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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cinema Novo (Portuguese pronunciation: [siˈne.mɐ ˈno.vu]) is a genre and movement of film noted for its emphasis on social equality and intellectualism that rose to prominence in Brazil during the 1960s and 1970s. It means "New Cinema" in Portuguese, which is the official language of Brazil, the movement's "home".[5] Cinema Novo formed in response to class and racial unrest both in Brazil and the United States. Influenced by Italian neorealism and French New Wave, films produced under the ideology of Cinema Novo opposed traditional Brazilian cinema, which consisted primarily of musicals, comedies and Hollywood-style epics.[6] Glauber Rocha is widely regarded as Cinema Novo's most influential filmmaker.[7][8][9] Today, the movement is often divided into three sequential phases that differ in tone, style and content.

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Why the light is on there? Unable to sleep due to excitement of... ... of getting released tomorrow? Be seated. Tell me what is going on your mind? Nothing. l'm here for 5 years. l think my sister must be having atleast 2 kids by now. l'm thinking of nice suitable names for them. Do you think they are not christened as yet! No. My sister won't do it without my presence. What names have you thought of? You tell me. -Me! - Yes. These are names for boys, these, for girls. Choose one from each. Now from this lot. Shanti! lt is my mother's name. Your mother's name! - Yes. Had your mother chosen names for you like this? No. - Then? My son's name is Shivaramakrishna Daughter's name is Sri. Offer 'Archana' in their names. Mother you told me that you are taking me to father. We are going there now. You are leaving without breaking the coconut! l forgot. My mother used to say a rotten coconut is a bad omen. lt happened so that day. My father got married the second time. When my mother questioned, he replied that... ... he lost interest in her and threw money at her.-Go. She cried all day for being cheated in marriage... ... holding us close. Those were her last words. Who is she? - My mother. She is dead, sir. l take your leave. -Okay. What's this? A grave in the middle of a farm? lt is their farm. So they built it. Of course not. Their mother took loan from us against it. Village court permitted us to confiscate it against it. We don't like a grave in the middle of farm. Break it. Sir, l'll repay the loan. Don't break mother's grave. He promises to repay. Give him one chance. Their father had deserted them. Mother is dead. He is just a kid. How can he repay? He will cultivate the farm. -He can! l'll do it, sir. l'll repay your loan. lf he couldn't, l'll repay. Okay l agree. l want it on yearly basis. You mean in installments. -Whatever it means.-Sir... Mother used to say those stars are us. Your sister will pass out in 1st class. Has God said so, sir? Trust my words. Break the coconut. l hope the best happens. There is a flower in it! Good! 1st class is confirmed! Sister... Gouri, give me back my pen. -Here it is. What is this? Be careful. Madam, here are your books. Be careful. You knew she will drop if you warn her. - l knew. l'm going to exam. Don't need books. Keep them in. Take them. You get better marks if you copy. Come on, brother! Let's move. - Okay. Do your best. Must get good marks. - Sure. Why not you accompany her! -Why do you say so? You told her so, so many times that... ... she might reproduce your words than the answers. She is beautiful! Got into the next compartment. Let's go. Let's go. -Get in. Where is he gone! You look beautiful in this dress. What's your name? Amala? Vimala? Kamala or Pramila by any chance? Good songs. - Voice is sweet too. Want to hear? Not now. lsn't teasing girls wrong? l'll do as l please. Who are you to question me? Look at this. l'll kill you if you interfere. Have you finished talking? Brother, he slapped you! Play now. l lose again. But l'll defeat you someday. l'm waiting for the day you defeat my son. Greetings.-Be seated.l heard that your sister is giving exam. Yes. - She is studious. -By your blessings, sir. Brother, buttermilk for you. Move aside. -You are at it again! Those stars are... -Mother used to say so, That's you and me. , right? -Yes. Will one of them disappear if she leaves you after marriage? She won't go anywhere. l'll bring the groom here. May l take the eggs to fair tomorrow? Sure, but be careful. l told him to be careful, not her. You are always dropping things. Only twice a day. Greetings, Krishna s - Greetings. What brings you here at this hour? l've brought an alliance after short listing. From which place? From Nujiweedu. His grandpa is a landlord there. Does he have a own house? -He has a bungalow. What about a car? -They have 4 cars. That means the boy is in US He is a green card holder. He'll take his wife immediately after wedding l suppose. By flight. You spoke as if you heard them saying it. l don't want this alliance. -Why? Others jump at this offer. You seem disappointed. l don't want a prince... ... but someone who takes care of her, right here. Hi, Santosh, it's me, dad. What are you doing? l can hear it. l told you many times to take me too. You are being selfish. l know you can hear me. Don't use the trick on me which you use when mother scolds you. Okay, enjoy the party thoroughly. He can hear this perfectly. l heard that you donated to London royal orphanage. lt's not a big amount. 10,000 pounds isn't a big amount. But you could use it for public relations like throwing a party. That would help expand our business. But it's an orphanage... There are many to accept donations. But don't do such useless things. l don't like it. Why are you in bad mood? l'm your best friend Did mother scold you? For not asking if she hit me. You know mother well. Why do you get upset? l'm not upset. Do you know onething? Socrates became a great man becuase of... ... his tolerance towards his wife. l'm not talking about you but of Socrates wife. Brother-in-law, l'm Srinivasarao from lndia. l'm somehow getting along with your sister. That is not new. lt's your brother from lndia. How are you brother? What's the news? Lot of news. On coming 1 4th is Lalith's engagement. She is in love. l objected. She cried and l gave in. Love! ls the groom rich? That is why l conceded. You must come for marriage... ... and handle it. Tell my brother-in-law. Aunty, l'm Lalli. How are you? Bring Santosh along. l've seen him as a kid. Okay. You are not coming. -Why? You have a conference to attend in US, forgot? Stop the car here. How are you, dear? -Chocolate for you, brother. So, you have not forgotten to give us chocolates. Welcome, to the bride. Bride! When is the wedding? Next Friday! lt's only 15 days away. Yes. Both of you must come. -We will come 2 days early. 2 days early! No. l'm taking her with me, now. Now! - Of course. How early should l come for your wedding? -l don't know. Ask brother -You You tell me how many days in advance should l come? Atleast 15 days before the wedding. - Right. My wedding is 15 days away too. l'm like your sister too. Please send her with me. The reason is l've never been away from her till now. Same with her too. But you have to send her. Aren't you a darling? Please, brother. Do you want to go? l won't you if you say so. Go. Has the rabbit from the moon landed on the earth? ls that you it changed into? -Appears so, The glitter in the stars loved you ls their shine blended into you? - Appears so, Has the path followed you like a smooth sailing boat,, ,,or it became smooth by itself? What is it? Or changed it's course because of you? Did the land change its course because of you and turned a river? Oh prime youth! you have arrived! Do you know where to land? You have brought joy along but ,,,, do you know whom to gift it to? ls it a new form of Kuchipudi dance? Have your tender feet taught you this? Has the folk form has stepped out of villages,,,? ,,, lnfluenced by the modern culture? Hidden feelings have come out in the verses of song The tunes reveal the hidden thoughts With little torments and like the unstoppable haste ,,how long will this journey continue? ls this a plan ahead for tomorrow? Why is there such a haste? lf you ask for the distance between sky and earth,, ,,the wings would disappear! lf you ask for the shore to make them one ,,, ,,directions would shudder! Santosh, here is a big bouquet for you. lt's me... Do you recognise me? She isn't a beauty but a beast. She is our distant relative l'm her close relative l heard that even vegetable venders in US speak English. ls it true? -You have improved a lot. Do you have mosquitoes here? -How many do you want? Are there no mosquitoes in London? - No. That means London has not developed yet. Don't worry. You can carry a suitcaseful when you return. Who is that girl? l came all the way from London for you and you... ... don't even come to receive me at the airport. You are so beautiful! l'd marry you had l known it. Do you remember my mischief as a kid? l won't get a chance once you are married. Do l do it now? l'm not Lalita. -What! - l'm her friend. Why didn't you tell me this for so long? -Those anklets.... - lt is normal to err at this age. You don't have to apologise -She is... - l know, she is your friend. l mistook her for you and... -She hates such things. -What does she like? l'm coming. Let's go. Santosh! My foot! What's your name? l know you won't tell me. My name is... l came from London. Generally people here have bad opinion about boys from foreign. That they are romeos and are con men. ls it? You have heard right. l'm such a boy so beware. Where is Sugar? Go get it. -Oh, God! Why did you get