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List of British monarchs

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom
Royal Arms
The Royal Arms since the accession of Queen Victoria in 1837, featuring the arms of England in both the first and fourth quarters, Scotland in the second and Ireland in the third. In Scotland a separate version is used (shown right), whereby the Arms of Scotland take precedence.[1]

There have been 12 monarchs of the Kingdom of Great Britain and the United Kingdom (see Monarchy of the United Kingdom) since the merger of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland on 1 May 1707. England and Scotland had been in personal union under the House of Stuart since 24 March 1603.

On 1 January 1801, Great Britain merged with the Kingdom of Ireland (also previously in personal union with Great Britain) to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. After most of Ireland left the union on 6 December 1922, its name was amended on 12 April 1927 to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

House of Stuart (1707–1714)

Anne had been Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland since 8 March 1702, and so became Queen of Great Britain upon the Union of England and Scotland. (Her total reign was 12 years and 21 weeks.)

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
Before the Acts of Union 1707 → See List of English monarchs, List of Scottish monarchs
1 May 1707

1 August 1714
(7 years, 92 days)
Royal Arms of England (1603-1707).svg
6 February 1665
St James's Palace
Daughter of James II and VII
and Anne Hyde
George of Denmark
St James's Palace
28 July 1683
No surviving children
1 August 1714
Kensington Palace
Aged: 49 years, 176 days
Daughter of James II and VII
Cognatic primogeniture
Bill of Rights 1689

House of Hanover (1714–1901)

The Hanoverian succession came about as a result of the Act of Settlement 1701, passed by the Parliament of England, which excluded "Papists" (i.e. Roman Catholics) from the succession. In return for access to the English plantations in North America and the West Indies, the Hanoverian succession and the Union were ratified by the Parliament of Scotland in 1707.

After the death of Anne, with no living children, her second cousin, George Louis, was the closest heir to the throne who was not Catholic. George was the son of Sophia of Hanover—granddaughter of James VI and I through his daughter Elizabeth.[i]

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
George I
George Louis
1 August 1714[a]

11 June 1727
(12 years, 315 days)
King George I by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt.jpg
Royal Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg
28 May 1660
Son of Ernest Augustus of Brunswick-Lüneburg
and Sophia of Hanover
Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Celle
21 November 1682
2 children
11 June 1727
Aged 67 years, 30 days
Great-grandson of James VI and I
Act of Settlement
Eldest son of Sophia of Hanover
George II
George Augustus
11 June 1727[b][c]

25 October 1760
(33 years, 126 days)
George II by Thomas Hudson.jpg
Royal Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg
30 October 1683
Son of George I
and Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Celle
Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach
22 August 1705
8 children
25 October 1760
Kensington Palace
Aged 76 years, 361 days
Son of George I [4]
George III
George William Frederick
25 October 1760[d]

29 January 1820
(59 years, 97 days)
Allan Ramsay - King George III in coronation robes - Google Art Project.jpg
Royal Arms of United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg
4 June 1738
Norfolk House
Son of Prince Frederick
and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
St James's Palace
8 September 1761
15 children
29 January 1820
Windsor Castle
Aged 81 years, 239 days
Grandson of George II [5]
George IV
George Augustus Frederick
29 January 1820[e]

26 June 1830
(10 years, 149 days)
George IV 1821 color.jpg
Royal Arms of United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg
12 August 1762
St James's Palace
Son of George III
and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
(1) Maria Fitzherbert
Park Lane
15 September 1785
No verified children
(2) Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
St James's Palace
8 April 1795
1 daughter
26 June 1830
Windsor Castle
Aged 67 years, 318 days
Son of George III [6]
William IV
William Henry
26 June 1830[f]

20 June 1837
(6 years, 360 days)
William IV.jpg
Royal Arms of United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg
21 August 1765
Buckingham Palace
Son of George III
and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
Kew Palace
13 July 1818
2 daughters
20 June 1837
Windsor Castle
Aged 71 years, 303 days
Alexandrina Victoria
20 June 1837[g]

22 January 1901
(63 years, 217 days)
Queen Victoria 1843.jpg
Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg
24 May 1819
Kensington Palace
Daughter of the Duke of Kent and Strathearn
and Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
St James's Palace
10 February 1840
9 children
22 January 1901
Osborne House
aged 81 years, 243 days
Granddaughter of George III [8]

Houses of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1901–1917) and Windsor (from 1917)

Due to his father Albert, Prince Consort, being of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Edward VII inaugurated a new royal house when he succeeded his mother Victoria, the last monarch of the House of Hanover, in 1901. George V changed the name of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to the House of Windsor on 17 July 1917,[9] during the First World War, because of wartime anti-German sentiment in the country.

