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Foreign relations of Hungary

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coat of arms of Hungary.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Hungary

Hungary wields considerable influence in Central and Eastern Europe and is a middle power in international affairs.[1][2] The foreign policy of Hungary is based on four basic commitments: to Atlantic co-operation, to European integration, to international development and to international law. The Hungarian economy is fairly open and relies strongly on international trade.

Hungary has been a member of the United Nations since December 1955 and member of European Union, the NATO, the OECD, the Visegrád Group, the WTO, the World Bank, the AIIB and the IMF. Hungary took on the presidency of the Council of the European Union for half a year in 2011 and the next will be in 2024. In 2015, Hungary was the fifth largest OECD Non-DAC donor of development aid in the world, which represents 0.13% of its Gross National Income, in this regard Hungary stands before Spain, Israel or Russia.

Hungary's capital city, Budapest is home to more than 100 embassies and representative bodies as an international political actor.[3] Hungary hosts the main and regional headquarters of many international organizations as well, including European Institute of Innovation and Technology, European Police College, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Centre for Democratic Transition, Institute of International Education, International Labour Organization, International Organization for Migration, International Red Cross, Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe, Danube Commission and even others.[4]

Since 1989, Hungary's top foreign policy goal was achieving integration into Western economic and security organizations. Hungary joined the Partnership for Peace program in 1994 and has actively supported the IFOR and SFOR missions in Bosnia. Hungary since 1989 has also improved its often frosty neighborly relations by signing basic treaties with Ukraine, Slovakia, and Romania. These renounce all outstanding territorial claims and lay the foundation for constructive relations. However, the issue of ethnic Hungarian minority rights in Romania, Slovakia and Ukraine periodically causes bilateral tensions to flare up. Hungary since 1989 has signed all of the OSCE documents, and served as the OSCE's Chairman-in-Office in 1997. Hungary's record of implementing CSCE Helsinki Final Act provisions, including those on the reunification of divided families, remains among the best in Central and Eastern Europe.

Except for the short-lived neutrality declared by the anti-Soviet leader Imre Nagy in November 1956, Hungary's foreign policy generally followed the Soviet lead from 1947 to 1989. During the Communist period, Hungary maintained treaties of friendship, cooperation, and mutual assistance with the Soviet Union, Poland, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic, Romania, and Bulgaria. It was one of the founding members of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact and Comecon, and it was the first central European country to withdraw from those organizations, now defunct. After 1989, Hungary oriented more towards the West, joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004.

Meeting of Visegrád Group leaders, plus Germany and France in 2013
Meeting of Visegrád Group leaders, plus Germany and France in 2013
United Nations conference in the assembly hall of House of Magnates in the Hungarian Parliament
United Nations conference in the assembly hall of House of Magnates in the Hungarian Parliament

Overview

As with any country, Hungarian security attitudes are shaped largely by history and geography. For Hungary, this is a history of more than 400 years of domination by great powers—the Ottomans, the Habsburg dynasty, the Germans during World War II, and the Soviets during the Cold War—and a geography of regional instability and separation from Hungarian minorities living in neighboring countries. Hungary's foreign policy priorities, largely consistent since 1990, represent a direct response to these factors. Since 1990, Hungary's top foreign policy goal has been achieving integration into Western economic and security organizations. Hungary joined the Partnership for Peace program in 1994 and has actively supported the IFOR and SFOR missions in Bosnia. The Horn government achieved Hungary's most important foreign policy successes of the post-communist era by securing invitations to join both NATO and the European Union in 1997. Hungary became a member of NATO in 1999, and a member of the EU in 2004.

Hungary also has improved its often frosty neighborly relations by signing basic treaties with Romania, Slovakia, and Ukraine. These renounce all outstanding territorial claims and lay the foundation for constructive relations. However, the issue of ethnic Hungarian minority rights in Slovakia and Romania periodically causes bilateral tensions to flare up. Hungary was a signatory to the Helsinki Final Act in 1975, has signed all of the CSCE/OSCE follow-on documents since 1989, and served as the OSCE's Chairman-in-Office in 1997. Hungary's record of implementing CSCE Helsinki Final Act provisions, including those on the reunification of divided families, remains among the best in eastern Europe. Hungary has been a member of the United Nations since December 1955.

