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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tampere
Tammerfors (Swedish)
City
Tampereen kaupunki
Tammerfors stad
City of Tampere
Clockwise from top: the cityscape (viewed from Näsinneula); Tampere City Hall; Särkänniemi (from Näsinneula); Tampere Hall; the skyline with Näsinneula; Tammerkoski from Hämeensilta Bridge; and the Cathedral.
Clockwise from top: the cityscape (viewed from Näsinneula); Tampere City Hall; Särkänniemi (from Näsinneula); Tampere Hall; the skyline with Näsinneula; Tammerkoski from Hämeensilta Bridge; and the Cathedral.
Flag of Tampere
Coat of arms of Tampere
Nickname(s): 
Manchester of the North, Manse (in Finnish),[1] Nääsville (in Finnish),[a][1] Sauna Capital of the World
Location of Tampere (in black) in the Pirkanmaa region
Location of Tampere (in black) in the Pirkanmaa region
Location of Tampere in Finland
Location of Tampere in Finland
Coordinates: 61°29′53″N 23°45′36″E / 61.49806°N 23.76000°E / 61.49806; 23.76000
Country Finland
Region Pirkanmaa
Sub-regionTampere sub-region
Metropolitan areaTampere metropolitan area
City rights1 October 1779
Government
 • Mayor[3]Kalervo Kummola[2]
Area
 (2018-01-01)[4]
 • City689.59 km2 (266.25 sq mi)
 • Land524.89 km2 (202.66 sq mi)
 • Water164.56 km2 (63.54 sq mi)
 • Urban
258.52 km2 (99.82 sq mi)
 • Rank166th largest in Finland
Population
 (2023-12-31)[6]
 • City255,050
 • Rank3rd largest in Finland
 • Density485.91/km2 (1,258.5/sq mi)
 • Urban
334,112[5]
 • Urban density1,211.0/km2 (3,136/sq mi)
 • Metro
403,321
Demonym(s)tamperelainen (Finnish)
tammerforsare (Swedish)
Tamperean (English)
Population by native language
 • Finnish89% (official)
 • Swedish0.5%
 • Others10.4%
Population by age
 • 0 to 1413.3%
 • 15 to 6467.5%
 • 65 or older19.2%
Time zoneUTC+02:00 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+03:00 (EEST)
Websitewww.tampere.fi Edit this at Wikidata

Tampere (/ˈtæmpər/ TAM-pər-ay, US also /ˈtæmpərə,ˈtɑːmpər/ TAM-pər-ə, TAHM-pər-ay,[10][11][12] Finnish: [ˈtɑmpere] ; Swedish: Tammerfors, Finland Swedish: [tɑmærˈforsː] ) is a city in Finland and the regional capital of Pirkanmaa. It is located in the Finnish Lakeland. The population of Tampere is approximately 255,000, while the metropolitan area has a population of approximately 417,000. It is the 3rd most populous municipality in Finland, and the second most populous urban area in the country after the Helsinki metropolitan area.

Tampere is the most populous inland city in the Nordic countries.[13] The urban area has a population of approximately 340,000.[5] Tampere is the most important urban, economic and cultural centre in the whole of inland Finland.[14]

Tampere and its surroundings are part of the historic province of Satakunta. The area belonged to the province of Häme from 1831 to 1997; over time, it has often been considered a province of Tavastia. For example, in Uusi tietosanakirja, published in the 1960s, the Tampere sub-region is presented as part of the then province of Tavastia. Around the 1950s, Tampere and its surroundings began to establish themselves as a separate province of Pirkanmaa. Tampere became the centre of Pirkanmaa, and Tammermaa was also used several times in the early days of the province, for example in the Suomi-käsikirja published in 1968.[15]

Tampere is wedged between two lakes, Lake Näsijärvi and Lake Pyhäjärvi,[16][17] with an 18 m (59 ft) difference in water level, and the rapids that connect them, Tammerkoski, have been an important source of power throughout history, most recently for generating electricity.[18] Tampere is known as the "Manchester of the North" because of its past as a centre of Finnish industry,[17] which has given rise to its Finnish nickname "Manse"[1] and terms such as "Manserock".[19][20][21] Tampere has also been officially declared the "Sauna Capital of the World"[17] because it has the most public saunas in the world.[13][22][23][24][25]

Helsinki is about 160 km (100 mi) south of Tampere and can be reached by Pendolino high-speed train in 1 hour 31 minutes[26] and by car in 2 hours. The distance to Turku is about the same. The Tampere–Pirkkala Airport is the eighth busiest airport in Finland, with more than 230,000 passengers using it in 2017.[27] Tampere is also an important transit route for three Finnish highways: Highway 3 (E12), Highway 9 (E63) and Highway 12. The Tampere light rail had two lines when it started operating in 2021.[28]

Tampere is ranked 26th in the list of 446 hipster cities in the world[29] and is often rated as the most popular city in Finland.[30][31][32][17] The positive development of Tampere and the Tampere metropolitan area has continued into the 21st century, largely due to the fact that Tampere is one of the most attractive cities in Finland.[31][33][34]

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Transcription

Etymology

Although the name Tampere derives from the Tammerkoski rapids (both the city and the rapids are called Tammerfors in Swedish), the origin of the Tammer- part of the name has been the subject of much debate. Ánte accepts the "straightforward" etymology of Rahkonen and Heikkilä in Proto-Samic *Tëmpël(kōškë), *tëmpël meaning "deep, slow part of a stream" and *kōškë "rapids" (related to the Finnish koski),[15][35][36][37] which has become the most accepted explanation in academia, according to the Institute for the Languages of Finland.[38] Other theories include that it comes from the Swedish word damber, meaning milldam; another is that it comes from the ancient Scandinavian words þambr ("fat-bellied") and þambion ("swollen belly"), possibly referring to the shape of the rapids. Another suggestion links the name to the Swedish word Kvatemberdagar, or more colloquially Tamperdagar, which refers to the Ember Days of the Western Christian liturgical calendar. The Finnish word for oak, tammi, has also been suggested,[39] although Tampere is outside the natural range of the European oak.[40]

Heraldry

Coat of arms of Tampere
(1839–1960)
(1960-)

The first coat of arms of Tampere was designed by Arvid von Cederwald in 1838,[41][42][43] while the current coat of arms, created in 1960, was designed by Olof Eriksson.[41] Changing the coat of arms was a controversial act, and even after the change there were occasional calls for the old coat of arms to be restored.[44] The new coat of arms was also described in letters to the editor as Soviet-style because of its colours.[45]

The blazon of the old coat of arms has either not survived or has never been made,[46] but the description of the current coat of arms is explained as follows: "In the red field, a corrugated counter-bar, above which is accompanied by a piled hammer, and below a caduceus; all gold". The colours of the coat of arms are the same as in the coat of arms of Pirkanmaa. The hammer, which looks like the first letter of the city's name, T, symbolises Tampere's early industry,[44] the caduceus its commercial activities,[44] and the wavy counter-bar the Tammerkoski rapids that divide Tampere's industrial and commercial areas.[47]

The city received its first seal in 1803, depicting the city's buildings of the time and Tammerkoski.[48]

