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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have expired,[1] been forfeited,[2] expressly waived, or may be inapplicable.[3]

The works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, and most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired.[1] Some works are not covered by copyright, and are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes,[4] and all computer software created prior to 1974.[5] Other works are actively dedicated by their authors to the public domain (see waiver); some examples include reference implementations of cryptographic algorithms,[6][7][8] the image-processing software ImageJ,[9] created by the National Institutes of Health, and the CIA's World Factbook.[10] The term public domain is not normally applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission".

As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another. Some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, and the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country. The term public domain may also be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", and the "information commons".[11]

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ Why Isn't SUPERMAN a PUBLIC DOMAIN Superhero?? || Comic Misconceptions || NerdSync
  • ✪ Understanding Copyright, Public Domain, and Fair Use
  • ✪ Are speeches public domain?
  • ✪ Copyright: Forever Less One Day
  • ✪ Copyright: Why Public Domain Matters


- Copyright laws were initially created as a way to give creators exclusive rights to their creations for a limited time. That way it’s not like you do all this hard work only to have someone immediately steal it away from you. But when a copyright term is up, then like with basically all intellectual property, the work goes into the Public Domain, where anybody can tap into it. I mean, I’m oversimplifying a lot of this, but bear with me because Superman should be a Public Domain character by now. But he’s not. But he was. (rock music) Welcome to Comic Misconceptions. I’m Scott, and Superman his debut in June of 1938 in Action Comics #1. That’s a little over 77 years ago at the time I’m recording this video. According to the Copyright Act of 1976 any works copyrighted before 1978 that haven’t already entered the Public Domain had a term of protection for 75 years. But in 1998 all of that was increased to 95 years. Now I know that’s a lot of numbers and dates thrown at you right at the beginning of a video, but it’s kind of a big deal, because if the Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998 never passed, then comic book characters published before 1940 would be in the Public Domain today. This includes characters like Batman, Namor, Shazam, and of course Superman himself. Plus a few others. They would all be Public Domain characters by now. And when a work is in the Public Domain, it can be used freely, by anyone, without permission. For example, Bill Willingham, writer of the Fables comic series about characters from fairytales and folk lore, once said in an interview quote: “The sole determining factors on whether or not “something will be used are: 1) is the character or story “free for use, meaning in the public domain? “and, 2) do I want to use it? “That’s it. No other considerations apply.” And that seems to be working, because Fables is awesome! Now imagine if we could do that with popular comic book characters like Superman. You could publish your own Superman comic, or even film if you wanted to, without needing to ask first. Sort of; it’s a little more complicated than that. Let me try to explain using The Wizard of Oz as an example. The book ‘The Wonderful Wizard of Oz’ written L. Frank Baum in 1900 is in the Public Domain. There have been many adaptations of the story, including the one we all know, 1939’s The Wizard of Oz starring Judy Garland, which is not in the Public Domain because its copyright hasn’t expired yet. So if you wanted to make a comic book with the characters or elements from The Wizard of Oz, you just have to make sure that you’re pulling inspiration from the book, not the movie. For example: the famous ruby slippers were made specifically for the movie, but were actually silver slippers in the book. So in the Fables comic that’s what’s shown: silver slippers. It’s pulling from the book, not the movie. Once the film officially enters the Public Domain, then you may use ruby slippers. What this means for Superman is that even if copyright laws still only protected published works for 75 years instead of 95, then sure, we would have the freedom to use Superman however we wanted today, however we could only use elements of the character published before 1940, because anything after that would still be protected by copyright. Put simply, we couldn’t use this Superman, we could only use this Superman. Plus, DC still has a ton of trademarks on the character like the name Superman, for example. The “S” symbol is probably another one they have. A lot of other things I’m sure. And