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Federated States of Micronesia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Federated States of Micronesia
Motto: "Peace, Unity, Liberty"
Location of the Federated States of Micronesia
CapitalPalikir
6°55′N 158°11′E / 6.917°N 158.183°E / 6.917; 158.183
Largest townWeno[1]
Official language
and national languagea
English (American English in legal contexts, Micronesian Pidgin in other, including formal contexts such as education[2])
Recognized regional
languages
Ethnic groups (2000)
  • 48.8% Chuukese
  • 24.2% Pohnpeian
  • 6.2% Kosraean
  • 5.2% Yapese
  • 4.5% Outer Yapese
  • 1.8% Asian
  • 1.5% Polynesian
  • 6.4% Other
  • 1.4% Unknown
DemonymMicronesian
GovernmentFederated presidential republic under a non-partisan democracy
• President
Peter Christian
Yosiwo P. George
LegislatureCongress
Independence from the United States
November 3, 1986
Area 
• Total
702 km2 (271 sq mi) (177th)
• Water (%)
negligible
Population
• 2016 estimate
104,937[3] (192nd)
• Density
158.1/km2 (409.5/sq mi) (75th)
GDP (PPP)2017 estimate
• Total
$342 million
• Per capita
$3,800
GDP (nominal)2017 estimate
• Total
$329 million
• Per capita
$3,400
Gini (2013)40.1[4]
medium
HDI (2015)Increase 0.638[5]
medium · 127th
CurrencyUnited States dollar (USD)
Time zoneUTC+10 and +11
• Summer (DST)
not observed
Date formatMM/DD/YYYY
Driving sideright
Calling code+691
ISO 3166 codeFM
Internet TLD.fm
  1. Regional languages used at state and municipal levels.

The Federated States of Micronesia (/ˌmkrˈnʒə/ (About this soundlisten); abbreviated FSM and also known simply as Micronesia) is an independent republic associated to the United States. It consists of four states – from west to east, Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei and Kosrae – that are spread across the Western Pacific Ocean. Together, the states comprise around 607 islands (a combined land area of approximately 702 km2 or 271 sq mi) that cover a longitudinal distance of almost 2,700 km (1,678 mi) just north of the equator. They lie northeast of New Guinea, south of Guam and the Marianas, west of Nauru and the Marshall Islands, east of Palau and the Philippines, about 2,900 km (1,802 mi) north of eastern Australia and some 4,000 km (2,485 mi) southwest of the main islands of Hawaii.

While the FSM's total land area is quite small, it occupies more than 2,600,000 km2 (1,000,000 sq mi) of the Pacific Ocean, giving the country the 14th largest Exclusive Economic Zone in the world.[6] The independent sovereign island nations capital is Palikir, located on Pohnpei Island, while the largest city is Weno, located in the Chuuk Atoll.

Each of its four states is centered on one or more main high islands, and all but Kosrae include numerous outlying atolls. The Federated States of Micronesia is spread across part of the Caroline Islands in the wider region of Micronesia, which consists of thousands of small islands divided among several countries. The term Micronesia may refer to the Federated States or to the region as a whole.

The FSM was formerly a part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (TTPI), a United Nations Trust Territory under U.S. administration, but it formed its own constitutional government on May 10, 1979, becoming a sovereign state after independence was attained on November 3, 1986 under a Compact of Free Association with the United States. Other neighboring island entities, and also former members of the TTPI, formulated their own constitutional governments and became the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) and the Republic of Palau (ROP). The FSM has a seat in the United Nations.