startled? l thought it is that monkey again. - Which monkey? The monkey from London. Oh, that boy! He grew up in London. Not everyone from London is like that. lt's not him but his parents upbringing that should be blamed. Don't shut me up. l'll give them a lesson if l meet them. Am l not right? - Do you know whom are you asking? She is her new aunty. -That money is her son. Sugar is too less. who is it? My name is JP. Unfortunately l'm your friend and business partner. What makes you be angry at me so early morning? Of course. lt's your daughter's engagement. Wedding is close too. Don't you know to assign me some responsibilities? Pack up and come here... ... with the family. l got the news from kitchen that you called me a monkey. No. l said London monkey. -Why? Sorry, l should have called you a guerrilla. Who called me? Move aside? - Which way? -Upstairs. Okay... Okay. This is my sister. -Greetings. He is JP, my partner in construction business. Served 20 years in Central ministry. He is an Andhraite. Who is that boy? -My nephew from London. lntroduce me to him. -l'll. Don't hurry. lndia is full of long skirts and half sarees. What are you doing in my room? This isn't your room. Get out. l came into your room by mistake. Hope you have not seen anything. Don't touch it. l won't like it. Give it to me. lt's given to me by my brother. Your brother gave it? Go away. l'm teasing you every day. Any other girl would.. ..have slapped me. But you didn't. Does that mean... -You aren't wearing a towel. -Now you aren't. l never expected someone to fall for me. Now... Either laugh and speak or do vice versa lt's someone like you. Calls up but never speaks. That boy from London is so charming. Come to the point. - He and my daughter are a good match. Your mediation can unite them. My sister will fume. But l'll handle her. You tell your daughter to befriend him. My daughter just needs a signal. She will go to any lengths to... Why did you put it there? That's the only place l've for it. Whom are you sending e-mail? -To my dad. Do you love your dad?- Why? Won't you love your dad? l love him as much as l love 'halwa' (a sweet) l love 'halwa' too. What do you want to make? -'Halwa'. Why do you take trouble? l will prepare it. Never mind. You mind your work. For whom? - For the person whom l like. How do you know? That is salt! That is... - Salt! -You mind your work. She is going to feed him! Mind your business. What is this twist? You said you love it. l made it for you. So, besides milk, sugar, cashewnuts and raisins, ... l put in kisses too. 'Salt and camphor look alike but taste different.' Take my advice. Don't eat it. Hi son-in-law. - Yes, uncle. -Have you eaten it? Looks like my daughter made it. You eat it first. -No, you eat it. For my sake, please eat. -How courteous! ls it tasty, daddy? l cannot describe how tasty. What are you doing, rascal? Don't eat it all. Keep some for Santosh. lt cannot be for only for two of you. Give me some. Why not? lt is all yours. Oh! lt's full of cashewnuts, raisins! You're a true friend. Not just in business but by heart too. Tasty? l think salt is a bit in excess. My foot, you... l'll come wait What happened?- You try something other than cooking. Making 'halwa' isn't your cup of tea.- Then whose else? lt's me, the girl who came for Lalli's wedding. lt's me l washed that saree and this blouse. lt belongs to that monkey without a tail from London. l'll deal with you You dare tease me! You and your messy hair! You! l hate the name Santosh. l swear on my brother ''lt's me... lt's me.'' Where? Has Santosh come here? -l don't know. He isn't there. You naughty! You are here! - No. Here. My friends are coming the evening. Go no where. l want to introduce them to you. She is Nimmi, she is Anita, Sarita, Avita and she is lndu. This is my shorts, this is sandal and this is fruit peel. Have it. - Give me. l'll give it to Santosh. Where are you going? You work all the time. l didn't make it. That's why he thanked. Do you want me to come. -Have it. What was l saying? -About Santosh. His father is one of the top 500 millionaires in London. Has a huge mansion, 100 acres of estate,... ...4 Benz cars, a software company and a chartered plane. This is only half of it. -You have no less. Yes. My father has 100 crore property. -What else does he have? -You May be nothing What was l saying? -About Santosh. Santosh is a millionaire. l'm a millionaire. Everyone here is a millionaire. l'm a millionaire too. Really! How much money do you have? A small house in my village. 10 acres of farms. 4 oxen, 25 cows and 40 chicken. Above all this, l've a brother who dotes on me. That's like millions for me. What are you looking at? l find a new look in Sri each day. Your sister has completed education. Are you getting her married this year? l'll if l find a good alliance. -l've the same problem. My son completed graduation in agriculture. l asked him to go to US for further studies. But he wanted to stay back and do farming. Such boys are rare these days. That's why we are receiving many alliances. But he wants to marry only your sister. Do you have any objection? No, but. -Want sister's consent? Yes and l also want to consult the station master. He is useless except for giving signals to trains. Trains won't move unless signal is given. You are head of the village. l'm head of his family. Trains may come late but not you. Go ahead. Let the girl come as you said. Engagement is an auspicious occasion. Why to cry? My daughter will go away to London after marriage. The thought of it is... You seem to be positive about it. l've already bought the tickets. l'm going to read out the wedding card. K.Srinivasrao's... -Who is speaking? You may continue. -Stop your nonsense. Why did you stop, pandit? -He asked me to. Priest, you may proceed. When will you marry? -Why do you bother? l've a friend if you want to. He has 10 chicken, 4 oxen and horses too. lt will be a perfect match. What's the time? l've no watch. - You have no brains either. - l know. Sister, your entry brought charm to the party. The lighting is dull compared to you. Nonsense. Say something else. -You don't bother. Only one thing is lacking. -What's that? - This one. What's this? -A small necklace. Must be expensive. -Costs only 15 lakhs. Buttering up is of no use. This isn't necessary, brother. -Never mind. l feel so happy looking at them. l feel like puking. l can't bear it Come with me, Santosh. This is Santosh l speak of, my boyfriend. Why cannot you come close and put your hand on my shoulder? Our eyes met ,,,,,,, -You pig... 2 Pigs met,, Really, Lalli? -No. Nothing Sri, come here. Sri, she is Rita, She is... Chat with them. l'll be back. Why do you look at me like that? Why do you follow me? Come aside. -l won't come. lt's for your sake. -Please go. What will people think when they notice us? That's the reason l called you. -l won't come, that's it. Your blouse hooks are open. l won't believe you. You are lying. You have a mole on your back. Won't believe me even now? Lalli your friend is calling you. One moment. Fix my blouse hooks. l didn't want to wear your dress. Look what happened. lt's okay. lts done Are you searching for me? l know you were. To tell you that you are a good monkey. lf the monkey is seeming good, then.. That shows something is triggered in you. Nothing is triggered Everyone feels 'something' Those are inexplicable Even if 'love' is hidden inside ,, Even if you say 'no, nothing' Shall l spy, do research and catch you! Come, Come l have called you thousand times! Listen girl! Come! No response! Come tomorrow! ls this a new type of dance? Oh family girl! Come why are you obstinate? Come in front of me Come dear! this way! Would lend you a hand dear! Why do you doubt me like this? There are no handcuffs Why do you fear? lf naughtiness knocks your window Don't, yet sleep like this hidden under a dim cover! This moment asks to dance without any fatigue ,, ,,and is a pretentious happy naughtiness! Beneath your sole this earth has jumped in joy! What a wonder! Has the milk pot in sky come to your eyes ,, ,,,to sign on this happiness This moment come with me! At a time the dance rhythm syllables ,, ,,drive away, staring at ,, You are a glittering star in fright! At this moment when ecstatic orgies take place Time would come to a stop! l wrote some love letters to someone in college days. But kept myself away on knowing his true colours. He is now blackmails me to ruin my wedding. He wants her bring money and jewels to his room else,... ... he will distribute the letters like pamphlets. ls this what you mean by 'something'? Only an youngster understands another youngster's problems. l didn't know whom to tell. that's why l told you. l know how to extract those letters from him. This is his house Seems like he isn't in. Let's get hold of the letters before he comes. There is a dog. -Be careful. You go that way. l'll go this way. l found the letters. What do we do now? -Run. You could have closed the bathroom door. You are responsible for it. You screamed just for touching you. No. You are responsible. -Wait. Give me the shampoo bottle. Want to have bath? What now? - Watch how it will run away. Oh God! -This is no ordinary dog. Get down and find a way to get out. You walk out the door. The dog will follow you. l'll follow suit with the letters. Joking? - Ofcourse not. l'm serious. -Then you go first. lt will bite you. Keep it on my head! Take it off. Oh god What do we do now? Sing a song. -Do l sing so well! No. To make the dog run away. Look what a stupid thing you have done. Stop it. l'm getting wet because of you. lt's my girlfriend. -l didn't ask you. l expected you would ask. -Why do l bother? How many girlfriends do you have? 1 4, including you. l'm