To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Foreign relations of the United Kingdom

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (HM Government).svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
the United Kingdom
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
United Kingdom portal

The diplomatic foreign relations of the United Kingdom are conducted by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, headed by the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs. The Prime Minister and numerous other agencies play a role in setting policy, and many institutions and businesses have a voice and a role.

Britain was the world's foremost power during the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries, most notably during the so-called "Pax Britannica"—a period of totally unrivaled supremacy and unprecedented international peace during the mid-to-late 1800s. The country continued to be widely considered a superpower until the Suez crisis of 1956, and this embarrassing incident coupled with the loss of the empire left the UK's dominant role in global affairs to be gradually diminished. Nevertheless, the United Kingdom remains a great power and a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, a founding member of the G7, G8, G20, NATO, OECD, WTO, Council of Europe, OSCE, and the Commonwealth of Nations, which is a legacy of the British Empire. The UK has been a member state of the European Union (and a member of its predecessors) since 1973. However, due to the outcome of a 2016 membership referendum, proceedings to withdraw from the EU began in 2017. Since the vote, policymakers have begun pursuing new trade agreements with other global partners.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    1 437
    14 536 641
    2 910
    96 646
  • ✪ India Britain Relations
  • ✪ The Difference between the United Kingdom, Great Britain and England Explained
  • ✪ Brexit: what future for British foreign policy? | Professor Richard G. Whitman
  • ✪ Mark Malloch Brown - Britain at sea: how can we salvage foreign policy?
  • ✪ A Day in the Life of an International Relations Student




The Peninsular War battle between the French and the British armies in 1813
The Peninsular War battle between the French and the British armies in 1813

British foreign relations were largely inherited from the Kingdom of England's place in the world prior to the unification of Great Britain into a single United Kingdom. British foreign policy initially focused on achieving a balance of power within Europe, with no one country achieving dominance over the affairs of the continent. This was a major reason behind the British wars against Napoleon, and the UK's involvement in the First and Second World Wars.

The chief enemy of the British, from the Hundred Years' War until the defeat of Napoleon (1337-1815) was France, a larger country with a more powerful army. The British were generally successful in their many wars, with the notable exception of the American War of Independence (1775–1783), when Britain, without any major allies, was defeated by the colonials who had the support of France, the Netherlands and Spain. A favoured diplomatic strategy was subsidising the armies of continental allies, such as Prussia, thereby turning London's enormous financial power to military advantage. Britain relied heavily on its Royal Navy for security, seeking to keep it the most powerful fleet afloat with a full complement of bases across the globe. British dominance of the seas was vital to the formation of the British Empire, which was achieved through the maintenance of a Navy larger than the next two largest Navies combined for the majority of the 19th and early 20th centuries, prior to the entry of the United States into the Second World War.


Map of the British Empire (as of 1910). At its height, it was the largest empire in history.
Map of the British Empire (as of 1910). At its height, it was the largest empire in history.

First World War


Britain was a "troubled giant" that was less of a dominant diplomatic force in the 1920s than before. It often had to give way to the United States, which frequently exercised its financial superiority.[1] The main themes of British foreign policy include a role at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, where Lloyd George worked hard to moderate French demands for revenge.[2] He was partly successful, but Britain soon had to moderate French policy toward Germany, as in the Locarno Treaties.[3][4] Britain was an active member of the new League of Nations, but its list of major achievements was slight.[5][6]

Disarmament was high on the agenda, and Britain played a major role following the United States in the Washington Naval Conference of 1921 in working toward naval disarmament of the major powers. By 1933 disarmament had collapsed and the issue became rearming for a war against Germany.[7] Britain was much less successful in negotiating with United States regarding the large loans. Britain was obliged to repay. Britain supported the American solution through the Dawes Plan and the Young Plan, whereby Germany paid its reparations using money borrowed from New York banks.[8] The Great Depression starting in 1929 put enormous pressure on the British economy. Britain move toward imperial preference, which meant low tariffs among the Commonwealth of Nations, and higher barriers toward trade with outside countries. The flow of money from New York dried up, and the system of reparations and payment of debt died in 1931.

In domestic British politics, the emerging Labour Party had a distinctive and suspicious foreign policy based on pacifism. Its leaders believed that peace was impossible because of capitalism, secret diplomacy, and the trade in armaments. That is it stressed material factors that ignored the psychological memories of the Great War, and the highly emotional tensions regarding nationalism and the boundaries of the countries. Nevertheless, party leader Ramsay MacDonald spent much of his attention on European policies.[9]


Chamberlain, Daladier, Hitler, and Mussolini pictured before signing the Munich Agreement, which gave the Sudetenland to Nazi Germany.
Chamberlain, Daladier, Hitler, and Mussolini pictured before signing the Munich Agreement, which gave the Sudetenland to Nazi Germany.

Vivid memories of the horrors and deaths of the World War inclined many Britons—and their leaders in all parties—to pacifism in the interwar era. This led directly to the appeasement of dictators in order to avoid their threats of war.[10]

The challenge came from dictators, first Benito Mussolini of Italy, then Adolf Hitler of a much more powerful Nazi Germany. The League of Nations proved disappointing to its supporters; it was unable to resolve any of the threats posed by the dictators. British policy was to "appease" them in the hopes they would be satiated. By 1938 it was clear that war was looming, and that Germany had the world's most powerful military. The final act of appeasement came when Britain and France sacrificed Czechoslovakia to Hitler's demands at the Munich Agreement of 1938.[11] Instead of satiation Hitler menaced Poland, and at last Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain dropped appeasement and stood firm in promising to defend Poland. Hitler however cut a deal with Joseph Stalin to divide Eastern Europe; when Germany did invade Poland in September 1939, Britain and France declared war; the British Commonwealth followed London's lead.[12]

Second World War

Since 1945

Overseas military bases in 2016 (blue) and military interventions since 2000 (red).
Overseas military bases in 2016 (blue) and military interventions since 2000 (red).

Economically in dire straits in 1945, Britain systematically reduced its overseas commitments/ It added new commitments as an active participant in the Cold War against Communism, especially as a founding member of NATO.[13]

The British had built up a very large worldwide British Empire, which peaked in size in 1922, after more than half a century of unchallenged global supremacy. The cumulative costs of fighting two world wars, however, placed a heavy burden upon the UK economy, and after 1945 the British Empire gradually began to disintegrate, with many territories granted independence. By the mid-to-late 1950s, the UK's status as a superpower had been largely diminished by the rise of the United States and the Soviet Union. Many former colonial territories joined the "Commonwealth of Nations," an organisation of fully independent nations now with equal status to the UK.[14] Britain finally turned its attention to the continent, joining the European Union.[15]

Practically all the colonies became independent. Britain reduced its involvements in the Middle east, with the humiliating Suez Crisis of 1956 marking the end of its status as a superpower. However Britain did forge close military ties with the United States, France, and traditional foes such as Germany, in the NATO military alliance. After years of debate (and rebuffs), Britain joined the Common Market in 1973; it is now the European Union.[16] However it did not merge financially, and kept the pound separate from the Euro, which kept it partly isolated from the EU financial crisis of 2011.[17] As of 23 June 2016, the UK has voted to leave the EU.[18][19]

The UK is currently establishing air and naval facilities in the Persian Gulf, located in the UAE and Bahrain.[20][21][22] A presence in Oman is also being considered.[23]

21st century

British Prime Minister Theresa May and U.S. President Donald Trump meet at the White House, January 2017
British Prime Minister Theresa May and U.S. President Donald Trump meet at the White House, January 2017

Foreign policy initiatives of UK governments since the 1990s have included military intervention in conflicts and for peacekeeping, humanitarian assistance programmes and increased aid spending, support for establishment of the International criminal court, debt relief for developing countries, prioritisation of initiatives to address climate change, and promotion of free trade.[24] The British approach has been described as "spread the right norms and sustain NATO".[25]

Lunn et al. (2008) argue:[26]

Three key motifs of Tony Blair’s 10-year premiership were an activist philosophy of 'interventionism', maintaining a strong alliance with the US and a commitment to placing Britain at the heart of Europe. While the 'special relationship' and the question of Britain’s role in Europe have been central to British foreign policy since the Second World War...interventionism was a genuinely new element.

In 2013, the government of David Cameron described its approach to foreign policy by saying:[27]

For any given foreign policy issue, the UK potentially has a range of options for delivering impact in our national interest. ... [W]e have a complex network of alliances and partnerships through which we can work.... These include – besides the EU – the UN and groupings within it, such as the five permanent members of the Security Council (the “P5”); NATO; the Commonwealth; the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development; the G8 and G20 groups of leading industrialised nations; and so on.

The Strategic Defence and Security Review 2015 highlighted a range of foreign policy initiatives of the UK government.[28][29] Edward Longinotti notes how current British defence policy is grappling with how to accommodate two major commitments, to Europe and to an ‘east of Suez’ global military strategy, within a modest defence budget that can only fund one. He points out that Britain's December 2014 agreement to open a permanent naval base in Bahrain underlines its gradual re-commitment east of Suez.[30]

In the 2016 Brexit referendum 52% of those who voted supported "Brexit", and the government started negotiating to leave the European Union in 2017.