History

Early history

Messukylä Old Church, built between 1510 and 1530

The earliest known permanent settlements around Tammerkoski were established in the 7th century, when settlers from the west of the region began to farm land in Takahuhti,[49] an area largely inhabited by the Tavastian tribes.[50] The population remained small for many centuries. By the 16th century, the villages of Messukylä and Takahuhti had become the largest settlements in the area. Other nearby villages were Laiskola, Pyynikkälä and Hatanpää. At that time there had been a market place in the Pispala area for centuries, where the bourgeoisie from Turku in particular traded.[51] In 1638, Governor-General Per Brahe the Younger ordered that two markets be held in Tammerkoski every year, the autumn market on St Peter's Day in August and the winter market on Mati Day in February. In 1708 the market was moved from the outskirts of Tammerkoski to Harju and from there to Pispala in 1758.[52]: 16  The first industries in the Pirkanmaa region in the 17th century were mainly watermills and sawmills, while in the 18th century other industries began to develop, as several small ironworks, the Tammerkoski distillery and the Otavala spinning school were established.[53]

Founding and industrialization

Tampere seen from the Messukylä side of Tammerkoski in the 1837 artwork by Pehr Adolf Kruskopf

Before the founding of the city of Tampere, the neighbouring parish of Pirkkala (from which the current region of Pirkanmaa takes its name) was the most administratively important parish in the area throughout the Middle Ages.[54] This changed in the 18th century when Erik Edner, a Finnish pastor,[55] proposed the establishment of a town on the banks of the Tammerkoski Canal in 1771-1772;[56] it was officially founded as a market town[b] in 1775 by Gustav III of Sweden and four years later, on 1 October 1779,[57] Tampere was granted full town rights. At that time it was a rather small town, founded on the lands of the Tammerkoski manor, while its inhabitants were still mainly farmers. As farming was forbidden within the city limits, the inhabitants began to rely on other means of earning a living, mainly trade and crafts.[49] In 1809, when Finland became a Grand Duchy of Finland, Tampere still had less than a thousand inhabitants.[49]

The Renaissance Revival Raatihuone (City Hall), 1890; the Red Declaration was read from its balcony in 1905.[58]
The old Tampella factory in Tampere

In the 19th century, Tampere grew into an important market town and industrial centre;[59] the industrialisation of Tampere was greatly influenced by the Finlayson textile factory, founded in 1820 by the Scottish industrialist James Finlayson.[13] By 1850, the factory employed around 2000 people, while the city's population had grown to 4000. Other notable industrial establishments that followed Finlayson's success in the 1800s were the Tampella blast furnace, machine factory and flax mill, the Frenckell paper mill and the Tampere broadcloth factory.[49] Tampere's population grew rapidly at the end of the 19th century, from around 7,000 in 1870 to 36,000 in 1900. At the beginning of the 20th century, Tampere was a city of workers and women, with a third of the population being factory workers and more than half women.[49] At the same time, the area of the city increased almost sevenfold and impressive apartment blocks were built in the centre of Tampere between modest wooden houses. The stone houses gave Tampere a modern look. The construction of the sewerage and water supply networks and the introduction of electric lighting were further steps towards modernisation;[49] Tampere was the first Nordic city to introduce electric lighting for general use in 1882.[60][61] The railway connection to Tampere from the extension of the Helsinki-Hämeenlinna line (now part of the Main Line) via Toijala was opened to the public on 22 June 1876. [62]: 173 

The world-famous Nokia Corporation, a multinational telecommunications company, also had its beginnings in the Tammerkoski area;[63] the company's history dates back to 1865, when Finnish-Swedish mining engineer Fredrik Idestam (1838-1916) established a pulp mill on the banks of the rapids, and a second pulp mill was opened in 1868 near the neighbouring town of Nokia, where there were better hydroelectric resources.[63]

Geopolitical significance

Painting of Stalin and Lenin at the 1905 Tampere Conference

Tampere was the centre of many important political events in the early 20th century, such as the 1905 conference of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP), led by Vladimir Lenin, held in the Tampere Workers' Hall during their flight from Russia, where it was decided, among other things, to launch an armed insurrection that eventually led to the October 1917 revolution in the Russian Empire.[13][64][65] Also, on 1 November 1905, during the General Strike, the famous Red Declaration was proclaimed in Keskustori.[58][66]

The city after the Battle of Tampere during the 1918 Civil War

After Finland gained its full independence, Tampere played an important role in the 1918 Civil War, being one of the most strategically important places for the Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic (FSWR) during the Finnish Civil War (28 January - 15 May 1918); the city was the most important industrial city in Finland at the beginning of the 20th century, with a huge working population.[67]: 13–14  Tampere was a Red stronghold during the war, commanded by Hugo Salmela. White forces led by General Mannerheim captured the city after the Battle of Tampere, taking about 10,000 Red prisoners on 6 April 1918.[68][69]

During the Winter War, Tampere was bombed several times by the Soviet Union.[70] The reason for the bombing of Tampere was that the city was an important railway junction and was also home to the State Aircraft Factory and the Tampella Factory, which produced ammunition and weapons, including grenade launchers. The most devastating bombing took place on 2 March 1940, when nine people were killed and 30 wounded. In addition, ten buildings were destroyed and 30 damaged that day.[71]

Post-war period and modern day

The Social University moves to Tampere in 1960.

The dominant force in Tampere's municipal politics after the Second World War was the Brothers-in-Arms Axis (aseveliakseli), which consisted mainly of the National Coalition Party and the Social Democrats. While the Centre Party was the largest political force in the Finnish countryside, it had no practical relevance in Tampere.[72]

Tamvisio's camera operators film a television program at Frenckell's studio on 2 January 1965 in Tampere.

After the Second World War, Tampere was enlarged by the incorporation of some neighbouring areas. Messukylä was incorporated in 1947, Lielahti in 1950, Aitolahti in 1966 and Teisko in 1972. Tampere passed the 100,000 population mark in 1950.[73] Tampere was long known for its textile and metal industries, but these were largely replaced by information technology and telecommunications in the 1990s. The Hermia technology centre in Hervanta is home to many companies in these fields.[74][75] Yleisradio began broadcasting its second television channel, Yle TV2, from Ristimäki, Tampere, in 1965,[76][77] making Finland the first of the Nordic countries to receive a second television channel, after Sweden's SVT2 began broadcasting four years later. Tampere became a university city when the Social University moved from Helsinki to Tampere in 1960, becoming the University of Tampere in 1966.[78] In 1979, the Tampere-Pirkkala airport was opened 13 km (8.1 mi) from the centre of Tampere on the Pirkkala side of the city.[79][80]

At the turn of the 1990s, Tampere's industry underwent a major structural change, as the production of Tampella and Tampere's textile industry in particular was heavily focused on bilateral trade with the Soviet Union, but when the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, the companies lost their main customers. As a result of the sudden change and the depression of the early 1990s, Finlayson and Suomen Trikoo had to scale down their operations drastically. Tampella went bankrupt.[18] But although the change left a huge amount of vacant industrial space in the city centre, in the early 2000s it was gradually put to other uses, and today's Tampere cityscape is mainly characterised by strong IT companies, most notably Nokia's Tampere R&D units.[81]

Geography

Islands of Pyynikki at the Lake Pyhäjärvi

Tampere is part of the Pirkanmaa region and is surrounded by the municipalities of Kangasala, Lempäälä, Nokia, Orivesi, Pirkkala, Ruovesi and Ylöjärvi.[82] There are 180 lakes larger than 10,000 m2 (110,000 sq ft) in Tampere, and freshwater bodies cover 24% of the city's total area.[16] The lakes were formed as separate basins from Lake Ancylus about 7500-8000 years ago.[83] The northernmost point of Tampere is in the Vankavesi Fjard of Teisko, the southernmost at the eastern end of Lake Hervanta, the easternmost at the northeast corner of Lake Paalijärvi of Teisko, and the westernmost at the southeast corner of Lake Haukijärvi near the borders of Ylöjärvi and Nokia. The city centre itself is surrounded by three lakes, Näsijärvi, Pyhäjärvi and the much smaller Iidesjärvi. The Tampere region lies in the basin of the Kokemäki River, which flows into the Bothnian Sea through Pori, the capital of the Satakunta region.[83] Tampere's bedrock consists of mica schist and migmatite,[84] and its building stone deposits are diverse: in addition to the traditional granite, there is an abundance of quartz diorite, tonalite, mica schist and mica gneiss.[85] One of Tampere's most striking geographical features is the Pyynikki Ridge (Pyynikinharju), a large esker formed from moraine during the Weichselian glaciation.[86] It rises 160 m (520 ft) above sea level and is said to be the largest gravel esker in the world.[86] It is also part of Salpausselkä, a 200 km (120 mi) long ridge system left over from the Ice Age.[86]