not your girlfriend. Girls always mean the opposite of what they say. Then l'm. -l said the same. Friendship for me is, helping each other. There were so many youngsters in the party. But, you chose to seek my help. Because you considered me a friend. That makes you a girl friend. Yes, but l don't mean the other way. Boys and girls have numerous friends. But one falls in love with only one. l love a girl. You must be in love with someone too. Who is it? Shower has stopped. -Great discovery! Find a way to get out first. - ldea! - What? l'll make the dog enter the tub and... ...we escape from the other side. You could have told me much earlier. - l told you now. Come Give me the letters. Else, l'll shoot you. -Shoot me. No shooting girls. -Shoot me. No Please, shoot me. There are no bullets in it. -l've the gun. How dare you blackmail! Will you trouble girls again? -No. Don't hit me. What happened? Oh god Give them to her. We got them. My heart is beating normally now. Thanks. Thank him. -No, thank her. He took more trouble than me. Thank him. - No thank her. Thanks to both of you. -No need of it between us. l don't mind it. Come l can sleep peacefully now. You called me! Only friends, nothing more. Have juice. l think something broke. -Glass. ls that toy horse yours? lt broke when the ball hit it. Your hurt shows how much you love this toy. My brother gave it to me. lt has been with me since my childhood. l never thought l'd lose it. Don't cry. Please. -l miss my brother. Counting the stars? l'll also count. l missed the count. lt's the horse your brother gave you. l toiled hard to join it lt has marks of joints like the moon has a spot. l decorated the horse to conceal the marks. You may remove them if you don't like. lt's nice. -Really? You didn't thank me. So l thanked myself. Bye. Did you call me? Why did you take so much trouble? Do l tell the truth? l want to see happiness on your face. That's all? Really? ls there no 'something'? Has the mirror ever questioned you? That you look different? l noticed the change in you, That you don't respond when your name is called l thought it is strange The shine in your eyes is my reflection Your lips utter my name l'm convinced of it My every step, automatically leads to you, They are out of my control Don't fear, lt's true that,,, ,,,there is a change in you Who gave you the right to bring change in me? Ask your heart and don't blame me Earlier your heart never beat so fast Don't worry Ask me l'll teach you dance steps to match it Why do you fret when l go away? Control of feelings of love are not in our hands, Brother... -What's it? Someone has come in between you and your sister. Who will come between us? -Come and see. You must see for yourself. Look there. l see stars. So what? That's you and Sri. There is an other star in between. lt must be for a temporary period. Go, mind your work. l see. Fine. lt got me worried. That's Sri and the other is brother. What are you looking at? Wondering who is in between those 2 stars. lt's not you. Go. Do you need spectacles during wedding ceremony? She will wear even at bed time. She doesn't need as the lights will be put off anyway. Look at what she talks at this age! All l can do at this age is, talk. Will you give me a kiss? -Then what? - l love it. There is still time for it. We have the time now. Don't. Bless you. Mother, have you ever hit me? Why will she hit you? She will hit your father. Why will l hit you? What's wrong with him today? -Bless them first. Skip it. Have you ever hit me in life? How can anybody feel like hitting you? What is the matter? -Thanks. Let's talk later. No going out of town once you are made a bride. Times have changed. -A custom is a custom anytime. Eat 'Ariselu' (a sweet) -Serve me only 2. -What's the matter? -l'm not hungry. Didn't he like the food? lt's not so. He isn't in good mood since morning. lt was not intentional but unexpected. You can kiss me now if you want. Not just a kiss but you may do as you wish. Why do you cry? For hurting you. Wipe your tears. Why are you crying? Your tears bring tears in my eyes. Don't know why. lt's my mistake. Sorry. lt was my mistake. l shouldn't have done it. -No. l overreacted. lt's not wrong with ones beloved. l didn't know what is right or wrong. How can you know? You were not born and brought up here. You should have told me it was wrong. l'm so happy. -Me too. Do you think l don't know about you both? l was watching you both heading for marriage during my wedding. Let me go. - l'll get you married after my marriage. You... Hurry up before sir gives green signal. You are working hard as if it's your own sister's marriage. l've a sister but that girl has no brother. l take your leave, sir. -Master, you forgot this. What's this? - For madam. -Take care of the house. Be ready. lt's time for the groom's party to arrive. Why are you standing here? -l'm not coming for wedding. Why? Angry? - You don't take me and my daughter seriously. We have to receive the groom's party. Why have l come for the wedding? To clean the dinner plates? -Who said so? No one. l feel so. -Why are you so angry? Everyone leaves after the wedding. My daughter and me will be left behind. Look at me, daughter. -l see. Sister, come here. What's the matter, brother? What did we discuss yesterday? - What? About his daughter and your son's marriage. We confirmed it. Let's discuss in detail after the wedding. Okay, dear? Bless me, aunty. -Let's go. What do you say now? Where did l keep it? Where did you get it? -ln the backyard. Put it back there. - Fool. Well come, brother-in-law. Engagement is over. Forget the case and talk of fees first. This way, please. Wait. There is time for everything. You may proceed. - Proceed! Don't you have brains? Why did you stop again? -He is scolding me. Scolding you! l'll kill you. l'll handle you later. Don't wait. Click the photos. Wait Sit down. This is a family photo. -That's why l brought her. l got a joker. -Come and join us. Get up you stupid. -What's the time? l don't have a watch Oh my dress! Why do you trouble Dolly? -Today is the last day for it. Why? Tonight is the wedding. Everyone go home tomorrow. You feel sad for going away from me, to London, right? Yes Lock the door after you finish. - Okay. What brings you here? go Why are you sweating? Wipe it. l'm leaving for London tomorrow. Why not we talk? People here think the boys from abroad... ... exploit girls here. That's wrong. l'm not one of them. True. l'll go, speak to my dad and then, talk to your brother. ls it okay? Leave me alone. -Stop it. Stop being naughty and do useful work. l want Santhosh Stop it. Listen to me. l'll talk to him.- l'll kill myself. Listen to me. Stop it and mind the work. What happened is.. Brother, what do we do? Such people shouldn't be spared. They have the knack of trapping rich boys. We will lose Santosh if we are not careful. Let go off my hand. Mother is calling you. You have to go to jewellery shop immediately. - Now! As the aunt, l've to present bangles to the bride. l forgot about it. Go get it. l know nothing about selection. Take him along if you don't know. Here is the money. Let's go. We have to be back in time for wedding. Take your time but buy good and expensive ones. Let's go. You! Will you have tea? How old are you? -20 years. You are too smart for your age. Let's go go Who else is there in your family? Just my brother and me. What does your brother do? -Farming. Farming! - We've poultry and cattle. We sell milk too. Did you take your brother's permission... ... to attend this wedding? Yes. l won't do anything without telling my brother. Did you trap my son with brother's permission? Why are you quiet? What can she say? Things have gone haywire. Aunty is scolding your friend. Go, fast. l was impressed by your participation in chores. But didn't realise your true character. Look at her innocent act! -What an act! Why are you shouting at her? We are busy with wedding and... ... she is busy with attracting Santosh. Don't say so. Santosh liked her. Very intelligent of her! -Uncle. Shut up. Let's elders take charge. - Father,... -l said shut up. Go away if you have any shame left. Go. Go and find someone else. See, l told you she cannot stay away from me. Look at the tears on seeing me. Don't worry. Your brother has come. Crying like a baby. Stop crying. How are you, bride? l've brought the saree. You will wear it during the ceremony. Take it, dear. Greetings. You are Lalita's father, l presume. l saw you when l was a kid. l've brought you a silk 'pancha' lt's woven in our village. What's this, brother? -Wait. What happened, dear? Even the brother is like his sister! You are invited to bless the married couple. Not try to trap rich boys. What are you saying! -l don't know your name. Don't act innocent. Would your sister trap a millionaire... ... without your knowledge? l'll kill you if you say one more word about my sister. lf you know what happened here... ... you will beat up your sister and take her away. Brother...... Don't do it, brother. lt's your mistake and show temper on others! You are after all a farmer. Not deserve even to be our labour. You people aim for my son! Get out of here. -She said get out. She has done enough dirty work. Take her away. Let's go away, sister. Forgive me, brother. l consider it as my sister's wedding. Don't want to disturb it. Here, l'm leaving with humility. Else l'd have taught a lesson to all, one by one. Let's go. Stop eating and keep the bunch in the car. What is taking them so long? -Here they come. Come on. Ladies doesn't have sense of time. Take care. Phone us up when you reach. Let me say bye to Santosh. -Do it fast. l've to tell you something before l leave. You listen to your heart. Nothing else. You think Sri left you. No. She left behind her heart. Go, have a look in her room. -lt's time to leave, daughter. This horse is with me since my childhood. lt's precious to me. lt has always been with me. What are you doing here? Everyone is downstairs. Come. You proceed. l'll join you. We are leaving tomorrow. Do you remember your promise? l do. l remember. Everything went off smoothly excepting for that girl's... Forget it and watch there. What's wrong? Why are you so dull? Cannot you see us talk? Don't think of her. She came, she left. l'll be with you, forever. Will you wait for me? -Of course l do.