate general James Longstreet tried to stop the fighting, he was pulled from his horse, shot by a spent bullet, and taken prisoner by the White League. Kellogg wired for federal troops and, within three days, President Ulysses S. Grant sent Federal troops there. The White League insurgents retreated from New Orleans before the federal troops arrived, and no one was prosecuted.

Battle

In response to a call for a mass meeting to protest against the seizure of arms of private citizens, men gathered on Canal Street around 10:00 Monday morning and a committee consisting of Robert H. Marr (chairman), Jules Tuyes, Samuel Dopin, Samuel Bell, and J. M. Seixas called upon the governor, meeting BG Henry Dibble at the executive office at noon. The governor refused to meet and considered the committee as representing now armed masses a menace. Marr declared that the masses were unarmed, but Dibble countered that while those on Canal Street may be unarmed, beyond there were armed bodies assembled for the same purpose.[5]

Bronze of F. N. Ogden
Bronze of F. N. Ogden

About 4:00 in the afternoon, self-proclaimed Lieutenant Governor D. B. Penn made a proclamation calling on the militia of the state to assemble "for the purpose of driving the usurpers from power". Frederick Nash Ogden was appointed provisional general of the "Louisiana State Militia" (here representing the White League) by Penn and a statement was made to blacks in Louisiana that their rights and property should not be harmed. Already by 3 PM armed men were stationed at the intersection of all streets on the south side of Canal Street, from the river to Clayborne street. At 4 PM, a body of Metropolitan Police with cavalry and artillery, commanded by Longstreet, arrived at Canal Street and ordered the armed citizens to disperse. Once firing began, however, the police broke and the White League captured one piece of artillery. The White League then captured City Hall and the fire alarm telegraph and built a barricade along Poydras Street and from that street to the canal. A company of US Troops protected the custom house, but was not involved in the initial conflict, while the White League held the portion of the city above the canal and massed around Jackson Square and the St. Louis Hotel. Most of the barricades were made with street railroad cars.[5]

Among the police killed were Sergeant James McManus, Sergeant J. K. Champaign, Corporal J. F. Clermont, Officers J. Hill, E Simmonds, J. Schields, and H. Ballard. Among the White Leaguers killed were E. A. Toledano, Frederick Moreman, Dick Lindsey, Catain J. M. West, Major J. K Gourdain, and journalist J. M. Cleet. Badger's leg was crushed when his horse was killed under him and he had his leg amputated.[5][6] Many more were injured, including customs agent and future activist-historian Rodolphe Lucien Desdunes.[7]

Siege

Custom House, 1892
Custom House, 1892

Kellogg, Longstreet and others took refuge in the Custom House on the 14th and the 15th. By the 17th, federal forces were arriving and the situation had reversed, and General William H. Emory met with opposition leaders McEnery, Penn, Marr, and Duncan F. Cage, guaranteeing the freedom from arrest of those involved in exchange for the restoration of the state administration, the return of arms from the state arsenal, and the resumption of the status before the outbreak of violence. The group submitted, insisting no show of force was necessary, but that they regarded Louisiana as no longer a state, but as a province without a democratic government. Later that day a rumor spread that a group of as many as 2000 blacks intended to capture Treme station, but the disturbance was quelled.[5] The 22nd US Infantry was ordered to proceed to New Orleans under General Irvin McDowell; the frigate Colorado and the gunboats Kansas and Shawmut were sent from their station in Key West under Admiral James Robert Madison Mullany. By September 21, the surrender was complete and the temporary police force in the city was replaced by the regular forces.[8]

Results

Grant ordered General Philippe Régis de Trobriand, commanding the 13th Regiment, to the city to protect the state government from violence. On January 4, 1875, Governor Kellogg requested his aid to eject men from the legislature who had not been certified by the Returning Board. Trobriand entered the state house with some men at the governor's request, and escorted the eight men out after they had each given speeches of objection. The Democrats never returned; they set up an alternate legislature meeting at the Odd Fellows Hall in the city. They were committed to their candidate, Francis T. Nicholls, as governor for the next two years. During the remaining period, the Republican gubernatorial claimant, Stephen B. Packard, and legislators effectively controlled only a small part of New Orleans. White Democrats outside the city supported Nicholls.

Trobriand and his regiment stayed in the city until January 1877, when federal troops were withdrawn in the 1877 compromise.

Battle of Liberty Place Monument

In 1891, the city erected the Battle of Liberty Place Monument to commemorate and praise the insurrection from the Democratic Party point of view, which at the time was in firm political control of the city and state and was in the process of disenfranchising most blacks. The white marble obelisk was placed at a prominent location on Canal Street. In 1932, the city added an inscription that expressed a white supremacist view.

In 1974, the rethinking of race relations after the Civil Rights Movement caused the city to add a marker near the monument explaining that the inscription did not express current philosophy. After major construction work on Canal Street in 1989 required that the monument be temporarily removed, it was relocated to a less prominent location and the inscription was altered to say "in honor of those Americans on both sides of the conflict." In July 2015, New Orleans mayor Mitch Landrieu proposed removing the monument altogether[9] and in December 2015 the New Orleans City Council voted to remove the monument, along with three others deemed a "nuisance" (statues of Gen. Robert E. Lee, Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard and Confederate States President Jefferson Davis). The monument was removed on April 24, 2017 by workers with a police escort, due to threats made by supporters of the monument.[10]

See also

References

  1. ^ Clodfelter, M. (2017). Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, 1492-2015 (4th ed.). Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. Page 251.
  2. ^ Clodfelter, page 251.
  3. ^ "Badger, Algernon Sidney". A Dictionary of Louisiana Biography. Louisiana Historical Association. Retrieved February 6, 2011. 
  4. ^ Reed, Adolf, Jr. (June 1993). "The battle of Liberty Monument - New Orleans, Louisiana white supremacist statue". The Progressive. Archived from the original on 8 July 2012. Retrieved 18 May 2010. 
  5. ^ a b c d The White Leaguers Make a Demonstration in New Orleans. Cincinnati Daily Gazette (Cincinnati, Ohio), Tuesday, September 15, 1874, Page: 1
  6. ^ Anarchy At The South. Result of Last Night's Fighting at New Orleans. National Aegis (Worcester, Massachusetts), Saturday, September 19, 1874, Page: 5
  7. ^ Vernhettes, Dan and Hanley, Peter. The Desdunes Family. The Jazz Archivist, Tulane University, XXVII, 2014, pages 25-45. Accessed February 3, 2016 at http://jazz.tulane.edu/sites/default/files/jazz/docs/jazz_archivist/Jazz_Archivist_vol27_2014.pdf
  8. ^ Louisiana the Conference between the Republican and Democratic Leaders Comes to Naughy, Daily Inter Ocean (Chicago, Illinois), Tuesday, September 22, 1874 Volume: III Issue: 181 Page: 1
  9. ^ http://www.nola.com/politics/index.ssf/2015/06/lee_circle_statue_new_orleans.html
  10. ^ Washington Post

External links

This page was last edited on 20 July 2018, at 16:57
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.