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Foreign relations of Moldova

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

After achieving independence from the Soviet Union, the Republic of Moldova established relations with other European countries. A course for European Union integration and neutrality define the country's foreign policy guidelines.

In 1995, the country became the first post-Soviet state admitted to the Council of Europe. In addition to its participation in NATO's Partnership for Peace program, Moldova is a member state of the United Nations, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the North Atlantic Cooperation Council, the World Trade Organization, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the Francophonie and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

In 2005, Moldova and EU established an action plan that sought to improve the collaboration between the two neighboring structures. After the Transnistria War, Moldova sought a peaceful resolution to the Transnistria conflict by working with Romania, Ukraine, and Russia, calling for international mediation, and cooperating with the OSCE and UN fact-finding and observer missions.[1]

Overview

Diplomatic relations of Moldova
Diplomatic relations of Moldova

Moldova has established diplomatic relations with 151 states, the Holy See, the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, the State of Palestine and the European Union.

# Country Date[2]
1  Romania 29 August 1991
2  Hungary 16 January 1992
3  United Kingdom 17 January 1992
4  Denmark 20 January 1992
5  China 30 January 1992
6  Mongolia 30 January 1992[3]
7  North Korea 30 January 1992
8  South Korea 31 January 1992
9  Spain 31 January 1992
10  Turkey 3 February 1992
11  Mexico 4 February 1992
12  Bulgaria 5 February 1992
13  Egypt 13 February 1992
14  Guinea 16 February 1992
15  Pakistan 16 February 1992
16  United States 18 February 1992[4]
17  Canada 20 February 1992
18  Cyprus 21 February 1992[5]
19  Italy 21 February 1992
20  Finland 26 February 1992
21  Ukraine 10 March 1992
22  Belgium 11 March 1992
23  France 11 March 1992
24  Japan 16 March 1992
25  Cuba 17 March 1992
26  Austria 25 March 1992
27  Greece 27 March 1992
28  Philippines 30 March 1992
29  Australia 1 April 1992
30  Russia 6 April 1992
31  Germany 30 April 1992
32  Iran 11 May 1992
33  Azerbaijan 18 May 1992
-   Holy See 23 May 1992[6]
34  Czech Republic 1 June 1992
35  Norway 3 June 1992
36  Vietnam 11 June 1992
37  Burundi 12 June 1992
38  Sweden 12 June 1992
39  South Africa 15 June 1992
40  Luxembourg 16 June 1992
41  Israel 22 June 1992
42  Georgia 25 June 1992
43  Oman 25 June 1992
44  Lithuania 8 July 1992
45  Poland 14 July 1992
46  Armenia 18 July 1992
47  Croatia 28 July 1992
48  Thailand 5 August 1992
49  Ghana 28 August 1992
50  Latvia 1 September 1992
51   Switzerland 2 September 1992
52  New Zealand 11 September 1992
53  Kazakhstan 16 September 1992
54  Morocco 8 October 1992[5]
55  Turkmenistan 5 October 1992[7]