Aerial view of the city center of Tampere (Keskusta) and the Tammerkoski rapids passing through it

The centre of Tampere (Keskusta) and the districts of Pyynikki, Ylä-Pispala and Ala-Pispala lie on the isthmus between Lakes Pyhäjärvi and Näsijärvi. The location of the city on the edge of the Tammerkoski Rapids between two long waterways was one of the main reasons for its foundation in the 1770s.[87] The streets of central Tampere form a typical grid pattern. On the western edge of the city centre is a north-south park road, Hämeenpuisto ("Häme Park" or "Tavastia Park"), which runs from the shore of Lake Pyhäjärvi near Lake Näsijärvi. The wide Hämeenkatu road runs east-west from Tampere Central Station to Hämeenpuisto and crosses Tammerkoski along the Hämeensilta bridge. Also along Hämeenkatu is the longest street in the city centre, Satakunnankatu, which runs from Rautatienkatu to Amuri and crosses Tammerkoski via the Satakunnansilta bridge. Tampere's central square is located on the western bank of Tammerkoski, near Hämeensilta. The traffic centre of Tampere is the junction of Itsenäisyydenkatu,[c] Teiskontie, Sammonkatu, Kalevanpuisto park road and the Kaleva and Liisankallio districts.[88]

Neighbourhoods and other subdivisions

The city of Tampere is divided into seven statistical areas, each of which includes the many districts and their suburbs. In total, there are 111 statistical areas in Tampere. However, the statistical areas created for Tampere's statistics do not fully correspond to the division of Tampere's districts or to the way residents perceive the districts. For example, the districts of Amuri, Kyttälä and Tammela are divided into two parts in accordance with the official district division, and Liisankallio and Kalevanrinne are often considered to belong to the district of Kaleva.[89]

Climate

Tampere
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
41
 
 
−3
−10
 
 
29
 
 
−4
−11
 
 
31
 
 
1
−7
 
 
32
 
 
8
−1
 
 
41
 
 
15
4
 
 
66
 
 
20
9
 
 
75
 
 
22
12
 
 
72
 
 
20
10
 
 
58
 
 
14
6
 
 
60
 
 
8
2
 
 
51
 
 
2
−3
 
 
42
 
 
−2
−8
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
1.6
 
 
26
15
 
 
1.1
 
 
26
13
 
 
1.2
 
 
34
20
 
 
1.3
 
 
47
30
 
 
1.6
 
 
60
39
 
 
2.6
 
 
67
47
 
 
3
 
 
72
53
 
 
2.8
 
 
68
51
 
 
2.3
 
 
57
43
 
 
2.4
 
 
46
35
 
 
2
 
 
35
27
 
 
1.7
 
 
29
18
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

Tampere has a humid continental climate Dfb with clearly defined four seasons. The climate of Tampere-Pirkkala Airport, which is located away from the city centre, borders on the subarctic climate zone (Köppen climate classification Dfc). Winters are cold and the average temperature from December to February is below −3 °C (27 °F) and it can reach to −30 °C (−22 °F) . Summers are cool to warm. The average snow cover lasts 4-5 months from late November to early April. Given the high latitude and inland location, winters are on average quite mild for the latitude, as is the average annual temperature.[citation needed]

Climate data for Tampere Härmälä (TMP), elevation: 85 m (279 ft), 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1900–present (Härmälä and Tampella)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 8.4
(47.1)
9.2
(48.6)
15.6
(60.1)
24.3
(75.7)
29.6
(85.3)
33.2
(91.8)
33.1
(91.6)
32.1
(89.8)
26.6
(79.9)
19.4
(66.9)
13.3
(55.9)
10.5
(50.9)
33.1
(91.6)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −2.5
(27.5)
−2.5
(27.5)
2.1
(35.8)
8.8
(47.8)
15.6
(60.1)
19.7
(67.5)
22.5
(72.5)
20.7
(69.3)
14.9
(58.8)
7.8
(46.0)
2.6
(36.7)
−0.5
(31.1)
9.1
(48.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) −5.2
(22.6)
−5.7
(21.7)
−1.9
(28.6)
3.9
(39.0)
10.1
(50.2)
14.6
(58.3)
17.3
(63.1)
15.6
(60.1)
10.6
(51.1)
4.9
(40.8)
0.7
(33.3)
−2.7
(27.1)
5.2
(41.3)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −8.3
(17.1)
−9.1
(15.6)
−6.0
(21.2)
−0.9
(30.4)
4.1
(39.4)
9.0
(48.2)
12.2
(54.0)
10.8
(51.4)
6.6
(43.9)
2.0
(35.6)
−1.5
(29.3)
−5.4
(22.3)
1.1
(34.0)
Record low °C (°F) −37.0
(−34.6)
−36.8
(−34.2)
−29.6
(−21.3)
−19.6
(−3.3)
−7.3
(18.9)
−2.8
(27.0)
1.8
(35.2)
−0.4
(31.3)
−6.7
(19.9)
−14.8
(5.4)
−22.5
(−8.5)
−34.2
(−29.6)
−37.0
(−34.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 41
(1.6)
30
(1.2)
29
(1.1)
32
(1.3)
36
(1.4)
66
(2.6)
74
(2.9)
65
(2.6)
55
(2.2)
57
(2.2)
51
(2.0)
46
(1.8)
582
(22.9)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 32.3
(12.7)
31.4
(12.4)
29.5
(11.6)
13.9
(5.5)
1.6
(0.6)
0.1
(0.0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
3.3
(1.3)
13.1
(5.2)
27.2
(10.7)
152.4
(60)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 10 8 8 7 7 9 11 9 9 10 10 11 109
Average relative humidity (%) 90 87 82 70 63 66 69 76 82 87 91 92 80
Source 1: weatheronline.co.uk[90]
Source 2: FMI [1] (precipitation, record highs and lows)[91]
Climate data for Tampere–Pirkkala Airport (1991-2020 normals, extremes 1979-present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 8.0
(46.4)
9.4
(48.9)
14.9
(58.8)
24.2
(75.6)
29.3
(84.7)
33.0
(91.4)
32.5
(90.5)
31.3
(88.3)
24.8
(76.6)
18.3
(64.9)
13.2
(55.8)
10.3
(50.5)
33.0
(91.4)
Mean maximum °C (°F) 3.9
(39.0)
3.9
(39.0)
9.0
(48.2)
17.7
(63.9)
24.4
(75.9)
26.8
(80.2)
28.2
(82.8)
26.6
(79.9)
21.2
(70.2)
13.7
(56.7)
8.5
(47.3)
4.8
(40.6)
29.2
(84.6)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −2.7
(27.1)
−2.8
(27.0)
1.7
(35.1)
8.5
(47.3)
15.2
(59.4)
19.6
(67.3)
22.2
(72.0)
20.5
(68.9)
14.7
(58.5)
7.5
(45.5)
2.3
(36.1)
−0.7
(30.7)
8.8
(47.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) −5.6
(21.9)
−6.0
(21.2)
−2.3
(27.9)
3.6
(38.5)
9.8
(49.6)
14.3
(57.7)
17.1
(62.8)
15.5
(59.9)
10.4
(50.7)
4.6
(40.3)
0.3
(32.5)
−3.2
(26.2)
4.9
(40.8)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −8.6
(16.5)
−9.3
(15.3)
−6.3
(20.7)
−1.0
(30.2)
3.9
(39.0)
8.9
(48.0)
12.1
(53.8)
10.8
(51.4)
6.5
(43.7)
1.7
(35.1)
−1.9
(28.6)
−5.8
(21.6)
0.9
(33.7)
Mean minimum °C (°F) −22.9
(−9.2)
−22.5
(−8.5)
−17.3
(0.9)
−8.5
(16.7)
−3.1
(26.4)
2.1
(35.8)
5.9
(42.6)
4.1
(39.4)
−1.3
(29.7)
−7.1
(19.2)
−11.3
(11.7)
−17.6
(0.3)
−26.0
(−14.8)
Record low °C (°F) −35.8
(−32.4)
−31.8
(−25.2)
−29.1
(−20.4)
−14.8
(5.4)
−7.2
(19.0)
−3.0
(26.6)
1.5
(34.7)
−0.4
(31.3)
−7.0
(19.4)
−16.4
(2.5)
−21.9
(−7.4)
−33.0
(−27.4)
−35.8
(−32.4)
Average relative humidity (%) 91 88 80 70 64 68 72 77 83 88 92 92 80
Source 1: https://www.ilmatieteenlaitos.fi/ilmastollinen-vertailukausi
Source 2: https://kilotavu.com/asema-taulukko.php?asema=101118

