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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Indiewood (also known as "specialty", "alternative", "indie", or "quality")[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] films are made outside of the Hollywood studio system or traditional arthouse/independent filmmaking system yet managed to be produced, financed and distributed by the two with varying degrees of success and/or failure.[8]

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  • Career Advice from Young Indiewood - Film Independent Forum 2012
  • How Indie Film Ruled The 90s (And How It Fell)



The American independent film, prior to the 1980s and first half of the 1990s,[9][10][11] was previously associated with b movies, exploitation films, avant-garde underground cinema (when it was known as the New American Cinema[12]), social and political documentaries, experimental animated shorts (since the mid-1930s featuring works by pioneer animators Mary Ellen Bute and Oskar Fischinger) and social realist dramas.[13][14][15][16][17][18]

Throughout the middle of the 1990s, the word "Indiewood" (a.k.a. "indie boom" or "indie film movement")[19][20][4] was invented to describe a component of the spectrum of American films in which distinctions exist, it seemed as if Hollywood and the independent sector had become blurred.[21][22][23][24][25][4]


Indiewood divisions gain from expert experience of the niche industry by hiring leading independent personalities such as Harvey Weinstein[26] from the Disney fold after the exit of the Weinsteins,[27][28] and James Schamus, former joint head of Good Machine, at Focus Features.[29]

Other "mini-major" subdivisions/indie distributors



Differences from Hollywood

The films are often made for far less money than Hollywood films[39][40] (some films like Robert Townsend's 1987's satire Hollywood Shuffle and Kevin Smith's 1994 Gen X comedy Clerks were funded by using credit cards[11]) and each aspect of the filmmaking process has to undergo less scrutiny by committees. Additionally, within the Indiewood approach the filmmaker can take as long as they need in the post-production phase of their film - whereas in Hollywood they are contracted to finish the film in a specific period of time (usually 10 weeks). In Hollywood, the film then goes on to show in focus group screenings on the studio lot. In Indiewood, the filmmakers can determine the next steps of the film. They also bear striking similarities to as well as were influenced by the "proto-indies" of the 1960s such as Robert Downey Sr's still image film Chafed Elbows (1966), John Cassavetes's Academy Award-nominated Faces and Brian de Palma's Greetings (each from 1968) which in turn were influenced by the culture of the Beat Generation, the polar opposite to the conformist, gray-flannel conformity of 1950s America.[41][16]

Most Indiewood films are first shown at film festivals with the hopes of further distribution by being picked up (or purchased) by a larger film company or distributor in order to find broader audiences alongside awards consideration[42] (e.g. 2009's A Single Man).[43]

List of selected Indiewood/Pre-Indiewood filmmakers


















List of selected notable and important Pre-Indiewood films






List of notable and important Indiewood films






[71][36][82][69][166][46][67][81][62][70] [92][169][14][153][47][16][37][48][133]

















