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Foreign relations of Haiti

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coat of arms of Haiti.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Haiti
Flag of Haiti.svg
 Haiti portal

Haiti was one of the original members of the League of Nations, and was one of the original members of the United Nations and several of its specialized and related agencies. It is also a founding member of the Organization of American States. It maintains diplomatic relations with 37 countries, mostly in Europe and Latin America. Haiti also has diplomatic relations with the Republic of China, commonly known as Taiwan, instead of the People's Republic of China. Taiwan is one of Haiti's major trading partners and the two countries maintain very friendly relations. Haiti has also re-established very warm relations with Cuba in which a major act of bilateral cooperation has resulted in Cuba's large contribution of doctors to the country. The Haitian government has publicly shown admiration to Fidel Castro and his administration.

The international community rallied to Haiti's defense during the 1991–94 period of illegal military rule. Thirty-one countries participated in the U.S.-led Multinational Force (MNF) which, acting under UN auspices, intervened in September 1994 to help restore the legitimate government and create a secure and stable environment in Haiti. At its peak, the MNF included roughly 21,000 troops, mostly Americans, and more than 1,000 international police monitors. Within six months, the troop level was gradually reduced as the MNF transitioned to a 6,000 strong peacekeeping force, the UN Mission in Haiti (UNMIH). UNMIH was charged with maintaining the secure environment, which the MNF had helped establish, as well as nurturing Haiti's new police force through the presence of 900 police advisors. A total of 38 countries participated in UNMIH.

In order to spur Haiti's social and economic recovery from three years of de facto military rule and decades of misrule before that, international development banks and donor agencies pledged in 1994 to provide over $2 billion (USD) in assistance by 1999. Disbursements were largely conditioned on progress in economic reform. Parliamentary inaction, principally as a result of the political struggles and gridlock that plagued Haiti since 1996, resulted in the blockage of much of this assistance as disbursement conditions were not met. The electoral crisis that has brewed in the aftermath of the May 21, 2000 local and parliamentary elections has resulted in the blockage of most multilateral and bilateral assistance. Major donors are led by the United States, with the largest bilateral assistance program, and also include Canada, People's Republic of China, France, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Peru, the Philippines, Russia, South Korea, Republic of China (Taiwan) and the United Kingdom. Multilateral aid is coordinated through an informal grouping of major donors under the auspices of the World Bank which, in addition to the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) and the European Union, is also a major source of Haitian development assistance.

Visas are required for citizens of Colombia and Panama due to the actions of nationals of those two countries in using Haiti as a drop-off point for narcotic drugs bound for the United States. Panama's proximity to Colombia and their thriving off-shore banking industry has lured many traffickers to use that nation and Haiti as bases for their activities. Citizens of the Dominican Republic also require visas to visit Haiti, not only due to the hostile, sometimes volatile relations between both nations, but also because since the late 1990s, the Dominican Republic has become another base for illicit drugs bound for the United States, which usually enter illegally via Puerto Rico. Once in Puerto Rico, drugs can easily reach the United States due to the absence of both immigration and customs between that island and the mainland.[1]

Disputes - international: claims US-administered Navassa Island

Illicit drugs: major Caribbean transshipment point for cocaine en route to the US and Europe (see Illegal drug trade in Haiti)

Bilateral relations

Africa

Country Formal relations began on Notes
 Benin See Benin–Haiti relations

Haiti and Benin maintain diplomatic relations with a Haitian office in Cotonou, although Benin does not currently maintain an official diplomatic presence in the country due to the 2010 earthquake. Benin contributed a contingency of 32 police/civilian personnel to MINUSTAH.

The two countries share an extensive cultural history by a way of the Atlantic slave trade and the resulting importing of Haitian Vodou as a religious force in Haitian society. The devastating earthquake was followed, among many reactions, by an outburst of solidarity prayers in Benin with the victims.[2] Traditional ceremonies were organized to appease the spirits and seek the blessing of ancestors for the Haitians.[3]

In December 2018, Haiti closed its embassy in Cotonou.[4]

 Gabon
  • Gabon is accredited to Haiti from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
  • Haiti has an honorary consulate in Libreville.[5]
 Ivory Coast
  • Haiti has an honorary consulate in Abidjan.[5]
  • Ivory Coast has a liaison office in Port-au-Prince.
 Nigeria
  • Haiti is accredited to Nigeria from its embassy in Madrid, Spain.
  • Nigeria is accredited to Haiti from its high commission in Kingston, Jamaica.
 Senegal
  • Haiti has an honorary consulate in Dakar.[5]
  • Senegal is accredited to Haiti from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
 South Africa
  • Haiti has an embassy in Pretoria.
  • South Africa is accredited to Haiti from its high commission in Kingston, Jamaica.