Temperature records of Tampere

Temperature records of Tampere and the near-by Tampere–Pirkkala Airport:[92]

Temperature Records of Tampere

Tampere highest temperatures by month
Month °C Date Location
June 33.2° 22 June 2021 Härmälä
July 33.1° 9 July 1914 Härmälä
August 32.1° 10 August 1912 Härmälä

Highest temperatures at the Tampere–Pirkkala Airport by month since 1980:[92]

Pirkkala Airport highest temperatures by month
Month °C Year
January 8.0° 2007
February 9.4° 1990
March 14.9° 2007
April 24.2° 1998
May 29.3° 2014
June 31.7° 1999
July 32.5° 2010
August 31.1° 1992
September 24.8° 1999
October 17.5° 1984
November 12.4° 2015
December 10.3° 2015

Lowest temperatures in Pirkanmaa:[92]

Tampere lowest temperatures by month
Month °C Date Location
January −38.5° 9 January 1987 Aitoneva, Kihniö
February −40.9° 3 February 1966 Mouhijärvi

Lowest temperatures at the Tampere–Pirkkala Airport by month since 1980:[92]

Pirkkala Airport lowest temperatures by month
Month °C Year
January −35.8° 1987
February −31.8° 2007
March −29.1° 1981
April −14.8° 1988
May −7.2° 1999
June −3.0° 1984
July 1.5° 1987
August −0.4° 1984
September −7.0° 1986
October −16.4° 1992
November −22.0° 1990
December −33.0° 1995

Cityscape

Revival and nationalism

Näsilinna, the Baroque Revival palace

Tampere has buildings from many architectural periods. The Old Stone Church of Messukylä is the only example of medieval architecture.[93] Neoclassicism from the early 19th century is represented by the Old Church of Tampere and its bell tower. The Gothic Revival buildings in Tampere that evolved from Neoclassicism are the New Church of Messukylä and the Alexander Church, while the Renaissance Revival buildings are Hatanpää Manor, Tampere City Hall,[58] Ruuskanen House and Näsilinna. Romantic nationalism can be seen in the Commerce house, the Tirkkonen House, the Palander House, the Tampere Cathedral, the Tampere Central Fire Station and the Tampere National Bank building.[89] The use of red brick as a building material in the industrial buildings along Tammerkoski, such as the Finlayson and Tampella factories, has left a strong imaginary mark on the city.[94][95]

Functionalism and modernism

The Post-Art Nouveau was largely Nordic,[96] with the Laikku House of Culture, the Hotel Tammer, the Tuulensuu House and the Viinikka Church built in Tampere. After Functionalism became the dominant style in the 1930s, Tampere Central Station, Tempo House, a bus station and Kauppi Hospital were built in Tampere. There is no single accepted term for the post-war style, but the main representatives of the reconstruction period are the Bank of Finland building, the Amurinlinna building and the Pyynikki swimming pool. The rationalist buildings of the modernist period are represented by the University of Tampere, Tampere Central Hospital, Sampola, the School of Economics, Ratina Stadium and Kaleva Church.[96] The modernist buildings include the Metso Main Library, the Hervanta Operations Centre, the Tampere Hall, the University extension and the Nokia office building in Hatanpää.[89]

The city of Tampere has shown strong growth in recent years.[97] The "Tampere Deck" and its new multi-purpose arena in November 2021.

The centre of Tampere and its western parts have been developed in a more modern direction since the 2010s,[98] and the city aims to have the centre in its future form by the 2030s.[99] In particular, plans have been drawn up for the area around the central railway station in the form of the "Tampere Deck" project, which includes a new multi-purpose arena and high-rise buildings in the area.[97][100] A light rail network has also recently been built in the city centre. Artificial island projects are planned on the shores of the lakes, which would create new residential areas for several thousand people.[97] The projects are estimated to cost several billion euros.[97][99][100]

Economy

The Tampere region, Pirkanmaa, which includes outlying municipalities, has around 509,000 residents,[101] 244,000 employed people,[102] and a turnover of 28 billion euros as of 2014.[103]

According to the Tampere International Business Office, the area is strong in mechanical engineering and automation, information and communication technologies, and health and biotechnology, as well as pulp and paper industry education. Unemployment rate was 9.2% in September 2023.[104] 70% of the areas jobs are in the service sector. Less than 20% are in the manufacturing sector. 34.5% of employed people live outside the Tampere municipality and commute to Tampere for work. Meanwhile, 15.6% of Tampere's residents work outside Tampere.[105]

In 2014 the largest employers were Kesko, Pirkanmaan Osuuskauppa, Alma Media and Posti Group.[106] Tampere is headquarters for Bronto Skylift, an aerial rescue and aerial work platform manufacturer.[107]

Tampere's Hotel Torni, the tallest hotel in Finland[108]
Särkänniemi amusement park is the most popular tourist destination of Tampere.