See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Oscar nominations see shift away from major Hollywood studios - News - University of Liverpool
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Academy Award nominations 2020: The return of the "quality" Hollywood studio film - News - University of Liverpool
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae The Sundance Kids - Google Books (ch."Section II: Indiewood")
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Best. Movie. Year. Ever. - Google Books (chapter: "I'm scared to close my eyes, I'm scared to open them." The Blair Witch Project)
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da Indie - Google Books
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk Cinema of Outsiders - Google Books
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Deep focus: The other side of 80s America|Sight & Sound|BFI
  8. ^ Robey, Tim (5 September 2004). "The rise and rise of Indiewood". Telegraph. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
  9. ^ a b c d e f 50 Best '80s Movies to Watch Right Now|Time Out
  10. ^ "Louis Malle teams a young Susan Sarandon with an aging Burt Lancaster". The A.V. Club. 2 September 2015.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g The Nineties (A Book) - Google Books
  12. ^ "Watch: How New Hollywood Created the American Indie". No Film School. November 23, 2016.
  13. ^ a b c Tom Waits and John Lurie helped Jim Jarmusch perfect his indie cool|A.V. Club
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by A Companion to American Indie Film - Google Books
  15. ^ 27 Of The Best Indie Movies Of All Time|Esquire
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi Rewriting Indie Cinema - Google Books
  17. ^ "The Academy Presents 'Restored Animated Rarities'". AFA: Animation for Adults.
  18. ^ Enchanted Drawings: The History of Animation. Knopf. 1989. pp. 286–293. ISBN 978-0-394-54684-1.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj Hollywood: A Short Introduction - Google Books (section: "Indiewood")
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af Colin Marshall › Me on Battleship Pretension: a three-hour course on the nineties' "Indiewood" movement
  21. ^ Decherney, Peter (2016). "7. Home video and Indiewood". Hollywood: A Very Short Introduction. pp. 101–115. doi:10.1093/actrade/9780199943548.003.0008. ISBN 978-0-19-994354-8.
  22. ^ Tzioumakis, Yannis (2016). "'Indie doc': Documentary film and American 'independent', 'indie' and 'indiewood' filmmaking". Studies in Documentary Film. 10: 1–21. doi:10.1080/17503280.2016.1171688.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Indiewood, USA: Where Hollywood Meets Independent Cinema". Retrieved 2 February 2018.
  24. ^ The Cinema Book. Bloomsbury. 25 July 2019. p. 59. ISBN 978-1-83871-869-5.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g CANNES 2000: Embracing Indiewood, Cannes 2000 Lineup Selected from Nearly 1,400 Films; 15 Countries|IndieWire
  26. ^ American Indies, 1980-1989|MoMA
  27. ^ Review: Indiewood, USA: Where Hollywood Meets Independent Cinema, by Geoff King|Film Quarterly|University of California Press
  28. ^ Chapter Eight. Maxed Out: Miramax and Indiewood in the New Millennium - De Gruyter
  29. ^ King, Geoff (2009). "Indiewood, USA: Where Hollywood meets Independent Cinema" (PDF). I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  30. ^ What was the first-ever independent movie?|Far Out Magazine
  31. ^ Somewhere Only We Know on Notebook|MUBI
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Hollywood's Indies - Google Books (ch. "Indiewood")
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Epilogue: from independent cinema to specialty content - De Gruyter
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Indie Movies, Explained: What is an Independent Film? - MovieWeb
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Indie Reframed - Google Books
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak Indie, Inc. - Google Books
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex The Top 10 Indie Movies of All Time | A Cinefix Movie List - IGN
  38. ^ New Yorkers Films, an Independent Distributor, Will Close After 44 Years - The New York Times
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m How Indiewood gatecrashed the Oscars|Financial Times