Major international disputes since 1945

Sovereignty disputes

Gibraltar National Day celebrations in 2013
Gibraltar National Day celebrations in 2013

Commonwealth of Nations & Ireland

The UK has varied relationships with the countries that make up the Commonwealth of Nations which originated from the British Empire. Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom is Head of the Commonwealth and is Queen of 16 of its 53 member states. Those that retain the Queen as head of state are called Commonwealth realms. Over time several countries have been suspended from the Commonwealth for various reasons. Zimbabwe was suspended because of the authoritarian rule of its President[43] and so too was Pakistan, but it has since returned. Countries which become republics are still eligible for membership of the Commonwealth so long as they are deemed democratic. Commonwealth nations such as Malaysia enjoyed no export duties in trade with the UK before the UK concentrated its economic relationship with EU member states.

The UK was once a dominant colonial power in many countries on the continent of Africa and its multinationals remain large investors in sub-Saharan Africa. Nowadays the UK, as a leading member of the Commonwealth of Nations, seeks to influence Africa through its foreign policies. Current UK disputes are with Zimbabwe over human rights violations. Tony Blair set up the Africa Commission and urged rich countries to cease demanding developing countries repay their large debts. Relationships with developed (often former dominion) nations are strong with numerous cultural, social and political links, mass inter-migration trade links as well as calls for Commonwealth free trade.

From 2016-2018, the Windrush scandal occurred, where the UK deported a number British Citizens with Commonwealth heritage back to their Commonwealth country on claims they were "illegal immigrants".

Bilateral relations


Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria 1962 See Foreign relations of Algeria
 Angola 1975 See Foreign relations of Angola
 Benin 1962 See Foreign relations of Benin
 Botswana 1966 See Foreign relations of Botswana
 Burkina Faso 1962 See Foreign relations of Burkina Faso
 Burundi 1962 See Foreign relations of Burundi
 Cameroon 1960 See Foreign relations of Cameroon
 Cape Verde 1975 See Foreign relations of Cape Verde
 Central African Republic 1960 See Foreign relations of the Central African Republic
 Chad 1962 See Foreign relations of Chad
 Comoros 1975 See Foreign relations of Comoros
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 1960 See Democratic Republic of the Congo–United Kingdom relations
 Congo 1960 See Foreign relations of the Republic of the Congo
 Cote d'Ivoire 1960 See Foreign relations of Côte d'Ivoire
 Djibouti See Foreign relations of Djibouti
 Egypt 1922 See Egypt–United Kingdom relations
 Equatorial Guinea 1968 See Foreign relations of Equatorial Guinea
 Eritrea 1993 See Foreign relations of Eritrea
 Ethiopia 1897 See Foreign relations of Ethiopia
 Gabon 1960 See Foreign relations of Gabon
 Gambia 1965 See Foreign relations of Gambia
 Ghana 1957 See Foreign relations of Ghana
 Guinea 1958 See Foreign relations of Guinea
 Guinea-Bissau See Foreign relations of Guinea-Bissau
 Kenya 1960 See Foreign relations of Kenya
 Lesotho 1966 See Foreign relations of Lesotho
 Liberia 1847 See Foreign relations of Liberia
 Libya See Libya–United Kingdom relations
 Madagascar See Foreign relations of Madagascar
 Malawi 1964 See Malawi–United Kingdom relations
 Mali See Foreign relations of Mali
 Mauritania 1960 See Foreign relations of Mauritania
 Mauritius See Foreign relations of Mauritius
 Morocco 1956 See Morocco–United Kingdom relations

According to some accounts, in the beginning of the 13th century King John of England (1167–1216) sent an embassy to the Almohad Sultan Muhammad al-Nasir (1199–1213), requesting military support and an alliance against France.[44] At home, King John was faced with a dire situation, in which his Barons revolted against him, he had been excommunicated by the Pope, and France was threatening to invade. The embassy of three was led by Bishop Roger, and King John supposedly offered to convert to Islam and pay a tribute to al-Nasir in exchange for his help. Al-Nasir apparently dismissed the proposal.[45]

 Mozambique 1975 See Foreign relations of Mozambique
 Namibia 1990 See Namibia–United Kingdom relations
 Niger 1960 See Foreign relations of Niger
 Nigeria 1960 See Nigeria–United Kingdom relations

Nigeria, formerly a colony, gained independence from Britain in 1960.[46] Large numbers of Nigerians have since emigrated to Britain. The British government played an important role in resolving the Nigerian Civil War. Trade and investment between the two countries are strong, many British multinational companies are active in Nigeria, especially Shell in oil and gas production.

 Rwanda 1962 See Foreign relations of Rwanda
 São Tomé and Príncipe 1975 See Foreign relations of São Tomé and Príncipe
 Senegal 1960 See Foreign relations of Senegal
 Seychelles 1976 See Foreign relations of Seychelles
 Sierra Leone 1961 See Foreign relations of Sierra Leone
 Somalia 1960 See Somalia – United Kingdom relations
 South Africa 1927 See South Africa–United Kingdom relations
 South Sudan 2011 See Foreign relations of South Sudan
 Sudan 1959 See Sudan–United Kingdom relations
  • Sudan has an embassy in London whilst the United Kingdom has an embassy in Khartoum.
 Swaziland 1968 See Foreign relations of Swaziland
 Tanzania 1964 See Foreign relations of Tanzania
 Togo See Foreign relations of Togo
 Tunisia 1956 See Foreign relations of Tunisia
 Uganda 1962 See Foreign relations of Uganda
 Zambia 1960 See Foreign relations of Zambia
 Zimbabwe 1980 See Foreign relations of Zimbabwe


Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Antigua and Barbuda 1981 See Foreign relations of Antigua and Barbuda
 Argentina 1823-12-15 See Argentina–United Kingdom relations
 Bahamas 1973 See Foreign relations of the Bahamas
 Barbados 1966 See Barbados–United Kingdom relations

The two countries are related through common history, the Commonwealth of Nations and their sharing of the same Head of State, Queen Elizabeth II as their Monarch. As one of the first English colonies, the initial permanent European settlement took place in the early seventeenth century by English settlers. Barbados thereafter remained as a territory until it negotiated independence in 1966. In recent years, increasing numbers of British nationals have purchased secondary homes in Barbados,[49] and the islands ranked as the Caribbean regions' fourth largest export market of the United Kingdom.[50] The British High Commission was established in Bridgetown, Barbados in 1966 and there is also a Barbadian High Commission in London.

 Belize 1981 See Foreign relations of Belize
 Bolivia 1837 See Foreign relations of Bolivia
 Brazil 1826 See Foreign relations of Brazil
 Canada 1880 See Canada–United Kingdom relations

Both nations enjoy a cooperative and intimate contact; the two countries are related through history, the Commonwealth of Nations, and their sharing of the same Head of State and monarch.[51] Both countries fought together in both World Wars, the Korean War, and more recently cooperate in the coalition in the War in Afghanistan. Both are founding members of NATO, and also belong to the G7 (and the G8). Winston Churchill said Canada was the "linchpin of the English-speaking world", as it connects two other anglophone countries: the US and the UK. These three countries were the first to share the knowledge of the atom bomb with each other, as all three worked on the Manhattan Project together. Despite this shared history, the UK and Canada have grown apart economically. The UK was Canada's largest trade partner in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but is now well down the list. The two nations now find themselves in separate trade blocs, the EU for the UK and NAFTA for Canada. However relations are still strong, with large migration between the two countries, as well as Canada having the highest favourable public opinion of the UK in the world.

 Chile 1844 See Chile–United Kingdom relations

Chile provided some assistance to Britain during the Falklands War since it was itself at risk of possible war with Argentina regarding the boundary between the two nations in the Beagle Channel.[52]

  • The United Kingdom has embassies in Valparaíso, Puerto Montt, Punta Arenas and Santiago.
  • Chile has an embassy in London.
 Colombia 1825-04-18 See Colombia–United Kingdom relations
 Costa Rica 1849 See Foreign relations of Costa Rica
 Cuba 1902 See Cuba–United Kingdom relations
 Dominica 1978 See Foreign relations of Dominica
 Dominican Republic 1871 See Foreign relations of the Dominican Republic
 Ecuador 1935 See Foreign relations of Ecuador

In 2012, relations came under strain when Julian Assange, founder of the WikiLeaks website, entered the Ecuadorian embassy in London and sought asylum; Assange had recently lost a legal case against his extradition to Sweden on charges of sexual assault and rape, but when within the embassy he was on diplomatic territory and beyond the reach of the British police.[55] The United Kingdom Foreign and Commonwealth Office delivered a note to the Ecuadorian government in Quito reminding them of the provisions of the Diplomatic and Consular Premises Act 1987 which allow the British government to withdraw recognition of diplomatic protection from embassies; the move was interpreted as a hostile act by Ecuador, with Foreign Minister Ricardo Patiño stating that this "explicit threat" would be met with "appropriate responses in accordance with international law".[56] Assange was granted diplomatic asylum on 16 August 2012, with Foreign Minister Patiño stating that Assange's fears of political persecution were "legitimate".[57]

 El Salvador 1834 See Foreign relations of El Salvador
 Grenada 1974 See Grenada–United Kingdom relations
 Guatemala 1834 See Foreign relations of Guatemala
 Guyana 1966 See Foreign relations of Guyana
 Haiti 1859 See Foreign relations of Haiti
 Honduras 1834 See Foreign relations of Honduras
 Jamaica 1962 See Foreign relations of Jamaica
 Mexico 27 June 1824 See Mexico–United Kingdom relations

The United Kingdom was the first country in Europe to recognize Mexico's Independence.[58] The relationship between the two nations began after the Pastry War when the United Kingdom aided Mexico against France. Also, relations improved when Mexico joined the British alongside the Allies to fight the Japanese forces in the Pacific War.