56  Kyrgyzstan 30 October 1992
57  Estonia 10 November 1992
58  Belarus 19 November 1992[8]
59  Sri Lanka 27 November 1992
60  Zimbabwe 9 December 1992
61  Burkina Faso 11 December 1992
62  Albania 23 December 1992
63  Kuwait 11 January 1993
64  Singapore 15 January 1993
65  Tajikistan 20 January 1993
66  Portugal 10 February 1993
67  Indonesia 12 February 1993
68  Panama 15 February 1993[9]
69  Slovakia 16 February 1993
70  Argentina 8 March 1993[5]
71  Malaysia 10 March 1993
72  Guatemala 6 April 1993[5]
73  Chile 12 May 1993
74  Sudan 17 May 1993
75  Syria 20 May 1993
76  Madagascar 28 May 1993
77  Netherlands 10 July 1993
78    Nepal 20 July 1993
79  Brazil 11 August 1993
80  Bangladesh 14 September 1993
81  India 20 September 1993
82  Slovenia 27 September 1993
83  Zambia 26 October 1993
84  Nicaragua 8 November 1993[5]
85  Bosnia and Herzegovina 18 November 1993
86  Algeria 12 April 1994
-  State of Palestine 7 June 1994[10]
87  Lebanon 8 June 1994
88  Uzbekistan 23 August 1994
89  Angola 30 September 1994
90  Afghanistan 1 December 1994
91  Libya 9 December 1994
92  North Macedonia 27 January 1995
93  Yemen 27 January 1995
94  Cambodia 10 March 1995
95  Serbia 15 March 1995
96  Iceland 17 May 1995
97  Peru 11 August 1995
98  United Arab Emirates 21 December 1995
99  Mozambique 17 January 1996[5]
100  Venezuela 25 April 1996[5]
101  Uruguay 14 May 1996[5]
102  Malta 3 July 1996[11]
103  Bolivia 8 July 1996[5]
104  Jamaica 9 July 1996[5]
105  Saudi Arabia 17 July 1996
106  Andorra 9 October 1996
107  Laos 25 May 1997[12]
108  Qatar 13 June 1997
109  Jordan 19 June 1997
110  Colombia 15 October 1997[5]
111  Ireland 13 July 1999
112  Costa Rica 4 May 2000[5]
-  Sovereign Military Order of Malta 27 June 2000[10]
113  Mauritius 25 June 2001[5]
114  Liechtenstein 14 August 2001
115  Bahrain 7 April 2004[5]
116  Cabo Verde 2 September 2004[5]
117  Mali 27 September 2004[5]
118  Tunisia 27 September 2004[5]
119  San Marino 28 September 2004[5]
120  Brunei 18 October 2006[5]
121  Montenegro 9 March 2007[5]
122  Fiji 7 December 2010[5]
123  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 29 April 2011[5]
124  Paraguay 5 May 2011
125  Monaco 8 September 2011
126  Ecuador 8 November 2011[5]
127  Antigua and Barbuda 18 November 2011[5]
128  Solomon Islands 4 May 2012[5]
129  Maldives 14 May 2012[5]
130  Tuvalu 17 May 2012[5]
131  Mauritania 23 May 2012[5]
132  Dominica 29 May 2012
133  Haiti 7 June 2012[5]
134  Gambia 12 June 2012[5]
135  Samoa 14 June 2012[5]
136  Eswatini 21 March 2013[5]
137  Suriname 5 April 2013[5]
138  Ethiopia 24 June 2013
139  Guyana 12 September 2013[5]
140  El Salvador 24 September 2013
141  Saint Kitts and Nevis 8 September 2017[5]
142  Benin 24 January 2018[5]
143  Cameroon 27 March 2019[5]
144  Grenada 26 June 2019
145  Bahamas 15 November 2019[5]
146  Barbados 10 February 2020[5]
147  Djibouti 9 October 2020[5]
148  Uganda 23 October 2020[5]
149  Saint Lucia 3 March 2021[5]
150  Dominican Republic 30 March 2021[5]
151  Senegal 28 April 2021[5]