According to a study carried out by the Synergos Research and Training Center of the University of Tampere, the total impact of tourism in the Tampere region in 2012 was more than 909 million euros. Tourism also brought 4,805 person-years to the region.[109] The biggest single attraction in Tampere is the Särkänniemi amusement park, which had about 630,000 visitors in 2016.[110] In addition, in 2015, 1,021,151 overnight stays were made in Tampere hotels. The number exceeded the previous record year with more than 20,000 overnight stays. All that makes Tampere the second most popular city in Finland after Helsinki in terms of hotel stays. Leisure tourism accounted for 55,4% of overnight stays and occupational tourism for 43,2%. The occupancy rate of all accommodation establishments with more than 20 rooms was 57,0%, while that of accommodation establishments in the whole country was 48,3%.[111]

Tampere's economic profit in 2015 was the worst of big Finnish cities.[112] In 2016 the loss of the fiscal year was 18,8 million euros.[113] In the city's economy, the largest revenues come from taxes and government contributions. In 2015, the city received 761 million euros in municipal tax revenue. In addition, 61,4 million euros came from corporate taxes and 64 million euros from property taxes.[114] Tax revenues have not increased as expected in the 2010s, although the city's population has increased. This has been affected by high unemployment.[115]

Energy

Lielahti Power Plant

In 2013, Tampereen Energiantuotanto, which is part of the Tampereen Energia (former Tampereen Sähkölaitos Group), generated 1,254 GWh of electricity and 2,184 GWh of district heating. The two units of the Naistenlahti power station accounted for about 65% of the total electricity production and the Lielahti power station for about 30%. The Naistenlahti and Lielahti units accounted for 57% and 23% of district heating production, respectively. The ten heating centres in Tampere accounted for 21%.[105]: 44 

In 2013, the share of natural gas in energy production was about 65%. Wood and peat accounted for about 17%. Hydropower and oil were also used.[105]: 44  Emissions from energy production have decreased in the 21st century due to the growth of renewable forms of production and the modernisation of the Naistenlahti power plant. In 2013, about 669,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide and 297 tonnes of sulphur dioxide were emitted.[105]: 46–47 

Water and waste management

66,5% of Tampere's domestic water is surface water and 33,5% groundwater. 58% of the water was diverted to economic use and 13% to industrial use. In addition to Tampere, Tampereen Vesi manages water in Pirkkala. Almost all surface water comes from Lake Roine. In addition, Tampereen Vesi has four surface water plants in Lake Näsijärvi and five groundwater intakes.[105]: 68–69  Tampereen Vesi is 96% responsible for the wastewater of Tampere, Kangasala, Pirkkala and Ylöjärvi. In 2012, a total of 31,9 million cubic meters of wastewater was treated in Tampere. The Viinikanlahti treatment plant treats more than 75% of wastewater.[105]: 85 

Pirkanmaan Jätehuolto handles waste management in Tampere. It has waste treatment facilities in Nokia's Lake Koukkujärvi and Tampere's Lake Tarastenjärvi.[105]: 92 

Demographics

Population

The city of Tampere has 255,050 inhabitants, making it the 3rd most populous municipality in Finland and the tenth in the Nordics. The Tampere region, with 416,629 people, is the second largest after the Helsinki metropolitan area. Tampere is home to 5% of Finland's population. 10.5% of the population has a foreign background, which is above the national average. However, it is lower than in the major Finnish cities of Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa or Turku.[118]

The demographic structure of Tampere shows that the city is a very popular place to study, as the number of young adults is significantly higher than in other municipalities in the region. At the end of 2012, the old-age dependency ratio was 45. Approximately 17.3% of the population was over the age of 65.[105]: 13  Just over half of the population is female, as in the country as a whole. The population is fairly well educated, with two-thirds of those over 15 having completed post-primary education.[119]

At the end of 2018, there were a total of 140,039 dwellings in Tampere, of which 127,639 were permanently occupied and 12,400 were not permanently occupied.[120] Of these, 74% were apartment buildings, 14% were detached houses, 10% were terraced houses, and 2% were other residential buildings. Between 2002 and 2020, more than 40,000 new dwellings will be completed in Tampere.[121] Living space has been growing for a long time, although after 2008 growth came to a virtual standstill. The average living space at the end of 2012 was about 36.8 m2 per inhabitant, compared with about 19.2 m2 in 1970 and about 31.8 m2 in 1990. The average dwelling had about 1.8 inhabitants in 2012.[105]: 13 

For more than ten years, Tampere has been one of the most migratory municipalities, as more than 1,930 new residents moved to Tampere in January–September 2021. Nokia, Kangasala and Lempäälä, which are among Tampere's neighbouring municipalities, have also been identified as the most migratory municipalities, rising to the list of the 20 most attractive municipalities.[33][34] Even during the COVID-19 pandemic, Tampere has become Finland's most attractive area for internal migration, as Tampere gained the most migration gains in 2020.[122]

Population size 1980–2020[117]
Year Population
1980
166,228
1985
169,026
1990
172,560
1995
182,742
2000
195,468
2005
204,337
2010
213,217
2015
225,118
2020
238,420

Languages

Population by mother tongue (2023)[118]

  Finnish (89.0%)
  Russian (1.4%)
  Arabic (1.0%)
  Farsi (0.9%)
  English (0.8%)
  Swedish (0.5%)
  Estonian (0.4%)
  Other (5.9%)

Tampere is the largest monolingual municipality in Finland. The majority of the population - 227,007 people or 89.0% - speak Finnish as their first language. In Tampere, 1,377 people, or 0.5% of the population, speak Swedish. This is the second largest number of Swedish speakers in monolingual Finnish-speaking municipalities after Kaarina. Kaarina and Tampere are also the only monolingual Finnish-speaking municipalities with a separate Swedish-speaking community. In 1900, Swedish speakers made up more than six per cent of Tampere's population, and less than two per cent in 1950.[123]

As English and Swedish are compulsory school subjects, functional bilingualism or trilingualism acquired through language studies is not uncommon. At least 160 different languages are spoken in Tampere. The most widely spoken foreign languages are Russian (1.4%), Arabic (1.0%), Farsi (0.9%) and English (0.8%).[118]

Immigration

Population by country of birth (2022)[117]
Nationality Population %
 Finland 226,644 91.0
 Soviet Union 2,197 0.9
 Iraq 1,252 0.5
 Afghanistan 1,182 0.5
 Sweden 1,181 0.5
 Estonia 1,090 0.4
 Russia 873 0.4
 Iran 870 0.3
 China 846 0.3
 India 833 0.3
 Turkey 564 0.2

As of 2023, there were 26,885 people with a migrant background living in Tampere, or 10.5% of the population.[note 1] There were 25,568 residents who were born abroad, or 10% of the population. The number of foreign citizens in Tampere was 17,373.[118][125] Most foreign-born citizens came from the former Soviet Union, Iraq, Afghanistan, Sweden, and Estonia.[117]

The relative share of immigrants in the population of Tampere is slightly above the national average.[118] Tampere attracts more migration from within Finland than directly from abroad. Nevertheless, the city's new residents are increasingly of foreign origin. This will increase the proportion of foreign residents in the coming years.

Urban areas

In 2019, out of the total population of 238,140, 231,648 people lived in urban areas and 3,132 in sparsely populated areas, while the coordinates of 3,360 people were unknown. This made Tampere's degree of urbanization 98.7%.[126] The urban population in the municipality was divided between three statistical urban areas as follows:[127]

# Urban area Population
1 Tampere urban area 225,440
2 Vuores 5,316
3 Kämmenniemi 892

Religion

In 2023, the Evangelical Lutheran Church was the largest religious group with 56.4% of the population of Tampere. Other religious groups accounted for 3.3% of the population. 40.3% of the population had no religious affiliation.[128]

Education

Tampere University, Festia building

The comprehensive education is given mainly in Finnish but the city has special bilingual groups where students study in Finnish and a second language (English, French or German).[129] Furthermore, there is a private Swedish-speaking school in the Kaakinmaa district (Swedish Svenska samskolan i Tammerfors) that covers all levels of education from preschool to high school.[130]

The campus building of the Police University College

There are three institutions of higher education in the Tampere area totaling 40,000 students: the university and two polytechnic institutions (Finnish: ammattikorkeakoulu). Tampere University (TUNI) has over 20,000 students and is located in two campuses, one in the Kalevanharju district, close to the city centre, and one in Hervanta, in the southern part of the city. The institution was formed in 2019 as a result of the merge of University of Tampere (UTA) and Tampere University of Technology (TUT). TUNI is also the major shareholder of the Tampere University of Applied Sciences (Tampereen ammattikorkeakoulu, TAMK), a polytechnic counting about 10,000 students.[131] The Police University College, the polytechnic institution serving all of Finland in its field of specialization, is also located in Tampere.[132][133]

Tampere University Hospital (Tampereen yliopistollinen sairaala, TAYS) in the Kauppi district, one of the main hospitals in Finland, is affiliated with Tampere University. It is a teaching hospital with 34 medical specializations.