 Nicaragua 1849 See Foreign relations of Nicaragua
 Panama 1904 See Foreign relations of Panama
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Panama City.[61]
  • Panama has an embassy in London.[62]
  • The UK and Panama have a strong bilateral relationship.
 Paraguay 1853-03-04 See Paraguay–United Kingdom relations

Diplomatic relations between both countries were established on 4 March 1853, with the signing of a treaty of Friendship, Trade and Navigation. A dominant view in Paraguay and significant in all the Southern Cone is that the interests of the British Empire played a considerable role during the Paraguayan War.[63]

 Peru 1827 See Foreign relations of Peru
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 1983 See Foreign relations of Saint Kitts and Nevis
 Saint Lucia 1979 See Foreign relations of Saint Lucia
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1979 See Foreign relations of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
 Suriname 1975 See Foreign relations of Suriname
 Trinidad and Tobago 1962 See Trinidad and Tobago–United Kingdom relations
 United States 1785-06-01 See United Kingdom–United States relations
United States President Barack Obama talks to British Prime Minister David Cameron on the South Lawn of the White House, 20 July 2010
United States President Barack Obama talks to British Prime Minister David Cameron on the South Lawn of the White House, 20 July 2010

The United Kingdom and the United States are close military allies. The two countries share cultural similarities, as well as military research and intelligence facilities. The UK has purchased military technology from the USA such as Trident ballistic missiles, and the US has purchased equipment from Britain (e.g. Harrier Jump Jet). The USA also maintains a large number of military personnel in the UK. In recent years, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and the President of the United States have often been close friends, for example Tony Blair and Bill Clinton (and later Blair and George W. Bush), and the often like-minded Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan. Present British policy is that The United Kingdom's relationship with the United States represents Britain's "most important bilateral relationship".[65]

 Uruguay 1825 See United Kingdom–Uruguay relations
 Venezuela 1842 See Venezuela–United Kingdom relations; Venezuelan crisis of 1902–03


Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Afghanistan 1921 See Foreign relations of Afghanistan
 Armenia 1992-01-02[67] See Armenia–United Kingdom relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in London [68]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Yerevan.[69]
 Azerbaijan 1992 See Foreign relations of Azerbaijan
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in London.[70]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Baku.[71]

Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).

 Bahrain 1971 See Bahrain–United Kingdom relations
  • Bahrain has an embassy in London and the United Kingdom is only one of four European countries to have embassy in Manama. Bahrain gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1971 and has since maintained diplomatic and trade relations.
 Bangladesh 1972 See Foreign relations of Bangladesh
 Bhutan No Relations See Foreign relations of Bhutan
 Brunei 1984 See Brunei–United Kingdom relations

In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate, gaining its independence from British rule less than 100 years later in 1984.

The UK and Brunei have a long-standing and strong bilateral relationship, particularly on defence co-operation, trade and education. The UK continues to play a strong role in developing Brunei's oil and gas sector, and the Brunei Investment Agency is a significant investor in the UK, with their largest overseas operations in the City of London. The UK remains the destination of choice for Bruneian students, with about 1,220 of them enrolled in higher education in the UK in 2006-07.

The United Kingdom has a high commission in Bandar Seri Begawan, and Brunei has a high commission in London. Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations.

 Burma 1948 See Foreign relations of Burma
 Cambodia 1953 See Foreign relations of Cambodia
 China 1954 See China–United Kingdom relations, Hong Kong–United Kingdom relations,

Although on opposing sides of the Cold War, both countries were allies during World War II, and are members of the UN and permanent members of the Security Council. But because of the Cold War, First and Second Opium War, and the status of Hong Kong, and other issues, China-UK relations at some points in history have been complicated, but better at other times.

In July 2019, the UN ambassadors from 22 nations, including United Kingdom, signed a joint letter to the UNHRC condemning China’s mistreatment of the Uyghurs as well as its mistreatment of other minority groups, urging the Chinese government to close the Xinjiang re-education camps.[72]

 East Timor 2002 See Foreign relations of East Timor
 Georgia 1992 See Georgia–United Kingdom relations
  • Georgia has an embassy in London.[73]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Tbilisi.[74]
 India 1947 See India–United Kingdom relations

British India was a former colony of the British Empire. India has a high commission in London and two consulates-general in Birmingham and Edinburgh.[75] The United Kingdom has a high commission in New Delhi and three deputy high commissions in Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata.[76] Although the Sterling Area no longer exists and the Commonwealth is much more an informal forum, India and the UK still have many enduring links. This is in part due to the significant number of people of Indian origin living in the UK. The Asian population in the UK results in steady travel and communication between the two countries. The English language, the railways, the legal and parliamentary systems and cricket have been warmly adopted. Indian cuisines are popular in the UK.[77] The United Kingdom's favourite food is often reported to be Indian cuisine, although no official study reports this.[77]

Economically the relationship between Britain and India is also strong. The UK is the second largest investor in India after the US. India is also the fourth[78] largest investor in Britain after the US.[79][80][81]

 Indonesia 1949 See Indonesia–United Kingdom relations
  • Indonesia has an embassy in London,[82] the United Kingdom has an embassy in Jakarta.[83]
 Iran 1807 See Iran–United Kingdom relations

Iran, which was known as Persia before 1935, has had political relations with England since the late Ilkhanate period (13th century) when King Edward I of England sent Geoffrey de Langley to the Ilkhanid court to seek an alliance.[84]

 Iraq 1920 See Iraq–United Kingdom relations

Sanctions against Iraq from 1990 to 2003 prevented any form of economic relations with the United Kingdom and any other country for thirteen years. Ties between London and Baghdad are slowly progressing.

 Israel 1948 See Israel–United Kingdom relations

The United Kingdom has an embassy in Tel Aviv and a consul in Eilat.[85] Israel has an embassy and a consulate in London. The UK's closest partner in the Middle East is Israel, and Israel's closest partner in Europe is the UK.[86][87]

 Japan 1854-10-14 See Japan–United Kingdom relations

Contact began in 1600 with the arrival of William Adams (Adams the Pilot, Miura Anjin) on the shores of Kyūshū at Usuki in Ōita Prefecture. During the Sakoku period (1641–1853) there were no relations. but with the impact of Industrial Revolution, British thread company launched its business in 1907 and thrived. The treaty of 1854 saw the resumption of ties which, despite the hiatus of the Second World War, remain very strong in the present day.

 Jordan 1952 See Foreign relations of Jordan
 Kazakhstan 1992-01-19 See Kazakhstan–United Kingdom relations

The United Kingdom opened an embassy in Kazakhstan in October 1992 and Kazakhstan opened an embassy in Britain in February 1996.[88] Kazakhstan's relations with the West have greatly improved in the last few years as the Government has closely cooperated in the United States-led War on Terror. See also: Counter-terrorism in Kazakhstan

Britain is the third-largest foreign investor in Kazakhstan with British companies making up 14% of foreign direct investment. Over 100 British companies do business in Kazakhstan.[89]

 Kuwait 1961 See Foreign relations of Kuwait
 Kyrgyzstan 1992 See Kyrgyzstan–United Kingdom relations
 Laos 1952 See Foreign relations of Laos
 Lebanon 1944 See Foreign relations of Lebanon
 Malaysia 1957 See Malaysia–United Kingdom relations
The Yang di-Pertuan Agong in a carriage with Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom on the state visit to London, 1974.
The Yang di-Pertuan Agong in a carriage with Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom on the state visit to London, 1974.

The United Kingdom has a high commission in Kuala Lumpur, and Malaysia has a high commission in London. Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations. Both the UK and Malaysia are part of the Five Powers Defence Arrangements. Malaysia is a strong partner of Britain in the Far East. Britain has made numerous military sacrifices in guaranteeing a stable independent Malaysia, for example the Malaysian Emergency and the protection of the country during high tensions with Indonesia-Konfrontasi.