Moldova has not yet established diplomatic relations with the following UN countries:

  • Belize, Honduras, Trinidad and Tobago
  • Botswana, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Republic of the Congo, São Tomé and Príncipe, Seychelles, Somalia, South Sudan, Tanzania, Togo
  • Bhutan, Iraq, Myanmar
  • Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Timor-Leste, Palau, Tonga, Vanuatu

Relations with the European Union

Moldova aspires to join the European Union[13] and is implementing its first three-year Action Plan within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) of the EU.[14]

As regards energy policy, Moldova was an observer to the treaty establishing Energy Community from the outset (2006). Following its interest in full membership, the European Commission was mandated to carry out negotiations with Moldova in 2007. In December 2009, the Energy Community Ministerial Council decided on the accession, but made it conditional to amendment of Moldova's gas law.[15] Moldova joined the Energy Community as a full-fledged member in March 2010.[16]

Relations with NATO

Wörner and Snegur signing PfP on 16 March 1994
Wörner and Snegur signing PfP on 16 March 1994

NATO relations with Moldova date back to 1992, when the country joined the North Atlantic Cooperation Council. Moldova works alongside NATO allies and partner countries in a wide range of areas through the Partnership for Peace and the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council.

Relations with post-Soviet states

The Moldovan Parliament approved the country's membership in the Commonwealth of Independent States and the CIS charter on economic union in April 1994. Moldova however has never participated in any military aspects of CIS, citing its neutrality status.

In 1998, Moldova contributed to the founding of GUAM, a regional cooperation agreement made up of Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan and Moldova. Although the agreement initially included a declaration of mutual defense, Moldova has since declared its disinterest in participating in any GUAM-based mutual defense initiative.

Russia continues to maintain a military presence in the Transnistrian region of Moldova, despite previous agreements with Moldova and within OSCE and CAF to withdraw its troops and ammunition.

Moldova was granted Observer Status in the Russian-led Eurasian Union in April 2017.[17]

Relations with Transnistria

The territory of Moldova includes the separatist Transnistria region. Transnistria had a particularly large non-Moldovan population (about 60%) and broke away from Moldova less than a year after Moldova became independent at the fall of the Soviet Union. The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic controls main part of this region, and also the city of Bender and its surrounding localities on the west bank. The international diplomatic situation with respect to the question of Transnistria determines and is determined by Moldova's relations with Russia. Russia, Ukraine, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, EU, and United States are involved at different degrees in the conflict resolution.

Bilateral relations

Multilateral

Organization Formal Relations Began Notes
 European Union See Moldova–European Union relations
 NATO See Moldova–NATO relations

Africa

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Djibouti 9 October 2020
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 9 October 2020.
 Egypt
  • Egypt is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania.
  • Moldova is accredited to Egypt from its embassy in Ankara, Turkey.
 Morocco
  • Morocco is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania.
  • Moldova is accredited to Morocco from its embassy in Lisbon, Portugal.
 South Africa 1997
  • Moldova does not have an accreditation to South Africa.
  • South Africa is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Kyiv, Ukraine.

Americas

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Argentina 8 March 1993
  • Argentina is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania.
  • Moldova does not have an accreditation to Argentina.
 Canada 1992
  • Canada is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania.
  • Moldova has an embassy in Ottawa.
 Chile 12 May 1993
  • Chile is accredited to Moldova from it embassy in Bucharest, Romania.
  • Moldova does not have an accreditation to Chile.[18]
 Guatemala 6 April 1993
  • Guatemala is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.[19]
  • Moldova does not have an accreditation to Guatemala.
 Mexico 14 January 1992
  • Mexico is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Athens, Greece and maintains an honorary consulate in Chișinău.[20]
  • Moldova is accredited to Mexico from its embassy in Washington D.C., United States.[21]
 United States 25 December 1991 See Moldova–United States relations

The United States recognized the independence of Moldova on 25 December 1991, and opened an embassy in its capital, Chișinău, in March 1992. A trade agreement providing reciprocal most-favored-nation tariff treatment became effective in July 1992. An Overseas Private Investment Corporation agreement, which encourages U.S. private investment by providing direct loans and loan guarantees, was signed in June 1992. A bilateral investment treaty was signed in April 1993. A generalized system of preferences status was granted in August 1995, and some Eximbank coverage became available in November 1995.

U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry made a visit to Moldova in December 2013 to support the former Soviet republic's pro-Western moves in the face of Russian pressure.

The United States remains committed to the 5+2 format as a means to resolving the Transnistria conflict. The United States supports a comprehensive settlement that affirms Moldova's sovereignty and territorial integrity, while providing a special status for Transnistria.

  • Moldova has an embassy in Washington, D.C..
  • United States has an embassy in Chișinău.

See also: Embassy of the United States to Moldova and Moldovan Embassy, Washington, D.C.