- How long? Forever. -Can you wait for 2 years? 10 years? 100 years? You cannot but Sri can. Sri isn't a passing cloud. lt's you. You can forget it since the hopes have crashed. Don't take his words seriously. Neither his father nor he are decision makers. lt's his mother. She gave us her word. Your marriage with him is sure. Brother told me what happened there. Rich talk anything. They always blame others. Brother was humiliated because of me. Yet, he never said a word to me. You know him well. He will feel bad if you are sad. Take my advice and forget it all. That isn't easy for me. l love Santosh deeply. What! Santosh didn't catch the flight! He got on it and was with me till Dubai. He didn't take connecting flight to London from there. He cheated me. -Cheat you! Nonsense. lt's love. -Love!! O bird don't fly away but come back to nest Why do you throw tantrums? Why take my joke seriously? Take me with you, l'll come along l sent away all my hapiness with my beloved Hope it is safe and nothing to worry Wonder if she is happy with my little taunts Has the girls mind become smaller? Oh sparrow! Be a messenger of love and reach the message to her,, ,,in advance that her beloved is coming, Oh crow! Tell her, in detail, all that have heard Yesterday l knew what is hunger! And it has filled my stomach! Denied me food and asked me to go! Felt sleepy but sleep didn't bless me But has driven me away from coming closer! Love is magic Who would not give when you ask for it? O love! You know it very well Tell me who could overcome it How does the boy you love look like? Shut up. -ls he fair complexioned? He has no mustache and hair is messy. Will it be like a lorry carrying bush? Are you the station master? Who is he? Who are you? You sit like a ticket less traveler? l have got the ticket! Feed the offerings to the cow. Don't trip on the plate. Be careful. Go and complete the ritual. Your look makes me tense as it is! Don't know,how will it be if you're angry? So you would say what l have to say! l only loved your sister! l am Santhosh! What happened is. . . Your sister is a nice girl. You raised her well. She doesn't even look at boys. lt took great efforts for me to lure her! l would have conveyed this better in English! But you don't know English My people shouldn't have said those things to you. You are justified in getting angry and taking away Sri. l'm sorry for what they did. Have you finished? l wonder if l explained well but this is what the matter is. Okay. Let's go. Should you take him inside now? What is this sir? We want to talk something in private You come He is inviting trouble. l had different opinion of you But you are a gentleman! Why is it so calm? lt is always calm before a storm. This is what l meant! Dump him outside the village. This isn't your problem but your sister's. Throwing him out isn't the solution. A girl cannot feel free with brother about everything. She could have told her mother if she had. Think about it! l did this because l was reminded of mother! l cannot forget the day my father threw bundles of... ... money at my mother's face. lt broke my mother's heart and she died. No, l don't want these rich people They change fast l don't mind my sister suffer today but... ... l don't want her face my mother's fate tomorrow. -But.. -No, sir -He had come for his bag -No, l came back for Sri No, don't Please, don't separate us l love her more than you do l've ignored my parents and everything for her Tell me, what should l do to prove my love Ask him to leave Even a person to be hanged is granted a wish. -But you.. -Can't you understand what is told? Why do you rage madly? Your sister reminds you of your mother. This boy reminds me of you, as an youngster. Just like this.. you had asked me Don't you remember? Had l not given you a chance you wouldn't be here ls it fair if you refuse to him? Dear, is it enough if you alone choose your partner.. -..or you need opinion? -You should also approve Tell me what to do to convince you? Will you do anything? -l'll. You have to work in the fields. l'll give you an acre of my land. You must produce as much as l produce. Can you? You must milk the cows, clean the sheds. Take care of cattle and poultry. How can he do that? -He has to do. Just leaving the parents isn't enough. He has to lead a farmer's life which his mother scorned at.... ... if he wants to marry the girl of this household. l will prove myself l'll do whatever you said l'll produce more than you do. ..then only he'll know that l love Sri more than him This is not like working in computers This is hard work Falling in love was easy Let me work hard to prove it lf you fail you've to forget my sister.. ..and leave the village You should sleep here l'll wake you up at dawn A grand welcome! Get up! You! l slept late because of the stink. -Do you want coffee? -Boost Go and have it What boy, was the boost good? Go and clean the cowshed He is trapped in net for the sake of love Poor boy! Oh poor boy! Oh God! lgnorant of the troubles that love has.. l think l had pressed the wrong button ..the rich boy is in agony This is the field you have to tilt. -Plough it -Where is the tractor? No tractors. You have to tilt without that. But how? - Like this. Brother, look at him. l thought he will survive a few days but no. -Eat it. -lt's pungent. Go back by the 1st train tomorrow. Why suffer like this? He looks like a mad guy Even tomorrow l'll eat the same -Are you leaving by the morning train? -Not even by the evening train. Earlier for the proposal, he said his sister is yet to come.. -Now, he might ask us to wait till this fellow leaves -You go and ask -What should he ask? -Did you see that boy? He is strong like Ongole's bull lf he wins, you're doomed You messed with her in the fair. She is hitting you back. Come Where is Shivaramakrishnan's house here? -Where are you from? -London -London? How are you related to that boy who is doing odd jobs for him? -ls my son doing farm labour? -ls he your son? Wait, l've to tell you a lot about him -ls anyone home? -Who is it? This is the girl Why are you staring? Didn't you catch a fish with a bait? l'm the father of the fish you netted. Don't look at me like an owl. -Call your brother -Who is it, dear? -Are you Shivaramakrishna? -Yes Do you know who am l? Santhosh's father Have you come for your son? No, l came to say hello to you 'and offer you sweets They don't even know what is hospitality. Your company deprived him the respect he deserves. l don't need your hospitality. Anyway do you know the meaning of it? You make my son work as a labour! He is the son of one of the top 500 millionaires of London. So? - Nothing. Watch me take back my son. Take him. Then, why did you keep him this long? Control your tongue. l kept quiet that day as it was your home ground. This is my home ground. You will die if you don't behave yourself. Are you threatening! He can throw money and bring police. You will be put behind bars. You have to call police but... ...l can kill you right where you are standing now. Want to kill? Come on, kill me. What's all this? Why did you come here? He came all the way from London for you and you ask him why! Your condition makes me cry. l've to talk to my son. You people may leave. How can you spoil your future for a girl? Let's go back to London. You used to consider me your friend. You should help me if you are my close friend. He is right, uncle. Why didn't you leave with them? He is your only son but my only friend too. Let me ask you as a father. What if you lose? l never thought of it. How could you? What if you lose? You are sitting on the well. What if you fall in the well? l've support to prevent it. l won't lose because l've my love for support. Love drove you crazy. Have l ever said you are money crazy? Well said. What did you understand? l just wanted to know. Everyone here talks more intelligently than me-Take it. l don't understand the way you live. You leave luxuries and live on this food? One is born with his fate already written. One should enjoy it while it lasted. ls he listening? -l think so. Some people work all the time like machines. Earn millions and consider themselves lucky. They don't realise love is the most worthy possession. Life is over by the time they realise it. Do you want him repeat it? l hear big talk of love. Does all this drudgery prove the power of love? Can we do it? Eating it is no big deal. Want me to eat it? Why do you flaunt? l think he is burning inside. Should l bring water to drink. - Get it! Water... - There is no water in the car. How could you eat it! lt will kill you. You are not used to it. How can you endure anything for love sake? Does love really have so much power? lf not, l wouldn't have come here all the way. Neither you would have come for me. They will accept his love someday. l won't accept. l love my son for foregoing everything for a girl. But l don't like the girl who lives in comfort like a queen. l cannot accept it. -You are wrong. Who are you? -Not a rich man like you. l'm a station master at a small railway station. You are pained for your son suffering in the name of love. But that