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List of body horror media

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Body horror, biological horror, organic horror or visceral horror is horror fiction in which the horror is principally derived from the unnatural graphic transformation, degeneration or destruction of the physical body.[1] Such works may deal with decay, disease, deformity, parasitism, mutation or mutilation. Other types of body horror include unnatural movements or the anatomically incorrect placement of limbs to create "monsters" from human body parts. David Cronenberg, Frank Henenlotter, Brian Yuzna, Stuart Gordon, Lloyd Kaufman, and Clive Barker are notable directors of this genre. The term body horror was coined with the "Body Horror" theme issue of the University of Glasgow film journal Screen (vol. 27, no. 1, January–February 1986), which contains several essays on the subject.

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Japanese horror is unlike any other. Or is it? When I think about my fall into the pit of horror obsession, the first real moment of morbid fascination stems from when I found out about The Ring. Unlike what I was used to with the western slasher films and dreamtime boogiemen of the time, this movie had a potent psychological element to it. By now, I’m sure most of you are familiar with the material, but to give a brief summary for those new to Japanese horror: The Ring follows a journalist who learns of a cursed videotape attached to a string of mysterious deaths. According to legend, those who watch the videotape die 7 days later. The journalist is able to find a copy of the cursed tape and after watching it, begins experiencing subliminal visions and the increasing presence of something supernatural in the background. Something about the curse and the mysterious vengeful spirit behind it haunted me. Not only was I terrified- I was curious. I found myself looking for anything I could get my little hands on to better understand the curse I had recently learned of. And before long, I found myself reading a piece of the original source material: a Japanese horror manga based on a novel from 1991 simply called “Ring”. The images were hauntingly disturbing. There was something powerful in them, unlike any graphic novel I'd ever seen before. Eventually, I convinced a cousin of mine to come to the local Blockbuster with me, where we picked up a copy of the film that the Dreamworks adaptation was based on. Known to the western world as “Ringu”, Ring was horrifying. But this was a different type of horrifying. It was more subtle, more psychological. It had an unending dread. I distinctly remember how hard it was to sleep that night. And from then on, I found myself particularly excited whenever a new horror in a similar vein was released to the U.S. Something about it all was so captivating. Even looking back at my art from those days, there's no question creepy Japanese ghosts were an inspiration. So today on Darkology, we're going to explore just what makes Japanese horror so creepy. It's a common idea that Japanese horror or J-horror is exceptionally eluding. This is especially the case if you come from a western background where customs are quite different from East Asian cultures. In western culture, we’re used to being treated to a certain format of storytelling. Everything needs to be explained and we're often hand fed information especially with regards to motives behind spirits and supernatural happenings. In western horror we're used to seeing blood, guts, and action. A growing opinion is that western horror films have become more and more akin to violent adventure films. The thing about J-horror is, it's target audience isn't westerners. It isn't trying to appeal to the customs of Hollywood. It's its own separate entity, and it's built on a foundation of rich mythology and ancient belief systems from a different world. Perhaps that’s why it's so alien to us. Because it quite literally is. To gain a better understanding of what Japanese horror is, we need to first take a look at certain pieces of Japanese culture. More specifically, it's views on death and the afterlife. There are two main belief systems in Japan: Buddhism and Shinto. Buddhism focuses around the idea of death and rebirth and that life is merely an illusion, while Shinto is more concerned with praying to ancestors and nature spirits- a belief in a sacred power or kami flowing through all things animate and inanimate, serving to connect the present with the past. What's interesting here is that unlike its Christian counterparts, these belief systems aren't based in determining a good or an evil side, nor do they require strong religious alignments. According to Wikipedia, approximately 75% of the population practices some form of Buddhism while 90% practices some form of Shinto, meaning many practice a bit of both in between. Neither need be followed exclusively and to most, these belief systems are in place simply because they’re tradition. For example, funerals are often Buddhist in nature, while weddings are more Shinto. The main point here is that religion is flexible in Japan- and this results in two things. The first is a hybrid culture with a vast wealth of legends and mythology to draw from. The second is a society that accepts life as something fundamentally beyond human understanding- an acceptance of the ambiguous