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Transcription

Hey everybody. Before you watch this episode, just a little disclaimer: I was stupid and I booked the wrong day at the YouTube space so we weren't able to film in the studios. So I had to improvise and we filmed in my house. So the next two episodes are gonna have the same quality of how we used to film the episodes back in like 2016. Relatively poor echoey, audio quality and very visible black backdrop. But I did not want to 'not upload a video this week', so I had to give you something I mean, These Geography Now! videos are mostly just about the information. Right... Right...... RIGHT?? I'm sorry guys. But anyway, I tried my best and I still want to give you a video this week So without further ado, here we go. *Intro* It's time to learn Geography... NOW!!! Want to hear a Micronesia joke? NOOO!!! Too bad! Imagine a dog named Ray on a dinner date. When the bill came, he had to use his 'Pohnpei' (paw to pay) but then was 'Chuuk' (shock) and surprised be-Kosrae ('cause Ray) was broke. Yap Alright, that's four strikes, you know the drill... 1 Punch 2 Punch 3 Punch 4 Punch SO WORTH IT! Oh hey, Noah is back. Noah: Hey (Political Geography) For the record. In this episode, I'm just gonna refer to the country as "Micronesia" because the official title is too long... The Federated States of Micronesia You get what I'm saying? Anyway! I love Pacific island nations because they probably get the least amount of coverage in terms of global awareness which means Geography Now! gets to be a platform for the obscure. Plus, you know It kind of adds to the Oceania playlist. First of all The country lies in the sub-region of the Pacific Ocean known as Micronesia which is obviously where the country gets its name from which also includes the states of Palau, Nauru, parts of Kiribati and the US Territories of Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands and Wake Island. The country is made up of 607 islands sometimes collectively referred to as the "Caroline Islands" These take up over a million mi² of Oceanic territory in their exclusive economic zone. However, in land surface area, they only make up about 217mi². All the islands are divided into 4 states made up of island clusters: They are Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei, -not Pompeii- Pohnpei, Oh and don't forget this little straggler Kapingaramangi belongs to it. And finally little Kosrae which is really only like one little island with a few small islets off its coast. It's the only state with no atolls. The capital Palikir is located on Pohnpei, the largest, highest and most populous island in the entire nation. However, the largest city in itself is actually Weno on the Chuuk atoll. The country has four International Airports, one for each of the states. The busiest ones being Pohnpei and Chuuk whereas one domestic airport lies on Ulithi. There are also small airfields and air strips located on various islands across the country for shipping and deliveries. Today, they do kind of have a small dispute with Spain over that little straggler guy, Kapingamarangi. Apparently when the Spanish sold off their islands to the Germans, this little guy kind of wasn't part of the deal. Eventually just kind of "de facto landed in Micronesia's claim". Otherwise Most of the urban centers are located on the large mountainous islands. Three of which Pohnpei, Chuuk and Yap hosts shipping harbours. If you look close to Chuuk's harbour, they kind of have a ship that failed. Anyway! Just like we talked about in the Marshall Islands episode Micronesia is also a "Compact of Free Association Agreement" state with the United States. Yada yada yada. You've heard it before. New subscriber: No. I haven't. I'm a new subscriber. What do you mean? Oh yeah, some people are new to this channel. Uh, well basically in the quickest way I can summarize it: Micronesia: Alright, okay. I think we're kind of ready to be our own thing now. Woohoo! USA: Oh, you know I already will all these bases. We have all these cool trade deals, diplomatic agreements with other nations. You guys seem to like that 'Spam' stuff as well and the burgers I introduced. I mean, do you really want to start from scratch? Hmmm? Micronesia: I mean, yes, but I don't know. Maybe we can kind of like keep this thing going but also by relinquishing your official hold on us so we kind of have like a nominal claim to independence? USA: Oh Mikey, It's like you've been reading my diary! And that's basically how it happened in the 80s. And speaking of which, some notable sites that the country might include: Nan Madol The Yap stones Chuuk Lagoon, one of the world's biggest wartime ship graveyards Tamilyog trail The Lelu and Menke ruins on Kosrae The petroglyphs on Phonpei Japanese era