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Federal government of Brazil

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Federal Government of Brazil
Governo Federal do Brazil
National Seal of Brazil (color).svg
Seal of the Government
Formation1889; 129 years ago (1889)
Founding documentConstitution of Brazil
JurisdictionFederative Republic of Brazil
Websitehttp://www.brasil.gov.br/
Legislative branch
LegislatureNational Congress
Meeting placePalácio Nereu Ramos
Executive branch
LeaderPresident of Brazil
HeadquartersPalácio do Planalto
Main organCabinet
Judicial branch
CourtSupreme Federal Court
SeatBrasília

The federal government of Brazil is the national government of the Federative Republic of Brazil, a republic in South America divided in 26 states and a federal district. The Brazilian federal government is divided in three branches: the executive, which is headed by the President and the cabinet; the legislative, whose powers are vested by the Constitution in the National Congress; and the judiciary, whose powers are vested in the Supreme Federal Court and lower federal courts. The seat of the federal government is located in Brasília. This has led to "Brasília" commonly being used as a metonym for the federal government of Brazil.

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Transcription

Hey everybody, so you know this week is gonna have to be a Filler Week This is a video that I promised to do a long time ago, but I never had time until now, explaining the states of... Brazil I checked my demographics, and Brazil is one of the top 15 countries subscribed to my channel. Now full disclosure, I am NOT Brazilian I have never even been to Brazil. I would absolutely love to go So what I've done is I have talked to a lot of you guys the Brazilian Geography Peeps to help me with this video, and I know a few Brazilian people here in LA I asked you guys to explain what you thought about each of the states of Brazil So if I get anything wrong, it's your fault. So, uh, yeah, let's just jump into it. Acre. There's a joke: Acre doesn't exist; and there's probably dinosaurs in it Very few people in Brazil have actually been to Acre, let alone met somebody from Acre. I actually did meet two people from Acre here in Los Angeles They were two gay guys that were gay for each other But the point was more importantly they were from a Acre The first thing they said was "we do exist", and like, half the population lives in the capital, Rio Bronco. or (enunciating) Rio "Bro-nco" They are famous for, what do I have here? Ancient Geoglyphs, having a historic dispute with Bolivia, and the two guys that I met said the two things that I have to mention are Tacaca, and the strange Santo Daime religious community known for ingesting the hallucinogenic Ayahuasca drink We're off to a great start, aren't we! Alagoas: they are the second smallest state and apparently, sometimes they are called the water paradise because they are surrounded by the largest Barrier Reef in Brazil. It has incredibly shallow waters that you can walk like a kilometer off into the ocean and you're still only gonna be like knee-deep. They're also popular for a Fandango music, the warrior festival, which is a public folk display that depicts naval battles Amapa: in colonial years. This place was called Portuguese Guiana. It's kind of like the most well preserved forest State in Brazil. The vast majority the population only lives in two cities: Macapá and Santana, and the rest of this state is just covered like 90% in forests, 70% of which is unexplored. Let's see what I have here because it's close to the border of French Guiana Some people speak a French Creole called Lanc-Patúa. Amazonas: the largest state of Brazil They hold the largest territory of the world's largest rainforest and the most biodiverse region on the planet Also, obviously it has the largest number of indigenous tribes, many of which are still uncontacted with the outside world Also here you can find the tallest mountain: Pico da Neblina. Manaus is the capital, They have a cool opera festival. From what I was told, this is kind of like the place where people go to for like secret Undocumented trips into the rainforests that they pay the locals under the table for nobody can hear you scream... Bahia: From what I was told, Despite the reports of crime everyone still loves this state and it plays like such a huge Significant role of importance in terms of culture and history it has the longest coast of any state So the beaches here are like spot-on beautiful, perfect. It also has like the most Distinctive African imprint on their culture as it was a major hub for the slave trade Today, they have the largest black population in Brazil world