The Yang di-Pertuan Agong Sultan Abdul Halim of Kedah paid a state visit to the United Kingdom in July 1974.[90] The Yang di-Pertuan Agong Sultan Azlan Shah of Perak paid a state visit to the United Kingdom in November 1993.[90] HM Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom paid state visits to Malaysia in October 1989, and in September 1998.[91]

 Maldives 1965 See Foreign relations of the Maldives
 Mongolia 1963-01-23 See Foreign relations of Mongolia
   Nepal 1816-09-01 See Nepal–United Kingdom relations
 North Korea 2000 See North Korea–United Kingdom relations
 Oman 1971 See Oman–United Kingdom relations

The relations between the United Kingdom and Oman are strong and strategic.[92] In April 2010 the government of Oman stated that it wanted to buy Eurofighter Typhoons from the UK.[92] The United Kingdom has an embassy in Mina al Fahal[93] and Oman has an embassy in London.[94]

 Pakistan 1947 See Pakistan-United Kingdom relations
 Palestine See Palestine–United Kingdom relations

The United Kingdom maintains a consulate in Jerusalem which handles British relations with the Palestinian Authority.[95] The Foreign and Commonwealth Office states the "Consular district covers Jerusalem (West and East), the West Bank and Gaza. As well as work on the Middle East Peace Process and other political issues, the consulate also promotes trade between the UK and the Occupied Palestinian Territories and manages an extensive programme of aid and development work. The latter is undertaken primarily by the DFID office in Jerusalem.".[95]

The Palestinian Authority is represented in London by Manuel Hassassian, the Palestinian General Delegate to the United Kingdom.[95]

 Philippines 1946-07-04 See Philippines–United Kingdom relations
  • The United Kingdom and the Philippines have good relations.
  • The Philippines has been one of the UK's major recruitment countries for nurses and over 80,000 Filipino nurses and care-givers work in the UK. The total Philippine community in the UK is estimated to be about 150,000. There are estimated to be some 15,000 British nationals living in the Philippines. About 180,000 British nationals visit the Philippines annually.
 Qatar 1971 See Qatar-United Kingdom relations
 Saudi Arabia 1927 See Saudi Arabia–United Kingdom relations

The UK has an embassy in Riyadh, consulate in Jeddah and trade office in Al Khobar.[96] Saudi Arabia has an embassy and consulate in London.[97]

 Singapore 1965 See Singapore–United Kingdom relations

Singapore and the United Kingdom share a friendly relationship since Singapore became independent from the United Kingdom in 1959. Singapore retained the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council as the final court of appeal up till 1989 (fully abolished in 1994) due to political reasons.

 South Korea 1949-01-18[98] See South Korea–United Kingdom relations
  • Formal relations between South Korea and the United Kingdom commenced on the 18 January 1949[98] although diplomatic ties go back to 1883.[99] British military participation in the Korean War during the 1950s was significant, but relations between the two countries at the time were described as "tenuous", with relatively little known about each other. Commercial and trade relationships grew rapidly during the 1970s. During the Asian Financial Crisis in the late 1990s, the Queen made a state visit to South Korea which was well received at a time of crisis in the country. Today, there are strong economic and diplomatic links between the two countries.[99] The United Kingdom has a visa scheme through which young South Koreans can live and work in the UK for two years.[100] There is a British embassy in Seoul and a South Korean embassy in London.[101][102]
 Sri Lanka 1948 See Sri Lanka–United Kingdom relations
 Syria See Foreign relations of Syria
 Taiwan No Relations See Taiwan–United Kingdom relations
 Tajikistan 1992 See Foreign relations of Tajikistan
 Thailand 1855-04-18 See Thailand–United Kingdom relations
 Turkey 1793 See Turkey–United Kingdom relations
  • Turkey has an embassy and a consulate general in London.[105][106]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Ankara, a consulate general in Istanbul, a vice consulate in Antalya and a consulate in Izmir. The United Kingdom has honorary consulates in Adana, Bodrum, Fethiye and Marmaris.[107][108]

The United Kingdom is the second biggest importer of goods from Turkey, after Germany. Turkey exports around 8% of its total goods to the United Kingdom.[109] Around 1,000,000 Britons take holidays in Turkey every year, while 100,000 Turks travel to the UK for business or pleasure.[110]

The United Kingdom does not recognise the TRNC. The TRNC is only recognised by Turkey. The UK is also a signatory to a treaty with Greece and Turkey concerning the independence of Cyprus, the Treaty of Guarantee, which maintains that Britain is a "guarantor power" of the island's independence.[111]

 Turkmenistan 1992 See Foreign relations of Turkmenistan
 United Arab Emirates 1971 See United Arab Emirates–United Kingdom relations
 Uzbekistan 1992 See United Kingdom–Uzbekistan relations
 Vietnam 1973 See Foreign relations of Vietnam
  • Vietnam is represented in the UK by the Embassy of Vietnam in London.[112]
  • The UK entered into a strategic partnership agreement with Vietnam in 2010 to demonstrate the extent of existing cooperation between the countries, as well as showing the two governments ambitions for the future.[113]
 Yemen 1970 See Foreign relations of Yemen


The UK maintained good relations with Western Europe since 1945, and Eastern Europe since end of the Cold War in 1989. After years of dispute with France it joined the European Economic Community in 1973, which eventually evolved into the European Union through the Maastricht Treaty twenty years later.[114] Although the UK does not use the Euro and is not a member of the Eurozone,[115] it still plays a leading role in the day-to-day workings of the EU. However the United Kingdom has been referred to as a "peculiar" member of the EU, due to its occasional disputes relations with the organisation and differences through geography, history and opt-outs and polls have found that, of the 28 nationalities in the European Union, British people feel the least European.[116][117] On 23 June 2016, the United Kingdom voted to leave the European Union and withdrawal negotiations are currently under way after the invocation of article 50 of the Lisbon treaty in March 2017.

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania 1920-12 See Albania–United Kingdom relations
 Andorra 1994-03-09[120] See Foreign relations of Andorra
  • The United Kingdom's consulate-general in Barcelona handles the United Kingdom's consular activities in Andorra.[121]
 Austria 1799 See Foreign relations of Austria

Relations between the Austrian Empire and England were established in the Middle Ages. The United Kingdom and Austria continue these relations. Both countries are full members of the European Union.

 Belarus 1992 See Foreign relations of Belarus
  • Belarus has an embassy in London.[125]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Minsk.[126]
 Belgium 1830 See Belgium–United Kingdom relations
  • Belgium has an embassy in London and honorary consulates in Belfast, Birmingham, Edinburgh, Gibraltar, Kingston-upon-Hull, Manchester, Newcastle upon Tyne, Saint Helier and Southampton.[127]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy and a consulate general in Brussels.[126][128]

The two countries have trading links going back to the 10th century, especially wool trade from England to the County of Flanders.

 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1995 See Foreign relations of Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina has an embassy in London.[129]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Sarajevo and an embassy office in Banja Luka.[130]
 Bulgaria 1879-07 See Bulgaria–United Kingdom relations
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in London and an honorary consulate in Dundee.[131]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Sofia,[132]

Both countries are members of the European Union and NATO.

 Croatia 1992 See Foreign relations of Croatia
  • Croatia has an embassy in London and a consulate in Edinburgh.[133]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Zagreb and consulates in Dubrovnik and Split.[134][135]
 Cyprus 1960 See Cyprus–United Kingdom relations

The UK maintains two sovereign area military bases on the island of Cyprus. The UK is also a signatory to a treaty with Greece and Turkey concerning the independence of Cyprus, the Treaty of Guarantee, which maintains that Britain is a "guarantor power" of the island's independence.[111]

  • Cyprus has a High Commission in London and honorary consulates in Birmingham, Bristol, Dunblane, Glasgow, Northern Ireland and West Yorkshire.[136]
  • The United Kingdom has a High Commission in Nicosia.[137]
 Czech Republic 1993 See Czech Republic–United Kingdom relations
  • The Czech Republic has an embassy in London and honorary consulates in Belfast and Edinburgh.[138][139]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Prague.[140]

HM Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom paid a state visit to the Czech Republic in March 1996.[141]

 Denmark 1654-10-01 See Denmark–United Kingdom relations

The United Kingdom has an embassy in Copenhagen and Denmark has an embassy in London. Both countries are full members of NATO and of the European Union. HM Queen Margrethe II of Denmark paid state visits to the United Kingdom in April/May 1974, and in February 2000.[142] HM Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom paid state visits to Denmark in May 1957, and in May 1979.[143]

 Estonia 1991 See Foreign relations of Estonia
  • Estonia has an embassy in London and honorary consuls in Liverpool, Cheltenham, Paisley and Wales.[144][145]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Tallinn.[146]
 Finland 1919-05-06[147] See Foreign relations of Finland
 France 1505 See France–United Kingdom relations
  • France has an embassy in London and consulate generals in London and Edinburgh.[149]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Paris and consulates in Bordeaux, Lyon and Marseille.[150]
 Germany 1680 See Germany–United Kingdom relations
  • Germany has an embassy in London and a consulate general in Edinburgh. German also has honorary consulates in Aberdeen, Barrow on Humber, Belfast, Coventry, Bristol, Cardiff, Dover, Glasgow, Guernsey, Jersey, Kirkwall, Leeds, Lerwick, Liverpool, Middlesbrough, Newcastle upon Tyne, Plymouth and Southampton.[151][152][153]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Berlin and consulate generals in Düsseldorf and Munich. The United Kingdom also has honorary consulates in Bremen, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Hannover, Kiel, Nürnberg and Stuttgart.[154][155][156]
  • The UK maintains 22,000 troops in Germany, as part of the British Forces Germany.
 Greece 1832 See Greece–United Kingdom relations
  • Greece has an embassy in London and honorary consulates in Belfast, Birmingham, Edinburgh, Gibraltar, Glasgow and Leeds.[157]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Athens and a Honorary Vice Consulate in Patras. The United Kingdom also has honorary consulates in Crete, Corfu, Rhodes, Thessaloniki and Zakynthos.[158][159]

The two countries share membership of the European Union and NATO.