sites like the old lighthouse Nefo cave The Yap art gallery studio Yaps Living History Museum And honestly, probably the coolest thing to do would just be walking around the streets of any village and finding cool cafe or mom-and-pop shop. Just chill. You're in Micronesia. The entire country in itself is kind of a spectacle to be a part of. And especially when you notice the landscape. Which brings us too: (Physical Geography) Now unlike some of their neighbors, Micronesia got lucky and snagged a few solid fully formed mountainous islands. And when you have hills, you have an advantage. First of all The country is spread across the western Pacific Ocean on a smaller sub region of the greater Pacific plate known as the Caroline plate formed by the underwater sorrel trough. Mount Nanlaud on Pohnpei is the highest peak of the country, with the longest river the Lehdau flows. Yap and the atolls around it are the only parts of the country that cross over the Philippine plate over the Yap Trench. The islands were basically formed from underwater volcanoes that either partially or fully breached the surface or both. The ones that had the edges breached became atolls. The ones that had the center breached became full-on islands. And then there was a third kind which the center and a few edges were breached which became lagoons. So there you go: Oceanic geology 101. And this is part where I take a triple shot of espresso break. That means making his triumphant for return, you love him. My physical geography segment co-host, Noah! Hey, you look a little different. Hmm, then what you mean? The good news is the islands get quite a bit of rain so fresh water is never too hard to come by. Most people collect it for daily use. The islands with mountains are able to harbor small rivers and creeks. Pohnpei alone having over 40 Some creating beautiful waterfalls. Otherwise, you can hike at beautiful natural science like the Sokens rock or scuba dive in many spots like the Blue Hole. Country doesn't have a national animal but it is a bird haven. Species like the Truk monarch, the Phonpei Lori, the Kosrae Greater white eye Are all endemic to the islands. Economy-wise, the country mostly depends on agriculture and fishing. Whatever, let's be honest, they only have about 100,000 people. So they cope with a great idea on how to capitalize off of their vast open ocean territory. Hey, you have a lot of ocean? Micronesia: Yeah? Foreign investor: I'm fishing it. Micronesia: Yeah, so? Foreign investor: I wanna go fishing it. Micronesia: Pay up a couple million dollars and we'll give you a seasonal license. And that's how they subsidize part of their GDP. Food wise, you get the typical island staples. Taro, breadfruit, bananas and of course pretty much any kind of fish they can catch will be on the menu. Don't be surprised to find betel nuts everywhere, a sort of chewing tobacco substitute that people on all islands used. Sakau is a popular drink, especially on Phonpei. It has relaxing effects of his made from squeezing the roots of the pepper shrub in the inner bark of a hibiscus tree. Kind of like the Kava drip we talked about the Fiji episode. Its a great social drink the locals enjoy it, and casual get together. And that brings us to: (Demographics) Thank You Noah, follow him on Instagram. All right. So if you're new to this channel, one thing you'll have to learn is when it comes to ocean people, There's a difference between Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia. Micronesians are interesting because it's kind of like each island has its own story and tradition. It's like if you met your cousin once and didn't see them again for 15 years, they'd probably change a lot but you'd still be family. First of all The country's about 105,000 people and has about a 3% birthrate. The majority of the country is ethnically Micronesian However Split up into four distinct ethno-linguistic groups. About half of the population are Chuukese. A quarter are Pohnpeian and 10% Yapese and outer Yapese. About 6% Kosraean, and the rest of the country is made up of other groups Mostly Americans, Asians and Polynesians. They use the American dollar as their currency. They use the types A, B plug outlets and they drive on the right side of the road. However, some of the cars might have steering wheels on the right side so it's kind of weird. English is the official language used between all peoples. But there are eight other recognized indigenous languages spoken throughout the islands. Including two Polynesian languages spoken by the people on Nukuoro and Kapingamarangi. Micronesian languages are all related. However, some of the words are completely unintelligible. For example: Yeah, they don't even sound anything alike and each one has less than 50,000 speakers so it shows how far