  40. ^ a b c d e f How an Unlikely Hollywood Juggernaut Came to Rule Netflix|WIRED
  41. ^ a b c d Proto-Indie - A Companion to American Indie Film - Wiley Online Library
  42. ^ a b c In 2023, Golden Age of Documentary Films Seemed Like Distant Memory - IndieWire
  43. ^ a b c d e Overcoming the Stigma: The Queer Denial of Indiewood on JSTOR
  44. ^ a b c d e Barbaro, Michael; Cheung, Jessica; Johnson, Michael Simon; Chaturvedi, Asthaa; Benoist, Michael; Wood, Chris (23 March 2023). "Our Film Critic on Why He's Done with the Movies". The New York Times.
  45. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m How the New Queer Cinema Shaped the '90s Indie Film Boom - Yahoo Finance
  46. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p History of the Sundance Film Festival (Part 3) - Sundance Guiide
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Outsider Features - Google Books
  48. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb Great U.S. Indie Films: 'Texas Chainsaw Massacre' to 'Pulp Fiction' - Rolling Stone
  49. ^ a b 12. Not Just Indie: A Look at Films by Dee Rees, Ava Duvernay and Kasi Lemmons - DegRuyter
  50. ^ a b c d Badley, Linda; Perkins, Claire Elizabeth; Schreiber, Michele (2016). Indie Reframed. ISBN 978-1-4744-0392-4. JSTOR 10.3366/j.ctt1g0529f.
  51. ^ a b c d e f Will whites see a black indie film like "Middle of Nowhere"?|
  52. ^ a b Focus Features Sets Indie 'Pariah' for Christmas Day Limited Release|
  53. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s US Independent Film After 1989 - Google Books
  54. ^ a b c Stumbling Out of the Gate - Critic's Notebook
  55. ^ a b The Rider: Exclusive trailer for new western hailed best indie of the year|The Independent
  56. ^ a b c Indie Focus: On the road with Frances McDormand in ‘Nomadland’ - Los Angeles Times
  57. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag The best A24 films to date|
  58. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al History of the Sundance Film Festival (Part 4) - Sundance Guiide
  59. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Hurray for Indiewood!|
  60. ^ a b 25 Years Later, Charles Burnett and Richard Brooks Reflect on Indie Classic 'To Sleep with Anger'|IndieWire
  61. ^ a b Criterion Collection: To Sleep with Anger | Blu-Ray Review -
  62. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca The 50 Greatest American Independent Movies|Movies|Empire
  63. ^ a b c d e f g h i 25 Great 90s Movies That Time Forgot|Collider
  64. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad First 80s indie film fest shows movies that paved the way for the indie boom|Movies|The Guardian
  65. ^ Independent Film’s Sorry Quarter Century?|Filmmaker Magazine
  66. ^ a b c d History of the Sundance Film Festival (Part 8) - Sundance Film Festival
  67. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl Sundance - A Festival Virgin's Guide (3rd Edition) - Google Books (pgs.72-81)
  68. ^ Tyler Perry: creator of a racial stereotype or the greatest indie film-maker ever?|Comedy films|The Guardian
  69. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw Top 50 Indie Movies You Need to See Before You Die|Complex
  70. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Greatest Indie Movies of the 1980s - MovieWeb
  71. ^ a b c d e f g h i Commentary: You're Remembering House Party All Wrong|News|BET
  72. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Movies You Probably Forgot Were Indies - SAGIndie
  73. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Not Hollywood - Google Books
  74. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n History of the Sundance Film Festival (Part 7) - Sundance Film Festival
  75. ^ a b A24's 'Everything Everywhere All at Once' Hits Box Office Milestone - Variety
  76. ^ a b Indie Film Crush, Ahead Of 'Avatar' & Year End, Puts Arthouse Woes On Back Burner – Specialty Preview  - Deadline
  77. ^ a b c d e Daniel Talbot, Iconic Indie Film Distributor and Exhibitor, Dies|The Wrap
  78. ^ a b Chaos Below Canal|Independent Magazine
  79. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Downtown Film and TV Culture 1975-2001 - Google Books (pg.xvi)
  80. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u 'Major minis' blur line between mainstream and independent - Herald Tribune
  81. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba The 52 most important American independent movies|The A.V. Club