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
Edward VII
Albert Edward
22 January 1901[h]

6 May 1910
(9 years, 105 days)
King Edward VII by Sir (Samuel) Luke Fildes.jpg
Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg
9 November 1841
Buckingham Palace
Son of Victoria
and Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
Alexandra of Denmark
St George's Chapel
10 March 1863
6 children
6 May 1910
Buckingham Palace
aged 68 years, 178 days
Son of Victoria [10]
George V
George Frederick Ernest Albert
6 May 1910[i]

20 January 1936
(25 years, 260 days)
King George V 1911.jpg
Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg
3 June 1865
Marlborough House
Son of Edward VII
and Alexandra of Denmark
Mary of Teck
St James's Palace
6 July 1893
6 children
20 January 1936
Sandringham House
aged 70 years, 231 days
Son of Edward VII [11]
Edward VIII
Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David
20 January 1936[j]

11 December 1936
(Abdicated after 326 days)
Edward VIII Portrait - 1936.jpg
Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg
23 June 1894
White Lodge
Son of George V
and Mary of Teck
Wallis Simpson
Château de Candé
3 June 1937
No children
28 May 1972
aged 77 years, 340 days
Son of George V [12]
George VI
Albert Frederick Arthur George
11 December 1936[k]

6 February 1952
(15 years, 58 days)
King George VI.jpg
Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg
14 December 1895
Sandringham House
Son of George V
and Mary of Teck
Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Westminster Abbey
26 April 1923
2 daughters
6 February 1952
Sandringham House
aged 56 years, 54 days
Elizabeth II
Elizabeth Alexandra Mary
6 February 1952[l]

(67 years, 121 days)
Arms of the United Kingdom.svg
21 April 1926
Daughter of George VI
and Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Philip of Greece and Denmark
Westminster Abbey
20 November 1947
4 children
Age 93 years, 46 days[ii]
Daughter of George VI [14]

Timeline of British monarchs

Elizabeth IIGeorge VIEdward VIIIGeorge VEdward VIIQueen VictoriaWilliam IV of the United KingdomGeorge IV of the United KingdomGeorge III of the United KingdomGeorge II of Great BritainGeorge I of Great BritainAnne, Queen of Great BritainHouse of WindsorHouse of Saxe-Coburg and GothaHouse of HanoverHouse of Stuart

See also


  1. ^ For a family tree showing King George I's relationship to Queen Anne, see George I of Great Britain § Family tree.
  2. ^ Updated daily according to UTC


  1. ^ King George I was crowned on 20 October 1714.
  2. ^ King George II was crowned on 11 October 1727 with Queen Caroline.
  3. ^ Dates of start of reign and coronation given in Old Style calendar; date of death in New Style. (Duration of reign takes this into account.)
  4. ^ King George III was crowned on 22 September 1761 with Queen Charlotte.
  5. ^ King George IV was crowned on 19 July 1821.
  6. ^ King William IV was crowned on 8 September 1831 with Queen Adelaide.
  7. ^ Queen Victoria was crowned on 28 June 1838.
  8. ^ King Edward VII was crowned on 9 August 1902 with Queen Alexandra.
  9. ^ King George V was crowned on 22 May 1911 with Queen Mary.
  10. ^ King Edward VIII was not crowned.
  11. ^ King George VI was crowned on 12 May 1937 with Queen Elizabeth.
  12. ^ Queen Elizabeth II was crowned on 2 June 1953.


  1. ^ "Coats of arms". Archived from the original on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  2. ^ "Anne (r. 1702–1714)". Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  3. ^ "George I (r. 1714–1727)". Archived from the original on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  4. ^ "George II (r. 1727–1760)". Archived from the original on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  5. ^ "George III (r. 1760–1820)". Archived from the original on 20 May 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  6. ^ "King George IV (r. 1820–1830)". Archived from the original on 19 August 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  7. ^ "William IV (r. 1830–1837)". Archived from the original on 21 September 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  8. ^ "Victoria ( r. 1837–1901)". Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  9. ^ "No. 30186". The London Gazette. 17 July 1917. p. 7119.
  10. ^ "Edward VII (r.1901–1910)". Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  11. ^ "George V (r. 1910–1936)". Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  12. ^ "Edward VIII (Jan–Dec 1936)". Archived from the original on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
  13. ^ "George VI (r.1936–1952)". Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  14. ^ "Her Majesty The Queen". Archived from the original on 23 August 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.

External links

This page was last edited on 19 May 2019, at 20:10
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