the cousins can change when you're separated by thousands of miles of water for centuries. Culturally speaking, the people here come from a long yet mysterious line of chiefdoms clans traditions and customs mostly rooted in oral tradition passed down through generations. There's the legend of the twin sorcerers that created Nan Madol. Supposedly, they had the help of a flying dragon and that's how the first dynasty was supposedly started. Not only that but on Yap, the residents literally use these huge stone disks known as Rai stones as their currency. Technically the largest currency in the world. About 6,500 of them can be found all over the islands. You can also find traditional meeting houses called Pe'ebai and Faluw. They also use canoes with plaited leaves sails. The Chuuk Islands has a tradition of love sticks that they kind of use for dating. The man is supposed to poke his crush and if she accepts she's supposed to grab the sharp stick and pull him in. Essentially though, you see a lot of remnants of the former colonizers in their society. For example, no shocker they speak English with an American accent and generally keep up with American media and trends. They love rice too even though it doesn't grow there. It was introduced from various nations especially the Japanese. Most Micronesians at about 97% are Christians, introduced mostly through the Americans, Germans and Spanish. About half of them are Protestant have our Catholic. The more west you go closer to the Philippines, it becomes more Catholic. The more east, it becomes more Protestant. Speaking of the introduction of outside influences, History: Ancient Austronesian people, probably from Southeast Asia sailed in Chieftain based societies established Yap people developed quite a unique economic and religious culture Nan-Madol is built starting the Saudeleur dynasty Portuguese come by but they don't really care too much Spanish pass by and care very much Hold on to it to make it part of the Spanish East Indies They built the town of Kolonia on Phonpei Spanish-American war caused Spain to sell the islands to Germany Then it became German New Guinea WWI the Japanese come in and take it WWII operation hailstone UN agrees that the US should administer the islands as a Trust Territory Yap, Chuuk, Phonpei and Kosrae agreed to join up and create a constitution for independence Then they all signed the Compact of Free Association with the US in 1986 compact renewed in 2004, And here we are today. Some notable people who are either Micronesian or from the Federated States of Micronesia might include people like: To be honest, it was a little difficult to find some of those people. I had to search Micronesian message boards. I don't know. If you just so happen to be a Micronesian person watching this video, please feel free to revise that list if you want. Anyway, Friendzone! (Friendzone) Since independence in the 80s, Micronesia has built up a lot of international ties. They have ties to over 80 countries and four permanent embassies in China, Fiji, Japan and the US. For one, China and India have both kind of competed to see who can cozy up to the islands more. China has built things like a gymnasium, they donated police cars and built a giant clam farm on Kosrae. India has given them farming machinery and offers scholarship grants. Of course the USA is the biggest trade partner and supporter of overall infrastructure and development As part of the Compact Association, Micronesians have access to US services like postal and communications. They can move about freely working and living in each other's countries. Micronesians are even allowed to serve in the US military. However, they don't share the same benefits as US citizen military personnel. Micronesia is part of the Nauru agreement, a union of 8 signatories in Oceania that control nearly a third of the world's tuna supply. They regulate fishing laws and manage business together. Of these nations, of course, Their closest friends would probably be their Micronesians siblings: the Marshall Islands and Palau. These two are also Compact Association agreement members with the US. Out of these two though, Micronesia might be a little bit closer to Palau. They have a little closer history. Those Yap stones were actually mined and transported from Palau. They love each other's music and whenever they get the chance to see each other, It's like family reunion all over again, but the Marshall Islands are invited too. In conclusion: The Federated States of Micronesia are kind of like the four musketeer cousins that hadn't seen each other in a long time. They could barely speak to each other, but somehow they came together in 1986 and showed the world that an island culture can thrive well into the new era. Stay tuned, Moldova is coming up next.