girl is eating the same food. Yes, sir. She even sleeps on the floor as your son does so. She is virtually living a life that of a servant. Do you think it is old fashioned? lndeed it is. She is old fashioned hence prays to God for his success. Keep it burning, dear. My son Santosh, lived a luxurious life. He didn't know what is hard work. l raised him so. Smell of mud on him angered me. Now l realized l'm standing on the soil of my motherland,.. ... which l have forgotten long back. Your love made my son and me realise the value of it. Bye. Your decision isn't right. My sister won't accept it. lt will create problems between you both. - Yes. l don't want problems because of me. Don't worry. l know her weakness. She easily gets influenced by worthless people. l'm going back to London l know how to convince her. What's happening? Come here. What about her? l announced her wedding because of your sister's promise. Now, people are eager to know when is the wedding. What will happen to her life now? Look at her condition. Stop it. My sister won't easily believe her husband. Your worry is Santosh marrying that girl. For that he has to win the challenge. Shivaram doesn't want him to win. He will surely lose it. -Say it again! He would definitely lose. The blowing, high and strong wind ,,,is showing what is love The showers pouring in response to it, is love Love is what keeps us alive Love is in the drizzle that makes seedlings grow Love is what that fills your life with colours, l see seeds grow in others fields but none in mine, Even my field seeds have grown No one can tell when the life begins in us No one knows when the love is sparked in one's heart Even if there is a word to define love,,, ,,,that word itself doesn't know it does so Love is, pouring out poetry without even knowing alphabets A river doesn't know it's own force while it flows The sapling doesn't know its ability of yielding a crop, The soil doesn't know its ability of giving life to plants But the abundant crop is evident to the toil that went into it, lf the toil results in bringing one's beloved close, it's victory One gets blessed with love when he deserves Journey of life would be easy if one has a companion Life would be fulfilling when one has someone to cry for him Driver, let's move. Sister, we have trouble. You are going to lose your son. That girl is sure to become your daughter-in-law. l trust that you will stand by your promise. What do l do now? Why don't you talk? Tell me what do l do? but l always fulfilled my promise. lt will be the same this time too. - l know. l don't know what you do but... ... she shouldn't become my daughter-in-law. l want my Santosh back. l wanted to hear it from you. l'll act now. Who is it? - lt's me. What are you doing? l'm making way for water to drain out. Why? - To prevent damage to crop by flooding due to rain. There won't be any rain because of this winds. Go. lt appears like it's going to rain. l'm a farmer for years. Don't l know when it rains? Narsima, do it in our field too. No need. l did it already. You are getting wet. l'll handle it. Why did you sleep here? -Why did l sleep here? l feel depressed. - let me lift your moods. Your sister has passed in 1st class. - Really! Really. -Sri...... Bless you. Seek his blessings too. Like your brother blessed, marry the boy you love... ... and have a happy married life. lt isn't deliberate. lt just came out of my mouth. Don't get angry. l'd have gifted the railway station had it been my daughter. What will you gift her? Ask what you want, bangles or earrings? Go and ask ask him What do you want? Shall we throw a feast to all? Sure. Let's invite the entire village. Brother, can we invite Santosh too? He is one of them. lnvite him too. He agreed but hesitatingly. Better be careful. Your brother is coming. Don't feel shy. Serve me 2 more.... Do you have to serve only 2? Let the buffalo go away to feed. l'm making the noise not the buffalo He meant buffalo, not you. Mind the plate while serving. l must thank you. -For what? l ate till l choked. You invited all so that l can eat good food, right? Won't you wish me best of luck? You have passed in your exams. l've to pass in mine. Greetings. My name is Rao. Villages all around are dead scared of me. - l know. l checked the voters list... and found that... ... you are the worst kind of rogue in the village. Do l have to kill someone? -My daughter....Do l kill her? Listen. My daughter loves someone. - Do l kill him? Cannot you keep away from killing? l'll kill you too if you pay me. l found the right man. Come with me. So, l've to ruin the crops. Tell me what to do. -There is a new product. Use one liter, you get good crop. Use 2 liters, you get dead crop. Do it, do it. But no one should find it out. l'll ruin it. Mix it fast. - Okay. You mix it you and you pour it. My stomach is upset. -Noise is coming from there. Let's hide. Who is he? -l don't know too. He is here for the same purpose like ours. Why do you make so much noise? What's wrong with you all? Help... help. Don't worry. Pour water from the tub. lt's burning down. Go get more water. Get out, fast. Get out. Have you gone mad? What if something went wrong? What is in that box? What is in that box? He has done a good job. He said he will finish me. He did it. What are you thinking? You said l'm the biggest crook. But l'm wondering who was that bespectacled crook... ... l saw in the fields. You do the thinking. l'll get my work done from Peddarao. lt was your stupid idea to ruin the crop,. lt backfired. This time l'll suggest an idea. You hit me if it didn't work. Trust me. lt must be a good plan. Do it. l'll pay when the job is done. Sister... Where have they gone? We cut the crop and piled it up. We will separate grains tomorrow. That will decide our fate. Are you tense? l feel 'something'. l bragged that l'll produce... ... one bag full more than he does. l've been overconfident. -A bit. Your brother is a nice guy. Tell him not to throw me out from here if l fail. l'll continue to be a labour for him. l cannot leave this village, the cattle, goats, etc. ... and the angry looks of your brother. This yield belongs to this guy. Shift some of it to Shivaram's. That will defeat the guy. You have improved. -l don't need your praise. Get on the job. l forgot to feed the cows. That day you got burns on your back. Today you got drenched. What's all is happening to you! Have you shifted the crop? -l did. Shift more to be on safer side. This should keep Santhosh out of the picture. Why are so many people going there? We should be eager, about his work, not them. Entire village wants that boy win. Let's go and watch, father. One... Three Five. Why are you here instead of weighing the grains? To wish for your victory or the boy? 'Archana' is complete. -l'm happy. l don't know if he wins, but he won your heart. He has to win the challenge too. What? Won't you get them married if he loses? He won't lose. He risked his life for the toy my sister loves. My mother won't forgive me if he loses. So, l checked the quantity of crop at dawn. l was doubtful of the quantity. To make him win, l transferred... ... some of mine to his crop. You are not educated but you are wise. Go and offer a coconut for his victory. Sri,... l've won. How can l show my face to my daughter? What do l answer to my sister, in London? You ruined everything with your dumb advice. My advice will be followed this time. You see that it doesn't become a police case. Rotten coconut! l've won, My yield is more by 2 bags, O Lord Ganesha, you are the son of Lord Shiva Sri and Hari are getting married Everyone hailed it Entire world is dancing with joy The eye is fluttering Everything went well Joy is all around Happiness is mind blowing First time to get real excitement Magic of love is making the,,, Heart thump like the dance of a peacock The youth is adding heat to it Beauty is inviting lt spreads fragrance Love brought the victory and united the love birds Wishes are fulfilled and the love resulted in marriage They reached the pandal, The joy is overwhelming Let us enter into the holy matrimony Let the holy hymns be uttered What happens later is personal People shouldn't hear it Then there are now obstacles between us, You come with me. Get in. Let's go. Who is that... Stop. Brother... Get down. l helped your brother a lot since his childhood. He didn't answer when l asked for your hand for my son. So, l arranged for it in my way. Son, tie the knot. Who are you? -Get lost. You want to tie the knot? Do you think you can live after that? Her brother will kill you when he comes to know of it. Coming here and killing isn't that easy. Why not? Haven't l come? He will come too. Here he comes. Madam, let's run. They are running away. Catch them. Come this way. Which way have they gone? l hear some noise. Climb up. Where is she? Where is she hiding? Master... Tell us. How dare you spit on me! No... Brother... Let go off me. Give me the 'Tali'. Go. Go. Spare me. Brother... Where are you going? -Brother. -Tie the knot. - Brother... You are telling the truth a day before your release? You always refused to meet your people when they visited. l thought you are a hardcore criminal. l never thought you took punishment for... ... the crime you never committed. Your sacrifice won't go waste. Your dream will come true. As you wished, your sister will be at the gate tomorrow... . . .with her 2 kids. They didn't find an auspicious time to get married till today. Your release is auspicious time for them. They came to seek your blessings. When l heard your story l thought she is lucky... ... to have a brother like you. But you are lucky to have a sister like her. -Why l am not? l didn't ask her to come. She came on her own