  82. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l The 10 Most Underrated American Independent Films of The 1990s – Taste of Cinema
  83. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w History of the Sundance Film Festival (Part 6) - Sundance Guiide
  84. ^ a b c The 50 Best Indie Movies of All-Time - A Good Movie To Watch
  85. ^ a b Queen of Diamonds - Chicago Reader
  86. ^ a b c d e f When the Movies Mattered - Google Books
  87. ^ a b c d e f g 10 Great 1980s Indie Movies You May Have Never Seen - Taste of Cinema
  88. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Adelaide Research & Scholarship: Postclassical Hollywood/postmodern subjectivity: representation in some 'Indie/Alternative' Indiewood films
  89. ^ a b DGA Quarterly Magazine|Fall 2011|Women Directors and Their Films
  90. ^ a b c How Wayne's World Made—and Broke—It's Director's Career|Vanity Fair
  92. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax 50 Best Indie Films|GameRadar+
  93. ^ a b c d e Indie Cinema Is Now Genre Cinema|Defactor
  94. ^ MUBI Special: Silver Linings: Films by Joan Micklin Silver|MUBI
  95. ^ 8-Minute Video Boils Down the Essence of Animation Legend Ralph Bakshi - VICE
  97. ^ a b Don Bluth Goes Independent -
  98. ^ a b July 2022 Programming on the Criterion Channel Annonuced -
  99. ^ A celebration of Will Vinton|Just Make Animation
  100. ^ Will Vinton, Oscar winner and pioneering Portland animator, dies at 70 -
  101. ^ a b c d Mad Eyed Misfits - Google Books
  102. ^ a b c d 9 Essential Animated Indie Movies|IndieWire
  103. ^ a b c d Directing Animation - Google Books (ch.4: "Directing Animation for Indie Films)
  104. ^ a b The best indie animation of 2015|Sight & Sound|BFI
  105. ^ a b c Second Edition of the Skwigly book ‘Independent Animation’ out now - Skwigly Animation Magazine
  107. ^ Indie Animation - WSJ
  108. ^ a b Animation Outlaws: Spike & Mike Turned Indie Shorts Into a Phenomenom|IndieWire
  109. ^ a b c d e When Indie Animation Won Its First Oscar|Animation Obsessive
  110. ^ a b Keep it in Motion: Classic Animation Revisited – George Griffin’s 'Head'|Animation World Network
  111. ^ a b c d e f Declaration Of Independents Independent Animation is Alive and Well in New York by Melissa Chimovitz -
  112. ^ a b Indie Filmmaker's Push for 'More'|WIRED
  113. ^ a b The Academy To Present ‘Women in Indie Animation’ September 21|Animation World Network
  114. ^ a b Keep it in Motion - Classic Animation Revisited: 'The Red Book'|Animation World Network
  115. ^ Films by Fred Mogubgub|Cartoon Brew
  116. ^ a b Mad Eyed Misfits: Writings on Indie Animation
  117. ^ a b Top 50 Most-Viewed Indie Animated Shorts On Youtube|Cartoon Brew
  118. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Indiewood - Backstage
  119. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am Acting Indie - Google Books
  120. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah Documentary, Performance and Risk - Google Books (ch.1 "Theorizing Documentary, Performance and Risk"; section: "American documentary and the rise of 'indie' doc")
  121. ^ a b Sundance 2021: Coda, One For The Road, and Censor|AV Club
  122. ^ a b c d Miranda July: The Quiet Power of Her Indie Movies - MovieWeb
  123. ^ a b c d e f 10 Great Indie Movies You May Have Never Seen - Page 2 - Taste of Cinema
  124. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Inside Indiewood|The Nation
  125. ^ Post-Classical Hollywood: Film Industry, Style and Ideology Since 1945 - Google Books (pg.237)
  126. ^ a b c Life During Wartime - A Companion to American Indie Film - Wiley Online Library
  127. ^ a b John Waters|Underground Film Journal
  128. ^ a b Hairspray (1988) 30th Anniversary|
  129. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag Contemporary American Independent Film - Google Books
  130. ^ a b Why Tangerine is the best Christmas movie that's not really about Christmas|
  131. ^ Alex Ross Perry: 'Avengers: Endgame' Deserves Oscar for Best Picture|IndieWire
  132. ^ 'Midnight Special,' 'Fantastic Planet' and more home theater releases out this week - Los Angeles Times
  133. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v The 20 Most Timeless Indie Movies - MovieWeb
  134. ^ a b The best films of the '00s|The A.V. Club