Contents

History

Historical affiliations
 Spain 1565–1899
 Germany 1899–1918
 Japan 1919–1947
 United States 1947–1994
 Micronesia 1994–present

The ancestors of the Micronesians settled over four thousand years ago. A decentralized chieftain-based system eventually evolved into a more centralized economic and religious culture centered on Yap Island.

Nan Madol, consisting of a series of small artificial islands linked by a network of canals, is often called the Venice of the Pacific. It is located on the eastern periphery of the island of Pohnpei and used to be the ceremonial and political seat of the Saudeleur dynasty that united Pohnpei's estimated 25,000 people from about AD 500 until 1500, when the centralized system collapsed.

European explorers—first the Portuguese in search of the Spice Islands (Indonesia) and then the Spanish—reached the Carolines in the sixteenth century. The Spanish incorporated the archipelago to the Spanish East Indies through the capital, Manila, and in the 19th century established a number of outposts and missions. In 1887, they founded the town of Santiago de la Ascension in what today is Kolonia on the island of Pohnpei.

Following defeat in the Spanish–American War, the Spanish sold the archipelago to Germany in 1899 under the German–Spanish Treaty of 1899. Germany incorporated it into German New Guinea.

During World War I, it was captured by Japan. Following the war, the League of Nations awarded a mandate for Japan to administer the islands as part of the South Pacific Mandate.

During World War II, a significant portion of the Japanese fleet was based in Truk Lagoon. In February 1944, Operation Hailstone, one of the most important naval battles of the war, took place at Truk, in which many Japanese support vessels and aircraft were destroyed.

Following World War II, it was administered by the United States under United Nations auspices in 1947 as part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands pursuant to Security Council Resolution 21.

On May 10, 1979, four of the Trust Territory districts ratified a new constitution to become the Federated States of Micronesia. Palau, the Marshall Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands chose not to participate. The FSM signed a Compact of Free Association with the United States, which entered into force on November 3, 1986, marking Micronesia's emergence from trusteeship to independence. Independence was formally concluded under international law in 1990, when the United Nations officially ended the Trusteeship status pursuant to Security Council Resolution 683. The Compact was renewed in 2004.

Politics

The Federated States of Micronesia is governed by the 1979 constitution, which guarantees fundamental human rights and establishes a separation of governmental powers. The unicameral Congress has fourteen members elected by popular vote. Four senators—one from each state—serve four-year terms; the remaining ten senators represent single-member districts based on population, and serve two-year terms. The President and Vice President are elected by Congress from among the four state-based senators to serve four-year terms in the executive branch. Their congressional seats are then filled by special elections.

The president and vice president are supported by an appointed cabinet. There are no formal political parties.

Defense and foreign affairs

In international politics, the Federated States of Micronesia has often voted with the United States with respect to United Nations General Assembly resolutions.[7]

The FSM is a sovereign, self-governing state in free association with the United States of America, which is wholly responsible for its defense. The Division of Maritime Surveillance operates a paramilitary Maritime Wing and a small Maritime Police Unit. The Compact of Free Association allows FSM citizens to join the U.S. military without having to obtain U.S. permanent residency or citizenship,[8] allows for immigration and employment for Micronesians in the U.S., and establishes economic and technical aid programs.

FSM has foreign relations with 56 countries, including the Holy See. FSM was admitted to the United Nations based on the Security Council's recommendation on August 9, 1991 in Resolution 703 and the General Assembly's approval on September 17, 1991 in Resolution 46/2.[9] The FSM is an active member of the Pacific Islands Forum.[10]

Administrative divisions

A map of the Federated States of Micronesia.
A map of the Federated States of Micronesia.

The four states in the federation are, from west to east:

Flag States[11] Capital Current Governor Land Population[12] Population
density
km² sq mi[13] per km²[12] per sq mi
Yap State Yap Colonia Tony Ganangyan 118.1 45.6 16,436 94 243
Chuuk State Chuuk Weno Johnson Elimo 127.4 49.2 54,595 420 1088
Pohnpei State Pohnpei Kolonia Marcelo Peterson 345.5 133.4 34,685 98 255
Kosrae Kosrae Tofol Lyndon Jackson 109.6 42.3 7,686[14] 66 170

These states are further divided into municipalities.