and the unknown surrounding us. H.P. Lovecraft has very little to do with J-Horror in practice, but he does have a famous quote that resonates quite well here and ironically too when you consider the xenophobia of his time: “The oldest and strongest emotion of mankind is fear, and the oldest and strongest kind of fear is fear of the unknown” This might begin to explain why J-Horror is so creepy; because it’s saturated in actual uncertainty and mystery. It covers the elements of life and death that we don’t really have a scientific explanation for. Japanese folklore has a very extensive mythology of monsters, creatures, and yokai. Here are just a few: The Otoroshi The Mujina The Kitsune The Kappa The Oni The Futakuchi-Onna The Onamazu The Shinigami But when we look at J-Horror what do we think of? Well here are some of its more popular examples in pop culture: Silent Hill Resident Evil Fatal Frame Uzumaki and the work of Itou Junji And perhaps most popular: Ju-On Ring When we look at these works, we see lots of surreal elements that aren’t entirely understood. Things that are alien in nature. Much of these works also have a basis in an idea of the afterlife. The traditional Shinto belief system includes the idea that each person has a soul or reikon (霊魂). Upon death, a reikon leaves the physical body, and moves to a purgatorial, in-between state as they await a proper send off. This tradition of sacred funeral rites allows the reikon to pass onto the afterlife where they can join their ancestors. If done properly, the reikon is said to return once a year to be with the family, continuing to watch over them from the afterlife. That’s sort of a best-case scenario when it comes to death in Japan. But remember Japan’s vast wealth of legends and cryptid mythology? Well- this persists especially when it comes to the dead. There are believed to be many different types of ghosts, and this is where things start to get creepy. The type of ghost a person will become is determined by the circumstances surrounding that person’s death. It’s believed that when a person dies under abrupt circumstances that don’t offer an honorable or sacred send off, they instead become a yurei- a spirit kept from a peaceful afterlife. And more to the point of this video, the especially unfortunate ones who die under extremely negative circumstances such as a violent murder or suicide, well- it is believed that the powerful emotions made manifest linger beyond death, in the form of a vengeful spirit: an Onryō. This is what we see in movies like The Ring and The Grudge. It’s what has become prevalent in popular online Japanese urban legends including the likes of Kuchisake-Onna (The Slit-Mouthed Woman), Teke-Teke, and Hachishakusama. These are all examples of yurei, the concept of a pale ghost with long black hair, shrouded in a white burial cloth or the clothes they died in. And they embody the concept of onnen (怨念)- that emotions can be so strong, they persist beyond the grave. A classic example of this embedded into our own reality is the legend of Okiku’s Well. The story of a woman who was brutally tortured and killed in the midst of a betrayal from a man that she loved. Her body was dumped into a well where her vengeful spirit now lingers, coming out to haunt people as a bothersome onryō with no clear way to appease her perpetually tortured soul. This is the tale surrounding the well at the real-life location of Himeji Castle. One of the things that truly makes J-Horror stand out is how different it feels in atmosphere from what we’re used to seeing in western horror. So let’s compare. Western horror seems to be more about granting scares in the form of shock value. Again, it’s about blood, gore, and action. We often know what to expect when we see the invincible killer pacing towards the group of dumb college student archetypes. We know what happens when a person wakes up tied to a rusty chair in a seedy warehouse. We’ve seen what happens when a family moves into a big house for dirt cheap or when a person fucks with a strange artifact. And there’s nothing wrong with that. Western horror is very much a valid entry into storytelling as much as any other. But a lot of it isn’t really creepy. It’s shocking. It’s horrific. It’s even hilarious at times. But most of us don’t walk away from a movie like The Mummy, Freddy Vs. Jason, or Saw feeling haunted. Of course there are a few exceptions Western horror does encapsulate a very wide range of subgenres. But more often than not, western horror generally keeps us entertained for about as long as the film’s runtime. In contrast, Japanese horror is a lot more about deep-seated dread. What's creepier: a voice recording that gives cryptic instructions for surviving a grisly trap, or a dog barking at an empty closet? What's creepier: a butcher with a chainsaw or the sound of meowing in a house void of pets? The thing about a dog barking at an empty closet or just the looming dread of an empty dark room is that they're both very relatable situations. Scenarios we might actually face when we come home. It's that game you play with your brain, trying to convince yourself that it's just your imagination. At least when there's a weapon-wielding psychopath bolting in your direction, you have some semblance of what to do next. Yes we have fears of being kidnapped or being chopped up in real life, but our fears of what just went bump in the night are far