  135. ^ a b c d e f g An Accidental Experiment: Dirty Dancing (1987) and the convergence between Hollywood and American Independent Cinema|Goldsmiths, University of London
  136. ^ a b c d e f g Indie: An American Film Culture on JSTOR
  137. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m The Cine-Files » Parker Posey: New York Flight
  138. ^ a b c d The Moviegoing Experience, 1968-2001 - Google Books (pg.59)
  139. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Best Indie Horror Films From The 1970s - Screen Rant
  140. ^ a b Fusion of faith and football fails in 'Giants' - Orlando Sentinel
  141. ^ a b Father Figurine: Mike Mills's "Beginners"|IndieWire
  142. ^ a b BUFS Behind-the-Scenes – Brock University (Communication, Popular Culture and Film)
  143. ^ a b c d "Pride & Prejudice," "Capote," "Brokeback Mountain" (and more), and Why Audiences Matter|IndieWire
  144. ^ a b c The American Roadside in Émigré Literature, Film, and Photography 1955–1985 - Google Books (pg.157)
  145. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Film Sequels: Theory and Practice from Hollywood to Bollywood - Google Books (ch."Adventures in Indiewood")
  146. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "BFI|Sight & Sound|Boys' Own Stories". Archived from the original on 2012-08-03. Retrieved 2022-11-11.
  147. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n More Movies You Probably Forgot Were Indies - SAGIndie
  148. ^ House of Bamboo - Trailers From Hell
  149. ^ Calling all Samuel Fuller fans: You need a copy of “Forty Guns”|High-Def Watch
  150. ^ a b The Greatest Independent Films of the 20th Century|The New Yorker
  151. ^ a b c d BLAST OF SILENCE Blu-Ray Review: A Cult Late Noir Gem Remastered - ScreenAnarchy
  152. ^ a b Classic Thrills & Late-Night Chills on Tap for 'Freaky Fridays' at the Film Society - Film at Lincoln Center
  153. ^ a b Why the 'King of Underrated Movies' Returned to Hollywood - Esquire
  154. ^ a b c d e f g h The 10 Most Underrated American Independent Films of The 1990s - Page 2 - Taste of Cinema
  155. ^ a b c Wes Anderson, tone and the quirky sensibility: New Review of Film and Television Studies Volume 10, 2012 - Issue 1: Wes Anderson and Co.
  156. ^ a b c d e f g h Vinyl Noise and Narrative in CD-Era Indiewood - Indy Vinyl
  157. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q iW BOT | The Golden Child: "Juno" Makes Fox Searchlight the 2007 Market-Share Leader, Lures Young Ad|Indiewire
  158. ^ Sofia Coppola: A Cinema of Girlhood - Offscreen
  159. ^ Sofia Coppola Wins Best Director at 2017 Cannes|Hypebae
  160. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l 5 Indie Films From The 90s That Are Way Underrated (& 5 That Are Overrated) - Screen Rant
  161. ^ a b c d Underrated Horror Movies of the 1950s, Ranked - MovieWeb
  162. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s History of the Sundance Film Festival (Part 5) - Sundance Guiide
  163. ^ a b c The Whale Crosses $10 Million at Box Office, Brendan Fraser Hit - Variety
  164. ^ a b c d The Criterion Channel’s December 2023 Lineup|The Criterion Collection
  165. ^ Kevin Smith claims Harvey Weinstein is keeping Dogma 'hostage' – Film Stories
  166. ^ a b c d e f g h The 15 Best Miramax Films - Film School Rejects
  167. ^ a b c d e f On the Borders: Children's Horror and Indiewood Animation|Contemporary Hollywood Animation: Style, Storytelling, Culture and Ideology Since the 1990s|Oxford Academic (Pages 144–177)
  168. ^ Indie Cinema and the Neoliberal Commodification of Creative Labor - A Companion to American Indie Film - Wiley Online Library
  169. ^ a b c The 25 Essential American Indie Films, 1988-2013 - Flavorwire
  170. ^ a b c Indiewood and Improvisation|Robert Altman's Soundtracks: Film, Music, and Sound from M*A*S*H to A Prairie Home Companion|Oxford Academic
  171. ^ a b Ranking Paul Thomas Anderson's films from worst to best|Far Out Magazine
  172. ^ 'Juno' Laid Low by Success - The New York Times
  173. ^ Reefer Madness: an undeserved classic movie - Hall - 2021 - Addiction - Wiley Online Library
  175. ^ "Cartoons Considered For An Academy Award – 1960 -".
  176. ^ a b Huh?: An A-Z of why Classic American Bad Movies Were Made - Google Books
  178. ^ BLAST OF SILENCE - American Cinematheque
  179. ^ Something Wild - Harvard Film Archive
  180. ^ Tribeca Festival : Review / The Wild One, A Magnificent Documentary Where Life And Craft Resound Social Justice Consciousness- Cinema Daily US