Asia

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Armenia May 18, 1992
  • Armenia has an embassy in Chișinău.
  • Moldova is accredited to Armenia from its embassy in Kyiv, Ukraine.
  • There are around 7,500 people of Armenian descent living in Moldova.
 Azerbaijan May 18, 1992
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Chișinău.
  • Moldova has an embassy in Baku.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe.
 China December 27, 1991 See China–Moldova relations
  • China has an embassy in Chișinău.
  • Moldova has an embassy in Beijing.
 India March 1993 See India–Moldova relations
  • India is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania
  • Moldova is accredited to India through its embassy in Baku, Azerbaijan.[22]
 Israel 1992 See Israel–Moldova relations
  • Israel is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Kyiv, Ukraine.
  • Moldova has an embassy in Tel Aviv.
 Japan 16 March 1992
  • Japan has an embassy in Chișinău.
  • Moldova has an embassy in Tokyo.
 Kazakhstan 16 september 1992
  • Moldova is accredited to Kazakhstan from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
  • Kazakhstan has a consulate-general in Chișinău.
 Kyrgyzstan 4 June 1992
  • Kyrgyzstan is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Kyiv, Ukraine.
  • Moldova is accredited to Kyrgyzstan from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
 North Korea 30 January 1992
  • Moldova does not have an accreditation to North Korea.
  • North Korea is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
 Qatar
  • Moldova has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Chișinău
 South Korea 31 January 1992 See Moldova-South Korea relations
  • South Korea is accredited to Moldova through its embassy in Kyiv, Ukraine.
  • Moldova is accredited to South Korea through its embassy in Tokyo, Japan.
 Turkey See Moldova–Turkey relations and Gagauzia–Turkey relations
  • Moldova has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate-general in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Chișinău.
  • Both countries are full members of BSEC.
  • Speaking in Comrat in August 2018 when referencing the country's allies, President Igor Dodon said "we have friends who are close to Gagauzia, and I believe to Moldova, as well, they are Russia and Turkey."[23]
 Turkmenistan October 5, 1992
  • Moldova is accredited to Turkmenistan from its embassy in Kyiv, Ukraine.
  • Turkmenistan is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Kyiv, Ukraine.
 United Arab Emirates
  • Moldova has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • UAE is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Kyiv, Ukraine.
 Uzbekistan August 23, 1994
  • Moldova is accredited to the Uzbekistan from its embassy in Kyiv, Ukraine.
  • Uzbekistan is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Kyiv, Ukraine.
 Vietnam 11 June 1992
  • Moldova is accredited to Vietnam from its embassy in Beijing, China.
  • Vietnam is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Kyiv, Ukraine.

Europe

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Albania See Albania–Moldova relations
 Austria 25 March 1992 See Austria–Moldova relations
 Belarus See Belarus–Moldova relations
  • Diplomatic relations between Belarus and Moldova were established on 19 November 1992. That same year, an agreement on friendly relations and cooperation between the two countries was signed.
  • Belarus has an embassy in Chișinău (opened in May 1995).
  • Moldova has an embassy in Minsk (opened in October 1993).
  • The first official Moldovan visit to Minsk was by Petru Lucinschi in June 2000.[24] Nicolae Timofti later visited in October 2013,[25] July 2015[26] and October 2016,[27] and was followed in July 2017 by Igor Dodon.[28]
  • List of Ambassadors of Moldova in Belarus: Nicolae Dudău (1998-2001),[29] Gheorghe Hioară (2010-2017),[30][31] Victor Sorocean (2017–Present)[32]
 Belgium
  • Belgium is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania.
  • Moldova has an embassy in Brussels.
 Bulgaria 5 February 1992
 Croatia
  • Croatia is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania.
  • Moldova is accredited to Croatia from its embassy in Budapest, Hungary.
 Cyprus See Cyprus–Moldova relations
 Czech Republic
  • Czech Republic has an embassy in Chișinău
  • Moldova has an embassy in Prague.
 Denmark See Denmark–Moldova relations
  • Denmark is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania.
  • Moldova is accredited to Denmark from its embassy in Berlin, Germany.
 Finland See Finland–Moldova relations
 France
  • France has an embassy in Chișinău
  • Moldova has an embassy in Paris.
 Georgia 25 June 1992 See Georgia–Moldova relations
 Germany See Germany–Moldova relations
 Greece 27 March 1992 See Greece–Moldova relations
  • Diplomatic relations between Greece and Moldova were established 27 March 1992 after the collapse of the Soviet Union
  • Greece is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Kyiv, Ukraine.
  • Moldova has an embassy in Athens.
  • See also Moldovan Embassy, Athens
 Hungary
 Iceland 1995