renowned cultural traits like capoeira and samba were born here I don't even really have to explain what those are and they have those really cool deep-fried Acarajé things. Let's see... what else... Salvador is the capital and largest city and has a cool-looking fortress on the sea off the coast and I was told that Bahia's Carnaval is like the cool Carnaval that that Brazilians go to when they're sick and tired of all the tourists down in Rio. Ceará: This is like the family vacation spot of Brazil. The capital Fortaleza is the fourth largest city in Brazil They are the kite surfing capital, they have that... Jeez, how do you pronounce this? [computer voice] Jericoacoara Jericoacoara. They have that Jericoacoara beach thing with all the cool like rock arches. The coconuts are so cheap You can literally have a guy cut one open for you to drink for like 20 cents Yeah, coconut water is like my favorite non-alcoholic drink. So this place racks up huge points for me Espírito Santo: Weird fact, the state's name translates to Holy Spirit, but the people here call themselves Capixaba, which means corn hair, kind of like how Wisconsin people are called Cheese Heads. Anyway, the capital is Vitória, and another thing that they're famous for is, uh, Guarapari healing black sand beaches and they also make great seafood stews. Goiás: This is a central Brazilian state So here you get the farm and the countryside and the ranches... Very hot and humid... Some of you guys have told me that Goiás is kind of seen as like the Capital's bodyguard. Like they work together and they share all the government secrets kind of like what Maryland and Virginia are to Washington, D.C. Goiânia is the capital known for having the largest green area per inhabitant in the world after Edmonton, Canada But yeah, it's like an agriculture-ish low-key access to the government files state. Maranhão: This is like the state I personally would really love to visit. One thing this state is known for is Lençois Maranhenses National Park It is one of these strangest landscapes on the planet: sand dunes, with water Otherwise San Luis is the capital and it is the city that most closely resembles a Portuguese city in Brazil but uh Yeah, Wow. Maranhão. Mato Grosso: it is the farm and beef capital of Brazil Very sparsely populated. The capital Cuiabá only has about half a million people. The largest sandstone cavern can be found here: Aroe Jari in the South it's also home to the Patanal, the world's largest wetland and apparently you guys told me they are also famous for Brazilian country music known as Serteneja. Which brings us to Mato Grosso do Sul Geography Peep Flora told me that they're kind of sick and tired of being mixed up with Mato Grosso So whenever someone refers to the state they make sure that they say "do Sul" after. Okay, capital is Campo Grande, and however Bonito is like the more popular tourist destination because they have like crystal clear pools and lakes and rivers I was told that their culture is very heavily influenced by Paraguay, and like Paraguay, The Guaraní language is the second most commonly spoken language in the state and the people here love crossing the border and buying stuff in Paraguay because everything there is way cheaper. They also love drinking Tereré which is like a cold version of Chimarrão. The Portuguese language like... Portuguese is like the Danish of the Latin languages. It's like you pronounce the first part of the word But then you just kind of give up on the rest of it Chima... hmm. Anyway, moving on. Minas Gerais Geography Peep Sergio told me that Minas Gerais is like the grandma's house of Brazil it's probably like the only state that all the other states love and the reason being because It's kind of like one of if not the most foodie state of all the states every single one of you has told me that Minas Gerais: I have to mention the cheese bread Pão de queijo. Yo, did I get that? no, I did not pronounce it. And Tropeiro beans and feijoada stew. Also, no surprise as the name alludes to, Minas, this place has some of the most like historically significant mines in the country The Portuguese got a ton of gold from here, which was subsequently stolen by the British apparently, but that's a whole other story Anyway, moving on. Pará, the queen of the jungle, the second largest state in the country, the capital Belém. According to geography Peep Ariel, It's like the special strategic Gateway to the Amazon that the Portuguese protected They are a huge producer of rubber, iron, and açaí berries The northerners eat the açaí salty, while the southerners eat it with ice cream They are also famous for Brega music and lots of dams were built here to power the entire country also It is