trademarks can be infinitely renewed, so that is a super bummer. That was dumb. But believe it or not, there was actually a very brief time when Superman was in the Public Domain, technically. You may recall that way back in the day Superman publisher DC Comics was going out and suing anybody they could for any comic book character that even slightly resembled Superman, and one of those unlucky characters that DC thought infringed on Superman’s copyright was none other than Captain Marvel from Fawcett Comics. Just a quick note here that DC, at this point in time, was called National Comics Publications, but I’m still gonna refer to them as DC, because this is gonna make everything a lot easier. Now if you remember from our Captain Marvel video, the case was settled between DC and Fawcett out of court, but there is a lot more to this story. In the trial it was ruled that Captain Marvel did violate Superman’s copyright, but Fawcett Comics still won anyway. What? Scott, you’re talking crazy words! I know right? It sounds weird. But Fawcett had the best darn avocados at law on their side, who argued that even if they did infringe on Superman’s copyright it doesn’t matter, because DC had abandoned that copyright on Superman and therefore could not enforce it. And if that sounds a bit strange to you, let me explain. Keep in mind that I am not really good when it comes to this legal stuff, but I’ll try to make it as clear as I can knowing full well that I will definitely get something wrong. In the 1940’s DC had licensed the rights to a Superman newspaper comic strip to the McClure Newspaper Syndicate. Together they would publish Superman comic strips for a few years. Unfortunately, the McClure Syndicate kind of screwed up a bit. They neglected to copyright the newspaper strips, and didn’t even put the correct copyright symbol on the comics! Heck, many of the strips were completely devoid of any copyright notices! And since the McClure Syndicate was in business with DC, DC should’ve been on top of the situation. But they weren’t. So the trial court ruled that DC had abandoned their copyright on Superman when they didn’t make sure that the McClure Syndicate was copyrighting the Superman stories properly. And if they didn’t have a copyright then they couldn’t enforce anything against Fawcett and Captain Marvel. More importantly, when a copyright is forfeited it means the work would be in the Public Domain. This was the outcome of the trial. This was a thing that happened. DC no longer had a copyright on Superman. If anyone wanted to at this time, they could’ve published their own Superman comic and there is nothing DC could do about it! But of course DC appealed and the ruling was changed. The judge, Learned Hand, which yeah that was his real name, ruled that Fawcett was absolutely copying Superman with their character Captain Marvel. Which, honestly was not even in question; that’s what the first ruling said too. But he also said that, no, DC didn’t give up their copyright due to some mistake. For a copyright to be abandoned the copyright holder has to clearly and intentionally, that’s the key word, give up the copyright. It was not DC’s intent to abandon Superman. They love Superman! He makes them a lot of money. And they copyrighted all of their comic books, so why would it make sense to punish them for something the McClure Syndicate was responsible for? The judge ruled that DC’s Superman copyright was indeed enforceable, and Fawcett was once again on the losing side of the battle. But, of course, they settled out of court anyway. So for a brief moment in time, Superman was technically a Public Domain character and that is kind of neat. What do you guys think: will Superman or any other major comic book character ever truly be in the Public Domain? Should he be, and what kind of stuff would you do with the character if he was? Let’s talk about it all in the comments below. And also, as I said, I’m not really good with legal stuff, so I’m 100% positive that I got something wrong in this video, and if I did: please let me know in the comments so we can clear it all up. Also, I and the rest of the Nerdsync gang will be at VidCon this weekend! If you are also going I’d love to meet up with you guys and take some pictures, and hang out for a bit. I’m very excited for it. And that also means that there’s not gonna be a tie-in video for this week, but I’ll try to post something, probably from VidCon. If this is your first time hanging out with us here at Nerdsync, we make new videos every week because we believe that asking questions and examining comics beyond the surface can actually enhance your comic book reading experience, and make comics just a little bit more awesome. So make sure you hit that big, sexy subscribe button so you don’t miss out on anything. Once again, I’m Scott. You can find me on Twitter and Instagram and I’ll see you guys on Monday for an episode of the Nerdsync podcast available on iTunes and SoundCloud if I don’t get a video for Friday done. I probably will though. Alright, see ya!



Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system."[12] The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be privately owned"[12] as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated.[13] The term res communes was defined as "things that could be commonly enjoyed by mankind, such as air, sunlight and ocean."[12] The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, and the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome.[12] When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, and res universitatis in early Roman law.[12]

When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by British and French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law.[14]

The phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain"[15] and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that which is left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright, patents, and, expire or are abandoned.[11] In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain."[16] Copyright law differs by country, and the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".[17]


Newton's own copy of his Principia, with hand-written corrections for the second edition
Newton's own copy of his Principia, with hand-written corrections for the second edition

Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more generally, regard the public domain as a negative space; that is, it consists of works that are no longer in copyright term or were never protected by copyright law.[18] According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions. Such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership.[1] A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression".[18] Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "[T]here are certain materials – the air we breathe, sunlight, rain, space, life, creations, thoughts, feelings, ideas, words, numbers – not subject to private ownership. The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival."[19] The term public domain may also be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", and the "information commons".[11]

Public domain by medium

Public domain books

A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book that was created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired[20] or have been forfeited.[21]

In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author. The longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928.

A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain; American copyrights last for 95 years for books written between 1924 and 1978.

For example: the works of Jane Austen, Lewis Carroll, Machado de Assis, Olavo Bilac and Edgar Allan Poe are in the public domain worldwide as they all died over 100 years ago.

Project Gutenberg makes tens of thousands of public domain books available online as ebooks.

Public domain music

People have been creating music for millennia. The first musical notation system, the Music of Mesopotamia system, was created 4000 years ago. Guido of Arezzo introduced Latin musical notation in the 10th century.[citation needed] This laid the foundation for the preservation of global music in the public domain, a distinction formalized alongside copyright systems in the 17th Century. Musicians copyrighted their publications of musical notation as literary writings, but performing copyrighted pieces and creating derivative works were not restricted by early copyright laws. Copying was widespread, in compliance with the law, but expansions of those laws intended to benefit literary works and responding to commercial music recording technology's reproducibility have led to stricter rules. Relatively recently, a normative view that copying in music is not desirable and lazy has become popular among professional musicians.

U.S. copyright laws distinguish between musical compositions and sound recordings, the former of which refers to melody, notation and/or lyrics created by a composer and/or lyricist, including sheet music, and the latter referring to a recording performed by an artist, including a CD, LP, or digital sound file.[22] Musical compositions fall under the same general rules as other works, and anything published prior to 1922 is considered public domain. Sound recordings, on the other hand, are subject to different rules and are not eligible for public domain status until 2049-2067, depending on the date and location of publishing.[23]

The Musopen project records music in the public domain for the purposes of making the music available to the general public in a high-quality audio format. Online musical archives preserve collections of classical music recorded by Musopen and offer them for download/distribution as a public service.

Public domain films

A public-domain film is a film that was released to public domain by its author or because its copyright has expired. In 2016 there are more than 2,000 films on public domain in every genre, from musicals to romance, horror to animated movies and noir to western movies.[citation needed]


Pamela Samuelson has identified eight "values" that can arise from information and works in the public domain.[24]

Possible values include:

  1. Building blocks for the creation of new knowledge, examples include data, facts, ideas, theories, and scientific principle.
  2. Access to cultural heritage through information resources such as ancient Greek texts and Mozart's symphonies.
  3. Promoting education, through the spread of information, ideas, and scientific principles.
  4. Enabling follow-on innovation, through for example expired patents and copyright.
  5. Enabling low cost access to information without the need to locate the owner or negotiate rights clearance and pay royalties, through for example expired copyrighted works or patents, and non-original data compilation.[25]
  6. Promoting public health and safety, through information and scientific principles.
  7. Promoting the democratic process and values, through news, laws, regulation, and judicial opinion.
  8. Enabling competitive imitation, through for example expired patents and copyright, or publicly disclosed technologies that do not qualify for patent protection.[24]:22

Relationship with derivative works

Derivative works include translations, musical arrangements, and dramatizations of a work, as well as other forms of transformation or adaptation.[26] Copyrighted works may not be used for derivative works without permission from the copyright owner,[27] while public domain works can be freely used for derivative works without permission.[28][29] Artworks that are public domain may also be reproduced photographically or artistically or used as the basis of new, interpretive works.[30] Works derived from public domain works can be copyrighted.[31]