 Holy See 1982 See Holy See–United Kingdom relations

With the English Reformation, diplomatic links between London and the Holy See, which had been established in 1479, were interrupted in 1536 and again, after a brief restoration in 1553, in 1558. Formal diplomatic ties between the United Kingdom and the Holy See were restored in 1914 and raised to ambassadorial level in 1982.[160][161]

 Hungary 1920 [162]
  • Hungary has an embassy in London and honorary consulates in Belfast, Cardiff, Edinburgh, Liverpool and Torquay.[163]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Budapest.[164]
 Iceland 1944 See Iceland–United Kingdom relations
 Ireland 1921 See Ireland–United Kingdom relations

Despite a long history of conflict from English Tudor plantation in Ireland to the Irish War of independence, the UK presently works closely with the government of the Republic of Ireland in areas concerning the peace process in Northern Ireland as well as on many security issues. In 1949 the Irish Houses of Parliament passed the Republic of Ireland Act, making the Republic of Ireland officially fully independent; the country withdrew from the Commonwealth. Under the Ireland Act 1949 Irish citizens are treated as though they are Commonwealth citizens and not aliens for the purposes of law. Until 1998, the Republic of Ireland claimed Northern Ireland, but this was rescinded under the Belfast Agreement through an amendment of the Irish Constitution, which now states an aspiration to peaceful unity. There is an ongoing dispute that also involves Denmark and Iceland, over the status of the ocean floor surrounding Rockall. However, this is for the most part a trivial issue that rarely makes it onto British-Irish meeting agendas.[42]

Both countries are members of the European Union.

  • Ireland has an embassy in London and a consulate general in Edinburgh.[168]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Dublin.[169]

Under the Ireland Act 1949 Irish citizens are treated as though they are Commonwealth citizens and not aliens for the purposes of law. See Commonwealth of Nations & Ireland Section above.

 Italy 1861 See Italy–United Kingdom relations
  • Italy has an embassy in London, two consulate generals, in Edinburgh and London, and honorary consulates in Belfast, Glasgow & Liverpool. Italy also has Honorary Vice Consulates in Aberdeen, Birmingham, Cardiff & Nottingham and Honorary Consular Agency in Ashford, Bristol, Chestnut, Dundee, Greenock, Guernsey, Hull, Jersey, Newcastle upon Tyne, Peterborough, Watford & Woking.[170]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Rome, a consulate-general in Milan and a consulate in Rome.[171][172]

Between 4 and 5 million British tourists visit Italy every year, while 1 million Italian tourists visit the UK.[173] There are about 19,000 British nationals living in Italy, and 150,000 Italians living in the UK.[174]

  • 'Britalian' - British people of Italian descent.
 Kosovo 2008 See Kosovo–United Kingdom relations
  • Kosovo has a Consular Mission in London.[175]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Pristina.[176]

When Kosovo declared its independence from Serbia on 17 February 2008, the United Kingdom became one of the first countries to officially announce recognition of sovereign Kosovo on 18 February 2008.[177][178] The United Kingdom has had an embassy in Pristina since 5 March 2008.[179] Kosovo has an embassy in London since 1 October 2008.

 Latvia 1991 See Foreign relations of Latvia
  • Latvia has an embassy in London and honorary consulates in Edinburgh, Northern Ireland, Manchester and Wales.[180]
  • The United Kingdom has embassy in Riga.[181]
 Lithuania 1991-09-04[182] See Lithuania–United Kingdom relations

There are around 100,000 Lithuanians living in the United Kingdom. Both countries are full members of NATO and of the European Union. In 2006, HM Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom and Prince Philip paid an official state visit to Lithuania.[186][187]

 Malta 1964 See Malta–United Kingdom relations

In the 1950s and 1960s, serious consideration was given in both countries to the idea of a political union between the United Kingdom and Malta. However, this plan for "Integration with Britain" foundered, and Malta gained its independence from the United Kingdom in 1964. British Monarch Queen Elizabeth II remained Queen of Malta until the country became a Republic in 1974. There is a small Maltese community in the United Kingdom. In addition, the British overseas territory of Gibraltar has been influenced by significant 18th and 19th Century immigration from Malta (see "History of the Maltese in Gibraltar"). Both countries are members of the European Union.

  • Malta has a High Commission in London and consulates in Gibraltar, the Isle of Man, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.[188][189]
  • The United Kingdom has a High Commission in Valletta.[190]

Malta is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. See Commonwealth of Nations & Ireland Section above.

 Moldova 1992-01-17[191] See Foreign relations of Moldova

The number of British and Moldovan citizens in Moldova and the United Kingdom respectively is insignificant. When visiting Moldova no visa obligation exists for British citizens for stays in Moldova less than 90 days, otherwise a visa is required. For Moldovan citizens a visa is required for any border crossing, except for transfer passengers.

  • Monaco has an embassy in London.
  • United Kingdom is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris, France.
 Montenegro 2006-06-13 See Montenegro–United Kingdom relations
 Netherlands 1603 See Netherlands–United Kingdom relations
  • The Netherlands has an embassy in London and consulates in Aberdeen, Belfast, Birmingham, Cardiff, Edinburgh, Guernsey, Hamilton, Harwich, Hull, Liverpool, Manchester, Plymouth and Southampton. The Netherlands also has a vice consulate in Dover.[196][197]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in The Hague and consulates in Amsterdam and Willemstad.[198][199]
 North Macedonia
 Norway 1905 See Norway–United Kingdom relations
  • Norway has an embassy in London and consulate general in Edinburgh. Norway also has consulates in Aberdeen, Ardrossan, Barrow-on-Furness, Belfast, Birmingham, Bristol, Cardiff, Douglas, Dundee, Gibraltar, Glasgow, Grimsby, Inverness, Jersey, Kirkwall, Lerwick, Liverpool, London, Manchester, Newcastle, Plymouth, Southampton and Stornoway.[200]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Oslo and consulates in Ålesund, Bergen, Stavanger and Trondheim. The United Kingdom also has honorary consulates in Bodø, Kristiansand and Tromsø.[201]
 Poland 1919 See Poland–United Kingdom relations
  • Poland has an embassy in London, a consulate general in Edinburgh and Manchester. Poland also has honorary consulates in Bristol, Gibraltar, Hull, Kidderminster, Newry and St Helier.[202][203][204][205]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Warsaw.[206]

In the 1990s and 2000s democratic Poland has maintained close relations with Britain; both in defence matters and within the EU; Britain being one of only a few countries allowing equal rights to Polish workers upon their accession in 2004.

 Portugal 1373 See Portugal–United Kingdom relations
  • Portugal has an embassy and consulate general in London and consulates in Belfast, Edinburgh, Hamilton, Manchester and St Helier.[207]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Lisbon and consulates in Lisbon and Portimão. The United Kingdom also has honorary consulates in Funchal, Oporto and Ponta Delgada.[208][209]

The relationship dates back to the Middle Ages in 1373 with the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance.

 Romania 1880-02-20 See Romania–United Kingdom relations
 Russia 1553 See Russia–United Kingdom relations
  • Russia has an embassy in London and a consulate in Edinburgh.[214][215]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Moscow and consulate generals in Ekaterinburg and Saint Petersburg.[216][217]

Spanning nearly five centuries, the relationship has often switched from a state of alliance to rivalry. Presently there is a diplomatic row going on over extraditions.

 San Marino 1899;1961 See San Marino–United Kingdom relations
 Serbia 1837 See Serbia–United Kingdom relations
 Slovakia 1993
 Slovenia 1992 See Foreign relations of Slovenia
  • Slovenia has an embassy in London and has consulate generals in Belfast and Edinburgh.[224]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Ljubljana.[225]
 Spain 1509 See Spain–United Kingdom relations
  • Spain has an embassy in London and consulate generals in Edinburgh and London.[226][227]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Madrid and consulate generals in Barcelona and Madrid. The United Kingdom also has consulates in Bilbao, Ibiza, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Málaga, Palma de Mallorca and Santa Cruz de Tenerife.[228][229]

During the Second World War Spain remained neutral, but was perceived to be closely aligned with Nazi Germany. Following the end of the war, frosty relations continued between the two states until the end of the Franco era and the democratisation of Spain.