Disputed sovereignty

Spain has a claim to sovereignty over a few islands including Kapingamarangi in Pohnpei State. A commission of cardinals under Pope Leo XIII arbitrated a dispute for the Caroline Islands and others extending from the Equator to 11°N Latitude and from 133°E to 164°E Longitude. Germany and Spain on 17 December 1885 agreed in a treaty that they were a part of the Spanish East Indies. In 1899, Spain sold "las Carolinas" to Germany. Kapingamarangi is far south of the Carolines and the people are racially and culturally Polynesian, not Micronesian or Carolinian. In 1948, Emilio Pastor Santos of the Spanish National Research Council found that the charts and maps up to 1899 had shown that Kapingamarangi and a few other islands had never been considered part of the Carolines, were not included in the description of the territory transferred to Germany and were never ceded by Spain; therefore, Spain retained sovereignty. In 1949, the Cabinet of Diplomatic Information of the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued the following declaration:

"... The Ministry recognises that it is a certain fact and historic truth due to Article 3 of the Treaty of July 1, 1899, that Spain reserved a series of rights in Micronesia and for another thing, the specifications of the territories which Spain ceded in 1899 leaves apart certain groups of islands in the same zone."

Successive Spanish governments have not abandoned Spain's sovereignty, or insisted on enforcing it, or recognized the sovereignty of the Federated States of Micronesia over Kapingamarangi.[15][16] The Federated States of Micronesia claims sovereignty and has de facto control of the island.

Geography

A view of Kolonia Town from Sokehs Ridge in Pohnpei.
A view of Kolonia Town from Sokehs Ridge in Pohnpei.

The Federated States of Micronesia consists of 607 islands extending 2,900 km (1,802 mi) across the archipelago of the Caroline Islands east of the Philippines. The islands have a combined area of 702 km2 (271 sq mi).[11]

The islands are grouped into four states, which are Yap, Chuuk (called Truk until January 1990), Pohnpei (known as "Ponape" until November 1984), and Kosrae (formerly Kusaie). These four states are each represented by a white star on the national flag. The capital is Palikir, on Pohnpei.

Transportation

The Federated States of Micronesia is served by four international airports.

Economy

Economic activity in the Federated States of Micronesia consists primarily of subsistence farming and fishing. The islands have few mineral deposits worth exploiting, except for high-grade phosphate. Long line fishing of tuna is also viable with foreign vessels from China that operated in the 1990s. The potential for a tourist industry exists, but the remoteness of the location and a lack of adequate facilities hinder development. Financial assistance from the U.S. is the primary source of revenue, with the U.S. pledged to spend $1.3 billion in the islands in 1986–2001;[needs update] the CIA World Factbook lists high dependence on U.S. aid as one of the main concerns of the FSM.[11] Geographical isolation and a poorly developed infrastructure are major impediments to long-term growth.[21]

Society

Demographics

People performing a welcome ceremony on Ulithi atoll.
People performing a welcome ceremony on Ulithi atoll.

The indigenous population of the nation, which is predominantly Micronesian, consists of various ethnolinguistic groups. It has a nearly 100% Pacific Islander and Asian population: Chuukese 48.8%, Pohnpeian 24.2%, Kosraean 6.2%, Yapese 5.2%, Yap outer islands 4.5%, Asian 1.8%, Polynesian 1.5%, other 6.4%, unknown 1.4%. A sizeable minority also have some Japanese ancestry, which is a result of intermarriages between Japanese settlers and Micronesians during the Japanese colonial period.[22]

There is also a growing expatriate population of Americans, Australians, Europeans, and residents from China and the Philippines since the 1990s. English has become the common language of the government, and for secondary and tertiary education. Outside of the main capital towns of the four FSM states, the local languages are primarily spoken. Population growth remains high at more than 3% annually, offset somewhat by net emigration.

Languages

English is the official and common language. Also spoken are Chuukese, Kosraean, Pohnpeian, Yapese, Ulithian, Woleaian, Nukuoro, and Kapingamarangi.[11]

Other languages spoken in the country include Pingelapese, Ngatikese, Satawalese, Puluwatese, Mortlockese, and Mokilese.[citation needed] There are about 3,000 speakers of Kapingamarangi and Ulithian, and under 1,000 speakers of Nukuoro.[citation needed]

Religion

The US Air Force has dropped presents and humanitarian aid to the islands every Christmas since 1952.
The US Air Force has dropped presents and humanitarian aid to the islands every Christmas since 1952.