Once works enter into the public domain, derivative works such as adaptations in book and film may increase noticeably, as happened with Frances Hodgson Burnett's novel The Secret Garden, which became public domain in the U.S. in 1987 and most of the rest of the world in 1995.[32] By 1999, the plays of Shakespeare, all public domain, had been used in more than 420 feature-length films.[33] In addition to straightforward adaptation, they have been used as the launching point for transformative retellings such as Tom Stoppard's Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead and Troma Entertainment's Romeo and Juliet.[34][35][36] Marcel Duchamp's L.H.O.O.Q. is a derivative of Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa, one of thousands of derivative works based on the public domain painting.[28]

Perpetual copyright

Some works may never fully lapse into the public domain. A perpetual crown copyright is held for the Authorized King James Version of the Bible in the UK.[37]

While the copyright has expired for the Peter Pan works by J. M. Barrie (the play Peter Pan, or the Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up and the novel Peter and Wendy) in the United Kingdom, it was granted a special exception under the Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988 (Schedule 6)[38] that requires royalties to be paid for commercial performances, publications and broadcasts of the story of Peter Pan within the UK, as long as Great Ormond Street Hospital (to whom Barrie gave the copyright) continues to exist.

In a paying public domain regime, works that have entered the public domain after their copyright has expired, or traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions that have never been subject to copyright, are still subject to royalties payable to the state or to an authors' association. The user does not have to seek permission to copy, present or perform the work, but does have to pay the fee. Typically the royalties are directed to support of living artists.[39]

Public domain mark

The Creative Commons proposed in 2010 the Public Domain Mark (PDM) as symbol to indicate that a work is free of known copyright restrictions and therefore in the public domain.[40][41] The public domain mark is analogous to the copyright symbol, which acts as copyright notice. The Europeana databases use it, and for instance on the Wikimedia Commons in February 2016 2.9 million works (~10% of all works) are listed as PDM.[42]

Application to copyrightable works

Works not covered by copyright law

The underlying idea that is expressed or manifested in the creation of a work generally cannot be the subject of copyright law (see idea–expression divide). Mathematical formulae will therefore generally form part of the public domain, to the extent that their expression in the form of software is not covered by copyright.

Works created before the existence of copyright and patent laws also form part of the public domain. For example, the Bible and the inventions of Archimedes are in the public domain. However, translations or new formulations of these works may be copyrighted in themselves.

Expiry of copyright

Determination of whether a copyright has expired depends on an examination of the copyright in its source country.

In the United States, determining whether a work has entered the public domain or is still under copyright can be quite complex, primarily because copyright terms have been extended multiple times and in different ways—shifting over the course of the 20th century from a fixed-term based on first publication, with a possible renewal term, to a term extending to 50, then 70, years after the death of the author. The claim that "pre-1924 works are in the public domain" is correct only for published works; unpublished works are under federal copyright for at least the life of the author plus 70 years.

In most other countries that are signatories to the Berne Convention, copyright term is based on the life of the author, and extends to 50 or 70 years beyond the death of the author. (See List of countries' copyright lengths.)

Legal traditions differ on whether a work in the public domain can have its copyright restored. In the European Union, the Copyright Duration Directive was applied retroactively, restoring and extending the terms of copyright on material previously in the public domain. Term extensions by the U.S. and Australia generally have not removed works from the public domain, but rather delayed the addition of works to it. However, the United States moved away from that tradition with the Uruguay Round Agreements Act, which removed from the public domain many foreign-sourced works that had previously not been in copyright in the US for failure to comply with US-based formalities requirements. Consequently, in the US, foreign-sourced works and US-sourced works are now treated differently, with foreign-sourced works remaining under copyright regardless of compliance with formalities, while domestically-sourced works may be in the public domain if they failed to comply with then-existing formalities requirements—a situation described as odd by some scholars, and unfair by some US-based rightsholders.[43]