Contents

Origins

Background

In the 1950s, Brazilian cinema was dominated by chanchada (musicals, often comedic and "cheap"[10]), big-budget epics that imitated the style of Hollywood,[10] and "'serious' cinema" that Cinema Novo filmmaker Carlos Diegues characterizes as "sometimes cerebral and often ridiculously pretentious."[11] This traditional cinema was supported by foreign producers, distributors and exhibitors. As the decade ended, young Brazilian filmmakers protested films they perceived as made in "bad taste and ... sordid commercialism, ... a form of cultural prostitution" that relied on the patronage of "an illiterate and impoverished Brazil."[11]

Cinema Novo became increasingly political. In the 1960s, Brazil was producing the most political cinema in South America. Brazil therefore became the natural “home of the Cinema Novo (New Cinema) movement”.[9] Cinema Novo rose to prominence at the same time that progressive Brazilian Presidents Juscelino Kubitschek and later João Goulart took office and began to influence Brazilian popular culture. But it was not until 1959 or 1960 that 'Cinema Novo' emerged as a label for the movement.[10] According to Randal Johnson and Robert Stam, Cinema Novo officially began in 1960, with the start of its first phase.[12]

In 1961, the Popular Center of Culture, a subsidiary of the National Students' Union, released Cinco Vezes Favela, a film serialized in five episodes that Johnson and Stam claim to be "one of the first" products of the Cinema Novo movement.[13] The Popular Center of Culture (PCC) sought "to establish a cultural and political link with the Brazilian masses by putting on plays in factories and working-class neighborhoods, producing films and records, and by participating in literacy programs."[13] Johnson and Stam hold that "many of the original members of Cinema Novo" were also active members in the PCC who participated in the production of Cinco Vezes Favela.[13]

Influences

Brazilian filmmakers modeled Cinema Novo after genres known for subversiveness: Italian neorealism and French New Wave. Johnson and Stam further claim that Cinema Novo has something in common "with Soviet film of the twenties," which like Italian neorealism and French New Wave had "a penchant for theorizing its own cinematic practice."[14] Italian neorealist cinema often shot on location with nonprofessional actors and depicted working class citizens during the hard economic times following World War II. French New Wave drew heavily from Italian neorealism, as New Wave directors rejected classical cinema and embraced iconoclasm.

Some proponents of Cinema Novo were "scornful of the politics of the [French] New Wave", viewing its tendency to stylistically copy Hollywood as elitist.[6] But Cinema Novo filmmakers were largely attracted to French New Wave's use of auteur theory, which enabled directors to make low-budget films and develop personal fan bases.