here where they grow the most Brazil nuts which, by the way, In Brazil they call Brazil nuts "Pará nuts" because, Pará. Paraíba: Quite a few of you guys have told me that this is like the calm state of Brazil It's like the perfect place to retire Apparently the capital João Pessoa is located on the easternmost point of the American continent known as Ponta do Seixas Also, it was a former Dutch settlement and for 20 years. It was known as Frederikstadt Paraná. So many of you guys have told me Paraná is known as "Brazilian Russia". It's the coldest spot in Brazil and Apparently a lot of weird things happen here. The capital Curitiba is so high up It snows every so often which is rare for Brazil Geography Peep Isabel told me that they are like the "quiet ones" that take time to warm up to if they don't know you. They call Sausages Vina and they actually have a law of where there are no Starbucks because they want to protect their own coffee industry. Ok Pernambuco according to Geography Peep Davao people from Pernambuco are very artsy and one of the most recent and successful artistic movements came from here the Mangue beat, also great musicians like Zé Ramalho came from here and don't forget the dish Bolo de Rolo, it's very delicious. Cool! And they're also known for having beaches with sharks They are known also for a traditional dance called the Frevo, And the first synagogue in the Americas was built in the capital. Recife (I don't get it, like, there's an "R", why is it pronounced like an "H"?) Piauí: Kind of funny, It's like they just barely grabbed a stretch of coast on the North but their capital Teresina is actually built inland and yeah I was told that this is kind of like the poorest state of Brazil But they know how to adapt pretty well I was told this state is kind of like the underdog state which is why every so often people like this, Whinderssonnunes The most famous Brazilian youtuber came out of it Otherwise, they are known for the Serra da Capivara Park which has extremely old rock paintings. Piauí. Piauí! Rio de Janeiro I feel like I don't even really have to say that much you all know this place all the iconic Images and landmarks of Brazilian culture and media come from this place, you know the Christ the Redeemer statue Copacabana beach Sugarloaf Mountain, the works. It's kind of like the Los Angeles of Brazil, you know kind of like the shiny spokesperson and ambassador that all the tourists flocked to I mean for the longest time they were the capital of Brazil However, keep in mind you're thinking of the city of Rio de Janeiro. Remember there's a whole state that comes with it Not a really big one, but there is a state, you know There's other cities like Nova Iguaçu, Petropolis, and this place Campos dos Goyta... [computer voice] Campos dos Goytacazes And each of these cities has like their own cool little quirk, but however, Yeah Rio, the city, is more of like the flashy hotspot. Rio Grande do Norte, the Christmas State The capital is even called Natal, the word for Christmas and every Christmas they go all out and have a huge party and it's like A big deal for them. According to NASA, This place has the purest air in all of the Americas Good for you. It's also home to the world's largest cashew tree estimated to be somewhere around eighty four hundred square meters They also host Carnatal It's like one of the biggest Off-season carnaval celebrations. Whoo hoo! Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state. Capital: Porto Alegre. Now, I've met quite a few people from this specific state from Brazil. People here are known as Gauchos similar to Argentina and Uruguay. This is like the whitest state of Brazil They have a huge distinct German and Italian population. They have their own accent, cuisine, they're very famous for their barbecue There's a lot of history here. At one point, they tried to secede in the rag... Ragamuffin war... right? I think that's what it was called, or the Farroupilha Revolution, then they had a war with like all their neighbors Argentina Uruguay Paraguay... Paraguay, for some reason! It's crazy. These people did a lot of fighting. But yeah, they're very distinct from the rest of Brazil A lot of the people here actually still speak their mother tongues like German, Italian, and Polish. They have Oktoberfest. The southern part of Brazil. It's it's very different from the rest. Rondônia. The capital is Porto Velho I was told this is like the Wild West of Brazil It's like the frontier between the humid Amazon and the dry Cerrado, a huge portion of the state is native territory belonging to 21 indigenous people groups One of which only has about five members left Unfortunately, it's also kind of known as the state with the worst