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Foreign relations of the United States

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Diplomatic relations of the United .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  United States  Countries that have diplomatic relations with the United States  Countries that do not have diplomatic relations with the United States  Disputed territories  Antarctica
Diplomatic relations of the United States
  United States
  Countries that have diplomatic relations with the United States
  Countries that do not have diplomatic relations with the United States
  Disputed territories

The United States has formal diplomatic relations with most nations. This includes all UN member and observer states other than Bhutan, Iran, North Korea and Syria, and the UN observer State of Palestine, the latter of which the U.S. does not recognize. Additionally, the U.S. has diplomatic relations with Kosovo and the European Union.

The United States federal statutes relating to foreign relations can be found in Title 22 of the United States Code. For several years, the United States had the most diplomatic posts of any state but as of 2020, it is second to the People's Republic of China.[1]


North and South America

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina 1823[2] See Argentina–United States relations

Argentina was integrated into the British international economy in the late 19th century; there was minimal trade with the United States. When the United States began promoting the Pan American Union, some Argentines were suspicious that it was indeed a device to lure the country into the US economic orbit, but most businessmen responded favorably and bilateral trade grew briskly. The United States has a positive bilateral relationship with Argentina based on many common strategic interests, including non-proliferation, counternarcotics, counter-terrorism, the fight against human trafficking, and issues of regional stability, as well as the strength of commercial ties. Argentina is a participant in the Three-Plus-One regional mechanism (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and the US), which focuses on coordination of counter-terrorism policies in the tri-border region. Argentina has endorsed the Proliferation Security Initiative, and has implemented the Container Security Initiative and the Trade Transparency Unit, both of which are programs administered by the US Department of Homeland Security/Immigration and Customs Enforcement.

 Belize 1981[3] See Belize–United States relations
 Bolivia 1849[4] See Bolivia–United States relations

The United States and Bolivia have had a tradition of cordial and cooperative relations. Development assistance from the United States to Bolivia dates from the 1940s, and the US remains a major partner for economic development, improved health, democracy, and the environment. In 1991, the US government forgave all of the $341 million debt owed by Bolivia to the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) as well as 80% ($31 million) of the amount owed to the United States Department of Agriculture for food assistance. The United States has also been a strong supporter of forgiveness of Bolivia's multilateral debt under the HIPC initiatives.

 Brazil 1824[5] See Brazil–United States relations

The United States was the first country to recognize the independence of Brazil, doing so in 1808. Brazil-United States relations have a long history, characterized by some moments of remarkable convergence of interests but also by sporadic and critical divergences on sensitive international issues.[6] The United States has increasingly regarded Brazil as a significant power, especially in its role as a stabilizing force and skillful interlocutor in Latin America.[7] As a significant political and economic power, Brazil has traditionally preferred to cooperate with the United States on specific issues rather than seeking to develop an all-encompassing, privileged relationship with the United States.[8]

 Canada 1926[9] See Canada–United States relations

Relations between Canada and the United States span more than two centuries, marked by a shared British colonial heritage, conflict during the early years of the US, and the eventual development of one of the most successful international relationships in the modern world. The most serious breach in the relationship was the War of 1812, which saw an American invasion of then British North America and counter invasions from British-Canadian forces. The border was demilitarized after the war and, apart from minor raids, has remained peaceful. Military collaboration began during the World Wars and continued throughout the Cold War, despite Canadian doubts about certain American policies. A high volume of trade and migration between the US and Canada has generated closer ties. The current bilateral relationship between Canada and the United States is of notable importance to both countries. About 75–85% of Canadian trade is with the United States, and Canada is the United States' largest trading partner and chief supplier of oil. While there are disputed issues between the two nations, relations are close and the two countries share the "world's longest undefended border."[10] A high volume of trade and migration between the United States and Canada since the 1850s has generated closer ties, despite continued Canadian fears of being culturally overwhelmed by its neighbor, which is nine times larger in terms of population and eleven times larger in terms of economy.[11][12] The two economies have increasingly merged since the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) of 1994, which also includes Mexico. This economic merger of these two countries will be shifted when the Trump era United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement USMCA is ratified.

 Chile 1824[13] See Chile–United States relations

Relations between Chile and the United States have been better in the period 1988 to 2008 than any other time in history. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the United States government applauded the rebirth of democratic practices in Chile, despite having facilitated the 1973 Chilean coup d'état, the build-up to which included destabilizing the country's economy and politics. Regarded as one of the least corrupt and most vibrant democracies in South America, with a healthy economy, Chile is noted as being a valuable ally of the United States in the Southern Hemisphere. A prime example of cooperation includes the landmark 2003 Chile–United States Free Trade Agreement.

 Colombia 1822[14] See Colombia–United States relations

Relations between Colombia and the United States have evolved from mutual cordiality during most of the 19th and early 20th centuries[citation needed] to a recent partnership that links the governments of both nations around several key issues, including fighting communism, the War on Drugs, and especially since 9/11, the threat of terrorism. During the last fifty years, different American governments and their representatives have become involved in Colombian affairs through the implementation of policies concerned with the above issues. Some critics of current United States policies in Colombia, such as Law Professor John Barry, consider that US influences have catalyzed internal conflicts and substantially expanded the scope and nature of human rights abuses in Colombia.[15] Supporters, such as Under Secretary of State Marc Grossman, consider that the US has promoted respect for human rights and the rule of law in Colombia, in addition to the fight against drugs and terrorism.[16]

 Costa Rica 1851[17] See Costa Rica–United States relations
 Ecuador 1832[18] See Ecuador–United States relations
 El Salvador 1824; 1849[19] See El Salvador–United States relations
 Guatemala 1824; 1844[20] See Guatemala–United States relations
 Guyana 1966[21] See Guyana–United States relations
 Honduras 1824; 1853[22] See Honduras–United States relations
 Mexico 1822[23] See Mexico–United States relations

The United States shares a unique and often complex relationship with the United Mexican States. A history of armed conflict goes back to the Texas Revolution in the 1830s, the Mexican–American War in the 1840s, and an American invasion in the 1910s. Important treaties include the Gadsden Purchase, and multilaterally with Canada, the North American Free Trade Agreement which was changed in the Trump era to the United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement. The two countries have close economic ties, being each other's first and third largest trading partners. They are also closely connected demographically, with over one million US citizens living in Mexico and Mexico being the largest source of immigrants to the United States. Illegal immigration and illegal trade in drugs and firearms have been causes of differences but also of cooperation.[24][25]

 Nicaragua 1824; 1849[26] See Nicaragua–United States relations

Nicaragua and the United States have had diplomatic relations since 1824. Between 1912 and 1933, the United States occupied Nicaragua (see United States occupation of Nicaragua). Following the United States occupation of Nicaragua, in 1933 the Somoza family political dynasty came to power, and would rule Nicaragua until their ouster on July 19, 1979 during the Nicaraguan Revolution. The era of Somoza family rule was characterized by rising inequality and political corruption, strong US support for the government and its military, as well as a reliance on US-based multinational corporations. This led to international condemnation of the regime and in 1977 the Carter Administration in the US cut off aid to the Somoza regime due to its human rights violations.