The Gabčíkovo - Nagymaros Dams project

This involves Hungary and Czechoslovakia, and was agreed on September 16, 1977 ("Budapest Treaty"). The treaty envisioned a cross-border barrage system between the towns Gabčíkovo, Czechoslovakia and Nagymaros, Hungary. After an intensive campaign, the project became widely hated as a symbol of the old communist regime. In 1989 the Hungarian government decided to suspend it. In its sentence from September 1997, the International Court of Justice stated that both sides breached their obligation and that the 1977 Budapest Treaty is still valid. In 1998 the Slovak government turned to the International Court, demanding the Nagymaros part to be built. The international dispute is still not solved as of 2008.

On March 19, 2008 Hungary recognized Kosovo as an independent country.[5]

Disputes – international: Ongoing Gabčíkovo - Nagymaros Dams dispute with Slovakia

Illicit drugs: Major trans-shipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and cannabis and transit point for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamines and methamphetamines

Refugee protection: The hungarian border barrier was built in 2015, and Hungary was criticized by other European countries for using tear gas and water cannons on refugees of the Syrian Civil War as they were – illegally – trying to pass the country.[6][7]

Since 2017, the Hungary–Ukraine relations rapidly deteriorated over the issue of the Hungarian minority in Ukraine.[8][9]

Hungary and Central Asia

A number of Hungarian anthropologists and linguists have long had an interest in the Turkic peoples, fueled by the eastern origin of the Hungarians' ancestors.[10] The Hungarian ethnomusicologist Bence Szabolcsi explained this motivation as follows: "Hungarians are the outermost branch leaning this way from age-old tree of the great Asian musical culture rooted in the souls of a variety of peoples living from China through Central Asia to the Black Sea".[11]

Relations by region and country

Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria
 Cape Verde
  • Cape Verde is accredited to Hungary from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Hungary is accredited to Cape Verde from its embassy in Lisbon, Portugal[12][13] and maintains an honorary consulate in Praia.[14]
 Egypt
  • Egypt has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Cairo.
 Ethiopia
  • Ethiopia is accredited to Hungary from its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Addis Ababa.
 Ghana (See Ghana–Hungary relations)
  • Ghana is accredited to Hungary from its embassy in Prague, Czech Republic.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Accra.
 Guinea-Bissau
  • Guinea-Bissau is accredited to Hungary from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
  • Hungary is accredited to Guinea-Bissau from its embassy in Lisbon, Portugal.[14]
 Kenya
  • Hungary has an embassy in Nairobi.
  • Kenya is accredited to Hungary from its embassy in Vienna, Austria.
 Libya
  • Hungary has an embassy in Tripoli.
  • Libya has an embassy in Budapest.
 Mauritania
  • Hungary is accredited to Mauritania from its embassy in Rabat, Morocco.[15][16]
 Morocco
  • Hungary has an embassy in Rabat.
  • Morocco has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Latifa Akharbach, Morocco's under-secretary of Minister of Foreign Affairs visited Hungary in 2007.
 Nigeria
  • Hungary has an embassy in Abuja.
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Budapest.
 South Africa
  • Hungary has an embassy in Pretoria.
  • South Africa has an embassy in Budapest.
 Tunisia
  • Hungary has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Budapest.
 Uganda
  • Hungary is represented in Uganda by its embassy in Nairobi, Kenya[15] and an honorary consulate in Kampala.[15]
  • Hungary is realizing the largest foreign development program in its history in Uganda.[17]

Americas

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina
  • Argentina has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Buenos Aires.
 Belize
  • Belize does not have an accreditation to Hungary.
  • Hungary does not have an accreditation to Belize.
 Brazil 1927 (See Brazil–Hungary relations)
  • Brazil has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in São Paulo.
 Canada 1964 (See Canada–Hungary relations)
  • Canada has an embassy in Budapest.[18]
  • Hungary has an embassy in Ottawa and a consulate-general in Toronto.[19]
 Chile
  • Chile has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Santiago.
 Colombia 1973
  • Colombia has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Bogotá.
 Cuba
  • Cuba has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Havana.
 Dominica
  • Hungary is accredited to Dominica from its embassy in Havana, Cuba.[20][15]
 Ecuador
  • Ecuador has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Quito.
 El Salvador
  • El Salvador is accredited to Hungary from its embassy in Vienna, Austria.
  • Hungary is accredited to El Salvador from its embassy in Mexico City, Mexico.
 Honduras
  • Honduras is accredited to Hungary from its embassy in Berlin, Germany.
  • Hungary is accredited to Honduras from its embassy in Mexico City, Mexico.
 Guyana 10 June 1975
  • Guyana does not have accreditation to Hungary.
  • Hungary does not have accreditation to Guyana.
 Mexico 1925 (See Hungary–Mexico relations)

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1864, during the time of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Diplomatic relations were established between Hungary and Mexico in 1925 and were suspended in 1941. They were re-established on 14 May 1974.