 Sweden 1653 See Sweden-United Kingdom relations
  • Sweden has an embassy in London as well as consulate generals in Edinburgh and Gibraltar. Sweden also has consulates in Guernsey and Jersey as well as honorary consulates in Belfast, Birmingham, Brighton, Bristol, Cardiff, Dover, Glasgow, Immingham, Lerwick, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle upon Tyne, Southampton and Stornonway.[230]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Stockholm and honorary consulates in Gothenburg and Malmö.[231][232]
  Switzerland 1900 See Switzerland and the European Union
  • Switzerland has an embassy in London and consulate general in Edinburgh. Switzerland also has consulates in Belfast, Cardiff, Cayman Islands, Gibraltar, Hamilton, Manchester and St Peter Port.[233][234]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Bern.[235]
 Ukraine 1991 See Ukraine–United Kingdom relations


Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia 1936 See Australia–United Kingdom relations

Australia–United Kingdom relations are close, marked by shared history, culture, institutions and language, extensive people-to-people links, aligned security interests, and vibrant trade and investment cooperation. The long-standing relationship formally began in 1901 when the six British Crown colonies in Australia federated, and the Commonwealth of Australia was formed as a Dominion of the British Empire. Australia fought alongside Britain in World War I, notably at Gallipoli, and again in World War II. Andrew Fisher, Australian prime minister from 1914 to 1916, declared that Australia would defend the United Kingdom "to the last man and the last shilling." Until 1949, the United Kingdom and Australia shared a common nationality code. The final constitutional ties between United Kingdom and Australia ended in 1986 with the passing of the Australia Act 1986. Currently, more than 4% of the Australian population was born in the UK, giving strong mutual relations. Furthermore, investment and trade between the two countries are still important.

 Fiji 1970 See Foreign relations of Fiji
 Kiribati 1979 See Foreign relations of Kiribati
 Marshall Islands 1991 See Foreign relations of Marshall Islands
 Micronesia 1992-08-31 See Foreign relations of Micronesia
 Nauru 1968 See Nauru–United Kingdom relations

Nauru was part of the British Western Pacific Territories from September 1914 and June 1921.[238] The British Government had ceased to exercise any direct role in the governance of Nauru by 1968, when the island achieved its independence. The Nauruan government maintains an Hon. Consul, Martin W I Weston. The British High Commission in Suva is responsible for the United Kingdom's bilateral relations with Nauru.[239]

 New Zealand 1939 See New Zealand–United Kingdom relations

Up to about the 1960s, New Zealand also had extremely close economic relations with the United Kingdom, especially considering the distance at which trade took place. As an example, in 1955, Britain took 65.3 percent of New Zealand's exports, and only during the following decades did this dominant position begin to decline as the United Kingdom oriented itself more towards the European Union, with the share of exports going to Britain having fallen to only 6.2 percent in 2000.[240] Historically, some industries, such as dairying, a major economic factor in the former colony, had even more dominant trade links, with 80-100% of all cheese and butter exports going to Britain from around 1890 to 1940.[241] This strong bond also supported the mutual feelings for each other in other areas.

 Palau See Foreign relations of Palau
 Papua New Guinea 1975 See Papua New Guinea–United Kingdom relations

Papua New Guinea and the United Kingdom share Queen Elizabeth as their head of state. They have had relations since 1975 when Papua New Guinea gained independence from Australia (then still a British Dominion).

 Samoa 1962 See Foreign relations of Samoa
 Solomon Islands 1978 See Foreign relations of the Solomon Islands
 Tonga 1970 See Foreign relations of Tonga
 Tuvalu 1978 See Foreign relations of Tuvalu
 Vanuatu 1980 See Foreign relations of Vanuatu

Overseas Territories

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Ascension Island See Foreign relations of Ascension Island
 Anguilla See Foreign relations of Anguilla
 Bermuda See Foreign relations of Bermuda
 British Indian Ocean Territory See Foreign relations of British Indian Ocean Territory
 British Virgin Islands See Foreign relations of British Virgin Islands
 Cayman Islands See Foreign relations of the Cayman Islands
 Falkland Islands See Foreign relations of Falkland Islands
 Montserrat See Foreign relations of Montserrat
 Pitcairn Islands See Foreign relations of the Pitcairn Islands
 Saint Helena See Foreign relations of Saint Helena
 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands See Foreign relations of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
 Tristan da Cunha See Foreign relations of Tristan da Cunha
 Turks and Caicos Islands See Foreign relations of Turks and Caicos Islands

International Organisations

The United Kingdom is a member of the following international organisations:[242]

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, Commonwealth of Nations, CBSS (observer), CDB, Council of Europe, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA, European Union, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-5, G7, G8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD (also known as the World Bank), ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), SECI (observer), UN, United Nations Security Council, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIS, UNRWA, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, Zangger Committee