Then during the Reagan Administration the diplomatic relations escalated during the Iran-Contra affair and the United States embargo against Nicaragua. Then in 1990 after Violeta Chamorro won the 1990 Nicaraguan general election the diplomatic relations began to improve greatly. The United States has promoted national reconciliation, encouraging Nicaraguans to resolve their problems through dialogue and compromise. In the Summer 2003 Nicaragua sent around 370 soldiers to the Iraq War as part of the coalition of countries that were engaging in war in this country. Immediately after April 2004 these troops were withdrawn by President Enrique Bolanos. Although President Daniel Ortega has been publicly critical of US policies, the United States and Nicaragua have normal diplomatic relations.

 Panama 1903[27] See Panama–United States relations

Panama gained its independence in 1901 due in part to American interest in building the Panama Canal. Relations have been generally strong, with 25,000 US citizens present in Panama and a mutual healthcare program. The United States invaded Panama in 1989 to remove then Panamanian leader Manual Noriega.

 Paraguay 1852[28] See Paraguay–United States relations
 Peru 1826[29] See Peru–United States relations
 Suriname 1975[30] See Suriname–United States relations
 Uruguay 1836[31] See Uruguay - United States relations

In 2002, Uruguay and the United States created a Joint Commission on Trade and Investment (JCTI) to exchange ideas on a variety of economic topics. In March 2003, the JCTI identified six areas of concentration until the eventual signing of the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA): customs issues, intellectual property protection, investment, labor, environment, and trade in goods. In late 2004, Uruguay and the United States signed an Open Skies Agreement, which was ratified in May 2006. In November 2005, they signed a Bilateral investment treaty (BIT), which entered into force on November 1, 2006. A Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA) was signed in January 2007. More than 80 US-owned companies operate in Uruguay, and many more market US goods and services.

 Venezuela 1835[32] See Venezuela - United States relations

Both countries maintained mutual diplomatic relationships since the early-19th century traditionally been characterized by an important trade and investment relationship and cooperation in controlling the production and transit of illegal drugs. After the election of Presidents Hugo Chávez of Venezuela and George W. Bush of the United States and particularly after the Venezuelan failed coup attempt in 2002 against Chavez, tensions between the countries escalated, reaching a high in September 2008 when Venezuela broke off diplomatic relations with the United States. Relations showed signs of improvement in 2009 with the election of the new US President Barack Obama, including the re-establishment of diplomatic relations in June 2009. In January 2019, after US President Donald Trump recognized Juan Guaidó as the Interim President of Venezuela, President Nicolás Maduro cut all diplomatic ties to the United States (2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis) and ordered all US diplomats to leave the country.[33] On the 26th of January the Maduro government suspended its deadline to US diplomats to leave the country.[34]


Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Antigua and Barbuda 1981[35] See Antigua and Barbuda–United States relations
 Aruba See Aruba–United States relations
 Bahamas 1973[36] See Bahamas–United States relations
 Barbados 1966[37] See Barbados–United States relations
 Bermuda See Bermuda–United States relations
 Cayman Islands See Cayman Islands–United States relations
 Cuba 1902; 2014[38] See Cuba–United States relations

Following the Cuban Revolution of 1959 relations had deteriorated substantially, and until recently have been marked by tension and confrontation. The United States has initiated an embargo due to the Cuban regime refusal to move toward democratization and greater respect for human rights,[39] hoping to see democratization that took place in Eastern Europe. Maintaining friendly and close relationships between the United States and Cuba were formally re-established on July 20, 2015 with the opening of embassies in both Havana and Washington, D.C.[40]

 Dominican Republic 1866[41] See Dominican Republic–United States relations
 Dominica 1978[42] See Dominica–United States relations
 Grenada 1974[43] See Grenada–United States relations
 Haiti 1862[44] See Haiti–United States relations
 Jamaica 1962[45] See Jamaica–United States relations
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 1983[46] See Saint Kitts and Nevis–United States relations
 Saint Lucia 1979[47] See Saint Lucia–United States relations
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1981[48] See Saint Vincent and the Grenadines–United States relations
 Trinidad and Tobago 1962[49] See Trinidad and Tobago–United States relations


American relations with Eastern Europe are influenced by the legacy of the Cold War. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, former Communist-bloc states in Europe have gradually transitioned to democracy and capitalism. Many have also joined the European Union and NATO, strengthening economic ties with the broader Western world and gaining the military protection of the United States via the North Atlantic Treaty.

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania 1922[50] See Albania–United States relations
 Andorra 1995[51] See Andorra–United States relations
 Armenia 1920; 1991[52] See Armenia–United States relations
 Austria 1921[53] See Austria–United States relations
 Azerbaijan 1918-1928, 1991[54] See Azerbaijan–United States relations
 Belarus 1991[55] See Belarus–United States relations
The United States has tense relations with Belarus relating to Belarus' human rights record and election irregularities.
 Belgium 1832[56] See Belgium–United States relations
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992[57] See Bosnia and Herzegovina–United States relations
 Bulgaria 1903[58] See Bulgaria–United States relations
 Croatia 1992[59] See Croatia–United States relations
 Cyprus 1960[60] See Cyprus–United States relations
 Czech Republic 1993[61] See Czech Republic–United States relations
 Denmark 1801[62] See Denmark–United States relations
 Estonia 1922; 1991[63] See Estonia–United States relations
 Finland 1919[64] See Finland–United States relations
 France 1778[65] See France–United States relations

France was the first foreign state to establish diplomatic relations with the United States.