deforestation rates. A lot of the land is cleared for agriculture, but, uh, Yeah, it's like it's like Acre's twin, you know, shrouded in mystery. Nobody knows anything about it. What's going on? What are you what are you hiding, Rondônia? Roraima the northernmost state and the capital Boa vista is the only capital that is north of the Equator This place is famous for the tripoint border between Guyana and Venezuela at mount Roraima Basically, it's that really cool flat top mountain that was the inspiration for the movie "Up", and apparently a lot of people are now paying attention to this state because a lot of Venezuelans are crossing the border because you know, they're trying to escape the economic hardships implemented by the harsh Maduro regime Yeah, basically I think of the movie, "Up", with a wave of illegal Venezuelan immigrants coming in It's true though. It's kind of true. Santa Catarina The Capital, Florianópolis is actually on an island off the coast. according to Geography Peep Eduardo It's kind of like a place that fuses urban and nature together The people here are famous for being interesting fishers apparently in the town of Laguna The fishermen have made a strange Alliance with the dolphins in which the dolphins help them catch fish and the fishermen give the Dolphins the leftovers as payment So, yeah, basically if you want to meet people that can talk to dolphins go to Santa Catarina. São Paulo This is basically the New York of Brazil. São Paulo is nicknamed the Locomotive of Brazil and it is like the working machine that keeps Brazil afloat It is the most populous state with over 45 million people it has the largest economy and is by far the richest State. It alone is richer than all of Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Bolivia put together. São Paulo is the largest city obviously, It's the ninth largest in the world and the second largest in the Americas after Mexico City It's incredibly diverse: Italians, Greeks, Arabs. It has the largest Japanese population outside of Japan But what is São Paolo really like? Well according to you guys, the Brazilian Geography peeps, I've gotten everything from São Paulo has great nightclubs. The people are thick-headed and snobbish They are sophisticated. They are smart, but it like in a crazy way. They are cool people but be careful around them I don't even know what that means. Basically São Paulo is the powerhouse of Brazil. Sergipe, the smallest state in Brazil There's a stupid joke: Which Brazilian state wants to be a Jeep? Sergipe, because, you know, in Portuguese, "ser" means "be"... and "gipe" is how you pronounce "jeep"... Yeah, anyway, this place actually has some pretty cool quirky things. According to geography Peep Rusty. Yeah, "Rusty"... I was surprised. That doesn't sound like a Brazilian name, but, cool... They have the statues from traditional folklore on the river with a huge crab statue as well because they love eating crabs they have that strange Lambe Sujos and Caboclinhos festival where people paint themselves black It's often said that Sergipe is like Bahia's backyard. Tocantins, which means "the toucan's beak" in the native Tupi language. This is the newest state that broke off from Goias in 1988, I think? Yeah, the state is famous for the Jalapão National Park It was portrayed in a recent telenovela from Globo TV called O Outro Lado do Paraíso, (The Other Side of Paradise). Otherwise, they are also really tied in with their indigenous population They even hosted the Indigenous World Games in 2015 in the capital Palmas. But yeah Toucans beak. Whoo-hoo! and finally, We reach the capital, Brasilia now Literally every Brazilian I talked to when I asked him to explain what they think about the capital they all do the same thing they all just kind of go like Now just like many countries across the world, the capital can sometimes be seen as a source of problems No shocker: that kind of applies to Brazil as well Basically, the city was built in the 50s and inaugurated in the 60s as the new capital of Brazil as a means to Centralize the government buildings. It was built in the shape of an airplane, or bird... It's kind of up for dispute and people from all over just started moving in and it's a new city It was built specifically to become the new capital. It has the second largest soccer (football) stadium in the country And yeah, this is just kind of like where the stuff gets done and the people complained. So yeah, that is just about it I tried my best I tried to relay what you guys told me and I hope I did Brazil justice. No matter how much I try though I'm pretty much never gonna recover from that Reynaldo mistake. But yeah obrigado and hope you have a good one. See you then. Bye