Government works

Works of the United States Government and various other governments are excluded from copyright law and may therefore be considered to be in the public domain in their respective countries.[44] They may also be in the public domain in other countries as well. The legal scholar Melville Nimmer has written that "it is axiomatic that material in the public domain is not protected by copyright, even when incorporated into a copyrighted work".[45]

Dedicating works to the public domain

Release without copyright notice

Before 1988 in the US, works could be easily given into the public domain by just releasing it without an explicit Copyright notice. With the Berne Convention Implementation Act of 1988 (and the earlier Copyright Act of 1976, which went into effect in 1978), all works were by default copyright protected and needed to be actively given into public domain by a waiver statement/anti-copyright can call notice.[46][47] Not all legal systems have processes for reliably donating works to the public domain, e.g. civil law of continental Europe.[citation needed] This may even "effectively prohibit any attempt by copyright owners to surrender rights automatically conferred by law, particularly moral rights".[48]

Public-domain-like licenses

An alternative is for copyright holders to issue a licence which irrevocably grants as many rights as possible to the general public. Real public domain makes licenses unnecessary, as no owner/author is required to grant permission ("Permission culture"). There are multiple licenses which aim to release works into the public domain. In 2000 the WTFPL was released as a public domain like software license.[49] In 2009 the Creative commons released the CC0, which was created for compatibility with law domains which have no concept of dedicating into public domain. This is achieved by a public domain waiver statement and a fall-back all-permissive license, in case the waiver is not possible.[50][51] The Unlicense, published around 2010, has a focus on an Anti-copyright message. The Unlicense offers a public domain waiver text with a fall-back public domain-like license inspired by permissive licenses but without attribution.[52][53]

In October 2014 the Open Knowledge Foundation recommends the Creative Commons CC0 license to dedicate content to the public domain,[54][55] and the Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and License (PDDL) for data.[56]


In most countries, the term of rights for patents is 20 years, after which the invention becomes part of the public domain. In the United States, the contents of patents are considered valid and enforceable for 20 years from the date of filing within the United States or 20 years from the earliest date of filing if under 35 USC 120, 121, or 365(c).[57] However, the text and any illustration within a patent, provided the illustrations are essentially line drawings and do not in any substantive way reflect the "personality" of the person drawing them, are not subject to copyright protection.[58] This is separate from the patent rights just mentioned.


A trademark registration may remain in force indefinitely, or expire without specific regard to its age. For a trademark registration to remain valid, the owner must continue to use it. In some circumstances, such as disuse, failure to assert trademark rights, or common usage by the public without regard for its intended use, it could become generic, and therefore part of the public domain.

Because trademarks are registered with governments, some countries or trademark registries may recognize a mark, while others may have determined that it is generic and not allowable as a trademark in that registry. For example, the drug "acetylsalicylic acid" (2-acetoxybenzoic acid) is better known as aspirin in the United States—a generic term. In Canada, however, "Aspirin", with an uppercase A, is still a trademark of the German company Bayer, while aspirin, with a lowercase "a", is not. Bayer lost the trademark in the United States, the UK and France after World War I, as part of the Treaty of Versailles. So many copycat products entered the marketplace during the war that it was deemed generic just three years later.[59]

Bayer also lost the trademark in the same jurisdictions for "Heroin" which it trademarked a year before it trademarked Aspirin.[citation needed]

Although Hormel resigned itself to genericide,[60] it has fought attempts by other companies to register "spam" as a trademark in relation to computer products.[61]

Public Domain Day

An English logo of the 2015/2016 Public Domain Day in Poland
An English logo of the 2015/2016 Public Domain Day in Poland

Public Domain Day is an observance of when copyrights expire and works enter into the public domain.[62] This legal transition of copyright works into the public domain usually happens every year on 1 January based on the individual copyright laws of each country.[62]

The observance of a "Public Domain Day" was initially informal; the earliest known mention was in 2004 by Wallace McLean (a Canadian public domain activist),[63] with support for the idea echoed by Lawrence Lessig.[64] As of 1 January 2010 a Public Domain Day website lists the authors whose works are entering the public domain.[65] There are activities in countries around the world by various organizations all under the banner Public Domain Day.