 Georgia 1992[66] See Georgia–United States relations
 Germany 1797[67] See Germany–United States relations
 Greece 1868[68] See Greece–United States relations
  Holy See 1984[69] See Holy See–United States relations
 Hungary 1921[70] See Hungary–United States relations
 Iceland 1944[71] See Iceland–United States relations
 Ireland 1924[72] See Ireland–United States relations
 Italy 1861[73] See Italy–United States relations
 Kosovo 2008[74] See Kosovo–United States relations
The United States was one of the first countries to recognize Kosovo. The UN Security Council divided on the question of Kosovo's declaration of independence. Kosovo declared its independence on February 17, 2008, whilst Serbia objected that Kosovo is part of its territory. Of the five members with veto power in the UN Security Council, the US, UK, and France recognized the declaration of independence, and China has expressed concern, while Russia considers it illegal. "In its declaration of independence, Kosovo committed itself to the highest standards of democracy, including freedom and tolerance and justice for citizens of all ethnic backgrounds", President George W. Bush said on February 19, 2008.[75][76] Both countries enjoy excellent relationships.
 Latvia 1922; 1991[77] See Latvia–United States relations
 Liechtenstein 1997[78] See Liechtenstein–United States relations
 Lithuania 1922; 1991[79] See Lithuania–United States relations
 Luxembourg 1903[80] See Luxembourg–United States relations
 Malta 1964[81] See Malta–United States relations
 Moldova 1992[82] See Moldova–United States relations
 Monaco 2006[83] See Monaco–United States relations
 Montenegro 1905; 2006[84] See Montenegro–United States relations
 Netherlands 1781[85] See Netherlands–United States relations
The Dutch colony of Sint Eustatius was the first foreign state to recognize the independence of the United States, doing so in 1776. However, the Dutch Republic neither authorized the recognition nor ratified it, therefore Morocco remains the first sovereign nation to officially recognize the United States.
 North Macedonia 1995[86] See North Macedonia–United States relations
 Norway 1905[87] See Norway–United States relations
 Poland 1919[88] See Poland–United States relations
 Portugal 1791[89] See Portugal–United States relations
 Romania 1880[90] See Romania–United States relations
 Russia 1809; 1991[91] See Russia–United States relations
 San Marino 1861[92] See San Marino–United States relations
 Serbia 1882; 2000[93] See Serbia–United States relations
 Slovakia 1993[94] See Slovakia–United States relations
 Slovenia 1992[95] See Slovenia–United States relations
 Spain 1783[96] See Spain–United States relations
 Sweden 1783[97] See Sweden–United States relations
  Switzerland 1853[98] See Switzerland–United States relations
 Ukraine 1991[99] See Ukraine–United States relations
 United Kingdom 1783[100] See United Kingdom–United States relations

Since World War II, the two countries have shared a Special Relationship as part of the Anglosphere. While both the United States and the United Kingdom maintain close relationships with many other nations around the world, the level of cooperation in military planning, execution of military operations, nuclear weapons technology, and intelligence sharing with each other has been described as "unparalleled" among major powers throughout the 20th and early 21st century.[101] The United States and Britain share the world's largest foreign direct investment partnership. American investment in the United Kingdom reached $255.4 billion in 2002, while British direct investment in the United States totaled $283.3 billion.[102]

 European Union See United States–European Union relations


North Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria 1962[103] See Algeria–United States relations

The official US presence in Algeria is expanding following over a decade of limited staffing, reflecting the general improvement in the security environment. During the past three years, the US embassy has moved toward more normal operations and now provides most embassy services to the American and Algerian communities.

 Egypt 1922[104] See Egypt–United States relations

After the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, Egyptian foreign policy began to shift as a result of the change in Egypt's leadership from President Gamal Abdel-Nasser to Anwar Sadat and the emerging peace process between Egypt and Israel. Sadat realized that reaching a settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict is a precondition for Egyptian development. To achieve this goal, Sadat ventured to enhance Egypt–United States relations to foster a peace process with Israel.

 Libya 1951[105] See Libya–United States relations

In 2011, the United States cut diplomatic relations with the Gaddafi regime. The United States recognized the National Transitional Council as the legitimate government of Libya on July 15, 2011.[106]

 Morocco 1786[107] See Morocco–United States relations

Morocco was the first sovereign nation to recognize the United States in 1777. American-Moroccan relations were formalized in a 1786 treaty, which is still in force and is the oldest unbroken bilateral treaty in American history.

 Sudan 1956[108] See Sudan–United States relations
 Tunisia 1795[109] See Tunisia–United States relations
 Arab League See Arab–American relations

The Arab League has a representation headquarter, and several offices in the U.S.

Sub-Saharan Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Angola 1994[110] See Angola–United States relations

Relations were tense during the Angolan Civil War when the US government backed UNITA rebels, but have warmed since the Angolan government renounced Marxism in 1992.

 Benin 1960[111] See Benin–United States relations

The two nations have had an excellent history of relations in the years since Benin embraced democracy. The US government continues to assist Benin with the improvement of living standards that are key to the ultimate success of Benin's experiment with democratic government and economic liberalization, and are consistent with US values and national interest in reducing poverty and promoting growth. The bulk of the US effort in support of consolidating democracy in Benin is focused on long-term human resource development through USAID programs.[112]

 Botswana 1966[113] See Botswana–United States relations
 Burkina Faso 1960[114] See Burkina Faso–United States relations
 Burundi 1962[115] See Burundi–United States relations
 Cameroon 1960[116] See Cameroon–United States relations
 Cape Verde 1975[117] See Cape Verde–United States relations
 Central African Republic 1960[118] See Central African Republic–United States relations
 Chad 1960[119] See Chad–United States relations
 Comoros 1977[120] See Comoros–United States relations
 Côte d'Ivoire 1960[121] See Côte d'Ivoire–United States relations
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 1960[122] See Democratic Republic of the Congo–United States relations
 Djibouti 1977[123] See Djibouti–United States relations
 Equatorial Guinea 1968[124] See Equatorial Guinea–United States relations
 Eritrea 1993[125] See Eritrea–United States relations
 Eswatini 1968[126] See Eswatini–United States relations
 Ethiopia 1903[127] See Ethiopia–United States relations
 Gabon 1960[128] See Gabon–United States relations
 Ghana 1957[129] See Ghana–United States relations
 Guinea 1959[130] See Guinea–United States relations
 Guinea-Bissau 1975[131] See Guinea-Bissau–United States relations
 Kenya 1964[132] See Kenya–United States relations
 Lesotho 1966[133] See Lesotho–United States relations
 Liberia 1864[134] See Liberia–United States relations
 Madagascar 1874[135] See Madagascar–United States relations
 Malawi 1964[136] See Malawi–United States relations
 Mali 1960[137] See Mali–United States relations
 Mauritania 1960[138] See Mauritania–United States relations
 Mauritius 1968[139] See Mauritius–United States relations
 Mozambique 1975[140] See Mozambique–United States relations
 Namibia 1990[141] See Namibia–United States relations
 Niger 1960[142] See Niger–United States relations
 Nigeria 1960[143] See Nigeria–United States relations
 Republic of the Congo 1960[144] See Republic of the Congo–United States relations
 Rwanda 1962[145] See Rwanda–United States relations
 São Tomé and Príncipe 1976[146] See São Tomé and Príncipe–United States relations
 Senegal 1960[147] See Senegal–United States relations
 Seychelles 1976[148] See Seychelles–United States relations
 Sierra Leone 1961[149] See Sierra Leone–United States relations
 Somalia 1960[150] See Somalia–United States relations
 South Africa 1929[151] See South Africa–United States relations
 South Sudan 2011[152] See South Sudan–United States relations
 Tanzania 1961[153] See Tanzania–United States relations
 The Gambia 1965[154] See The Gambia–United States relations
 Togo 1960[155] See Togo–United States relations
 Uganda 1962[156] See Uganda–United States relations