See also


  1. ^ F.S. Northedge, The troubled giant: Britain among the great powers, 1916-1939 (1966).
  2. ^ Erik Goldstein, Winning the peace: British diplomatic strategy, peace planning, and the Paris Peace Conference, 1916-1920 (1991).
  3. ^ Frank Magee, "‘Limited Liability’? Britain and the Treaty of Locarno." Twentieth Century British History 6.1 (1995): 1-22.
  4. ^ Andrew Barros, "Disarmament as a weapon: Anglo-French relations and the problems of enforcing German disarmament, 1919–28." Journal of Strategic Studies 29#2 (2006): 301-321.
  5. ^ Peter J. Yearwood, Guarantee of Peace: The League of Nations in British Policy 1914-1925 (2009).
  6. ^ Susan Pedersen, "Back to the League of Nations." American Historical Review 112.4 (2007): 1091-1117. in JSTOR
  7. ^ Raymond G. O'Connor, "The" Yardstick" and Naval Disarmament in the 1920's." Mississippi Valley Historical Review 45.3 (1958): 441-463. in JSTOR
  8. ^ Patrick O. Cohrs, The unfinished peace after world war 1: America, Britain and the stabilization of Europe, 1919-1932 (2006).
  9. ^ Henry R. Winkler. "The Emergence of a Labor Foreign Policy in Great Britain, 1918-1929." Journal of Modern History 28.3 (1956): 247-258. in JSTOR
  10. ^ Patrick Finney, "The romance of decline: The historiography of appeasement and British national identity." Electronic Journal of International History 1 (2000). online
  11. ^ David Faber, Munich, 1938: Appeasement and World War II (2010)
  12. ^ Donald Cameron Watt, How War Came: Immediate Origins of the Second World War, 1938–39 (1990)
  13. ^ F.S. Northedge, Desent From Power British Foreign Policy 1945-1973 (1974) online
  14. ^ Lawrence James, The Rise and Fall of the British Empire (2001)
  15. ^ Stephen Wall, A Stranger in Europe: Britain and the EU from Thatcher to Blair (2008)
  16. ^ Andrew Marr, A History of Modern Britain (2009)
  17. ^ Stephen Wall, A Stranger in Europe: Britain and the EU from Thatcher to Blair (Oxford University Press, 2008)
  18. ^ Andrew Gamble, "Better Off Out? Britain and Europe." The Political Quarterly (2012) 83#3: 468-477.
  19. ^ Nathaniel Copsey and Tim Haughton, "Farewell Britannia? 'Issue Capture' and the Politics of David Cameron's 2013 EU Referendum Pledge." JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies (2014) 52-S1: 74-89.
  20. ^ "East of Suez, West from Helmand: British Expeditionary Force and the next SDSR" (PDF). Oxford Research Group. December 2014. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
  21. ^ "A Return to East of Suez? UK Military Deployment to the Gulf". Royal United Services Institute. April 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2015.
  22. ^ "The New East of Suez Question: Damage Limitation after Failure Over Syria". Royal United Services Institute. 19 September 2013. Archived from the original on 2 July 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2015.
  23. ^ "Defence Secretary visits Oman". Ministry of Defence. 1 October 2015. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
  24. ^ Gaskarth, Jamie (2013). British Foreign Policy Crises, Conflicts and Future Challenges. Hoboken: Wiley. p. 15. ISBN 9780745670003.
  25. ^ Wagnsson, Charlotte (2012). Security in a Greater Europe: The Possibility of a Pan-European Approach. Oxford University Press. p. 33. ISBN 9780719086717. The British solution: spread the right norms and sustain NATO ... The new rules placed humanitarian intervention above the principle of sovereignty. Blair stated that this 'would become the basis of an approach to future conflict'.
  26. ^ Lunn, Jon; Miller, Vaughne; Smith, Ben (23 June 2008). "British foreign policy since 1997" (PDF). Research Paper 08/56. House Commons Library.
  27. ^ "Review of the Balance of Competences between the United Kingdom and the European Union: Foreign Policy" (PDF). HM Government. July 2013. p. 13. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  28. ^ "National Security Strategy and Strategic Defence and Security Review 2015" (PDF). HM Government. November 2015. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
  29. ^ Lord Robertson, former UK Defence Secretary and Secretary General of NATO (27 October 2015). "The 2015 Strategic Defence and Security Review and its Implications". Gresham College. Retrieved 26 November 2015. Defence Review would be foreign policy led
  30. ^ Longinotti, Edward (9 September 2015). "'For God's sake, act like Britain' Lessons from the 1960s for British defence policy". History & Policy. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
  31. ^ "The Berlin blockade: Moscow draws the iron curtain". BBC News. 1 April 1998. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  32. ^ "1973: Super tug to defend fishing fleet". BBC News. 19 January 1973. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  33. ^ John Campbell, Margaret Thatcher: Volume 2: The Iron Lady (2003) pp 273-9
  34. ^ "1988: Jumbo jet crashes onto Lockerbie". BBC News. 21 December 1988. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  35. ^ "1991: 'Mother of all Battles' begins". BBC News. 17 January 1991. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  36. ^ John Campbell, Margaret Thatcher: Volume 2: The Iron Lady (2003) p 315–317
  37. ^ Taylor, Ros (20 March 2008). "Anglo-Russian relations". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  38. ^ "Iran nuclear deal: Key details". BBC. 16 January 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  39. ^ "Gibraltar profile". BBC News. 23 March 2010. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  40. ^ "Chagos Archipelago - Dictionary definition of Chagos Archipelago - FREE online dictionary".
  41. ^ Bowcott, Owen (19 October 2007). "Argentina ready to challenge Britain's Antarctic claims". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  42. ^ a b "1955: Britain claims Rockall". 21 September 1955 – via
  43. ^ The Commonwealth of Nations - Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Archived 1 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  44. ^ Britain and Morocco during the embassy of John Drummond Hay, 1845-1886 by Khalid Ben Srhir, Malcolm Williams, Gavin Waterson p.13 [1]
  45. ^ Najībābādī, Akbar Shāh K̲h̲ān (9 October 2017). "History of Islam (Vol 3)". Darussalam – via Google Books.
  46. ^ "Nigeria: Facts and figures". 17 April 2007 – via
  47. ^ "Argentine Embassy - London".
  48. ^ British embassy in Buenos Aires Archived 28 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  49. ^ Staff writer (14 March 2010). "Barbados is queen of the Caribbean". The Independent. London. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  50. ^ Staff writer. "Barbados profile: Overview". UK Trade and Investment (UKTI). Archived from the original on 23 November 2004. Retrieved 28 December 2009. Barbados is the UK's fourth largest export market in the Caribbean. Traditionally the UK has maintained close trading links with Barbados despite strong competition from the United States, Canada and Japan. Barbados is a small market in global terms yet remains a key one for UK companies in the region. In 2008, UK exports to Barbados were valued at over £38.0 million. Invisibles such as banking, insurance and consultancy are of considerable importance.
  51. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 May 2008. Retrieved 17 July 2009.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Foreign Affairs - Canada-United Kingdom Relations
  52. ^ Paolo Tripodi, "General Matthei's revelation and Chile's role during the Falklands War: A new perspective on the conflict in the South Atlantic." Journal of Strategic Studies (2003) 26#4 pp: 108–123.
  53. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 November 2013. Retrieved 29 November 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  54. ^ "British Embassy Bogotá - GOV.UK".
  55. ^ Addley, Esther; Woolf, Beatrice (19 June 2012). "Assange seeks refuge at Ecuador's embassy". The Guardian. London. p. 1.
  56. ^ Pearse, Damien (16 August 2012). "Julian Assange can be arrested in Ecuador embassy, UK warns". The Guardian. London.
  57. ^ "Julian Assange: Ecuador grants Wikileaks founder asylum". BBC News. 16 August 2012.
  58. ^ "State Banquet at Buckingham Palace, Mexican State Visit, 30 March 2009". Official web site of the British Monarchy. Retrieved 8 April 2009.
  59. ^ Embassy of Mexico in London
  60. ^ Embassy of the United Kingdom in Mexico City
  61. ^ "Consulate General of Panama in London". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  62. ^ "UK and Panama - UK and the world - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  63. ^ Leslie Bethell (1996). The Paraguayan War (1864-1870). Institute of Latin American Studies.
  64. ^ "Embassy of Paraguay. London, UK".
  65. ^ "Ties that bind: Bush, Brown and a different relationship". FT. Retrieved 22 December 2008.
  66. ^ British embassy in Montevideo Archived 4 August 2003 at the Wayback Machine
  67. ^ "UK - Bilateral Relations - Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Armenia". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  68. ^ "UK - Embassies - Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Armenia". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  69. ^ "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  70. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 September 2012. Retrieved 21 November 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  71. ^ "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  72. ^ "More than 20 ambassadors condemn China's treatment of Uighurs in Xinjiang". The Guardian. 11 July 2019.
  73. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 June 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  74. ^ "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  75. ^ High Commission of India in the UK Archived 15 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  76. ^ "British High Commission New Delhi - GOV.UK".
  77. ^ a b "THE NATION'S FAVOURITE DISH". BBC. 4 November 2002. Retrieved 21 November 2009.
  78. ^ "India slips to be 4th largest investor into UK". The Economic Times. 6 July 2017. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  79. ^ Sufia Tippu (30 October 2006). "India becomes second largest investor in Britain". ITWire. Archived from the original on 17 October 2007. Retrieved 2009-11-21.
  80. ^ "Indian investment in London jumps". BBC. 27 April 2007. Retrieved 21 November 2009.
  81. ^ "Central, FDI 2005–2006 statistics" (PDF). Ministry Of Commerce, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 March 2007.
  82. ^ News-Indonesianembassy Archived 26 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  83. ^ "British Embassy Jakarta - GOV.UK".
  84. ^ Patrick Clawson. Eternal Iran. Palgrave 2005 ISBN 1-4039-6276-6, p.25
  85. ^ "British Embassy Tel Aviv - GOV.UK".
  86. ^ The Israeli Government's Official Website, by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Archived 29 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  87. ^ The Israeli Government's Official Website, by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Archived 13 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  88. ^ About the Embassy The Embassy of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
  89. ^ Analysis: Why the world cares about Kazakhstan The Times
  90. ^ a b "Ceremonies: State visits". Official web site of the British Monarchy. Archived from the original on 6 November 2008. Retrieved 26 November 2008.
  91. ^ "Outward state visits made by the queen since 1952". Official web site of the British Monarchy. Archived from the original on 21 October 2008. Retrieved 26 November 2008.
  92. ^ a b "Oman 'seeks Eurofighter purchase'". 2 April 2010 – via
  93. ^ "Oman and the UK - GOV.UK".
  94. ^ Oman Embassy in the UK Archived 25 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  95. ^ a b c Country Profile: The Occupied Palestinian Territories Archived 24 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  96. ^ "British Embassy Riyadh - GOV.UK".
  97. ^ "Request Rejected".
  98. ^ a b
  99. ^ a b Harris, Thomas (27 June 2014). "Britain's Relations with Korea: A Personal View". Gresham College.
  100. ^ "Tier 5 (Youth Mobility Scheme) visa: Eligibility - GOV.UK".
  101. ^ "Embassy of the Republic of Korea in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
  102. ^ "South Korea and the UK - GOV.UK".
  103. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 February 2010. Retrieved 11 June 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  104. ^ "Thailand and the UK - GOV.UK".
  105. ^ [2]
  106. ^ [3]
  107. ^ "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  108. ^ "British Embassy Ankara  - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  109. ^ "World Fact Book - Turkey" Link accessed 29/05/08
  110. ^ "The UK and Turkey" Archived 18 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine Link accessed 29/05/08
  111. ^ a b "Openning SBA Administration Official Web....n".
  112. ^ Embassy of Vietnam London Retrieved 30 December 2015. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  113. ^ "British Embassy Hanoi". Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  114. ^ "1973: Britain joins the EEC". 9 October 1973 – via
  115. ^ "2002: Celebrations as euro hits the streets". 9 October 2017 – via
  116. ^ "Britain and the EU: A long and rocky relationship". BBC News. 1 April 2014. Retrieved 24 October 2016.
  117. ^ "The ultimate causes of Brexit: history, culture, and geography". LSE. 18 July 2016. Retrieved 24 October 2016.
  118. ^ [4]
  119. ^ "Albania, Tirana, British Embassy". FCO. Archived from the original on 14 September 2008. Retrieved 27 August 2008.
  120. ^ "Permanent Mission of Andorra in Geneva". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  121. ^ "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  122. ^ Österreich, Außenministerium der Republik. "Suche nach österreichischen Vertretungen – BMEIA, Außenministerium Österreich". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  123. ^ "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  124. ^ "British Embassy Vienna - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  125. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 December 2012. Retrieved 21 November 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  126. ^ a b "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  127. ^ "Addresses of Belgian Embassies and Consulates abroad | Federal Public Service Foreign Affairs". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  128. ^ "British Embassy Brussels - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  129. ^ "Ujedinjeno Kraljevstvo VELIKE BRITANIJE i SJEVERNE IRSKE". Archived from the original on 13 May 2013. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  130. ^ "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  131. ^ "Министерство на външните работи - Пътувам за..." Министерство на външните работи. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  132. ^ "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  133. ^ "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (The)". Diplomatic Missions and Consular Offices of Croatia. MVEP. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  134. ^ "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  135. ^ "British Embassy Zagreb - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  136. ^ "Consular Information". High Comission of The Republic of Cyprus in London.
  137. ^ "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  138. ^ [5]
  139. ^ [6]
  140. ^ "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  141. ^ "Outward state visits made by the queen since 1952". Official web site of the British Monarchy. Archived from the original on 21 October 2008. Retrieved 29 November 2008.
  142. ^ "Ceremonies: State visits". Official web site of the British Monarchy. Archived from the original on 6 November 2008. Retrieved 30 November 2008.
  143. ^ "Outward state visits made by the queen since 1952". Official web site of the British Monarchy. Archived from the original on 21 October 2008. Retrieved 30 November 2008.
  144. ^ [7] Archived 27 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  145. ^ [8] Archived 20 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  146. ^ "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  147. ^ a b "Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland: Entering Finland and travelling abroad: United Kingdom of Great Britain".
  148. ^ "Finland and the UK - GOV.UK".
  149. ^ "France in the United Kingdom - La France au Royaume-Uni".
  150. ^ "British Embassy Paris - GOV.UK".
  151. ^ "German Missions in the United Kingdom - Home". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  152. ^ "German Missions in the United Kingdom - Home". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  153. ^ [9]
  154. ^ "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  155. ^ "British Embassy Berlin - GOV.UK".
  156. ^ "British Embassy Berlin - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  157. ^ "Greece's Bilateral Relations". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  158. ^ "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  159. ^ "British Embassy Athens - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  160. ^ British Embassy to the Holy See: "UK-Holy See relations" Archived 20 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  161. ^ "Holy See". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Archived from the original on 27 September 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2008. Formal diplomatic links between the United Kingdom and the Holy See were first established in 1479 when John Shirwood was appointed as the first resident Ambassador. Shirwood was also the first English Ambassador to serve abroad, making the embassy to the Holy See the oldest embassy in the UK diplomatic service.
  162. ^ Peter Laszlo, and Martyn Rady, British-Hungarian Relations Since 1848 (2004), 366pp
  163. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 12 December 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  164. ^ "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  165. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 31 March 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  166. ^ "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  167. ^ "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  168. ^ Affairs, Department of Foreign. "Page Not Found (404) - Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade".
  169. ^ "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK".
  170. ^ [10]
  171. ^ "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK".
  172. ^ "British Embassy Rome - GOV.UK".
  173. ^ "Foreign & Commonwealth Office - GOV.UK".
  174. ^ Bilateral Relations British Embassy, Italy Archived 8 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  175. ^ "Consular Missions Of The Republic Of Kosovo - Diplomatic Missions - Ministry of Foreign Affairs - Republic of Kosovo". Ministry of Foreign Affairs - Republic of Kosovo. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  176. ^ "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  177. ^ "UK to recognise independent Kosovo - PM". United Kingdom Prime Minister's Office, 10 Downing Street. 18 February 2008. Archived from the original on 10 May 2008. Retrieved 9 May 2008.
  178. ^ Nicholas Kulish and C. J. Chivers (19 February 2008). "Kosovo Is Recognized but Rebuked by Others". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 May 2008.
  179. ^ "British Embassy in Pristina, Kosovo". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 9 May 2008.
  180. ^ "Diplomatic Missions". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  181. ^ "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  182. ^ Kryptis, Dizaino. "Lietuvos Respublikos užsienio reikalų ministerija | Lietuvos Respublikos užsienio reikalų ministerija". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  183. ^ "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  184. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  185. ^ Kryptis, Dizaino. "Lietuvos Respublikos užsienio reikalų ministerija | Lietuvos Respublikos užsienio reikalų ministerija". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  186. ^ British queen begins 'historic' visit to Baltics (Roundup) - Monsters and Critics Archived 20 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  187. ^ Kryptis, Dizaino. "Lietuvos Respublikos užsienio reikalų ministerija | Lietuvos Respublikos užsienio reikalų ministerija". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  188. ^ [11]
  189. ^ [12]
  190. ^ "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  191. ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration of the RM". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  192. ^ "Embassy of the Republic of Moldova to the Republic to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
  193. ^ "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK".
  194. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 23 November 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  195. ^ "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  196. ^ Zaken, Ministerie van Buitenlandse. "The United Kingdom".
  197. ^ Zaken, Ministerie van Buitenlandse. "Home - landingspage".
  198. ^ "British Embassy The Hague  - GOV.UK".
  199. ^ "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK".
  200. ^ "Norway in the United Kingdom". Norgesportalen.
  201. ^ "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  202. ^ "Embassy of the Republic of Poland in London". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  203. ^ "Consulate of the Republic of Poland in Edinburgh". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  204. ^ "Konsulat Generalny Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej w Manchesterze". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  205. ^ "Polish Consulate of Northern Ireland". Polish Consulate of Northern Ireland (in Polish). Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  206. ^ "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  207. ^ "XXI Governo". Governo de portugal.
  208. ^ "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  209. ^ "British Embassy Lisbon - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  210. ^ "AMBASADA ROMÂNIEI în Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii şi Irlandei de Nord".
  211. ^ "Romanian Missions | Ministry of Foreign Affairs". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  212. ^ "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  213. ^ "Attacks continue on Romanians in Northern Ireland". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 24 June 2009. Retrieved 18 June 2009. Northern Ireland's police chief warned Thursday that recent attacks on Romanian immigrants that forced 20 families to flee their homes are damaging the region's economy and reputation.
  214. ^ "Главная".
  215. ^ "Главная".
  216. ^ "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  217. ^ "British Embassy Moscow - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  218. ^ "Embassy of San Marino in United Kingdom".
  219. ^ British Foreign Office website Archived 8 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  220. ^ "Embassy of the Republic of Serbia in Great Britain".
  221. ^ "Serbia and the UK - GOV.UK".
  222. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 June 2013. Retrieved 23 November 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  223. ^ "Slovakia and the UK - GOV.UK".
  224. ^ "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland | Ministry of Foreign Affairs". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  225. ^ "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  226. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 September 2012. Retrieved 23 November 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  227. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 September 2012. Retrieved 23 November 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  228. ^ "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  229. ^ "British Embassy Madrid - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  230. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 February 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  231. ^ "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  232. ^ "British Embassy Stockholm - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  233. ^ "Embassy of Switzerland in the United Kingdom". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  234. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-06.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  235. ^ "Worldwide organisations - GOV.UK". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  236. ^ "Embassy of Ukraine to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
  237. ^ British embassy in Kiev Archived 13 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  238. ^ "Nauru", World
  239. ^ "UK in Fiji", British High Commission in Fiji
  240. ^ "New Zealand's Export Markets year ended June 2000 (provisional)". Statistics New Zealand. June 2000. Archived from the original on 15 May 2010. Retrieved 15 June 2008.
  241. ^ New Zealand Historical Atlas - McKinnon, Malcolm (Editor); David Bateman, 1997, Plate 61
  242. ^ "CIA World Factbook - United Kingdom". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 10 March 2011.