The Nurmi district in the northern part of city also houses the Tampere Christian School (Tampereen kristillinen koulu), which operates on a co-Christian basis and is maintained by the Adventist Church of Finland, offering free basic education based on Christian basic values and outlook on life for all grades of primary school.[134]

Arts and culture

The Tammerkoski rapids in Tampere at night in 2015. The Festival of Light has just opened and an old, large factory chimney is lit in red on the right side of the rapids and contrasts with the blue lighting of the trees beneath it. The array of colours is reflected by the water of the rapids.

Tampere is known for its active cultural life. Some of the most popular writers in Finland, such as Väinö Linna, Kalle Päätalo, and Hannu Salama, hail from Tampere. These authors are known particularly as writers depicting the lives of working-class people, thanks to their respective backgrounds as members of the working class. Also from such a background was the poet Lauri Viita of the Pispala district, which was also the original home of the aforementioned Hannu Salama.[citation needed] On 1 October, Tampere celebrates the annual Tampere Day (Finnish: Tampereen päivä), which hosts a variety of public events.[135][89]

Media

An office building of Aamulehti newspaper in the Nalkala district

Tampere is a strong media city, as the television center in Tohloppi and Ristimäki districts has had a nationwide Yle TV2 television channel since the 1970s,[89] and Finnish radio, for example, began in Tampere when Arvi Hauvonen founded the first broadcasting station in 1923.[89] Yle TV2 has its roots in Tamvisio, which was transferred to Yleisradio in 1964. Kakkoskanava ("Channel 2") has been a major influence in Tampere, and several well-known television programs and series have been shot in the city,[89] such as TV comedies Tankki täyteen, Reinikainen and Kummeli. The Ruutu+ streaming service's popular crime drama television series Lakeside Murders (Finnish: Koskinen), based on the Koskinen book series by Seppo Jokinen, is also produced and filmed in Tampere.[136][137]

The Tampere Film Festival, an annual international short film event, is held every March.[138] Tampere has also served as a filming location for international film productions, most notably the 1993 British comedy film The Big Freeze[139] and the 2022 American sci-fi film Dual.[140][141]

In 2014, Aamulehti, which was published in Tampere and was founded in 1881,[142][143] was the third largest newspaper in Finland in terms of circulation, after Helsingin Sanomat and Ilta-Sanomat. The circulation of the magazine was 106,842 (2014).[144] In addition, a free city newspaper Tamperelainen (literally translated "Tamperean", meaning person who live in Tampere) will be published in the city.[89] In November 2016, the Tamperelainen was awarded the second best city newspaper in Finland.[145]

The city is also known as the home of the popular Hydraulic Press Channel on YouTube, which originates from a machine shop owned by Lauri Vuohensilta.[146]

Independent video game developer Colossal Order, known for the hit city-building game Cities: Skylines, is based in Tampere.[147] Cities: Skylines II also features the city’s geography as an in-game map for those who pre-ordered the game.

Food

Mustamakkara ("black sausage"), a speciality food from Tampere, is typically consumed with lingonberry jam.
Tampere claims to be the "wings capital of Finland", consuming almost half of the hot wings in Finland. The restaurant chain Siipiweikot originates from Tampere. Almost half of the chicken wings sold in Finland are eaten exclusively in Pirkanmaa.[148]

A local food speciality is mustamakkara, which resembles the black pudding of northern England. It is a black sausage made by mixing pork, pig's blood and crushed rye and flour and is stuffed into the intestines of an animal. It is commonly eaten with lingonberry sauce. Especially Tammelantori square in the district of Tammela is known for its mustamakkara kiosks.[149]

A newer Tampere tradition are munkki, fresh sugary doughnuts that are sold in several cafés around Tampere, but most traditionally in Pyynikki observation tower.[150]

One of the specialties of Tampere's local barbecue dishes include the peremech (Finnish: pärämätsi) based on traditional Tatar food. It is a pie reminiscent of Karelian pasty with seasoned ground meat inside.[151][152]

In the 1980s, in addition to mustamakkara and barley bread, the old parish dish of Tampere was also called a potato soup, home-made small beer (kotikalja), a sweetened lingonberry porridge and a sweetened potato casserole (Imelletty perunalaatikko).[153]

Since 1991, the two-day fish market event (Tampereen kalamarkkinat) in Laukontori attracts as many as 80,000–100,000 visitors in year, and is held both in the spring on vappu and in the autumn on Tampere Day.[154][155]

Music

Judas Priest performing as one of the headliners at the 2011 Sauna Open Air Metal Festival

Tampere is home to the Tampere Philharmonic Orchestra (Tampere Filharmonia), which is one of only two full-sized symphony orchestras in Finland; the other one is located in Helsinki. The orchestra's home venue is the Tampere Hall,[13] and their concerts include classical, popular, and film music. Tampere Music Festivals organises three international music events: The Tampere Jazz Happening each November, and in alternate years The Tampere Vocal Music Festival and the Tampere Biennale. Professional education in many fields of classical music, including performing arts, pedagogic arts, and composition, is provided by Tampere University of Applied Sciences and Tampere Conservatoire.

Manserock became a general term for rock music from Tampere, which was essentially rock music with Finnish lyrics. Manserock was especially popular during the 1970s and 1980s, and its most popular artists included Juice Leskinen, Veltto Virtanen, Kaseva, Popeda, and Eppu Normaali. In 1977, Poko Rekords, the first record company in Tampere, was founded.[156]

In the 2010s, there has been a lot of popular musical activity in Tampere, particularly in the fields of rock and heavy/black metal; one of the most important metal music events in Tampere is the Sauna Open Air Metal Festival.[157] Some of the most popular bands based in Tampere include Negative, Uniklubi, and Lovex. Tampere also has an active electronic music scene. Tampere hosts an annual World of Tango Festival (Maailmantango),[158] which is one of the most significant tango events in Finland next to the Tangomarkkinat of Seinäjoki.

Theatre

The Tampere Theatre (Finnish: Tampereen Teatteri)

Tampere has a lengthy tradition of theater, with established institutions such as Tampereen Työväen Teatteri, Tampereen Teatteri, and Pyynikin Kesäteatteri, which is an open-air theatre with the oldest revolving auditorium in Europe. The longest-running directors of the Tampereen Teatteri include Eino Salmelainen and Rauli Lehtonen, and the Tampereen Työväen Teatteri has Kosti Elo, Eino Salmelainen and Lasse Pöysti.[89] The Tampere Theatre Festival (Tampereen teatterikesä) is an international theatre festival held in the city each August. Tampere also has the Tampere Opera, founded in 1946.[159]

Tampere's other professional theaters are Teatteri Siperia; restaurant theater Teatteripalatsi; Teatteri Telakka, known for its artistic experiments; Ahaa Teatteri, which specializes in children's and young people's plays; puppet theater Teatteri Mukamas, and Tanssiteatteri MD, specializes in contemporary dance performances.[160] In addition, there are also three cinemas in Tampere: two Finnkino's theaters, Cine Atlas and Plevna,[161][162] and private Arthouse Cinema Niagara,[163] which serves as the main venue for the Cinemadrome Festival, which presents horror, action, sci-fi, trash, and other cult films.[164] Local cinemas also included the historic Imatra, formerly located in the Kyttälä district, which was completely destroyed on a fire in the midst of a 1924 film Wages of Virtue on 23 October 1927, killing 21 people.[165]