Bilateral relations between the United States and Uganda have been good since Yoweri Museveni assumed power, and the United States has welcomed his efforts to end human rights abuses and to pursue economic reform. Uganda is a strong supporter of the Global War on Terror. The United States is helping Uganda achieve export-led economic growth through the African Growth and Opportunity Act and provides a significant amount of development assistance. At the same time, the United States is concerned about continuing human rights problems and the pace of progress toward the establishment of genuine political pluralism.

 Zambia 1964[157] See United States–Zambia relations

The diplomatic relationship between the United States and Zambia can be characterized as warm and cooperative. The United States works closely with the Zambian Government to defeat the HIV/AIDS pandemic that is ravaging Zambia, to promote economic growth and development, and to effect political reform needed to promote responsive and responsible government. The United States is also supporting the government's efforts to root out corruption. Zambia is a beneficiary of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA). The US government provides a variety of technical assistance and other support that is managed by the Department of State, USAID, Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) Threshold Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of the Treasury, Department of Defense, and the Peace Corps. The majority of US assistance is provided through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), in support of the fight against HIV/AIDS.

 Zimbabwe 1980[158] See United States–Zimbabwe relations

After Morgan Tsvangirai, Mugabe's rival and leader of the Movement for Democratic Change, became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe under a power-sharing agreement, the Barack Obama administration extended its congratulations to Tsvangirai, but said that the US would wait for evidence of Mugabe's cooperation with the MDC before it would consider lifting its sanctions.[159] In early March 2009, Obama proclaimed that US sanctions would be protracted provisionally for another year, because Zimbabwe's political crisis is as yet unresolved.[160]


West Asia and Middle East

The United States has many important allies in the Greater Middle East region. These allies are Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Morocco, Jordan, Afghanistan, Israel, Egypt, Kuwait, Bahrain and Qatar. Israel and Egypt are leading recipients of United States foreign aid, receiving $2.775 billion[161] and 1.75 billion[162] in 2010. Turkey is an ally of the United States through its membership in NATO, while all of the other countries except Saudi Arabia and Qatar are major non-NATO allies.

The United States toppled the government of Saddam Hussein during the 2003 invasion of Iraq.[163] Turkey is host to approximately 90 B61 nuclear bombs at Incirlik Air Base.[164] Other allies include Qatar, where 3,500 US troops are based,[165] and Bahrain, where the United States Navy maintains NSA Bahrain, home of NAVCENT and the Fifth Fleet.

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Bahrain 1971[166] See Bahrain–United States relations
 Iran 1883 (ended 1980)[167] See Iran–United States relations

The United States and the Kingdom of Persia recognized each other in 1850. Diplomatic relations were established in 1883 and severed in 1980.

 Iraq 1931; 1984; 2004[168] See Iraq–United States relations
 Israel 1949[169] See Israel–United States relations
 Jordan 1949[170] See Jordan–United States relations
 Kuwait 1961[171] See Kuwait–United States relations
 Lebanon 1944[172] See Lebanon–United States relations
 Oman 1972[173] See Oman–United States relations
 Qatar 1972[174] See Qatar–United States relations
 Saudi Arabia 1940[175] See Saudi Arabia–United States relations
 Syria 1835 (ended 2012)[176] See Syria–United States relations

The Syrian Arab Republic cut off relations with United States in 2012 in response to American support of the Syrian rebels.

 Turkey 1830[177] See Turkey–United States relations
 United Arab Emirates 1972[178] See United Arab Emirates–United States relations

The United States was the third country to establish formal diplomatic relations with the UAE and has had an ambassador resident in the UAE since 1974. The two countries have enjoyed friendly relations with each other and have developed into friendly government-to-government ties which include security assistance. UAE and US had enjoyed private commercial ties, especially in petroleum. The quality of UAE–US relations increased dramatically as a result of the US-led coalition's campaign to end the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait. UAE ports host more US Navy ships than any port outside the US.

 Yemen 1946[179] See United States–Yemen relations

Traditionally, United States – Yemen relations have been tepid, as the lack of strong military-to-military ties, commercial relations, and support of Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh has hindered the development of strong bilateral ties. During the early years of the George W. Bush administration, relations improved under the rubric of the War on Terror, though Yemen's lack of policies toward wanted terrorists has stalled additional US support.[180]

Central Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Kazakhstan 1991[181] See Kazakhstan–United States relations
 Kyrgyzstan 1993[182] See Kyrgyzstan–United States relations
 Tajikistan 1991[183] See Tajikistan–United States relations
 Turkmenistan 1991[184] See Turkmenistan–United States relations

The US embassy, USAID, and the Peace Corps are located in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan. The United States and Turkmenistan continue to disagree about the country's path toward democratic and economic reform. The United States has publicly advocated industrial privatization, market liberalization, and fiscal reform, as well as legal and regulatory reforms to open up the economy to foreign trade and investment, as the best way to achieve prosperity and true independence and sovereignty.

 Uzbekistan 1991[185] See United States–Uzbekistan relations

Relations improved slightly in the latter half of 2007, but the U.S.A. continues to call for Uzbekistan to meet all of its commitments under the March 2002 Declaration of Strategic Partnership between the two countries. The declaration covers not only security and economic relations but political reform, economic reform, and human rights. Uzbekistan has Central Asia's largest population and is vital to US, regional, and international efforts to promote stability and security.

South Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Afghanistan 1935[186] See Afghanistan–United States relations
 Bangladesh 1972[187] See Bangladesh–United States relations

Today the relationship between the two countries is based on what is described by American diplomats as the "three Ds", meaning Democracy, Development and Denial of space for terrorism. The United States is closely working with Bangladesh in combating Islamic extremism and terrorism and is providing hundreds of millions of dollars every year in economic assistance.

 Bhutan Never had formal, only informal relations[188] See Bhutan–United States relations

While the United States has no formal diplomatic relations with Bhutan, it maintains informal contact through its embassy in New Delhi, India. The US has offered to resettle 60,000 of the 107,000 Bhutanese refugees of Nepalese origin now living in seven UN refugee camps in southeastern Nepal.

 India 1947[189] See India–United States relations

The relationships between India in the days of the British Raj and the US were thin.[190] Swami Vivekananda promoted Yoga and Vedanta in America at the World's Parliament of Religions in Chicago, during the World's Fair in 1893. Mark Twain visited India in 1896[191] and described it in his travelogue Following the Equator with both revulsion and attraction before concluding that India was the only foreign land he dreamed about or longed to see again.[192] Regarding India, Americans learned more from English writer Rudyard Kipling.[193] Mahatma Gandhi had an important influence on the philosophy of non-violence promoted by Martin Luther King, Jr. in the 1950s.

At present, India and the US share an extensive and expanding cultural, strategic, military, and economic relationship[194][195][196][197][198] which is in the phase of implementing confidence building measures (CBM) to overcome the legacy of trust deficit – brought about by adversarial US foreign policies[199][200][201][202] and multiple instances of technology denial[203][204][205][206][207] – which have plagued the relationship over several decades.[208][209] Unrealistic expectations after the conclusion of the 2008 India–United States Civil Nuclear Agreement (which underestimated negative public opinion regarding the long-term viability of nuclear power generation and civil-society endorsement for contractual guarantees on safeguards and liability) has given way to pragmatic realism and refocus on areas of cooperation which enjoy favourable political and electoral consensus.

 Maldives 1965[210] See Maldives–United States relations
   Nepal 1947[211] See Nepal–United States relations
 Pakistan 1947[212] See Pakistan–United States relations
 Sri Lanka 1947[213] See Sri Lanka–United States relations

East Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 People's Republic of China 1844 (Qing)[214]
1979 (PRC)
See China–United States relations

United States relations with the People's Republic of China used to be quite strong, yet complex. A great amount of trade between the two countries necessitates positive political relations, although occasional disagreements over tariffs, currency exchange rates and the Political status of Taiwan do occur. Nevertheless, the United States and China used to have an extremely extensive partnership. The United States criticizes China on human rights issues and in recent years like the mass detaining of Uyghurs and Kazakhs in Xinjiang or the cultural assimilation of Mongols and Tibetans. China has criticized the United States on human rights in return also. The United States acknowledges the People's Republic's One-China policy.

The relations deteriorated sharply under Donald Trump, who launched a trade war against China, banned US companies from selling equipment to Huawei, increased visa restrictions on Chinese students and scholars and designated China as a "currency manipulator".[215][216][217][218][219]

 Republic of China (Taiwan) 1844 (Qing)[214]
1911 (ended 1979)
1979 (Taiwan Relations Act - unofficial)

2018 (Taiwan Travel Act) - high-level working partnership

See Taiwan–United States relations

The United States recognized the Nationalist Government as the legitimate government of all of China throughout the Chinese Civil War. The US continued to recognize the Republic of China until 1979, when it shifted its recognition to the People's Republic of China in accordance with the One China policy, where the US ‘acknowledge’, or take note of, the Chinese position on Taiwan but not ‘recognizing’ or accepting it which allows the US flexibility to pursue unofficial but robust relations with Taipei. The US continued to provide Taiwan with military aid after 1979, and continued informal relations through the American Institute in Taiwan, and Taiwan is considered to be a strong Asian ally and supporter of the United States.[220] The US Congress passed the Taiwan Travel Act on February 28, 2018 and the bill was subsequently signed into federal law by President Donald Trump, formalizing high-level communications between Washington and Taipei as well as permitting intergovernmental contact at the highest level.[221]

 Hong Kong 1992[222]
See Hong Kong–United States relations

U.S. foreign policy toward Hong Kong, grounded in a determination to promote Hong Kong's prosperity, autonomy, and way of life, is stated in the U.S.–Hong Kong Policy Act of 1992. It rules that the U.S. would continue to treat Hong Kong apart from the People's Republic of China even after the 1997 transfer of sovereignty marking the end of British rule. The United States maintains substantial economic and political interests in Hong Kong. The United States supports Hong Kong's autonomy by concluding and implementing bilateral agreements; promoting trade and investment; arranging high-level visits; broadening law enforcement cooperation; bolstering educational, academic, and cultural links; and supporting the large community of U.S. citizens and visitors.

 Macau 1999[223]
See Macau–United States relations

In recognition of Macau's high degree of autonomy, the United States continues to treat Macau as a "special area" distinct from the People's Republic of China. Macau's clothes and textiles continued to enter the United States under quotas separated from those of China. Under the terms of a September 2000 bilateral Memorandum of Understanding, Macau and the US government cooperate in enforcing textile quotas and preventing illegal trans-shipment. The US continued periodic visits by U.S. Customs Textile Production Verification Teams to ensure compliance with Macau bilateral textile commitments.

 Japan 1854, 1952[224]
See Japan–United States relations

The relationship began in the 1850s as the US was a major factor in forcing Japan to resume contacts with the outer world beyond a very restricted role. In the late 19th century the Japanese sent many delegations to Europe, and some to the US, to discover and copy the latest technology and thereby modernize Japan very rapidly and allow it to build its own empire. There was some friction over control of Hawaii and the Philippines, but Japan stood aside as the US annexed those lands in 1898. Likewise the US did not object when Japan took control of Korea. The two nations cooperated with the European powers in suppressing the Boxer Rebellion in China in 1900, but the US was increasingly troubled about Japan's denial of the Open Door Policy that would ensure that all nations could do business with China on an equal basis.[225]

President Theodore Roosevelt admired Japan's strength as it defeated a major European power, Russia. He brokered an end to the war between Russia and Japan in 1905–6. Anti-Japanese sentiment (especially on the West Coast) soured relations in the 1907–24 era. In the 1930s, the US protested vehemently against Japan's seizure of Manchuria (1931), its war against China (1937–45), and its seizure of Indochina (Vietnam) 1940–41. American sympathies were with China and Japan rejected increasingly angry American demands that Japan pull out of China. The two nations fought an all-out war 1941–45; the US won a total victory, with heavy bombing (including two atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki) that devastated Japan's 50 largest industrial cities. The US Army under Douglas MacArthur occupied and ruled Japan, 1945–51, with the successful goal of sponsoring a peaceful, prosperous and democratic nation.[226]

In 1951, the United States and Japan signed Treaty of San Francisco and Security Treaty Between the United States and Japan, subsequently revised as Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan in 1960, relations since then have been excellent. The United States considers Japan to be one of its closest allies, and it is both a Major Non-NATO ally and NATO contact country. The United States has several military bases in Japan including Yokosuka, which harbors the US 7th Fleet. The JSDF, or Japanese Self Defense Force, cross train with the US military, often providing auxiliary security and conducting war games.