Most Micronesians are Christian. Several Protestant denominations, as well as the Roman Catholic Church, are present in every Micronesian state.[23] Most Protestant groups trace their roots to American Congregationalist missionaries.[23] On the island of Kosrae, the population is approximately 7,800; 95 percent are Protestants.[23] On Pohnpei, the population of 35,000 is evenly divided between Protestants and Catholics. Most immigrants are Filipino Catholics who have joined local Catholic churches, e.g. Our Lady of Mercy Catholic Church in Pohnpei.[23] [23]

On Chuuk and Yap, an estimated 60 percent are Catholic and 40 percent are Protestant.[23] Religious groups with small followings include Baptists, Assemblies of God, Salvation Army, Seventh-day Adventists, Jehovah's Witnesses, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), and the Bahá'í Faith.[23] There is a small group of Buddhists on Pohnpei,[23] and a small group of Ahmadiyya Muslims in Kosrae. Attendance at religious services is generally high; churches are well supported by their congregations and play a significant role in civil society.[23]

[23] In the 1890s, on the island of Pohnpei, intermissionary conflicts and the conversion of clan leaders resulted in religious divisions along clan lines which persist today.[23] More Protestants live on the western side of the island, while more Catholics live on the eastern side.[23] Missionaries of many religious traditions are present and operate freely.[23] The Constitution provides for freedom of religion, and the Government generally respected this right in practice.[23] The US government received no reports of societal abuses or discrimination based on religious belief or practice in 2007.[23]

Health

Pingelap in Pohnpei State is notable for the prevalence of an extreme form of color blindness called Achromatopsia, and known locally as maskun.[24][25] Approximately 5% of the atoll's 3000 inhabitants are afflicted.[24][25]

Sport

Football

The sport of football in the Federated States of Micronesia is run by the Federated States of Micronesia Football Association. They control the Micronesian games, the nation's football championship and the Micronesia National Football Team.

FSMAA

The Federated States of Micronesia Athletic Association is the governing body for the country's sports and athletics.

A large (approximately 2.4 m or about 8 ft in height) example of Yapese stone money (Rai stones) in the village of Gachpar.
A large (approximately 2.4 m or about 8 ft in height) example of Yapese stone money (Rai stones) in the village of Gachpar.

Culture

Each of the four states has its own culture and traditions, but there are also common cultural and economic bonds that are centuries old. Cultural similarities include the importance of the traditional extended family and clan systems and are found on all the islands.

The island of Yap is notable for its "stone money" (Rai stones), large disks usually of calcite, up to 4 meters (13 ft) in diameter, with a hole in the middle. The islanders, aware of the owner of a piece, do not necessarily move them when ownership changes. There are five major types: Mmbul, Gaw, Ray, Yar, and Reng, the last being only 30 cm (12 in) in diameter. Their value is based on both size and history, many of them having been brought from other islands, as far as New Guinea, but most coming in ancient times from Palau. Approximately 6,500 of them are scattered around the island.

Pohnpei is home to Nan Madol: Ceremonial Centre of Eastern Micronesia, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, but the site is currently listed as In Danger due to natural causes.[26] The government is working on the conservation of the site.

