To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Languages
Recent
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Health in Mongolia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Since 1990, key health indicators in Mongolia like life expectancy and infant and child mortality have steadily improved, both due to social changes and to improvement in the health sector. Echinococcosis was one of the commonest surgical diagnoses in the 1960s, but now has been greatly reduced.[1] Yet, adult health deteriorated during the 1990s and the first decade of the 21st century and mortality rates increased significantly.[2] Smallpox, typhus, plague, poliomyelitis, and diphtheria were eradicated by 1981. The Mongolian Red Cross Society focusses on preventive work. The Confederation of Mongolian Trade Unions established a network of sanatoriums.[3]

Serious problems remain, especially in the countryside.[4] According to a 2011 study by the World Health Organization, Mongolia's capital city of Ulaanbaatar has the second-most fine particle pollution of any city in the world.[5] Poor air quality is also the largest occupational hazard, as over two-thirds of occupational disease in Mongolia is dust induced chronic bronchitis or pneumoconiosis.[6]

Average childbirth (fertility rate) is around 2.25[7]–1.87[8] per woman (2007) and average life expectancy is 68.5 years (2011).[9] Infant mortality is at 1.9%[10] to 4%[11] and child mortality is at 4.3%.[12]

Mongolia has the highest rate of liver cancer in the world by a significant margin.[13]

Healthcare

History

Healthcare in Mongolia was developed from 1922 under the Soviet Semashko model with a large hospital and clinical network. This needed a large supply of clinically trained staff, which was not forthcoming. The isolation of the country meant that developments in medicine were slow to reach it. As recently as 2000 there were only 106 anaesthetists in the country. [14]

Legal framework

The Ministry of Health is responsible for the provision of Public healthcare under the Citizen’s Health Insurance Law. Citizens are legally required to register and have annual check-ups. Finance is through the Health Insurance Fund established in 1994. Patients are required to make copayments of 10% for secondary care and 15% for tertiary care. in 2009 out-of-pocket payments made up 49% of total health expenditure.

Traditional medicine

Until the end of the 19th century, medical services were provided by Buddhist monks who practised traditional medicine and knew Chinese, Tibetan, and Indian remedies.[15]

Mongolian traditional medicine was repressed after 1922 but is now recognized. The Institute of Traditional Medicine was established in 1961, and the Institute of Natural Compounds in 1973. The National Specialized Hospital caters for traditional medicine patients and has 100 beds. It sees 40-50 outpatients daily. In 2006 about 5% of all hospital in-patients were treated by traditional medicine. In 2012 there were 82 private traditional medicine clinics, 63 of them in Ulaanbaatar. Since 1990 the Mongolian National University of Medical Sciences has had a Traditional Medicine Faculty. In 2007 there were 1,538 doctors trained in traditional medicine.[16]

Antibiotics

Mongolia had the highest consumption of antibiotics of any country in the world in 2015 with a rate of 64.4 defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day.[17]

Facilities

A hierarchy of clinics and hospitals was established in the 1980s. A somon medical station, with a doctor, then an inter-somon hospital, covering a wider area and above that an aymag general hospital covering an area of about a 200-kilometre radius. An Aymag hospital would have more than 100 beds. A somon hospital has 10 to 20 beds and 1 or 2 general practitioners. There were 4,600 physicians in the country in 1985, 24.8 per 10,000 people. About half of them were in Ulaanbaatar where there was an oncology centre and a 600-bed isolation hospital for infectious diseases. There were about 8,500 nurses and 3,800 physician's assistants. In 1986 there were 112 hospitals. [18] The Health Insurance Fund will not pay for people who go directly to hospitals without a referral.

The health sector comprises 17 specialized hospitals and centers, 4 regional diagnostic and treatment centers, 9 district and 21 aimag general hospitals, 323 soum hospitals, 18 feldsher posts, 233 family group practices, 536 private hospitals, and 57 drug supply companies/pharmacies. In 2002, the total number of health workers was 33,273, of whom 6823 were doctors, 788 pharmacists, 7802 nurses, and 14,091 mid-level personnel. At present, there are 27.7 physicians and 75.7 hospital beds per 10,000 inhabitants.

Military medicine

The Mongolian armed forces run a Hospital Unit in Darfur with 68 personnel, 34 men and 34 women, which provides health care, emergency resuscitation and stabilization, surgical interventions, and basic dental care for UN personnel. It administers vaccinations and other preventive measures. It has also treated more than 10,000 people from the local communities.[19]

Hospitals

There has been a reduction in the number of public hospitals since 1998. The number of private hospitals (mostly very small) and clinics has increased from 683 in 2005 to 1184 in 2011.