more potent because we experience them far more frequently, and again- it's all about that damned unknown. Japanese horror focuses on messing with your psyche. It doesn’t just scare you. It psychologically tortures you with long uncomfortable scenes where nothing really happens. Scenes where subliminal imagery builds up over a long period of time, sometimes lasting long after the credits have rolled. I think that's the heart of what truly makes Japanese Horror films so creepy. They're very good at prolonging this uncomfortable feeling. But perhaps this isn't a fair comparison. Western horror is wonderful, and can manage to give us a scare in a very different way. Perhaps it'd be better to compare a Japanese original with an American remake. So in preparation for this video, I sat down and rewatched The Ring and Ringu back-to-back to gain a clearer insight on just what makes J-Horror creepy. One of the biggest differences I noticed about original Japanese horror films in general is their sound design. Here's a scene from Ring Now here's a scene from The Ring What's the difference? In contrast to fully-scored western remakes, J-Horror films have very little to no music or sound. We're often served with long silences throughout most of the film. Usually if there is background sound, it’s more deep atmospheric noise and dull drolls than music. For the most part, the silence adds to the immersive effect of the film. It helps us focus more on the dialogue between characters, not just what is said, but what is implied in the uncomfortable pauses. As awesome as it would be, in real life we don’t have a full orchestra soundtracking our lives. In a very subliminal way, the absence of sound places the characters on screen in a scenario that we can relate to. It places us inside the mind of the character we’re watching. It makes what we’re seeing on screen that much more real. And when something out of this world finally does happen, it hits that much harder. In the case of Ju-on, it serves to bolster the effect of whenever the faint sound of a death rattle is heard. Or when something unexpected happens, like in this scene from Ring Does this effect perhaps stem from a fear of silence? The internet term for a fear of silence is known as Sedatephobia. It’s derived from sedate which in Greek means silent, sleeping, or dead. One of the driving factors behind this fear is the anxiety brought about by the unknown. In horror films, sound is one of the subconscious go-tos that help us prepare for a scare. We rely on sound to preemptively guard ourselves. What silence does is rob us of this comfortable fallback, leaving us in a constant state of terror. A little tidbit about terror by the way: it’s not quite the same thing as horror. Where horror is the intense feeling of revulsion after we’ve seen something scary, terror is the dread we feel leading up to something scary. In some ways, it might be more appropriate to call J-Horror, J-Terror. Another main difference is how western adaptations often go to great lengths to explain the context behind a villain or a mystery. They leave very little to the imagination and lack the subliminality of the original. A prime example of this is a comparison between Ring and The Ring. When objects from the videotape start popping up in real life, the original doesn't cut to obvious clips from the videotape to remind you. It's much more subtle. It makes you question, did I see that earlier? When Rachel gets a phone call in The Ring, we hear a voice whisper the ominous “seven days” warning. When Reiko gets a phone call, she just hears strange noises that could be heard on the tape. When a new day starts in The Ring, a text appears on screen warning us how many days are left. In Ring, the text only says what day it is, and we're left with an uncertainty of numbers. Just before Rachel finds her son, Aiden watching the tape, she has a vivid nightmare. Just before Reiko finds her son, Yoichi watching the tape, she wakes up to a strange voice in the room cautiously saying “Auntie”. This chilling scene from Ring was taken out entirely in the remake. (Baby-Daddy pointing with cloth over head) Or take Rings, the 2017 American sequel that spent a lot of time unraveling the mystery of Samara, where by the time we got to the end, we understood the character to a point that she wasn't scary anymore. Suddenly we feel in control because we understand what's happening- and that leaves us feeling comfortable. In western horror, we’re typically treated to full-blown explanations and ways to solve the curse, kill the monster, or escape the killer. We know why Freddy Kreuger, Regan, and Jigsaw do what they do. He’s a vengeful spirit. She’s possessed by a demon. He’s a rehabilitation extremist. The explanation that the character is just evil or a sadistic sociopath is also commonly seen. And look it’s not like we aren’t told why Sadako or Kayako are doing what they’re doing. In fact, both of their films give a pretty solid backstory. It’s the ominous way in which they’re presented and the haunting concept of onnen; eternal suffering and wrath incarnate. And to his credit, Freddy Kreuger actually isn’t too far off from this idea. He’s a malicious and vengeful spirit with supernatural abilities. It’s just that he’s presented as this sort of comical villain with one-liners and catch phrases that make it hard to fear him at the end of the day. Given a more subtle