Literature

There have been very few published literary writers from the Federated States of Micronesia.[27] In 2008, Emelihter Kihleng became the first ever Micronesian to publish a collection of poetry in the English language.[28]

See also

References

  1. ^ Summary Analysis of Key Indicators: from the FSM 2010 Census of Population and Housing (PDF). Palikir: Division of Statistics, Office of SBOC. p. 8. Retrieved 16 March 2018 – via Prism (SPC).
  2. ^ Kehoe, Monika. "Language of Micronesia and Guam" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on February 9, 2017.
  3. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  4. ^ "GINI index". World Bank. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
  5. ^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  6. ^ "Drops in the ocean: France's marine territories".
  7. ^ General Assembly - Overall Votes - Comparison with U.S. vote Archived June 26, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. lists Micronesia as in the country with the fourth high coincidence of votes. Micronesia has always been in the top four.
  8. ^ "U.S. Military Enlistment Standards" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-10-01.
  9. ^ United Nations General Assembly Resolution 46/2, Admission of the Federated States of Micronesia to Membership in the United Nations, adopted 17 September 1991. Archived September 3, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ "Federated States of Micronesia". U.S. Department of the Interior. Archived from the original on October 23, 2016. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
  11. ^ a b c d "The World Factbook -- Central Intelligence Agency". Cia World Factbook. Archived from the original on 7 August 2018. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
  12. ^ a b FSM government website - Population Archived June 29, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  13. ^ FSM government website - Geography Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.
  14. ^ "FSM Population". www.fsmgov.org. Archived from the original on June 29, 2012. Retrieved January 22, 2017.
  15. ^ Pastor y Santos, Emilio Territorios de Soberanía española en Oceanía, Instituto de Estudios Africanos, CSIC, Madrid, 1950
  16. ^ Weaver, Zay Territories under Spanish Sovereignty in Oceania (partial translation of Pastor y Santos, Emilio Territorios de Soberanía española en Oceanía), Palau Museum, Koror, 1967
  17. ^ "Federated States Of Micronesia (FSM)  Division of Civil Aviation l Pohnpei International Airport (PNI) (PTPN), Pohnpei Island, Micronesia". Federated States of Micronesia Division of Civil Aviation. 7 August 2018. Archived from the original on 8 August 2018. Retrieved 7 August 2018.
  18. ^ "Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) Division of Civil Aviation l Chuuk International Airport (TKK) (PTKK) Weno Island, Micronesia". Federated States of Micronesia Division of Civil Aviation. 7 August 2018. Archived from the original on 8 August 2018. Retrieved 7 August 2018.
  19. ^ "Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) Division of Civil Aviation l Kosrae International Airport (KSA) (PTSA) , Kosrae Island, Micronesia". Federated States of Micronesia Division of Civil Aviation. 7 August 2018. Archived from the original on 8 August 2018. Retrieved 7 August 2018.
  20. ^ "Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) Division of Civil Aviation l Yap International Airport (YAP) (PTYA), Wa'ab, Micronesia". Federated States of Micronesia Department of Civil Aviation. 7 August 2018. Archived from the original on 8 August 2018. Retrieved 7 August 2018.
  21. ^ "Federated States of Micronesia". United Nations. Archived from the original on November 30, 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
  22. ^ President Emanuel Mori Meets With Japan Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda Archived September 24, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.; AESonline.org Archived June 16, 2007, at Archive.is Government of the Federated States of Micronesia, December 12, 2007
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o International Religious Freedom Report 2007: Micronesia, Federated States of Archived January 13, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.. United States Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor (September 14, 2007). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  24. ^ a b Brody JA, Hussels I, Brink E, Torres J (1970). "Hereditary blindness among Pingelapese people of Eastern Caroline Islands". Lancet. 1 (7659): 1253–7. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(70)91740-X. PMID 4192495.
  25. ^ a b Hussels IE, Morton NE (1972). "Pingelap and Mokil Atolls: achromatopsia". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 24 (3): 304–9. PMC 1762260. PMID 4555088.
  26. ^ "Nan Madol: Ceremonial Centre of Eastern Micronesia - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. 7 August 2018. Archived from the original on 7 August 2018. Retrieved 7 August 2018.
  27. ^ "Seeking Micronesian literary writers", Marianas Variety, February 18, 2009 Archived September 28, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
  28. ^ "Micronesian Poet Publishes Collection of Poems", Office of Insular Affairs, May 12, 2008 Archived February 29, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.

Sources

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