 Peru
  • Hungary has an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in Budapest.
 United States 1922 (See Hungary–United States relations)

Normal bilateral relations between Hungary and the U.S. were resumed in December 1945 when a U.S. ambassador was appointed and the embassy was re-opened.

 Uruguay (See Hungary–Uruguay relations)
  • Hungary is accredited to Uruguay from its embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  • Uruguay is accredited to Hungary from its embassy in Vienna, Austria.
 Venezuela
  • Hungary is accredited to Venezuela from its embassy in Quito, Ecuador.
  • Venezuela has an embassy in Budapest.

Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Armenia

(See Armenia–Hungary relations)

On 31 August 2012, Armenia severed relations with Hungary following the extradition of Ramil Safarov.[25]

 Azerbaijan (See Azerbaijan–Hungary relations)
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Baku.
 China 1949-10-04
  • China has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Beijing and consulates-general in Hong Kong and Shanghai.
  • Officials from Hungary regularly visit China on trade missions, a factor that helped enabled the buyout of distressed Hungarian chemical maker Borsodchem by the Chinese company Wanhua Industrial Group.[26]
 Georgia 14 May 1992
  • Georgia has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Tbilisi.
 India (See Hungary–India relations)
  • Hungary has an embassy in New Delhi.
  • India has an embassy in Budapest.
 Indonesia 1955 (See Hungary–Indonesia relations)
 Iran 1939
  • Since 1951, Hungary has an embassy in Tehran.[29]
  • Iran has an embassy in Budapest.[30]
 Iraq (See Hungary–Iraq relations, Hungary–Kurdistan Region relations)
 Israel
 Japan (See Hungary–Japan relations)
 Kazakhstan 1991
  • Hungary has an embassy in Nur-Sultan, and in Almaty.
  • Kazakhstan has an embassy in Budapest.
 Malaysia 1969 (See Hungary–Malaysia relations)
 Mongolia 1959-05-29
 North Korea (See Hungary–North Korea relations)
  • Relations between the two countries existed since the Korean War, but however have evolved into conflicts.
 Pakistan 1965-11-26 (See Hungary–Pakistan relations)
  • Since 1970, Hungary has an embassy in Islamabad and an honorary consulate in Karachi.[35]
  • Pakistan has an embassy in Budapest[36]
 Saudi Arabia
  • Hungary has an embassy in Riyadh.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Budapest.
 South Korea 1 February 1989[37] (See Hungary–South Korea relations)

The establishment of diplomatic relations between Hunagry and the Republic of Korea began on 1 February 1989.

 Sri Lanka (See Hungary–Sri Lanka relations)

Sri Lanka has an embassy in Vienna, Austria that is accredited to Hungary[40] and has an honorary consulate in Budapest[41] Hungary maintains an honorary consulate in Colombo, Sri Lanka.[42] Hungary contributed to relief after the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, and has since stepped up aid to Sri Lanka.[43]

 Thailand 1973-10-24
  • Since 1978, Hungary has an embassy in Bangkok and an honorary consulate in Pattaya.[44]
  • Since 1989, Thailand has an embassy in Budapest. Thailand has also a commercial office in Budapest.[45][46][47]
 Turkey (See Hungary–Turkey relations)
Memorial to Hungarian freedom fighters of 1848–1849 at Protestant Cemetery in Şişli, Istanbul.
Memorial to Hungarian freedom fighters of 1848–1849 at Protestant Cemetery in Şişli, Istanbul.
 United Arab Emirates
  • Hungary has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Budapest.
 Vietnam 1950-02-03 (See Hungary–Vietnam relations)

Europe

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania (See Albania–Hungary relations)

Austria-Hungary supported Albanian Declaration of Independence in 1912.

  • Albania has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Tirana.
 Austria (See Austria–Hungary relations)

Austrian-Hungarian relations are the neighborly relations between Austria and Hungary, two member states of the European Union. Both countries have a long common history since the ruling dynasty of Austria, the Habsburgs, inherited the Hungarian throne in the 16th century. Both have been part of the now-defunct Austro-Hungarian Monarchy from 1867 to 1918. The two countries established diplomatic relations in 1921, after their separation.