presentation, I think Freddy would be on the same level of creepy with these famous Onryo spirits or The Babadook. Original Japanese horror more often leaves us with more questions than answers, and this stimulates our imaginations. Our minds are forced to fill in the blanks with our own unique fears, making for a personal experience that leaves us wondering well after we’ve finished watching the film. Trying to understand and make sense of cryptic messages left to our imaginations quite literally haunts us for some time afterwards. Lucas Sussman, a horror screenwriter once said, “horror is about not being in control.” And I think that's something that can be applied to real life. There are some exceptions to this but when we compare Juon to its American remake, The Grudge, we get a much less detailed backstory behind the malicious spirit haunting our protagonist. This goes back into a common trope with western horror, which is that audiences have come to know what to expect. We’re used to being fed answers in a western adaptation. And given the expectations of the average western viewer, this is understandable. This goes back to Japan’s different culture and higher tolerance for the unknown. A film that doesn’t connect a lot of dots in an obvious manner might not sit too well with a western audience, and so its western counterpart will naturally include more backstory and explanation. As a side note, I’m not saying that I think one was better than the other. I actually really loved The Grudge. It’s a fantastic film that was a huge refresher for its time. And that’s not just because it was directed by the same guy that directed the original. They’re just made for very different audiences. Some things get lost in translation and in the context of this video, I should say I felt that Juon was stronger in terms of prolonged creepiness. Modern Japanese horror often makes things that weren't scary such as our home appliances, and adds a new dimension to them, making us question our surroundings in ways we hadn't before. Take for example the population of viewers who feared their television sets after watching The Ring for the first time. The premise is simple. You watch a videotape and then receive a call on the phone. In the context of what it means here, these pieces of technology aren't so reliable. And that's the idea that leaves us in dread- if we can't even rely on our trusty TVs to keep us numb and distracted, what can we rely on? It activates a mild agoraphobia. I think one of the best examples of this comes from a scene in The Grudge when a character finds herself being harassed by a slew of creepy haunts. Something follows her home from work, and she turns on the TV for a mind-numbing distraction, only for the images on screen to distort in a horrific manner. She can't even trust her phone when she receives a call from the spirit pretending to be her brother. Her only remaining defense is to jump into bed and hide beneath the comfort of her blanket. For many of us, this is a highly relatable scenario. Something scary is out there, but it can't get you in the sanctuary of your covers. Only- when it comes to being haunted by an Onryo, that isn't true. This is one instance of that lasting terror I mentioned. Objects that are typically seen as inanimate and mundane lose that comforting quality when you're being haunted by this idea. The Grudge series takes this to stupid levels- you can't even trust the clothes on your back or the hair on your head. And then there’s the movement of these entities that become a source of terror. Often times, we’re used to seeing the killer or monster approach the victim head on in a very human way. Chuckie, Jason, and Pennywise have arms and legs that move in a familiar way. Sadako and Kayako on other hand seem to prefer a disjointed shaky crawl that appears slow, but then speeds up abruptly to an alarming pace. These scenes are typically acted out in reverse then played backwards to achieve a look that is unsettlingly unfamiliar. Admittedly, it can’t be said that Japanese Horror films are the only ones that are creepy. David Lynch has a detailed vision for sound design and how ambient noise affects the psyche, and he makes great use of it in Twin Peaks. Stanley Kubrick films tend to feature long dollying shots and unnaturally symmetric atmospheres. And in more recent times, we’ve seen a surge of western horror films that both play on the concept of the unknown and leave us there. The work of James Wan is a prime example of this. A lot of his films have long scenes where we’re allowed to marinate in dread and uncertainty, only for nothing to happen. Or take The Babadook, a story where by the end, we still don't really understand what the deal is behind the creature or why it does what it does. These all make great use of psychologically unnerving elements and Japanese horror has mastered this. Japanese horror takes its legends of creepy entities which are already inherently unsettling tales, and portrays them to viewers in such a way that our minds are stimulated and our amygdalas are exercised. From sound, to concept, to visuals, J-Horror effectively weaves a subtle and ominous dread. What makes Japanese Horror so creepy, is how much it sinks into our uncertainties. Hey did you enjoy that video? If you did, be sure to leave a like and comment what your introduction into J-Horror was. And as always, thanks for watching.