Ideology

Cinema Novo filmmaker Alex Viany describes the movement as having elements of participatory culture. According to Viany, while Cinema Novo was initially "as fluid and undefined" as its predecessor French New Wave, it required that filmmakers have a passion for cinema, a desire to use it to explain "social and human problems," and a willingness to individualize their work.[10]

Auteur theory also greatly influenced Cinema Novo. Although its three phases were distinct, Cinema Novo encouraged directors to emphasize their personal politics and stylistic preferences. As Cinema Novo filmmaker Joaquim Pedro de Andrade explained to Viany in a 1966 interview:

In our films, the propositions, positions, and ideas are extremely varied, at times even contradictory or at least multiple. Above all they are increasingly free and unmasked. There exists a total freedom of expression. ... At first glance this would seem to indicate some internal incoherence within the Cinema Novo movement. But in reality I think it indicates a greater coherence: a more legitimate, truthful, and direct correspondence between the filmmaker--with his perplexities, doubts, and certainties--and the world in which he lives.[15]

Class struggle also informed Cinema Novo, whose strongest theme is the "aesthetic of hunger" developed by premiere Cinema Novo filmmaker Glauber Rocha in the first phase. Rocha wished to expose how different the standard of living was for rich South Americans and poor South Americans. In his 1965 essay "The Esthetic of Hunger," Rocha stated that "the hunger of South America is not simply an alarming symptom: it is the essence of our society. ... [Cinema Novo's] originality is [South Americans'] hunger[,] and our greatest misery is that this hunger is felt but not intellectually understood."[16] On this note, Wheeler Winston Dixon and Gwendolyn Audrey Foster hold that "[t]he Marxist implications of [Rocha's] cinema are hard to miss".[17]

Themes and style

Most film historians divide Cinema Novo into three sequential phases that differ in theme, style and subject matter. Stam and Johnson identify "a first phase going from 1960 to 1964," a second phase running "from 1964 to 1968," and a third phase running "from 1963 to 1972" (though they also claim the final phase concludes at "roughly" "the end of 1971").[18] There is little disagreement among film critics about this time frame.[19][20][21][22]

Filmmaker Carlos Diegues claims that while lack of funds lowered the technical precision of Cinema Novo films, it also allowed directors, writers and producers to have an unusual amount of creative freedom. "Because Cinema Novo is not a school, it has no established style," states Diegues. "In Cinema Novo, expressive forms are necessarily personal and original without formal dogmas".[11] This directorial freedom, along with the changing social and political climate in Brazil, caused Cinema Novo to experience shifts in form and content in a short amount of time.

First phase (1960–1964)

Films of the first phase represent the original motivation and goals of Cinema Novo. First-phase films were earnest in tone and rural in setting, dealing with social ills that affected the working class like starvation, violence, religious alienation and economic exploitation. They also addressed the "fatalism and stoicism" of the working class, which discouraged it from working to fix these problems.[22] "The films share a certain political optimism," write Johnson and Stam, "a kind of faith that merely showing these problems would be a first step toward their solution."[23]

Unlike traditional Brazilian cinema that depicted beautiful professional actors in tropical paradises, first-phase Cinema Novo "searched out the dark corners of Brazilian life--its favelas and its sertão--the places where Brazil's social contradictions appeared most dramatically."[6] These topics were supported by aesthetics that "were visually characterized by a documentary quality, often achieved by the use of a hand-held camera" and were shot "in black and white, using simple, stark scenery that vividly emphasized the harshness of the landscape".[22] Diegues contends that first-phase Cinema Novo did not focus on editing and shot-framing but rather on spreading a proletariat philosophy. "Brazilian filmmakers (principally in Rio, Bahia, and São Paulo) have taken their cameras and gone out into the streets, the country, and the beaches in search of the Brazilian people, the peasant, the worker, the fisherman, the slum dweller."[24]

Most film historians agree that Glauber Rocha, "one of the most well-known and prolific filmmakers to emerge in the late 1950s in Brazil",[25] was the most powerful advocate for Cinema Novo in its first phase. Dixon and Foster contend that Rocha helped initiate the movement because he wanted to make films that educated the public about social equality, art and intellectualism, which Brazilian cinema at the time did not do. Rocha summarized these goals by claiming his films used "aesthetics of hunger" to address class and racial unrest. In 1964, Rocha released Deus e o Diabo na Terra do Sol ("Black God, White Devil"), which he wrote and directed to “suggest that only violence will help those who are sorely oppressed".[9]

With Rocha at the helm during its first phase, Cinema Novo was praised by critics around the world.

Second phase (1964–1968)

In 1964, popular Democratic President João Goulart was removed from office by military coup, turning Brazil into a military-run autocracy under new President Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco. Brazilians consequently lost faith in the ideals of Cinema Novo, as the movement had promised to protect civilian rights yet had failed to uphold democracy. Cinema Novo filmmaker Joaquim Pedro de Andrade blamed fellow directors, whom he claimed had lost touch with Brazilians while appealing to critics: "For a film to be a truly political instrument," de Andrade said, "it must first communicate with its public".[26] Second-phase Cinema Novo thus sought to both deflect criticism and to address the "anguish" and "perplexity" that Brazilians felt after Goulart was ousted. It did this by producing films that were "analyses of failure--of populism, of developmentalism, and of leftist intellectuals" to protect Brazilian democracy.[27]

At this time, filmmakers also started trying to make Cinema Novo more profitable. Stephanie Dennison and Lisa Shaw state that second-phase directors "recognized the irony in making so-called 'popular' films, to be viewed only by university students and art-house aficionados. As a result, some auteurs began to move away from the so-called 'aesthetics of hunger' toward a filmmaking style and themes designed to attract the interest of the cinema-going public at large."[28] As a result, the first Cinema Novo film to be shot in color and to depict middle-class protagonists was released during this time: Leon Hirzshman's Garota de Ipanema ("Girl from Ipanema," 1968).

Third phase and Novo Cinema Novo (1968–1972)

Hans Proppe and Susan Tarr characterize Cinema Novo's third phase as "a mixed bag of social and political themes against a backdrop of characters, images and contexts not unlike the richness and floridness of the Brazilian jungle".[29] Third-phase Cinema Novo has also been called "the cannibal-tropicalist phase"[30] or simply the "tropicalist" phase.[29]

Tropicalism was a movement that focused on kitsch, bad taste and gaudy colors. Film historians refer to cannibalism both literally and metaphorically. Both types of cannibalism are visible in Como Era Gostoso o Meu Frances ("How Tasty Was My Little Frenchman," 1971), in which the protagonist is abducted and eaten by literal cannibals at the same time it is "suggested that the Indians (i.e., Brazil) should metaphorically cannibalize their foreign enemies, appropriating their force without being dominated by them."[18] Rocha believed cannibalism represented the violence that was necessary to enact social change and depict it onscreen: "From Cinema Novo it should be learned that an aesthetic of violence, before being primitive, is revolutionary. It is the initial moment when the colonizer becomes aware of the colonized. Only when confronted with violence does the colonizer understand, through horror, the strength of the culture he exploits."[16]

With Brazil modernizing in the global economy, third-phase Cinema Novo also became more polished and professional, producing "films in which the rich cultural texture of Brazil has been pushed to the limit and exploited for its own aesthetic ends rather than for its appropriateness as political metaphor."[29] Brazilian consumers and filmmakers began to feel that Cinema Novo was contradicting the ideals of its first phase. This perception led to the birth of Novo Cinema Novo, also called Udigrudi[nb 1] cinema, which used 'dirty screen' and 'garbage' aesthetics to return Cinema Novo to its original focus on marginalized characters and social problems.