Contents

Division of powers

Brazil is a federal presidential constitutional republic, which is based on a representative democracy. The federal government has three independent branches: executive, legislative, and judicial.

The Federal Constitution is the supreme law of Brazil. It is the foundation and source of the legal authority underlying the existence of Brazil and the federal government. It provides the framework for the organization of the Brazilian government and for the relationship of the federal government to the states, to citizens, and to all people within Brazil.

Executive power is exercised by the executive, headed by the President, advised by a Cabinet of Ministers. The President is both the head of state and the head of government. Legislative power is vested upon the National Congress, a two-chamber legislature comprising the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. Judicial power is exercised by the judiciary, consisting of the Supreme Federal Court, the Superior Court of Justice and other Superior Courts, the National Justice Council and the regional federal courts.

Executive branch

Palácio do Planalto, headquarters of the Executive Branch of the Brazilian Government
Palácio do Planalto, headquarters of the Executive Branch of the Brazilian Government
Main office holders
Office Name Party Since
President of the Republic Michel Temer Democratic Movement Party 31 August 2016
Vice-President of the Republic vacant 12 May 2016

Legislative branch

The bicameral National Congress (Congresso Nacional) consists of

  1. The Federal Senate (Senado Federal), which has 81 seats — three members from each States and the Federal District, elected according to the principle of majority to serve eight-year terms. One-third are elected after a four-year period, and two-thirds are elected after the next four-year period; and
  2. The Chamber of Deputies (Câmara dos Deputados), which has 513 seats. Federal deputies are elected by proportional representation to serve four-year terms.

There are no limits on the number of terms one may serve for either chamber. The seats are allotted proportionally to each state's population, but each state is eligible for a minimum of eight seats and a maximum of 70 seats. The result is a system weighted in favor of smaller states that are part of the Brazilian federation.

Currently, 15 political parties are represented in Congress. Since it is common for politicians to switch parties, the proportion of congressional seats held by particular parties changes regularly. To avoid that, the Supreme Federal Court ruled in 2007 that the term belongs to the parties, and not to the representatives.

Judicial branch

Brazilian courts function under civil law adversarial system. The Judicial branch is organized in states' and federal systems with different jurisdictions.

The judges of the courts of first instance take office after public competitive examination. The second instance judges are promoted among the first instance judges. The Justices of the superior courts are appointed by the President for life and approved by the Senate. All the judges and justices must be graduated in law. Brazilian judges must retire at the age of 70.

Federal judicial branch

Superior Court of Justice
Superior Court of Justice

The national territory is divided into five Regions, which are composed of two or more states. Each region is divided in Judiciary Sections (Seções Judiciárias in Portuguese), coterminous with the territory of each state, and subdivided in Judiciary Subsections (Subseções Judiciárias), each with a territory that may not correspond to the states' comarcas.

The Judiciary subsections have federal courts of first instance and each Region has a Federal Regional Tribunal (Tribunal Regional Federal) as a court of second instance.

There are special federal court systems, such as Labour Court (Justiça do Trabalho) for labor or employment-related matters and disputes, Election Justice (Justiça Eleitoral) for electoral matters, and Military Justice (Justiça Militar) for martial criminal cases, each of them with its own courts.

Superior Courts

There are two national superior courts that grant writs of certiorari in civil and criminal cases: the Superior Justice Tribunal (Superior Tribunal de Justiça, STJ) and the federal supreme court, called the Supreme Federal Court (Portuguese: Supremo Tribunal Federal).

The STJ grants a Special Appeal (Recurso Especial) when a judgement of a court of second instance offends a federal statute disposition or when two or more second instance courts make different rulings on the same federal statute. There are parallel courts for labor law, electoral law and military law.

The STF grants Extraordinary Appeals (Recurso Extraordinário) when judgments of second instance courts violate the constitution. The STF is the last instance for the writ of habeas corpus and for reviews of judgments from the STJ.

The superior courts do not analyze any factual questions in their judgments, but only the application of the law and the constitution. Facts and evidences are judged by the courts of second instance, except in specific cases such as writs of habeas corpus.

See also

External links

References

This page was last edited on 24 November 2018, at 04:29
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