Notable films and television series

Film/TV series Year Notes
Akira 1988
Alien franchise 1979–present [2]
Altered States 1980
American Mary 2012
An American Werewolf in London 1981
Annihilation 2018
Antiviral 2012
Art of the Devil 2004 as well as it's 2005 and 2008 sequels Art of the Devil 2, and Art of the Devil 3
Audition 1999
Bad Taste 1987
Baskin 2015
Bite 2015
Black Swan 2010
Blade 1998 as well as its 2002 sequel Blade II
The Blob 1958 including its 1972 sequel Beware! The Blob and 1988 remake The Blob
Body Melt 1993
The Brain 1988
Brain Damage 1988
Braindead 1992
Cabin Fever 2002
Carriers 2009
Clown 2014
Contracted 2013 and Contracted: Phase II, released in 2015
Cronos 1993
Deadgirl 2008
Dead Ringers 2009
District 9 1988
Eraserhead 1977
Event Horizon 1997
Evil Dead franchise 1981–present except for 1992's Army of Darkness, which is a much less gruesome film than the others
eXistenZ 1999
The Fly 1958 and its 1959 and 1965 sequels, the 1986 remake, and the 1989 sequel to the remake[3]
Freaked 1993
From Beyond 1986
Gozu 2003
The Green Inferno 2013
The Hands of Orlac 1960
Hellraiser franchise 1987–present
Horns 2013
Hostel 2005 and its 2007 and 2011 sequels.
The Human Centipede (First Sequence) 2009 and its 2011 and 2015 sequels.
Ichi the Killer 2001 Extremely bloody and visceral, also includes sexual content
Idle Hands 1999
The Incredible Melting Man 1977 [2]
It Follows 2014
Invasion of the Body Snatchers 1978 as well as the 1956 original, Body Snatchers, and The Invasion
Jacob's Ladder 1990
Killer Condom 1996
The Kindred 1987
Kuso 2017
Leviathan 1989
Made In Abyss 2017 Later episodes contain graphic depictions of transformation/mutation due to the "curse of the abyss."
Marianne 2011
May 2002
Meatball Machine 2005
Night of the Creeps 1986
One-Eyed Monster 2008 the crossover spoof of Jaws and the Thing.
 Overlord  2018
Parasyte 2014
Poultrygeist: Night of the Chicken Dead 2006
Possession 1981
Raw 2017
Rabid 1977
Re-Animator 1985 [2]
Repo! The Genetic Opera 2008
Repo Men 2010
Return of the Living Dead 3 1993
Rosemary's Baby 1968
The Ruins 2008
Scanners 1981
Shivers 1975
The Skin I live In 2011
Slither 2006
Society 1989
Splinter 2008
Spring 2014
Sssssss 1973
Starry Eyes 2014
Strangeland 1998
Street Trash 1987
The Stuff 1985
Suspiria 2018
Taxidermia 2006 [4]
Teeth 2007
Tetsuo: The Iron Man 1989 and its 1992 and 2010 sequels.
Thanatomorphose 2012
The Thing 1982 and its 2011 prequel[2]
Thinner 1996
Tokyo Gore Police 2008
The Toxic Avenger 1984 and the two 1989 sequels as well as it's 2000 sequel
Tusk 2014
Under the Skin 2013
Upgrade 2018
Venom 2018
Videodrome 1983 [3]
Virus 1999
The Void 2016