 Mongolia 1987[227] See Mongolia–United States relations
 North Korea 1882 (Joseon);[228] Only Informal Relations with the DPRK[229] See North Korea–United States relations
The United States and North Korea do not have diplomatic relations.[230]
 South Korea 1882 (Joseon);[228] 1949 (Republic)[231] See South Korea–United States relations

South Korea–United States relations have been most extensive since 1945, when the United States helped establish capitalism in South Korea and led the UN-sponsored Korean War against North Korea and China (1950–53).[232] South Korea's rapid economic growth, democratization and modernization greatly reduced its US dependency. Large numbers of US forces remain in South Korea. On September 24, 2018, US president Donald Trump signed a renegotiated trade agreement with South Korean President Moon Jae-in.[233]

Southeast Asia

Many countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) are important partners for United States in both economic and geostrategic aspects. ASEAN's geostrategic importance stems from many factors, including: the strategic location of member countries, the large shares of global trade that pass through regional waters, and the alliances and partnerships which the United States shares with ASEAN member states. In July 2009, the United States signed ASEAN's Treaty of Amity and Cooperation, which establishes guiding principles intended to build confidence among its signatories with the aim of maintaining regional peace and stability.[234] Trade flows are robust and increasing between America and the ASEAN region.

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Brunei 1984[235] See Brunei–United States relations

The United States welcomed Brunei Darussalam's full independence from the United Kingdom on January 1, 1984, and opened an embassy in Bandar Seri Begawan on that date. Brunei opened its embassy in Washington, D.C. in March 1984. Brunei's armed forces engage in joint exercises, training programs, and other military cooperation with the US. A memorandum of understanding on defense cooperation was signed on November 29, 1994. The Sultan of Brunei visited Washington in December 2002.

 Cambodia 1950[236] See Cambodia–United States relations
 East Timor 2002[237] See East Timor–United States relations
 Indonesia 1949[238] See Indonesia–United States relations

As the largest ASEAN member, Indonesia has played an active and prominent role in developing the organization.[239] For United States, Indonesia is important for dealing with certain issues; such as terrorism,[240] democracy, and how United States project its relations with Islamic world, since Indonesia has the world's largest Islamic population, and one that honors and respects religious diversity.[241] The United States views Indonesia as a potential strategic ally in Southeast Asia.[242] During his stately visit to Indonesia, US president Barack Obama has held up Indonesia as an example of how a developing nation can embrace democracy and diversity.[243][244]

 Laos 1950[245] See Laos–United States relations
 Malaysia 1957[245] See Malaysia–United States relations

Despite increasingly strained relations under the Mahathir Mohamad government, ties have been thawed under Najib Razak's administration. Economic ties are particularly robust, with the United States being Malaysia's largest trading partner and Malaysia is the tenth-largest trading partner of the US. Annual bilateral trade amounts to $50 billion. The United States and Malaysia launched negotiations for a bilateral free trade agreement (FTA) in June 2006.

The United States and Malaysia enjoy strong security cooperation. Malaysia hosts the Southeast Asia Regional Center for Counterterrorism (SEARCCT), where over 2000 officials from various countries have received training. The United States is among the foreign countries that has collaborated with the center in conducting capacity building programmes. The United States and Malaysia share a strong military-to-military relationship with numerous exchanges, training, joint exercises, and visits.

 Myanmar 1948[246] See Myanmar–United States relations
Bilateral ties have generally been strained but are slowly improving. The United States has placed broad sanctions on Burma because of the military crackdown in 1988 and the military regime's refusal to honour the election results of the 1990 People's Assembly election. Similarly, the European Union has placed embargoes on Burma, including an arms embargo, cessation of trade preferences, and suspension of all aid with the exception of humanitarian aid.[247]

US and European government sanctions against the military government, alongside boycotts and other types direct pressure on corporations by western supporters of the Burmese democracy movement, have resulted in the withdrawal from Burma of most United States and many European companies. However, several Western companies remain due to loopholes in the sanctions.[248] Asian corporations have generally remained willing to continue investing in Myanmar and to initiate new investments, particularly in natural resource extraction.

Ongoing reforms have improved relations between Burma and the United States. However the Rohingya Crisis has been deteriorating ties.[249]

 Philippines 1946[250] See Philippines–United States relations

The Philippines and the United States have an extremely strong relationship with each other due to their long standing alliance. The Spanish government ceded the Philippines to the United States in the 1898 Treaty of Paris that ended the Spanish–American War. The Philippines was a United States colony from 1898 to 1946. The United States finally recognized Philippine independence on July 4, 1946 in the Treaty of Manila.[251] July 4 was observed in the Philippines as Independence Day until August 4, 1964 when, upon the advice of historians and the urging of nationalists, President Diosdado Macapagal signed into law Republic Act No. 4166 designating June 12 as the country's Independence Day.[252]

The United States and the Philippines have fought together in many conflicts such as World War I, World War II, the Korean War, Vietnam War, Islamic insurgency in the Philippines, Gulf War and the War on Terror.

The Philippines and the United States still maintain close, friendly, diplomatic, political and military relations with more than 100,000 US citizens and nationals living in the Philippines and more than 4 million Filipinos living in the United States. Both countries actively cooperate in the trade, investment and financial sectors. The US is also the largest investor in the Philippine economy with an estimated total worth of $63 billion.

The United States and the Philippines conduct joint military exercises called the Balikatan that take place once a year to boost relations between the two countries. The US military also conduct humanitarian and aid missions in the Philippines. The Philippines is one out of two major US allies in South East Asia.