Hospitals in Ulaanbaatar[20]

  • Intermed Hospital a private hospital established in 2014
  • Achtan Hospital
  • Grand Med Hospital
  • Second Hospital
  • Songdo Hospital, private, associated with the Bumrungrad International Hospital
  • State Central Clinic Hospital, established in 1925. Formerly known as Hospital-1. Rebuilt 1971 with assistance of the Czech Republic. A tertiary centre with 13 departments, 180 doctors and 544 beds.[21]
  • Traumatology Hospital
  • Yonsei Friendship Hospital
  • Third State Central Hospital of Mongolia, the only hospital with a stroke center.[22]

Pharmacies

132 items are included on the Essential Drugs List. If they are prescribed in the public health system pharmacies are reimbursed for 50-80% of the price, which is controlled. Medication is not always available in rural areas. There are 5 traditional medicine manufacturing units and they produce more than 200 types of traditional medicine. The total value in 2009 was US$1.4 million. 30 traditional products have been registered and some are included on the Essential Drugs List. [23]

References

  1. ^ "Surgery in Mongolia". JAMA. 1 December 2006. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  2. ^ Mungunsarnai, G. and Spoorenberg, T. 2012. "Did the social and economic transition cause a health crisis in Mongolia? Evidence from age- and sex-specific mortality trends (1965–2009)", in J. Dierkes (ed.) Change in Democratic Mongolia: Social Relations, Health, Mobile Pastoralism and Mining, Leiden, Brill.
  3. ^ "Health care system in Mongolia". AP Companies. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  4. ^ "Goal 4 – Reduce Child Mortality". National Statistical Office of Mongolia. July 11, 2004. Archived from the original on October 21, 2009. Retrieved 2013-06-28.
  5. ^ Walsh, Bryan (September 27, 2011). "The 10 Most Air-Polluted Cities in the World". Time. Archived from the original on January 20, 2013. Retrieved March 15, 2013.
  6. ^ James D Byrne; John A Baugh (2008). "The significance of nano particles in particle-induced pulmonary fibrosis". McGill Journal of Medicine. 11 (1): 43–50. PMC 2322933. PMID 18523535.
  7. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau International Data Base". Archived from the original on 2007-12-11. Retrieved 2013-06-28.
  8. ^ "WPP2006_Highlights_0823.doc" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on July 21, 2013. Retrieved June 28, 2013.
  9. ^ "Human Development Report 2011" (PDF). United Nations. 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 11, 2012. Retrieved January 27, 2012.
  10. ^ "National Ministry of Health Yearbook 2006" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 25, 2007. Retrieved 2013-06-30.
  11. ^ "At a glance: Mongolia". UNICEF. Archived from the original on September 4, 2009. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
  12. ^ "UBPost: Child Mortality Rate Has Decreased, UNICEF Says". Ubpost.mongolnews.mn. Archived from the original on April 5, 2008. Retrieved 2010-05-02.
  13. ^ "Liver Cancer Statistics". wcrf.org. Archived from the original on September 8, 2015. Retrieved September 10, 2015.
  14. ^ "MAKING SURGERY SAFE IN MONGOLIA". Pursuit. 30 May 2018. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  15. ^ "Surgery in Mongolia". JAMA. 1 December 2006. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  16. ^ "Health Service Delivery Profile" (PDF). WHO. 2012. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  17. ^ "UK antibiotic consumption twice that of the Netherlands, WHO report finds". Pharmaceutical Journal. 14 November 2018. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
  18. ^ "Health care system in Mongolia". AP Companies. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  19. ^ "Service and Sacrifice: Mongolia continues to strengthen its contribution to UN peacekeeping". United Nations. 9 March 2018. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  20. ^ "Hospitals in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia". Allianz Worldwide Care. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  21. ^ "FIRST CENTRAL HOSPITAL (PROJECTS ABROAD)". Electives network. 2018. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  22. ^ "Physicians from the Third State Central Hospital of Mongolia visits NTUH" (PDF). National Taiwan University Hospital. July 2017. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  23. ^ "Health Service Delivery Profile" (PDF). WHO. 2012. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
This page was last edited on 14 November 2019, at 03:23
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.