Notable writers

In his introduction to The Mammoth Book of Body Horror, the film director Stuart Gordon says that "Body Horror has been with us since long before there were movies". According to the summary of this anthology, the important writers of Body Horror are :

But others names could be quoted, according to Xavier Aldana Reyes in his book Body Gothic :

Notable graphic novels

Novel Year Description
The Visible Man (2000 AD) 1978–2012 wherein a man suffers a nuclear waste accident, making his internal organs visible.
Parasyte 1988–1995 wherein human bodies are taken over by parasitic extraterrestrial organisms.
The Invisibles 1994–2000 wherein the human converts of an invading interdimensional force are selected for "modification".
Ed the Happy Clown 1983–2006 wherein the titular character endures having the tip of his penis replaced with the head of Ronald Reagan.
Ruins 1995 wherein the Marvel universe goes horribly wrong, most notably Bruce Banner turning into a pile of tumors (and yet he's still alive.).
Black Hole 1995–2005 wherein a sexually transmitted disease gives teenagers in a small town grotesque mutations.
Uzumaki 1998–1999 wherein humans distort into spirals.
Saya no Uta 2003–2013 wherein the main character Fuminori has agnosia as known as "meat-vision".
Extremis 2005 wherein a virus makes the body re-interpret itself as an open wound, thus forming a scab cocoon around the body.
Animal Man 2011–2014 The New 52 ongoing Animal Man features many body horror elements including grotesque mutations, disease and decomposition of animals, plants and humans alike.
Dorohedoro 1999–present People are alive due to magic after decapitation, fungi grow from people's bodies, etc.
Hino Horror 1983–2004 Later adapted into the Guinea Pig film series. Features transformations and mutilation.
Made In Abyss 2012-present A massive pit causes numerous ailments for returning explorers, depending on depth. Past a certain point, grotesque transformations/mutations or agonizing death are all but certain.

Use in video games

In recent years, the subjects of human experimentation, medical research, and infection have played large roles in video games whose plots are heavily influenced by themes common in body horror.