Since 2003 the US has designated the Philippines as a Major non-NATO ally. However, relations between the United States and the Philippines began to deteriorate in 2016 with Philippines president Rodrigo Duterte wanting to form an alliance with China and Russia and separating the country from all connections and ties with the United States, both economically and socially.

 Singapore 1965[253] See Singapore–United States relations
 Thailand 1833[254] See Thailand–United States relations
Thailand and the United States are both former Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) members, being close partners throughout the Cold War, and are still close allies. Since 2003, the United States has designated Thailand as a major non-NATO ally.
 Vietnam 1995[255] See United States–Vietnam relations

After a 20-year hiatus of severed ties, President Bill Clinton announced the formal normalization of diplomatic relations with Vietnam on July 11, 1995. Subsequent to President Clinton's normalization announcement, in August 1995, both nations upgraded their Liaison Offices opened during January 1995 to embassy status. As diplomatic ties between the nations grew, the United States opened a consulate general in Ho Chi Minh City, and Vietnam opened a consulate in San Francisco. Today, the United States views Vietnam as a potential strategic ally in Southeast Asia.[242]


Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia 1940[256] See Australia–United States relations

Australia and the United States have long been close and strategic allies and have traditionally been aligned with the Commonwealth of Nations. The two countries have a shared history, both have previously been British Colonies and many Americans flocked to the Australian goldfields in the 19th century. At the strategic level, the relationship really came to prominence in the Second World War, when the two nations worked extremely closely in the Pacific War against Japan, with General Douglas MacArthur undertaking his role as Supreme Allied Commander based in Australia, effectively having Australian troops and resources under his command. During this period, the cultural interaction between Australia and the United States were elevated to a higher level as over 1 million US military personnel moved through Australia during the course of the war. The relationship continued to evolve throughout the second half of the 20th century, and today now involves strong relationships at the executive and mid levels of government and the military, leading Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs, Kurt M. Campbell to declare that "in the last ten years, [Australia] has ascended to one of the closest one or two allies [of the US] on the planet".[257] It was also strengthened its relationship with the United States as Britain's influence in Asia declined. At the governmental level, United States-Australia relations are formalized by the ANZUS treaty and the Australia–United States Free Trade Agreement.[citation needed]

 Cook Islands 1995 The Cook Islands are an Associated State of New Zealand and has consular relations with the United States, in addition as early as 1980, the two sides signed the Cook Islands-United States Maritime Boundary Treaty.
 Fiji 1971[258] See Fiji–United States relations

Relations are currently poor, due to the United States' opposition to Fiji's unelected government, which came to power through a military coup in December 2006. The United States suspended $2.5 million in aid money pending a review of the situation, following the 2006 coup.[259]

 Kiribati 1980[260] See Kiribati–United States relations

Relations between Kiribati and the United States are excellent. Kiribati signed a treaty of friendship with the United States after independence in 1979. The United States has no consular or diplomatic facilities in the country. Officers of the American Embassy in Suva, Fiji, are concurrently accredited to Kiribati and make periodic visits. The US Peace Corps maintained a program in Kiribati from 1974 to 2008.

 Marshall Islands 1986 See Marshall Islands–United States relations

The Marshall Islands is a sovereign nation in "free association" with the United States. The Marshall Islands and the United States maintain excellent relations. After more than a decade of negotiation, the Marshall Islands and the United States signed the Compact of Free Association on June 25, 1983. The Compact gives the US full authority and responsibility over defense of the Marshall Islands. The Marshall Islands and the United States both lay claim to Wake Island. The Compact that binds the Marshall Islands and the United States is the same one that binds the United States and the Federated States of Micronesia and Palau

 Federated States of Micronesia 1986[261] See Federated States of Micronesia–United States relations

Reflecting a strong legacy of Trusteeship cooperation, over 25 US federal agencies continue to maintain programs in the FSM. The United States and the FSM share very strong relations. Under the Amended Compact, the US has full authority and responsibility for the defense of the FSM. This security relationship can be changed or terminated by mutual agreement. The Compact that binds the US and the FSM is the same one that binds the United States to the Marshall Islands and to Palau.

 Nauru 1976[262] See Nauru–United States relations

Relations between Nauru and the United States are complicated. While the new US ambassador to Fiji has promised Nauru assistance in economic development, there have been disagreements about Cuba and Foreign policy of the United States, and the United States does not have an embassy in Nauru; instead, the US embassy staff in Suva, Fiji make periodical visits.

 New Zealand 1942[263] See New Zealand–United States relations

United States-New Zealand relations are strong, but complex. The United States has historically assisted New Zealand in times of turmoil; for instance, during World War II, US bombing Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and with the September 2010 Canterbury earthquake and the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake. New Zealand has reciprocated; for example, by participating in the Korean War and the Vietnam War. However, the United States suspended its mutual defense obligations to New Zealand because of the state's non-nuclear policies. In 1996, the United States under President Bill Clinton reinstated New Zealand's status from a 'friend' to an 'ally' by designating New Zealand as a Major non-NATO ally. Despite disagreements between the two countries, the bilateral trade, security, and cultural relationship continued to flourish. New Zealand continued to play a supportive role in international conflicts in Somalia, Bosnia, and the Persian Gulf. New Zealand and the United States are close collaborators in the international intelligence alliance, Five Eyes, which is one of the most comprehensive known espionage alliances in history. Following the 9/11 attacks on the United States in 2001, New Zealand supported international counter-terrorism efforts and assisted the United States throughout the war in Afghanistan. Throughout the 2000s, the United States has remained New Zealand's fourth-largest trading partner and third-largest source of visitors.

 Niue 1997 Niue is an Associated State of New Zealand. In 1997, the United States and Niue signed a maritime boundary treaty that included the following statement: "Prior to signing the treaty, the political status of Niue was addressed. Niue is in free association with New Zealand. On internal matters it is self-governing. Niue conducts its foreign affairs in conjunction with New Zealand. Niue has declared and does manage its exclusive economic zone. The United States requested, and received, confirmation from New Zealand that the Government of Niue had the competence to enter into this agreement with the United States."
 Palau 1996[264] See Palau–United States relations

On October 1, 1994, after five decades of US administration, the country of Palau became the last component of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands to gain its independence. In 1978, Palau decided not to join the Federated States of Micronesia, due to culture and language differences, and instead sought independence. In 1986, the Compact of Free Association agreement between Palau and the United States was approved, paving the way for Palau's independence.

 Papua New Guinea 1975[265] See Papua New Guinea–United States relations
 Samoa 1962[266] See Samoa–United States relations
 Solomon Islands 1978[267] See Solomon Islands–United States relations

After independence in 1978, the United States kept its close relations with the Solomon Islands. Both cooperate within regional organizations in the Pacific, and the United States has an embassy at Port Moresby.