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 17 May 1995.[35]

 Ireland 1992
 Italy See Italy–Moldova relations
 Latvia 1 September 1992
 Lithuania 8 July 1992
 Malta
  • Malta is accredited to Moldova from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Valletta.
  • Moldova is accredited to Malta from its embassy in Rome, Italy.
 Netherlands 6 September 2013 See Moldova–Netherlands relations
  • Moldova has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy office in Chișinău.
 North Macedonia See Moldova–North Macedonia relations
 Poland See Moldova–Poland relations
 Portugal See Moldova–Portugal relations
 Romania See Moldova–Romania relations

Moldova's relations with its western neighbour, Romania, have been stressed since 1994. today's Moldova (without Transnistria) and parts of the old Bassarabia Governorate currently in Ukraine, were part of Romania during the interwar period (1918–40). Linguists generally agree that the Moldovan language is in fact identical with Romanian.[citation needed] However, Moldovans have been ambivalent about whether they consider themselves Romanians or Moldovans. Early signs that Romania and Moldova might unite after both countries achieved emancipation from communist rule quickly faded. Romania remains interested in Moldovan affairs, especially that country's civil conflict with the breakaway republic of Transnistria. However, the two countries have been unable to reach agreement on a basic bilateral treaty; Romania is insistent (against determined Moldovan resistance) that such a treaty would have to refer to Romania and Moldova's 'special relationship'. Beginning in 1994, the two countries enjoyed a visa-free arrangement that ended on 1 January 2007, with Romania's entry into the European Union. This prompted many Moldovan citizens to apply for Romanian citizenship.[36]

  • Moldova has an embassy in Bucharest and a consulate-general in Iași. .
  • Romania has an embassy in Chișinău and consulates-general in Bălți and Cahul.
 Russia See Moldova–Russia relations

Relations between Moldova and Russia deteriorated in November 2003 over a Russian proposal for the solution of the Transnistria conflict, which Moldovan authorities refused to accept. In the following election, held in 2005, the Communist party made a formal 180-degree turn and was re-elected on a pro-Western platform,[citation needed] with Voronin being re-elected to a second term as president.

  • Moldova has an embassy in Moscow.
  • Russia has an embassy in Chișinău.
 Serbia 1995
  • Moldova is accredited to Serbia from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania.
  • Serbia is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania.
  • Moldova strongly supports Serbia's stance on Kosovo.[37][38]
 Slovenia 27 October 1993 See Moldova–Slovenia relations
  • Moldova is accredited to Slovenia from its embassy in Budapest, Hungary.
  • Slovenia is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Kyiv, Ukraine
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe and the Francophonie.
 Spain See Moldova–Spain relations
  • Moldova has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania.
 Sweden See Moldova–Sweden relations
  • Moldova has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Chișinău
  Switzerland 1992 See Moldova–Switzerland relations
  • Moldova has an embassy in Geneva.
  • Switzerland is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Kyiv, Ukraine.
 Ukraine See Moldova–Ukraine relations
  • Moldova has an embassy in Kyiv and a consulate-general in Odessa.
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Chișinău and a consulate in Bălți.
 United Kingdom

Oceania

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Australia
  • Australia is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Moscow, Russia
  • Moldova does not have an accreditation to Australia.
 New Zealand
  • Moldova does not have an accreditation to New Zealand.
  • New Zealand is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.