But third-phase Cinema Novo also had supporters. Cinema Novo filmmaker Joaquim Pedro de Andrade, who was active during the first phase and produced one of the premiere films of the third phase, Macunaíma, was pleased Cinema Novo had made itself more relatable to Brazilian citizens, despite accusations it was selling out to do so. Referencing Leon Hirszman's Garota de Ipanema, de Andrade praised Hirszman for using "a popular stereotype to establish contact with the masses, while at the same time ... demystif[ying] that very stereotype".[31]

End of Cinema Novo

Burnes St. Patrick Hollyman, son of famed American photographer Thomas Hollyman, states that "by 1970, many of the cinema novo films had won numerous awards at international festivals".[32] In 1970 Rocha published a manifesto on the progress of Cinema Novo, in which he said he was pleased that Cinema Novo "had gained critical acceptance as part of world cinema" and had become "a nationalist cinema that accurately reflected the artistic and ideological concerns of the Brazilian people" (Hollyman).[32] But Rocha also warned filmmakers and consumers that being too complacent in the achievements of Cinema Novo would return Brazil to its pre-Cinema Novo state:

The movement is bigger than any one of us. But the young should know that they cannot be irresponsible about the present and the future because today's anarchy can be tomorrow's slavery. Before long, imperialism will start to exploit the newly created films. If the Brazilian cinema is the palm tree of Tropicalism, it is important that the people who have lived through the drought are on guard to make sure that Brazilian cinema doesn't become underdeveloped.[33]

Rocha's fears were realized. In 1977, filmmaker Carlos Diegues said that "one can only talk about Cinema Novo in nostalgic or figurative terms because Cinema Novo as a group no longer exists, above all because it has been diluted into Brazilian cinema."[34] Toward the end of Cinema Novo, the Brazilian government created film company Embrafilme to encourage production of Brazilian cinema; but Embrafilme mostly produced films that ignored the Cinema Novo ideology. Aristides Gazetas claims that Third Cinema now carries on the Cinema Novo tradition.[35]

Legacy

Embrafilme

In 1969, the Brazilian government instituted Embrafilme, a company designed to produce and distribute Brazilian cinema. Embrafilme produced movies of various genres, including fantasies and big-budget epics. At the time, Cinema Novo filmmaker Carlos Diegues said he supported Embrafilme because it was "the only enterprise with sufficient economic and political power to confront the devastating voracity of the multinational corporations in Brazil."[34] Moreover, Diegues held that while Cinema Novo "is not identified with Embrafilme", "[Embrafilme's] existence ... is in reality a project of Cinema Novo."[34]

When Embrafilme was dismantled in 1990 by President Fernando Collor de Mello, "the consequences" for the Brazilian film industry "were immediate and grim."[36] Lacking investors, many Brazilian directors co-produced English films. This caused English cinema to overrun the Brazilian market, which went from producing 74 films in 1989 to producing nine films in 1993. Brazilian President Itamar Franco ended the crisis by implementing the Brazilian Cinema Rescue Award, which funded 90 projects between 1993 and 1994. The award "opened new doors to a young generation of new film-makers (and a few of the veterans) who were confident that, as the title of a film by Cinema Novo veteran director Carlos Diegues prophetically announced, better days would come (Melhores Dias Virao/Better Days Will Come, 1989)."[37]

Third Cinema

According to Aristides Gazetas, Cinema Novo is the first example of an influential genre called Third Cinema. Like Cinema Novo, Third Cinema draws on Italian neorealism and French New Wave. Gazetas claims that Cinema Novo can be characterized as early Third Cinema because Glauber Rocha "adopted Third Cinema techniques to bring awareness of the social and political realities in his country through cinema".[7] After fading with Cinema Novo, Third Cinema was revived in 1986 when English film companies looked to create a genre that "focused upon Anglo-American cinematic practices" and "avoided both the sentimental leftist cultural theory emanating from the UK and the cultural and educational practices in line with corporate cultures and market consumerism that related to variants of postmodernism."[35]

In 1965, Glauber Rocha claimed that "Cinema Novo is a phenomenon of new peoples everywhere and not a privilege of Brazil."[16] Appropriately, Third Cinema has affected film culture throughout the world. In Italy, Gillo Pontecorvo directed The Battle of Algiers (1965), which depicted native African Muslims as brave terrorists fighting French colonialists in Algeria. Cuban filmmaker Tomas Gutierrez Alea, co-founder of the ground-breaking Instituto Cubano del Arte e Industria Cinematográficos, used Third Cinema to "reconstitut[e] a historical past for Cubans."[38] According to Stuart Hall, Third Cinema also impacted black peoples in the Caribbean by giving them two identities: one in which they are unified across a diaspora, and another that highlights "what black people have become as a result of white rule and colonization."[39]

List of key films

First phase

Second phase

Third phase

List of key directors

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Brazilian pronunciation of "Underground."

References

  1. ^ Brazil: Five Centuries of Change-library.brown.edu
  2. ^ The 10 Greatest New Wave Movements in Film History« Taste of Cinema
  3. ^ Cinema Novo revolutionised Brazilian cinema in the 1960s-Brazil
  4. ^ Cannes 2016: 'Cinema Novo' Review-Variety
  5. ^ a b c Dixon & Foster, 293.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Johnson & Stam, 33.
  7. ^ a b Gazetas, 308.
  8. ^ Johnson & Stam, 42.
  9. ^ a b c Dixon & Foster, 292.
  10. ^ a b c d Viany, 141.
  11. ^ a b c Johnson & Stam, 65.
  12. ^ Johnson & Stam, 32.
  13. ^ a b c Johnson & Stam, 58.
  14. ^ Johnson & Stam, 55.
  15. ^ Johnson & Stam, 75.
  16. ^ a b c Johnson & Stam, 70.
  17. ^ Dixon & Foster, 292-293.
  18. ^ a b Stam & Johnson.
  19. ^ Xavier, 372-373.
  20. ^ Rodríguez, 108.
  21. ^ King, 113.
  22. ^ a b c Dennison & Shaw, 133.
  23. ^ Johnson & Stam, 34.
  24. ^ Johnson & Stam, 66.
  25. ^ Hollyman, 9.
  26. ^ Johnson & Stam, 73.
  27. ^ Johnson & Stam, 35-36.
  28. ^ Dennison & Shaw, 134.
  29. ^ a b c Proppe & Tarr.
  30. ^ a b Johnson & Stam, 37.
  31. ^ Johnson & Stam, 74.
  32. ^ a b Hollyman, 96.
  33. ^ Qtd. on Hollyman, 97.
  34. ^ a b c Johnson & Stam, 100.
  35. ^ a b Gazetas, 306.
  36. ^ Rêgo, 35.
  37. ^ Rêgo, 37-38.
  38. ^ Gazetas, 309.
  39. ^ Gazetas, 310.
  40. ^ BBC-Culture-Brazil: Cinema's most radical battleground
  41. ^ a b c d e Johnson & Stam, 35.
  42. ^ a b c Johnson & Stam, 38.

Bibliography

  • Dennison, Stephanie and Lisa Shaw (2004), Popular cinema in Brazil, 1930-2001, New York: Manchester.
  • Dixon, Wheeler Winston and Gwendolyn Audrey Foster (2008), A Short History of Cinema, New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers.
  • Gazetas, Aristides (2008), An Introduction to World Cinema, Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company.
  • Hollyman, Burnes Saint Patrick (1983), Glauber Rocha and The Cinema Novo, New York & London: Garland.
  • Johnson, Randal and Robert Stam (1995), Brazilian Cinema, New York: Columbia.
  • King, John (2000), Magical Reels: A History of Cinema in South America, New York & London: Verso.
  • Proppe, Hans and Susan Tarr (1976), "Pitfalls of cultural nationalism in cinema novo", Jump Cut: A Review of Contemporary Media, 10, 45-48.
  • Rêgo, Cacilda (2011), "The Fall and Rise of Brazilian Cinema", in Rêgo, Calcida; Carolina, Rocha, New Trends in Argentine and Brazilian Cinema, Chicago: intellect.
  • Rodríguez-Hernández, Rafael (2009), Splendors of South Cinema, Westport, CT: Praeger.
  • Stam, Robert and Randal Johnson (November 1979), "Beyond Cinema Novo", Jump Cut: A Review of Contemporary Media, 21, 13-18.
  • Viany, Alex (Winter, 1970), "The Old and the New in Brazilian Cinema", The Drama Review, 14 (2), 141-144.
  • Xavier, Ismail (2000), "Cinema Novo", in Balderston, Daniel; Gonzalez, Mike; Lopez, Ana M., Encyclopedia of Contemporary South American and Caribbean Cultures, London: Routledge.
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