  • Austria has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Vienna.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 Belarus
  • Belarus has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Minsk.
 Belgium
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992-04-10
  • Hungary recognized Bosnia and Herzegovina's independence on April 9, 1992.
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Sarajevo.[53]
 Bulgaria 1920 (See Bulgaria–Hungary relations)
 Croatia (See Croatia–Hungary relations)
  • Croatia has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Zagreb.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Czech Republic (See Czech Republic–Hungary relations)
  • Czech Republic has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Prague.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Denmark (See Denmark–Hungary relations)
 Estonia 1924-02-24
  • Estonia has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Tallinn and two honorary consulates (in Tallinn and Tartu).[56]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Finland 20 May 1947 (See Finland–Hungary relations)
  • Hungary recognised Finland on August 23, 1920. Finland recognised Hungary on September 10, 1920.
  • Finland broke off diplomatic relations on September 20, 1944.
  • Diplomatic relations were re-established on May 20, 1947.
  • Both national languages, Finnish and Hungarian, are Uralic languages, which has led to cultural exchange albeit at a much smaller scale compared to the third major Uralic-speaking country, Estonia.
  • Finland has an embassy in Budapest and an honorary consulate in Pécs.[57]
  • Hungary has an embassy in Helsinki and four honorary consulates (in Turku, Mariehamn, Tampere and Joensuu).[58]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 France (See France–Hungary relations)
  • France has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Paris.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Germany (See Germany–Hungary relations)
  • Germany has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Greece (See Greece–Hungary relations)
  • Greece has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Athens.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Iceland
  • Hungary is accredited to Iceland from its embassy in Oslo, Norway.
  • Iceland is accredited to Hungary from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Reykjavik and maintains an honorary consulate in Budapest.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
 Ireland 1976
 Italy
 Kosovo (See Hungary–Kosovo relations)

Hungary recognized Kosovo on 19 March 2008.[65]

  • Hungary has an embassy in Pristina.[66]
  • Kosovo has an embassy in Budapest.
 Latvia 1921-07-21
 Lithuania
 Luxembourg
 Malta 1964
 Moldova
 Montenegro

Hungary recognized Montenegro shortly after their declaration of independence.

  • Hungary has an embassy in Podgorica.
  • Montenegro has an embassy in Budapest.[70]
 Netherlands (See Hungary–Netherlands relations)
 Norway 1920
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1920, but diplomatic representations were set up only in 1947–1948.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Oslo and 2 honorary consulates (in Stavanger and Sarpsborg).[73]
  • Norway has an embassy in Budapest.[74]
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
 Poland (See Hungary-Poland relations)
 Portugal 1974-07-01
 Romania 1920 (See Hungary–Romania relations)
 Russia (See Hungary–Russia relations)
 Serbia 1882-11-21 (See Hungary–Serbia relations)
 Slovakia 1993 (See Hungary–Slovakia relations)
 Slovenia
 Spain 1938-01-13 (See Hungary–Spain relations)
 Sweden 1945-12-28 (See Hungary–Sweden relations)
  • Hungary has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
  Switzerland
  • Hungary has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Budapest.
 Ukraine
 United Kingdom 1920 (See Hungary–United Kingdom relations)

Oceania

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia 1972
 New Zealand
  • Hungary has an embassy in Wellington.
  • New Zealand is accredited to Hungary from its embassy in Rome, Italy and maintains an honorary consulate in Budapest.

Foreign criticism

In December 2010, the Fidesz government adopted a press and media law which threatens fines on media that engage in "unbalanced coverage".[86] The law aroused criticism in the European Union as possibly "a direct threat to democracy".[86]

In 2013, the government adopted a new constitution that modified several aspects of the institutional and legal framework in Hungary. These changes have been criticized by the Council of Europe, the European Union and Human Rights Watch as possibly undermining the rule of law and human rights protection.[87]

See also

References

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Further reading

  • Borhi, László, “In the Power Arena: U.S.-Hungarian Relations, 1942–1989,” The Hungarian Quarterly (Budapest), 51 (Summer 2010), pp 67–81.
  • Glant, Tibor, “Ninety Years of United States-Hungarian Relations,” Eger Journal of American Studies, 13 (2012), pp 163–83.
  • Hornyak, Arpad. Hungarian-Yugoslav Diplomatic Relations, 1918–1927 (East European Monographs, distributed by Columbia University Press; 2013) 426 pages
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