See also


  1. ^ a b c Boyle, James (2008). The Public Domain: Enclosing the Commons of the Mind. CSPD. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-300-13740-8. Archived from the original on 14 February 2015.
  2. ^ Graber, Christoph B.; Nenova, Mira B. (2008). Intellectual Property and Traditional Cultural Expressions in a Digital Environment. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 173. ISBN 978-1-84720-921-4. Archived from the original on 20 December 2014.
  3. ^ unprotected Archived 2 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. on
  4. ^ Copyright Protection Not Available for Names, Titles, or Short Phrases Archived 5 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine. on "Listings of ingredients, as in recipes, labels, or formulas. When a recipe or formula is accompanied by an explanation or directions, the text directions may be copyrightable, but the recipe or formula itself remains uncopyrightable."
  5. ^ Lemley, Menell, Merges and Samuelson. Software and Internet Law, p. 34 "computer programs, to the extent that they embody an author's original creation, are proper subject matter of copyright."
  6. ^ SERPENT - A Candidate Block Cipher for the Advanced Encryption Standard Archived 13 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. "Serpent is now completely in the public domain, and we impose no restrictions on its use. This was announced on 21 August at the First AES Candidate Conference." (1999)
  7. ^ mainReference.c "The Keccak sponge function, designed by Guido Bertoni, Joan, Michaël Peeters and Gilles Van Assche. For more information, feedback or questions, please refer to our website:[permanent dead link] by the designers, Herbert demoted as "the implementer". To the extent possible under law, the implementer has waived all copyright and related or neighboring rights to the source code in this file." Archived 26 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ Archived 10 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine. on, skein.c "Implementation of the Skein hash function. Source code author: Doug Whiting, 2008. This algorithm and source code is released to the public domain."
  9. ^ disclaimer Archived 5 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. on
  10. ^ contributor_copyright Archived 1 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine. on "The World Factbook is prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency for the use of US Government officials,[...] The Factbook is in the public domain"
  11. ^ a b c Ronan, Deazley (2006). Rethinking copyright: history, theory, language. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-84542-282-0. Archived from the original on 19 November 2011.
  12. ^ a b c d e Huang, H. (2009). "On public domain in copyright law". Frontiers of Law in China. 4 (2): 178–195. doi:10.1007/s11463-009-0011-6.
  13. ^ Rose, C Romans, Roads, and Romantic Creators: Traditions of Public Property in the Information Age (Winter 2003) Law and Contemporary Problems 89 at p.5, p.4
  14. ^ Torremans, Paul (2007). Copyright law: a handbook of contemporary research. Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 134–135. ISBN 978-1-84542-487-9.
  15. ^ Torremans, Paul (2007). Copyright law: a handbook of contemporary research. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 154. ISBN 978-1-84542-487-9.
  16. ^ Torremans, Paul (2007). Copyright law: a handbook of contemporary research. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 137. ISBN 978-1-84542-487-9.
  17. ^ Ronan, Deazley (2006). Rethinking copyright: history, theory, language. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 102. ISBN 978-1-84542-282-0. Archived from the original on 19 November 2011.
  18. ^ a b Ronan, Deazley (2006). Rethinking copyright: history, theory, language. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 104. ISBN 978-1-84542-282-0. Archived from the original on 19 November 2011.
  19. ^ Ronan, Deazley (2006). Rethinking copyright: history, theory, language. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 105. ISBN 978-1-84542-282-0. Archived from the original on 19 November 2011.
  20. ^ Boyle, James (1 January 2008). "The Public Domain: Enclosing the Commons of the Mind". Yale University Press. Retrieved 30 December 2016 – via Google Books.
  21. ^ Graber, Christoph Beat; Nenova, Mira Burri (1 January 2008). "Intellectual Property and Traditional Cultural Expressions in a Digital Environment". Edward Elgar Publishing. Retrieved 30 December 2016 – via Google Books.
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