  • Blair, Tony. A Journey: My Political Life (2010)
  • Casey, Terrence. The Blair Legacy: Politics, Policy, Governance, and Foreign Affairs (2009) excerpt and text search
  • Daddow, Oliver, and Jamie Gaskarth, eds. British foreign policy: the New Labour years (Palgrave, 2011)
  • Daddow, Oliver. "Constructing a ‘great’ role for Britain in an age of austerity: Interpreting coalition foreign policy, 2010–2015." International Relations 29.3 (2015): 303-318.
  • Dickie, John. The New Mandarins: How British Foreign Policy Works (2004)
  • Dumbrell, John. A special relationship: Anglo-American relations from the Cold War to Iraq (2006)
  • Finlan, Alastair. Contemporary Military Strategy and the Global War on Terror: US and UK Armed Forces in Afghanistan and Iraq 2001-2012 (2014)
  • Honeyman, V. C. "From Liberal Interventionism to Liberal Conservatism: the short road in foreign policy from Blair to Cameron." British Politics (2015). abstract
  • Lane, Ann. Strategy, Diplomacy and UK Foreign Policy (Palgrave Macmillan, 2010)
  • Leech, Philip, and Jamie Gaskarth. "British Foreign Policy and the Arab Spring." Diplomacy & Statecraft 26#1 (2015).
  • Lunn, Jon, Vaughne Miller, Ben Smith. "British foreign policy since 1997 - Commons Library Research Paper RP08/56 (UK House of Commons, 2008) 123pp online
  • Magyarics, Tamas. Balancing in Central Europe: Great Britain and Hungary in the 1920s
  • Seah, Daniel. "The CFSP as an aspect of conducting foreign relations by the United Kingdom: With Special Reference to the Treaty of Amity & Cooperation in Southeast Asia]" International Review of Law (2015) "online
  • Seton-Watson, R. W. Britain in Europe (1789–1914): A Survey of Foreign Policy (1937) online
  • Whitman, Richard G. "The calm after the storm? Foreign and security policy from Blair to Brown." Parliamentary Affairs 63.4 (2010): 834-848. online
  • Williams, Paul. British Foreign Policy under New Labour (2005)

External links

This page was last edited on 19 August 2019, at 17:37
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.