Americas

Country Formal relations began on Notes
 Argentina
  • Haiti has an embassy in Buenos Aires.
  • Argentina has an embassy in Port-au-Prince.
 Bahamas See Bahamas-Haiti relations
  • Haiti has an embassy Nassau.
  • The Bahamas has an embassy in Port-au-Prince.
  • There are over 80,000 Haitians living in the Bahamas.
 Brazil 1928 See Brazil–Haiti relations
  • Haiti has an embassy in Brasília.
  • Brazil has an embassy in Port-au-Prince.
 Canada 1954 See Canada–Haiti relations

During the unsettled period from 1957 to 1990, Canada received many Haitian refugees, who now form a significant minority in Quebec. Canada participated in various international interventions in Haiti between 1994 and 2004, and continues to provide substantial aid to Haiti,[6] the second poorest country in the western hemisphere. [2]

  • Canada has an embassy in Port-au-Prince.[7]
  • Haiti has an embassy in Ottawa and a consulate-general in Montreal.[8]
 Chile See Chile–Haiti relations

Chile sent 650 peacekeeping troops to the island as part of the United Nations peace keeping mission.[9] Praising the work of the Chilean policemen in Haiti, National Police official Javiera Blanco said, "Even though today there is a need for the key presence of this mission, which is in mid term, the exit should be prepared for, considering that the country (Haiti) must take those responsibilities and build their capacities to do what is done by our mission." The police are planned to withdraw from Haiti in 2011.[10]

  • Haiti has an embassy in Santiago.
  • Chile has an embassy in Port-au-Prince.
 Colombia
  • Haiti has an embassy in Bogotá.
  • Colombia is accredited to Haiti from its embassy in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.
 Cuba See Cuba-Haiti relations
  • Haiti has an embassy in Havana.
  • Cuba has an embassy in Port-au-Prince.
 Dominican Republic See Dominican Republic–Haiti relations

Relations between Haiti and the Dominican Republic vacillated between barely tolerable and potentially combustible throughout the history of both countries' existences, reaching their lowest points in the Haitian invasion of the Dominican Republic, the aftermath of the Parsley Massacre, related Haitian-targeted ethnic cleansing campaigns by the Rafael Trujillo dictatorship and the 2010 earthquake in Port-au-Prince. The periodic influxes of Haitian economic (and, in times past, political) migrants across the border have also strained relations between the two countries at various recent times.

  • Haiti has an embassy in Santo Domingo and several consulates-general throughout the country.
  • Dominican Republic has an embassy in Port-au-Prince and several consulates-general throughout the country.
 Ecuador
  • Haiti has an embassy in Quito.
  • Ecuador is accredited to Haiti from its embassy in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.
 El Salvador
  • El Salvador is accredited to Haiti from its embassy in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.
 Guyana 1970
 Jamaica See Haiti–Jamaica relations
  • Haiti has an embassy in Kingston, but later closed in 2012.[12]
  • Jamaica has an honorary consulate in Port-au-Prince.
 Mexico 1882 See Haiti–Mexico relations

Diplomatic relations between Haiti and Mexico were established in 1882.

 Panama
  • Haiti has an embassy in Panama City.
  • Panama has an embassy in Port-au-Prince.
 Suriname
 United States 1862 See Haiti–United States relations
 Uruguay
  • Haiti is accredited to Uruguay from its embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  • Uruguay is accredited to Haiti from its embassy in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.
 Venezuela See Haiti–Venezuela relations
  • Haiti has an embassy in Caracas.
  • Venezuela has an embassy in Port-au-Prince.

Asia

Country Formal relations began on Notes
 Armenia 21 January 1999

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 January 1999.

 Bangladesh See Bangladesh–Haiti relations

The relations between the two countries have been largely influenced by the role of Bangladeshi peace keepers in Haiti.

 China
  • Haiti has a trade office in Beijing.
  • China has a trade office in Port-au-Prince.
 India See Haiti–India relations
 Israel See Haiti–Israel relations

Haiti recognized Israel's independence on 17 March 1949.

  • Israel is accredited to Haiti from its embassy in Panama City.
 Japan 1931
  • Haiti has an embassy in Tokyo.
  • Japan has an embassy in Port-au-Prince.
 Qatar
  • Haiti has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar is accredited to Haiti from its embassy in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.
 South Korea 22 September 1962

The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Republic of Korea and Haiti began on 22 September 1962.[20]

  • Haiti is accredited to South Korea from its embassy in Tokyo, Japan.
  • South Korea is accredited to Haiti from its embassy in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.
 Taiwan 1956 See Haiti-Taiwan relations
  • Haiti maintains an embassy in Taipei.
  • Taiwan maintains an embassy in Port-au-Prince.
  • Haitian President Jovenel Moise met with Taiwanese President Tsai Ing-Wen in Taipei since 2018.
  • Taiwan has offered US$150 million to Haiti for building up its rural power grid following its destruction in the 2010 earthquake.
 Turkey March 23, 1943[21] See Haiti–Turkey relations
  • Turkish Embassy in Santo Domingo is accredited to Haiti.[22]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 129.7 million USD in 2019 (Haitian exports/imports: 0.8/128.9 million USD).[22]
  • After the earthquake, Turkey provided financial aid and equipment worth US$124 million.[23]
  • Since 2004, Turkey has provided personnel to MINUSTAH.[24]
 Vietnam 1997
  • Haiti has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam is accredited to Haiti from its embassy in Havana, Cuba.