  182. ^ How Obscure Horror Film 'Carnival of Souls' Influenced Everything You've Ever Seen - No Film School
  183. ^ 'Carnival of Souls' Proves the Shocking Allure of Indie Horror - Hollywood in Toto
  184. ^ Jim Henson: Before Happytime Murders, Muppet creator told edgy stories - Polygon
  185. ^ "Cartoons Considered For An Academy Award 1966 -".
  186. ^ 50 Years Of Harry Nilsson's The Point - Aquarium Drunkard
  187. ^ The Jungle  /  Several Friends  /  The Pocketbook  /  Grey Area|UCLA Film & Television Archive
  188. ^ a b The Real Indies: A Close Look at Orphan Films| (title: "Spider Baby")
  189. ^ a b c d e f g h i j 10 Indie Movies That Became Pop Culture Hits|Collider
  190. ^ a b "Cartoons Considered For An Academy Award – 1970 -".
  191. ^ a b The Criterion Channel's June 2022 Lineup|Current|The Criterion Collection
  192. ^ Carnival of Souls: "Thinkin' Like That, Don't It Give You Nightmares?"|Current|The Criterion Collection
  193. ^ 'Benji' Events|Visit McKinney
  194. ^ The Real Indies: A Close Look at Orphan Films| (title: "Altered Reality")
  195. ^ a b To Sleep With Anger - Blueprint: Review
  196. ^ Girlfriends review – a lo-fi indie miracle about love and the city|Movies|The Guardian
  197. ^ Chainsaws, Slackers, and Spy Kids - Google Books (pg.49)
  198. ^ MSP Film Society|WonderWomen: The Works of Suzan Pitt
  199. ^ Atlantic City (1981) -
  200. ^ The Real Indies: A Close Look at Orpahn Films| (title: "Pioneering Women")
  201. ^ a b America on Film - Google Books (pg.158)
  202. ^ Film Fourm · THE ATOMIC CAFE
  203. ^ "The Atomic Café" – Reflecting on the 40th Anniversary of the Acclaimed Documentary|Under the Radar Magazine
  204. ^ ‘Bloody Bridget’ Exclusive Trailer – Richard Elfman Unleashes His Valentine Vampire! - Bloody Disgusting
  205. ^ Liquid Sky|Quad Cinema
  206. ^ AFI|Catalog - The Secret of NIMH
  207. ^ The Secret of NIMH: 40 Years Of Don Bluth's Magic - Skwigly Animation Magazine
  208. ^ a b c d e The Best Indie Movie of Every Year in the 80s - MovieWeb
  209. ^ The Real Indies: A Close Look at Orphan Films| (title: "Visions of New York")
  210. ^ BAM|Les Blank Program
  211. ^ Here's Hoping Alex Cox's Repo Man Sequel Isn't One Big Circle Jerk|
  212. ^ Repo Man|Quad Cinema
  213. ^ 3 Reasons Why: The Adventures of Mark Twain (1985)|Zippy Frames
  214. ^ Undercover Indies: How ‘The Breakfast Club’ Went Small-Scale and Created a Cult Classic - Film Independent
  215. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Viewpoint: Victory for 'indiewood' at the Oscars?
  216. ^ The 35th Anniversary of "The Brave Little Toaster"|Cartoon Research
  217. ^ THE BRAVE LITTLE TOASTER (1987) (***)|Animation World Network
  218. ^ Keep it in Motion - Classic Animation Revisited: 'Ko-Ko'|Animation World Network
  219. ^ Extra terror, hold the gore: 8 truly scary PG-13 horror movies|A.V. Club
  220. ^ a b c Movie Musings... Indiewood - Impact Magazine
  221. ^ a b c d e The Cinema of Wes Anderson - Bringing Nostalgia to Life - Google Books (Chapter Two - "Wes Anderson: His Position in Cinema and Culture")
  222. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q 21 Highly Underrated ‘90s Indie Movies - MovieWeb
  223. ^ Undercover Indies: The Unlikely Origin Story of 1990’s ‘Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles’ - Film Independent
  224. ^ a b Review: 'Take Shelter' A Naturalistic, Novelistic Portrayal Of Madness & Apocalypse|IndieWire
  225. ^ The Paris Review - Robin Williams's Best Role
  226. ^ a b c d Rural Crimewave - A Companion to American Indie Film - Wiley Online Library
  227. ^ a b c d e f g A Brief History of the Sundance Film Festival - TIME
  228. ^ Undercover Indies: Why ‘Dumb and Dumber’ is Smarter (and More Indie) Than You Think - Film Independent
  229. ^ For Criterion Consideration: Boaz Yakin's Fresh -
  230. ^ a b c d Chris Gore's Ultimate Film Festival Survival Guide, 4th Edition - Google Books (pg.222)
  231. ^ a b c d e f g h i j - Independent films move into spotlight - Aug 9, 2005
  232. ^ Keep it in Motion - Classic Animation Revisited: 'Altair'|Animation World Network
  233. ^ Mystery Science Theater 3000: The Movie: The Oral History|A.V. Club
  234. ^ What is indie cinema?|Movies|The Guardian
  235. ^ The hilarious connection between The Rolling Stones and 'The Big Lebowski|Far Out Magazine
