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Satire (film and television)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Satire is a television and film genre in the fictional or pseudo-fictional category that employs satirical techniques, be it of a political, religious, or social variety. Works utilizing satire are often seen as controversial or taboo in nature, with topics such as race, class, system, violence, sex, war, and politics, criticizing or commenting on them, typically under the disguise of other genres including, but not limited to, comedies, dramas, parodies, fantasies and/or science fiction.[1]

Satire may or may not[2] use humor or other, non-humorous forms as an artistic vehicle to illuminate, explore, and critique[3] social conditions, systems of power[4] ("social, political, military, medical or academic institutions"[5]), hypocrisy, and other instances of human behavior.

Examples

Film

Series

UK

USA

Japan

Backlash and censorship

Jonathan Lynn generally advises against marketing one's work as "satire" because according to Lynn it "can substantially reduce viewing figures and box office" due to a presumed negative perception of satire in the [American] industry:

George S. Kaufman, the great Broadway playwright and director, and screenwriter, once said: 'Satire is what closes on Saturaday night.' An excellent wisecrack, but it led the way to a general belief in America that satire is not commercial. When you pitch a satirical film idea, don't refer to it as satire. I used to, and I was met with the inevitable response that satirical films don't make money. This view is factually incorrect. Plenty have done so, if budgeted right.[31]

Film, more than television,[32] offers advantages for satire, such as the "possibility of achieving the proper balance" between realism and non-realism, using the latter to communicate about the former.[32] The ideal climate for a satirical film involves "fairly free" political conditions and/or independent producers with "modest" financial backing.[32]

United States United States
In the case of American satire, Roger Rosenblatt postulated that post-9/11 political climate "caused irony's death." Satire has been subjected to official and unofficial pressures[33] concluding in self-censorship or outright removal of the material, with the reason given of satire not being economically viable.[34][26] In the case of television, controversial content creators have been historically constrained by Federal Communications Commission regulations (Gray et al., p. 181),[26] which threatens them with sanctions for airing alleged "indecent material"[33] but also by industry and corporate watchdogs. Since the 1930s, with notable example being the Hays Office, there have always been organizations that "watch[ed] closely over media content to ensure it doesn't threaten the commercial climate in general and their products in particular." Typical pressures put on American satire that present topics of (anti-)war, patriotism, sex, religion, ethnicity, and race.[33]
In another view, censorship and content sanitization cannot eliminate satire. Production of political satire between 1929 and 1960 was scarce but uninterrupted. Pro-government comic relief satire devoid of criticism was one strain of satire found on radio and television during the 1940s and 1950s that was "mass audience-oriented, nonradical," and focused on "[safe] plot lines [of] middle-class, suburban, white characters" typified by 1950s sitcoms, such as I Love Lucy, while the so-called edgier strain was rediscovered in the burgeoning stand-up comic scene in the late 1950s and forward. The latter was typified by comedy music  albums of Tom Lehrer, standup comedy of Lenny Bruce, MAD magazine, and Chicago improvisational comedy troupe Second City.[35]
Lebanon Lebanon
1978 film Alexandria . . . Why? by Egyptian fillmaker Youssef Chahine was banned[36] in Lebanon and other Arab countries for satirical references of the 1952 Egyptian revolution.
Russia Russia
Satirical films about "life in Russia during the Stalin era" were banned.[32] In the 1990s, Russian television show producers were charged with "tax evasion and illegal currency dealings" after airing an episode showing a critical caricature of Boris Yeltsin but those charges were dropped after television network president condemned this action.[37]
Georgia (country) Georgia
Georgian art film Repentance, initially banned[38] in Russia and Russia-controlled Eastern Europe, only[36] shown in Georgia before being internationally released in 1987 with permission of by-then head of state Mikhail Gorbachev,[39] contained satirical allusions to Stalin.[40] Academician Dmitry Likhachov considered the film "significant" for society as a whole: "The past does not die. It is necessary to publish in journals of mass circulation works which were not published in the past. The main theme in literature now is repentance."[39] Other Georgian films that were banned include My Grandmother (revived 1976), an art film with surreal and satirical elements, and Saba, a satirical drama by Mikheil Chiaureli.[41]