 Tonga 1886; 1972[268] See Tonga–United States relations
 Tuvalu 1978[268] See Tuvalu–United States relations

Relations between the two countries are generally amicable, or neutral, but there have been notable disagreements regarding the issues of climate change and the Kyoto Protocol.

 Vanuatu 1986[269] See United States–Vanuatu relations

The United States and Vanuatu established diplomatic relations on September 30, 1986 - three months to the day after Vanuatu had established diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union.[270] Relations were often tense in the 1980s, under the prime ministership of Father Walter Lini in Vanuatu, but eased after that. At present, bilateral relations consist primarily in United States aid to Vanuatu.

Countries with visa services suspended


Countries with no embassy


  •  Andorra (the US ambassador to Spain is also accredited to Andorra; the US Consul General in Barcelona is responsible for day-to-day relations)[272]
  •  Antigua and Barbuda (US embassy and consulates for Antigua and Barbuda are located in Barbados)
  •  Bhutan (Contact is made via the Government of India at the US embassy in New Delhi, and Bhutan consulates in New York City)
  •  Comoros (the US ambassador to Madagascar is also accredited to Comoros.)[273]
  •  Dominica (US embassy and consulates for Dominica are located in Barbados)
  •  Grenada (US embassy and consulates for Grenada are located in Barbados)
  •  Guinea-Bissau (Contact is made at the US embassy in Senegal and there is also a presence of the United States in Guinea-Bissau through a Liaison Office in Bissau and a virtual presence post online, there are currently no Guinea-Bissauan consulates for the US, except for a permanent mission to the UN in New York)
  •  Iran (inactive, US Interests Section at the Swiss Embassy acts as a de facto embassy. Since December 2011, the US has also maintained a virtual embassy online.)
  •  Kiribati (the US ambassador to Fiji is also accredited to Kiribati.)[274]
  •  Liechtenstein (the US ambassador to Switzerland is also accredited to Liechtenstein.)[275]
  •  Maldives (the US ambassador to Sri Lanka is also accredited to Maldives.)[276]
  •  Monaco (the US ambassador to France is also accredited to Monaco; the US Consul General in Marseilles is responsible for day-to-day relations.)[277]
  •  Nauru (the US ambassador to Fiji is also accredited to Nauru.)[278]
  •  North Korea (Contact is made via the government of Sweden through its embassy in Pyongyang)
  •  Saint Kitts and Nevis (US embassy and consulates for Saint Kitts and Nevis are located in Barbados)
  •  Saint Lucia (US embassy and consulates for Saint Lucia are located in Barbados)
  •  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (US embassy and consulates for Saint Vincent and the Grenadines are located in Barbados)
  •  Samoa (the US ambassador to New Zealand is also accredited to Samoa.)[279]
  •  San Marino (the US ambassador to Italy is also accredited to San Marino; the US Consul General in Florence is responsible for day-to-day relations.)[280]
  •  São Tomé and Príncipe (the US ambassador to Gabon is also accredited to São Tomé and Príncipe.)[281]
  •  Seychelles (the US ambassador to Mauritius is also accredited to Seychelles.)[282]
  •  Solomon Islands (the US ambassador to Papua New Guinea is also accredited to the Solomon Islands.)[283]
  •  Tonga (the US ambassador to Fiji is also accredited to Tonga.)[284]
  •  Tuvalu (the US ambassador to Fiji is also accredited to Tuvalu.)[285]
  •  Vanuatu (the US ambassador to Papua New Guinea is also accredited to Vanuatu.)[286]
  • other:  Palestine (UN observer state; the United States does not recognize the State of Palestine. The US was formerly represented through a consulate in Jerusalem accredited to the Palestinian Authority, which was merged with its Jerusalem embassy to Israel)

Unrecognized countries with no foreign relations with the United States

Sovereign entities with no diplomatic relations with the United States

See also


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  2. ^ "Argentina - Countries - Office of the Historian". Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  3. ^ "Belize - Countries - Office of the Historian". Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  4. ^ "Bolivia - Countries - Office of the Historian". Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  5. ^ "Brazil - Countries - Office of the Historian". Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  6. ^ Developing a partnership with Brazil - An emerging power Bassoli, Douglas. US Army War College. April 3, 2004.
  7. ^ Archived July 10, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ US Congress Report on Brazil-US Relations Archived July 10, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
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  10. ^ John Herd Thompson, and Stephen J. Randall, Canada and the United States: Ambivalent Allies (4th ed. McGill-Queen's University Press, 2008) is the standard scholarly survey
  11. ^ "5. Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". International Monetary Fund. November 9, 2011. Retrieved November 9, 2011. 15,064 billions (figure for 2011) 313 million persons
  12. ^ "Canada". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved November 5, 2011.
  13. ^ "Chile - Countries - Office of the Historian". Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  14. ^ "Colombia - Countries - Office of the Historian". Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  15. ^ John Barry, From Drug War to Dirty War: Plan Colombia and the U.S. Role in Human Rights Violations in Colombia, 12 Transnat'l L. & Contemp. Probs. 161, 164 (Spring, 2002).
  16. ^ Marc Grossman. Subsecretario de Estado para Asuntos Políticos. Universidad de Georgetown. Conferencia Uniendo esfuerzos por Colombia. US Embassy of Colombia (September 2, 2002). Available at "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 11, 2005. Retrieved 2006-03-27.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link). Retrieved on March 27, 2006. (Spanish) (English version available)
  17. ^ "Costa Rica - Countries - Office of the Historian". Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  18. ^ "Ecuador - Countries - Office of the Historian". Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  19. ^ "El Salvador - Countries - Office of the Historian". Retrieved February 19, 2015.
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  24. ^ Tim Padgett, "Mexico's Calderón Needs to Listen, Not Just Lecture U.S." TIME May 19, 2010 online
  25. ^ Burton Kirkwood, The History of Mexico (2010) pp 97–99, 138–52, 216
  26. ^ "Nicaragua - Countries - Office of the Historian". Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  27. ^ "Panama - Countries - Office of the Historian". Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  28. ^ "Paraguay - Countries - Office of the Historian". Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  29. ^ "Peru - Countries - Office of the Historian". Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  30. ^ "Suriname - Countries - Office of the Historian". Retrieved February 19, 2015.
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External links

 This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website (U.S. Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets)

This page was last edited on 21 July 2021, at 03:16
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