Religious activities

Cathedral of Tampere in the Jussinkylä district, designed by Finnish architect Lars Sonck
The Old Church (Vanha kirkko) on the edge of the Tampere Central Square

As is the case with most of the rest of Finland, most Tampere citizens belong to the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. One Lutheran church in Tampere is Finlayson Church in the district by the same name. Tampere also has a variety of other religious services spanning from traditional to charismatic. There are also some English speaking services, such as the Tampere English Service, an international community affiliated with the Tampere Pentecostal Church [fi] (Tampereen helluntaiseurakunta).[166][167] English services of the International Congregation of Christ the King (ICCK) are organized by the Anglican Church in Finland and the Lutheran Parishes of Tampere. The Catholic parish of the Holy Cross[168] also offers services in Finnish, Polish and English. Other churches may also have English speaking ministries. Tampere is the center of a LDS stake (diocese). Other churches in Tampere are the Baptist Church, the Evangelical Free Church, the Evangelical Lutheran Mission Diocese of Finland, the Finnish Orthodox Church and the Nokia Revival.

There was an organized Jewish community until 1981. Though a small number of Jews remain in Tampere, organized communal life ended at that time.[169]

There are three registered Muslim communities in Tampere. The biggest of them being Tampere Islam Society with over 1500 members.[170]

City rivalry with Turku

Tampere ostensibly has a long-standing mutual feud with the city of Turku,[171] the first capital of Finland, and they tend to compete for the title of being the "second grand city of Finland" after Helsinki.[172][173] This rivalry is largely expressed in jokes in one city about the other; prominent targets are the traditional Tampere food, mustamakkara, the state of the Aura River in Turku, and the regional accents. Tampere is well known as a food destination because of its food culture. Since 1997, students at Tampere have made annual excursions to Turku to jump on the market square, doing their part to undo the post-glacial rebound and push the city back into the Baltic Sea.[174][175]

Main sights

Tammerkoski and Näsijärvi seen from Näsinneula
The Kaleva Church, designed by Reima and Raili Pietilä, in Liisankallio
Interior of the Tampere Market Hall

One of the main tourist attractions is the Särkänniemi amusement park, which includes the landmark Näsinneula tower, topped by a revolving restaurant. In addition to these, it used to house an aquarium. Other sites of interest are Tampere Cathedral, Tampere City Hall, Tampere Central Library Metso ("Capercaillie"), Kaleva Church (both designed by Reima Pietilä), the Tampere Hall (along Hämeenkatu) for conferences and concerts, the Tampere Market Hall and historical Pyynikki observation tower.[17]

Tampere has at least seven hotels, the most noteworthy of which are Hotel Tammer, Hotel Ilves, and Hotel Torni, the tallest hotel building in Finland.[108] The Holiday Club Tampere spa is also located in the Lapinniemi district on the shores of Lake Näsijärvi.[176] There are also many significant shopping centers in the city center of Tampere and its suburbs; the most notable shopping centers are Ratina, Koskikeskus, DUO, Like, and Tullintori.

Tampere is also home to one of the last museums in the world dedicated to Vladimir Lenin. The museum is housed in the Tampere Workers' Hall (along Hallituskatu) where during a subsequent Bolshevik conference in the city, Lenin met Joseph Stalin for the first time.[13][177][178] Lenin moved to Tampere in August 1905, but eventually fled for Sweden in November 1907 when being pursued by the Russian Okhrana. Lenin would not return to any part of the Russian Empire until ten years later, when he heard of the start of the Russian Revolution of 1917.

There are many museums and galleries, including:

Pispala

Pispala is a ridge located between the two lakes. It is divided into Ylä-Pispala ("Upper Pispala") and Ala-Pispala ("Lower Pispala"). It's the highest gravel ridge in the world, raising 80 m (260 ft) above Lake Pyhäjärvi and around 160 m (520 ft) above sea level. It was used to house the majority of industrial labour in the late 19th and early 20th century, when it was part of Suur-Pirkkala and its successor Pohjois-Pirkkala. It was a free area to be built upon by the working-class people working in Tampere factories. It joined Tampere in 1937. Currently it is a residential area undergoing significant redevelopment and together with neighbouring Pyynikki it forms an important historical area of Tampere.[13]

Events

Concerts

Ratina Stadium of Tampere, in the district by the same name, has served as the venue for many of the most significant concerts, most notably in connection with the Endless Forms Most Beautiful World Tour in 2015 by the band Nightwish.[185][186] Other noteworthy tours from other bands held at Ratina Stadium include Iron Maiden (Somewhere Back in Time World Tour, 2008), Bruce Springsteen (Working on a Dream Tour, 2009), AC/DC (Black Ice World Tour, 2010), Red Hot Chili Peppers (I'm with You World Tour, 2012), Bon Jovi (Because We Can World Tour, 2013), Robbie Williams (The Heavy Entertainment Show Tour, 2017) and Rammstein (Rammstein Stadium Tour, 2019).

Tammerfest, Tampere's urban rock festival, is held every July.[187] The Blockfest, which also takes place in Tampere during the summer months,[187] is the largest hip hop event in the Nordic countries.[188] The Tampere Floral Festival is an annual event, held each Summer.[citation needed]

Sport

Ice hockey

Opening game of Nokia Arena: Tappara vs Ilves
Official Fan Zone in Tampere during the 2022 IIHF World Championship

Tampere's sporting scene is mainly driven by ice hockey.[189] The first Finnish ice hockey match was played in Tampere, on the ice of Pyhäjärvi. Tampere is nicknamed the hometown of Finnish ice hockey. Three exceptional ice hockey teams come from Tampere: Tappara, Ilves and Koovee. Especially both Tappara and Ilves have had a great impact on Finnish ice hockey culture and are among the most successful teams in Finland;[189][190] of these, Ilves was the first Tampere-based hockey team to win the 1935-1936 Finnish championship.[189] The Finnish ice hockey museum, and the first ice hockey arena to be built in Finland, the Hakametsä arena, are both located in Tampere.[97][191] Construction of a new main ice hockey arena, Tampere Deck Arena,[192] began in 2018, and was first opened to the public on 3 December 2021, although the official opening date was on 15 December.[193][194][195][196] The name of the new arena was supposed to be UROS LIVE,[197] but due to the financial difficulties of the sponsor behind it, the name was abandoned.[198] After that, Nokia Corporation was chosen as the new sponsor on 19 November 2021, and the arena was renamed as Nokia Arena.[199] The arena served as one of the host cities for the 1965 World Ice Hockey Championships,[189][200] the 2022 IIHF World Championship and the 2023 IIHF World Championship.[189][201][202][203]

Association football

Like ice hockey, association football is also a popular sport in Tampere. Ilves, the professional football club of Tampere,[204] alone has over 4,000 players in its football teams, while Tampere boasts over 100 (mostly junior) football teams.

Tampere hosted some of the football preliminaries for the 1952 Summer Olympics.

Basketball

Basketball is another popular sport in Tampere; the city has three basketball teams with big junior activity and one of them, Tampereen Pyrintö,[205][206] plays on the highest level (Korisliiga) and was the Finnish Champion in 2010, 2011, and 2014.[207]

It was a co-host of the EuroBasket 1967, and the Nokia Arena will host the EuroBasket 2025 as one of the host cities.