Video Game Year Description
Amnesia: The Dark Descent & Amnesia: A Machine for Pigs 2010 & 2013 The gatherer enemies are deformed human-like monsters; their eyelids are cut off and their bottom jaw is mutilated and stretched down and attached to their chests leaving their mouths permanently open.
BioShock series 2007–2014 Both BioShock and BioShock 2 consist of enemies called Splicers, who were once normal humans that were heavily mutated and driven insane from a drug called ADAM, which they used to re-write their genetic codes to develop "psychic" powers such as telekinesis and pyrokinesis. The game also contains the iconic Big Daddy, which is a man whose skin has been removed, and whose organs have been grafted to the inside of a modified deep-sea diving suit. BioShock Infinite uses a similar premise, although in this case series of compounds called Vigors grant the player extraordinary abilities; however, unlike ADAM they are consumed orally rather than injected. In this game, the Big Daddy has been replaced by the Handyman, a human whose spinal cord, head, and heart have been connected to a steampunk robotic frame with minor effects like psychological trauma.
Bloodborne 2015
Dead Space series 2008–2013 The primary enemies of the series are called Necromorphs, which are mutated humans with protruding appendages, open wounds, and rotting flesh.
Fallout series 1997–present The fallout games take place in a post-apocalyptic wasteland, and as such, many of the enemies and species have physical deformities from the radiation.
Half-Life series 1998–2007 Parasitic monsters known as Headcrabs attach themselves to heads of people and cause them to develop mutations such as elongated claws and gaping jaws in their chests.
Inside 2016 An indie puzzle platformer developed by Playdead. Inside tells the story about a young boy as he struggles against evil forces trying to take over the world. The boy infiltrates a massive facility where scientists perform mind-control and underwater experiments on human bodies.
Outlast 2013 A first-person survival horror game in which an investigative journalist explores an asylum housing inmates displaying various degrees of bodily mutilation and/or mutation.
Resident Evil series 1996–present A pharmaceutical company uses a mutagenic T-Virus in order to produce monsters to sell as weapons. The most basic were zombie versions of whatever organism was infected or giant versions of insects. There are also human/insect and human/reptilian hybrids, malformed super-soldiers called "Tyrants", and various other mutants. Later games introduce, for example, more viruses and las plagas (an ancient parasite which take over animal nervous systems).
Parasite Eve series 1998–2010 The Squaresoft (now known as Square Enix) video game based on the 1996 Japanese SF horror novel of the same title, was released in 1998. The premise of both the novel and "cinematic RPG" being that the mitochondria, organelles from early aerobic bacteria that formed a symbiotic partnership with cells of most present-day multicellular eukaryotes, e.g. humans, are able to retain their separate identity as independent organisms in the form of cellular parasites. A dispersed intelligence, known as Eve, was able to take over the consciousness of certain individuals to make them reproduce and form an ultimate organism that will bring the downfall of humanity and other creatures alike.
The Thing 2002 A sequel to the 1982 film The Thing, player follows Captain Blake, a member of a U.S. Special Forces team sent to the Antarctic outpost featured in the film to determine what has happened to the research crew. The enemies encountered come in three main forms. "Scuttlers" are small Things formed from the limbs and appendages of infected personnel. "Walkers" are larger and much stronger than Scuttlers, and finally the Bosses are larger and much more powerful than Walkers.
Soma 2015 A SF survival horror game developed by Frictional Games.

Use in tabletop gaming

Traditional Game Year Description
Magic: The Gathering 1993–present The basis of Phyrexia, an antagonist faction composed of assimilatory biomechanical undead. The Scars of Mirrodin block in particular focuses on this theme, in which assimilation and infection are emphasised upon, and Phyrexia has branched into all colours of mana, introducing new forms of mutilation.

In the Shadows Over Innistrad block, the gothic horror inspired setting of Innistrad undergoes a transformation; at first marked by subtle mutations in both the human and the already-monstrous living residents, it gruesomely distorts many of the plane's inhabitants in the image of the invading cosmic being, Emrakul.

Warhammer 1983–present Mutation and bodily modification are emphasised upon in the Chaos factions.
Kingdom Death: Monster 2012–present Monsters contain extensive incorporation of human body parts.

See also


  1. ^ Definition of "body horror". Collins English Dictionary – Complete & Unabridged 11th Edition. Retrieved November 01, 2012.
  2. ^ a b c d "Horror Film History — Horror Films in the 1980s". Retrieved 2009-09-09.
  3. ^ a b Thill, Scott (2009-01-04). "Cronenberg Drifts From Tech Horror, but Shocks Remain". Archived from the original on 2011-12-19. Retrieved 2009-09-09.
  4. ^ "Taxidermia Review – Read Variety's Analysis Of The Movie Taxidermia". 2006-02-05. Retrieved 2009-09-09.

External links

This page was last edited on 31 March 2019, at 20:14
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