Europe

Country Formal relations began on Notes
 Belgium
  • Belgium is accredited to Haiti from its embassy in Havana, Cuba.
  • Haiti has an embassy in Brussels.
 France 12 February 1838 See France–Haiti relations
 Germany
  • Haiti has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Port-au-Prince.
  Holy See
  • Haiti has an embassy in Rome to the Holy See.
  • Holy See has an Apostolic Nunciature in Port-au-Prince.
 Italy
  • Haiti has an embassy in Rome.
  • Italy is accredited to Haiti from its embassy in Panama City.
 Netherlands
  • Haiti has consulates-general in Oranjestad in Aruba and Willemstad in Curaçao.
  • Netherlands is accredited to Haiti from its embassy in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.
 Poland
  • Haiti is accredited to Poland from its embassy in Berlin, Germany.
  • Poland is accredited to Haiti from its embassy in Panama City.
 Russia
  • Haiti is accredited to Russia from its embassy in Berlin, Germany.
  • Russia is accredited to Haiti from its embassy in Caracas, Venezuela.
 Spain 1 April 1939 See Haiti–Spain relations
  • Haiti has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Port-au-Prince.[27]
 United Kingdom 1859

Oceania

Country Formal relations began on Notes
 Australia
  • Australia is accredited to Haiti from its high commission in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.
  • Haiti is accredited to Australia from its embassy in Tokyo, Japan and maintains honorary consulates in Melbourne and Sydney.
 New Zealand
  • Haiti is accredited to New Zealand from its embassy in Tokyo, Japan.
  • New Zealand is accredited to Haiti from its high commission in Bridgetown, Barbados.

See also

References

  1. ^ Embassy of the Republic of Haiti in Washington: Visas
  2. ^ "Africa helps Haiti earthquake victims | Radio Netherlands Worldwide". Rnw.nl. Archived from the original on 2010-01-25. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  3. ^ Anonymous (2011-10-21). "Benin: Voodoo rituals to calm the spirits in Haiti | Radio Netherlands Worldwide". Rnw.nl. Archived from the original on 2014-03-03. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  4. ^ Fermeture de l’ambassade d’Haïti au Bénin (in French)
  5. ^ a b c LISTE DES CONSULS HONORAIRES DE LA REPUBLIQUE D’HAITI
  6. ^ "Canada-Haiti Relations". Foreign Affairs & International Trade Canada. Archived from the original on 2007-07-31. Retrieved 2009-04-22.
  7. ^ Embassy of Canada in Port-au-Prince (in English and French)
  8. ^ Embassy of Haiti in Ottawa (in Creole, English and French)
  9. ^ "Chile's Bachelet heads to Haiti, Jamaica and Dominican Republic". AFP in Caribbean Net News. June 8, 2006. Archived from the original on December 1, 2009. President Michelle Bachelet leaves Wednesday for a tour of Haiti, Jamaica and the Dominican Republic and a visit to the United States, where she will meet with President George W. Bush, Chile's foreign ministry said.
  10. ^ "Chilean police mission in Haiti to withdraw in 2011". People's Daily. February 5, 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-23. Chilean policemen participating in the United Nations peace mission in Haiti could return to their home country in 2011, local press quoted National Police official Javiera Blanco as saying Wednesday. Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coauthors= (help)
  11. ^ [1]
  12. ^ Haiti closes embassy in Kingston, Jamaica
  13. ^ Embassy of Haiti in Mexico City (in Spanish)
  14. ^ Embassy of Haiti in Washington, D.C.
  15. ^ "Embassy of the United States in Port-au-Prince (in Creole, English and French)". Archived from the original on 2006-04-24. Retrieved 2019-12-18.
  16. ^ Haiti Honorary Consulate in India
  17. ^ Haiti Honorary Consulate in Mumbai
  18. ^ Haitian Honorary Consulate in India
  19. ^ Indian Honorary Consulate in Haiti
  20. ^ http://www.mofa.go.kr/ENG/countries/latinamerica/countries/20070803/1_24562.jsp?menu=m_30_30
  21. ^ "Relations between Turkey and Haiti". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Turkey.
  22. ^ a b "Relations between Turkey and Haiti".
  23. ^ "Haiti boosts health and education in the past decade, says new UNDP report". United Nations Development Programme. Archived from the original on 31 May 2015. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
  24. ^ "MINUSTAH Facts and Figures - United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti". 16 June 2016.
  25. ^ Embassy of France in Port-au-Prince (in French)
  26. ^ Embassy of Haiti in Paris (in French)
  27. ^ Embassy of Spain in Haiti

External links

This page was last edited on 28 October 2020, at 18:35
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