Batting sports

Manse PP is the city's pesäpallo team, the only remaining team in the men's Superpesis to be based within a major city, and who won the league in 2021, as well as the women's league in 2017.

Tampere also has a baseball and softball club, the Tampere Tigers, which plays in the top division of Finnish baseball.[208][209]

American football

Tampere Saints is the American football club in the city, that won division 2 in 2015 and plays in the Maple League (division 1) in summer 2017.[210]

Speedway

Motorcycle speedway has been held in Tampere at several venues. The Eteläpuisto beach embankment hosted speedway from 1953 to 1988[211] and was an important venue for competitions, hosting the Nordic Final as part of the qualifying for the Speedway World Championship and the Scandinavian round of the Speedway World Team Cup.[212][213] In addition, it hosted the final of the Finnish Individual Speedway Championship.[214] When it closed the speedway moved to the Kaanaa track, out of the city to the village of Velaatta by Teisko Airfield. More recently the Ratina Stadium held various speedway meetings from 1995 to 2015, including the Speedway Grand Prix of Finland in 2014 and 2015.

Gymnastics

Tampere has long tradition in various fields of gymnastics. Finnish Gymnastics Federation office is located in Kauppi Sports Centre. Local clubs include Tampereen Voimistelijat, Elixiria Sport, Rantaperkiön Isku, TTNV. Ikuri Gymnatics centre is the main training location. Large competitions are organized in Tampere Fair Centre. Gymnaestrada Finland was held in Tampere in 2022.

Other sports

In addition to all of the above, volleyball, wrestling and boxing are also among Tampere's best-known sports.[89]

The city also hosted two canoe sprint world championships, in 1973 and 1983. In 1977, Tampere hosted the World Rowing Junior Championships and in 1995 the Senior World Rowing Championships. Recently, Tampere was the host of the 10th European Youth Olympic Festival on 17–25 July 2009[215] and the 2010 World Ringette Championships on 1–6 November at Hakametsä arena.[216]

Tampere hosted the 2023 European Masters Games from 26 June to 9 July.[217]

Transport

Bus terminals at the Tampere Central Square (Finnish: Keskustori)
Tampere–Pirkkala Airport. This photo was taken during COVID-19 pandemic, when the airport was nearly empty.
Tram in Hämeenkatu, Tampere

Tampere is an important railroad hub in Finland and there are direct railroad connections to, for example, Helsinki, Turku and the Port of Turku, Oulu, Jyväskylä, and Pori. Every day about 150 trains with an annual total of 8 million passengers arrive and depart in the Tampere Central Railway Station, which is located in the city center.[218] There are also frequent bus connections to destinations around Finland. To the south of Tampere, there is the Tampere Ring Road, which is important for car traffic and which is part of Finnish highways number 3 (on the west side) and number 9 (on the east side). The main stretch of the ring road sees over 50,000 vehicles per day,[219] and, according to the ELY Centre of Pirkanmaa, the western part of the ring road is the busiest road in Finland, if highway and ring road connections in the Helsinki metropolitan area are excluded.[220] There are also plans for another ring road project that would run from Pirkkala to Tampere's Hervanta and possibly in the future to Kangasala.[221] Teiskontie, which runs east of the city center, is part of Highway 12 in the direction of Lahti. This highway also runs through the center of Tampere under the name Paasikiven–Kekkosentie,[52]: 75, 77  below the downtown as the Tampere Tunnel, which is the longest road tunnel built in Finland for car traffic.[222]

Tampere is served by Tampere–Pirkkala Airport, located in neighboring municipality Pirkkala some 13 km (8 mi) southwest of the city, and it replaced the former Härmälä Airport, which was closed in 1979.[80] The current airport is connected to the city centre of Tampere by bus route 103, and to that of Pirkkala by bus route 39.[223]

Train from Helsinki to Kolari stopping at Tampere

The public transport network in Tampere currently consists of a bus network and two lines of city's light rail, operating from 9 August 2021.[224] The Tampere Bus Station, designed by Jaakko Laaksovirta and Bertel Strömmer, representing functionalist architecture, was completed in 1938,[225][226]: 203–204  being the largest bus station in the Nordic countries at the time,[227] and between 1948 and 1976, the city also had an extensive trolleybus network, which was also the largest trolleybus system in Finland.[228] As of 2017, commuter rail service on the railroad lines connecting Tampere to the neighbouring towns of Nokia and Lempäälä is being established.[229]

In 2015, the Port of Tampere,[230] the charter port area carrying passengers on the shores of Lake Näsijärvi and Lake Pyhäjärvi,[231] was the busiest inland waterway in Finland in terms of the number of passengers (71,750).[232] A partial explanation for the high number of passengers can be found in the summer traffic to the Viikinsaari island in Lake Pyhäjärvi, where people travel for an excursion or various cultural events such as watching a summer theater.[233] Domestic passenger and connecting vessel traffic was only busier in the Finnish sea area in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, between mainland Finland and Åland in the Archipelago Sea.[232]

In the 2010s, Tampere has made efforts to invest in the smooth running of cycling and walkability.[234] Thanks to it, the city was awarded the title of "Cycling Municipality of the Year" in 2013.[235] According to a survey conducted in 2015, the attractiveness of both cycling and walking had increased during 2014 and 2015.[236] In any case, during the 21st century, the growth of bicycle traffic has been clearly faster than the growth of the city's population, and the number of cycles has increased by an average of about 2% per year.[237]

Distances to other cities

Government

The Tampere City Central Office (Tampereen keskusvirastotalo), an administrative building of the City Council of Tampere along the Aleksis Kiven katu street

In 2007, Tampere switched to a new model of government. Since then, a mayor and four deputy mayors have been chosen for a period of four years by the city council. The mayor also becomes the seat of the city council for the duration of the tenure.

Tampere was the first Finnish municipality to be elected mayor.[238] However, the mayor does not have an official relationship with the municipality; the mayor serves as chairman of the city board and directs the municipality's activities, and the mayor's duties are defined in the city government's bylaws.[238] Because the mayor and deputy mayors are trustees, they can be removed by the council if they lose the majority trust.[89]

For the first two years, Timo P. Nieminen, representing the National Coalition Party from 2007 to 2012, served as mayor. In 2013, Anna-Kaisa Ikonen of the same party was elected mayor.[238] As of 1 June 2017, the number of deputy mayors decreased from four to three.[239] Lauri Lyly (SDP) was elected Mayor of the City of Tampere for the period 2017–2021 at the City Council meeting on 12 June 2017.[238]

Mayors over time

Notable people

Born before 1900

James Finlayson, Scottish Quaker and industrialist best known for founding the Finlayson company
J. K. Paasikivi, the Prime Minister of Finland and later the 7th President of Finland

Born after 1900

Aleksander Barkov, ice hockey player
Väinö Linna, author of The Unknown Soldier and Under the North Star trilogy
Sanna Marin, Prime Minister of Finland from 2019 to 2023.

International relations

Tampere is twinned with:

Tampere has two additional "friendship cities":

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Statistics Finland classifies a person as having a "foreign background" if both parents or the only known parent were born abroad.[124]
  1. ^ Pronounced in almost the same way as Nashville
  2. ^ Known in Sweden as köping and the Finnish word kauppala.
  3. ^ Formerly known as Puolimatkankatu

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Further reading

  • Mari Lind, Kimmo Antila & Antti Liuttunen (2011). Tammerkoski ja kosken kaupunki (in Finnish). Tampere: Vapriikki.
  • Harry Lönnroth (2009). Tampere kieliyhteisönä (in Finnish). SKS. ISBN 978-952-222-119-3.

External links

This page was last edited on 23 June 2024, at 07:28
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