See also

Gallery

References

  1. ^ Ejova, Cristina, and Anastasia Eșanu. "Public diplomacy of the European Union and its reflection in the Republic of Moldova." Moldoscopie 92.1 (2021): 43-53.
  2. ^ "Bilateral relations". MFA Moldova. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  3. ^ "States with Diplomatic Relations". Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  4. ^ "History of the U.S. and Moldova". US Embassy in Moldova. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar "Diplomatic relations between Republic of Moldova and ..." United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  6. ^ "Diplomatic Relations Of The Holy See". Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  7. ^ "STATES WITH WHICH TURKMENISTAN ESTABLISHED DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS". Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  8. ^ "Belarus and Moldova". Retrieved 29 July 2021.
  9. ^ "RELACIONES DIPLOMÁTICAS DE LA REPÚBLICA DE PANAMÁ" (PDF). p. 195. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  10. ^ a b "Lista tratelor bilaterale încheiate de catre Republica Moldova" (PDF) (in Romanian). pp. 138–139. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  11. ^ "Relaţii politico-diplomatice" (in Romanian). Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  12. ^ "Diplomatic Relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Laos. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  13. ^ Moldova will prove that it can and has chances to become EU member, Moldpress News Agency, 19 June 2007
  14. ^ Moldova-EU Action Plan Approved by European Commission Archived 4 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine, 14 December 2004. Retrieved 2 July 2007
  15. ^ Energy Community Ministerial Council Conclusions, Dec 2009[permanent dead link].
  16. ^ "Accession Protocol of Republic of Moldova to the Energy Community" (PDF). Retrieved 20 February 2015.[permanent dead link]
  17. ^ "Moldova granted observer status in Eurasian Union". 19 April 2017.
  18. ^ Informativo de Visas Diplomáticas y Oficiales
  19. ^ "Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores de Guatemala".
  20. ^ Bilateral relations between Mexico and Moldova (in Spanish)
  21. ^ "Embassy of Moldova in the United States". Archived from the original on 13 April 2015. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
  22. ^ "| Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration of the Republic of Moldova".
  23. ^ Dodon Denounces Romania Reunification Idea In Rare Visit To Gagauzia rferl.org 20 August 2017
  24. ^ "Alexander Lukashenka visited Chisinau in August 1995 and received his Moldovan counterpart Petru Lucinschi in Minsk in June 2000". 17 July 2017. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  25. ^ http://www.president.md/eng/comunicate-de-presa/presedintele-nicolae-timofti-a-participat-la-summit-ul-sefilor-de-stat-ai-comunitatii-statelor-independente-care-s-a-desfasurat-in-capitala-republicii-belarus-minsk
  26. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 May 2018. Retrieved 30 August 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  27. ^ "President Timofti decorates Belarus leader Lukashenko with Moldova's Supreme State Award | PUBLIKA .MD - AICI SUNT ȘTIRILE". 6 October 2016.
  28. ^ "Пресс-релизы — Пресса". a-tv.md. Retrieved 24 June 2017.
  29. ^ "CV_Dudau". www.coe.int. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  30. ^ Cine ne sunt ambasadorii? (FOTO)
  31. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 April 2018. Retrieved 6 September 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  32. ^ "Moldova to appoint new ambassador to Belarus". 7 April 2017.
  33. ^ Bulgarian embassy in Chişinău
  34. ^ "Error 404". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  35. ^ [1]
  36. ^ Cetatenia romana, portita spre Europa Archived 15 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine 27 December 2006
  37. ^ Moldova will not recognise Kosovo's independence, Associated Press, 18 February 2008 Archived 20 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  38. ^ "Moldova "will not recognize Kosovo," says minister". B92. 5 December 2013. Retrieved 5 December 2013.

External links

Further reading

  • Baltag, Dorina. "EU external representation post-Lisbon: the performance of EU diplomacy in Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine." The Hague Journal of Diplomacy 13.1 (2018): 75-96. online
  • Baltag, Dorina. "Practice and performance: EU diplomacy in Moldova, Ukraine and Belarus after the inauguration of the European External Action Service, 2010–2015" (Diss. Loughborough University, 2018.) online
  • Cozma, Artur. "The Diplomacy of the Republic of Moldova during 1944-2001." (2007). online
  • Del Medico, Nicola. "A Black Knight in the Eastern Neighbourhood? Russia and EU Democracy Promotion in Armenia and Moldova." (EU Diplomacy Paper No. 7) (2014). online
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