  236. ^ a b c d e Going Mainstream - A Companion to American Indie Film - Wiley Online Library
  237. ^ a b The sounds of sincerity|2|Hearing post-irony in Indiewood film|Timothy B. Cochran on Taylor & Francis eBooks, Reference Books and Collections
  238. ^ CNN - The Biggest indie film ever made: 'Phantom Menace' - May 31, 1999
  239. ^ Roto-Synchresis: Relationships between Body and Voice in Rotoshop Animation - Database for Animation Studies
  240. ^ a b c d The 50 Best Indie Movies of All-Time - A Good Movie To Watch
  241. ^ a b c d e f The Best Indie Movies of All-Time - A Good Movie To Watch
  242. ^ 'Indie'|Far From Heaven|Edinbourgh Scholarship Online|Oxford Academic
  243. ^ a b 10 Great Indie Movies You May Have Missed - Page 4 - Taste of Cinema
  244. ^ a b 10 Great Indie Movies You May Have Missed - Page 5 - Taste of Cinema
  245. ^ 15 Reasons To Get Excited About The Mystery Science Theater 3000 Revival - Screen Rant
  246. ^ a b c The 50 Best Indie Movies of All-Time - A Good Movie To Watch
  247. ^ a b c Away We Go with the Films of Sam Mendes - That Shelf
  248. ^ Review: Silver City - Slant Magazine
  249. ^ Scenes From Independent Film Week: Incentives, Acting, and Mixing At The IFP Market|IndieWire
  250. ^ Indie box office: "Juno" slammo!|
  251. ^ a b Christian Movies: Why Faith-Based Films Hurt Religion - Thrillist
  252. ^ 10 Great Inde Movies You May Have Missed - Page 3 - Taste of Cinema
  253. ^ a b c d e Former teen idol stars in religious 'Fireproof,' 2008's highest-grossing indie film - Santa Rosa Press Democrat
  254. ^ Doc Soup: The Sundance Cycle|Doc Soup|POV Blog|PBS
  255. ^ Beyond the Multiplex|
  256. ^ Sita Sings the blues|Zippy Frames
  257. ^ Undercover Indies: Kathryn Bigelow’s ‘The Hurt Locker’ Blows Up Awards-Season Expectations - Film Independent
  258. ^ It's Hollywood vs. Indiewood at Sundance 2010|The Star
  259. ^ 10 Great Indie Movies You May Have Missed - Taste of Cinema
  260. ^ a b Simon Says: The Marketing of a Mass-Released LGBTQ Film - Playback
  261. ^ Indie Focus: 'The Color Wheel' finally rolls into theaters - Los Angeles Times
  262. ^ Pariah Wins Acceptance In Indie Film World - Wall Street Journal
  263. ^ The Indie Film Corner: 'Take Shelter' - The Island News
  264. ^ Fresh Guacamole by PES: The shortest film ever nominated for an Oscar|Zippy Frames
  265. ^ It's Such a Beautiful Day review: Mind your head|Zippy Frames
  266. ^ 5 Reasons to Check Out the Indie Film 'Middle of Nowhere' - Essence
  267. ^ 'Middle of Nowhere' review: Quiet indie drama offers a look at a woman in limbo|Movies/TV|
  268. ^ 'Listen Up Philip' movie review: Uneven dramatic comedy gives Jason Schwartzman a role to sink his teeth into|Movies/TV|
  270. ^ a b c d e 'I, Tonya', Other Awards Contenders Keep Indie Box Office Alive Against 'Star Wars'|The Wrap
  271. ^ a b Indie Focus: Outsiders abound in 'The Shape of Water', 'I, Tonya', 'Foxtrot' and 'Bombshell' - Los Angeles Times
  272. ^ Cryptozoo is animated chaos for the indie-film crowd - The Globe and Mail
  273. ^ Indie Film: Fantastical creatures populate the what-if world of 'Cryptozoo' - Portland Press Herald
  274. ^ 'Cryptozoo' Film Review: My Cryptid and Other Animals|Zippy Frames
  275. ^ Over the Borderline - Critic's Notebook
  276. ^ How real-world magic graces the making of Clifton Collins Jr.’s ‘Jockey’ - Los Angeles Times
  277. ^ Indie Film Series: Summer of Soul - Sun Journal Events
  278. ^ Indie Prof: "The Rescue" and "Summer of Soul"|Front Porch
  279. ^ 'Everything Everywhere All at Once' Crosses $20M, Reignites Indie Cinema. - Deadline
  280. ^ A24 Has Another Indie Hit, As 'Marcel The Shell' Slides Into Top 10 – Specialty Box Office - Deadline
  281. ^ 'Marcel the Shell With Shoes On' Director Explains What It Took to Pull Off One of the Year's Most Charming Movies|The Wrap
  282. ^ Guillermo del Toro's 'Pinocchio' and 'Turning Red' Lead the Nominations for the 50th Annie Awards 2023 - Hollywood Insider
  283. ^ A brief, and somewhat shocking, history of adult animation|The A.V. Club
  284. ^ Know Your Indie Filmmaker: Sara Gunnarsdóttir|Cartoon Brew
  285. ^ A Look at ‘My Year of Dicks’|Animation World Network
  286. ^ 2023 in Film: Barbie triumphs, Marvel loses steam | The Excerpt - USA Today on YouTube


External links

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