References and notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f talesofcinema (March 31, 2016) "20 Great Satire Movies  on American Life in Decline". 'tasteofcinema.
  2. ^ Jackson II, Hogg (2010, p. 654)
  3. ^ a b c d Encyclopedia of Identity (edited by Ronald L. Jackson II and Michael A. Hogg, 2010), SAGE, ISBN 9781412951531.
  4. ^ Nillson J (2013), American Film Satire in the 1990s: Hollywood Subversion, Springer, ISBN 9781137300997
  5. ^ Blake, Marc; Bailey, Sara (2013). Writing the Horror Movie. London; New York: Bloomsbury. p. 132. ISBN 9781441195067.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i talesofcinema (June 25, 2015). "10 High- Concept Political Satire Films That Are Worth Viewing". talesofcinema
  7. ^ "George Romero made horror about the  here and now, plus: his five best films". Time Out New York. Retrieved 08-20-2020.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h talesofcinema (May 1, 2014). "The 15 Best Satirical  Movies of All Time". tasteofcinema.
  9. ^ talesofcinema (November 12, 2016) "The 15 Best Satire Movies of All  Time". 'tasteofcinema.
  10. ^ a b Davis, Jessica Milner (2017). Satire and Politics: The Interplay of Heritage and Practice, Springer, ISBN 9783319567747.
  11. ^ McSweeney T, Joy S (2019). Through the Black Mirror: Deconstructing the Side Effects of the Digital Age. Springer. p. 4. ISBN 9783030194581
  12. ^ Bogle, Donald (2001). Primetime Blues: African Americans on Network Television. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, p. 117, ISBN 0-374-12720-4.
  13. ^ Williams, Carol T. (1992). It's Time for My Story: Soap Opera Sources, Structure, and Response], Praeger, p. 32, ISBN 9780275942977.
  14. ^ Mittell, Jason (2010). Television and American Culture, Oxford University Press, p. 294-295, ISBN 9780195306675
  15. ^ Levy, Emanuel (1999). Cinema of Outsiders: The Rise of American Independent Film. New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-5123-7.
  16. ^ Turner, Chris (September 9, 2004a). Planet Simpson: How a Cartoon Masterpiece Documented an Era and Defined  a Generation. Introduction by Douglas Coupland (1st ed.). London: Ebury Press. ISBN 978-0-09-189756-7. OCLC 56457550., p. 24. Quote: "There have been, over the years, two great self-immodaltions on The Simpsons. These are Episode 9F16 ('The Front') and Episode 4F12 ('The Itchy & Scratchy & Poochie Show'). In both episodes, the writers and producers of the 'Itchy & Scratchy' cartoons are depicted as doppelgangers of the staff of The Simpsons"
  17. ^ a b c Boy Culture: An Encyclopedia (2010) (ed. Shirley R. Steinberg, Michael Kehler, Lindsay Cornish). Greenwood, p. 279, ISBN 9780313350849.
  18. ^ a b c The Deep End of South Park: Critical Essays on Television's Shocking Cartoon Series. McFarland. 2009. p. 4-7. ISBN 978-0-7864-4307-9. Retrieved 2020-09-18.. Quote (p. 7): "Parker and Stone's satiric focus is not directed solely toward aspects of religious worship. They have tackled such challenging topics as euthanasia ("Death"), the right to die ("Best Friends Forever"), the war in Iraq ("I'm a Little Bit Country"), the plight of the rainforests ("Rainforest, Schmainforest"), Hurricane Katrina ("Two Days Before the Day After Tomorrow"), gay marriage ("Follow that Egg"), anti-tobacco legislation ("Butt Out"), geriatric driving ("Grey Dawn"), and Barbra Streisand ("Mecha Streisand")[.]"
  19. ^ a b c d Gillota, David (2013-07-01). Ethnic Humor in Multiethnic America. Rutgers University Press. pp. 96–99, 104. ISBN 9780813561509. Retrieved 2020-09-18.
  20. ^ Leyshon, Andrew (2014). Reformatted: Code, Networks, and the Transformation of the Music Industry, OUP Oxford, p. 69, ISBN 9780191024740. Quote: "Stan, Kyle, and Kenny are arrested by the FBI for filesharing and then given an illustration of the consequences of their actions through the 'hardship' endured by musicians who consequently had to 'forego' royalty income. Metallica's drummer, Lars Ulrich, a strident opponent of Napster, is depicted as crying by the edge of his swimming pool. The boys are informed by the agent that Ulrich 'was hoping to have a gold-plated shark tank bar installed right next to the pool, but thanks to people downloading his music for free, he must now wait a few months before he can afford it' (Comedy Central, 2003: 'Christian Hard Rock [sic],' South Park, season 7, episode 9)."
  21. ^ Hanley, Richard (2011). South Park and Philosophy: Bigger, Longer, and More Penetrating, Open Court, p. 301 (38-39), ISBN 9780812697742.
  22. ^ Music in Television: Channels of Listening (2011), edited by James Deaville, p. 163, ISBN 9781136826368.
  23. ^ Examples with prominent social, religious, and political themes:
  24. ^ Blake, Marc; Bailey, Sara (2013). Writing the Horror Movie. London; New York: Bloomsbury. p. 22. ISBN 9781441195067.
  25. ^ Gillota, David (2013-07-01). Ethnic Humor in Multiethnic America. Rutgers University Press. p. 59. ISBN 9780813561509. Retrieved 2020-09-18.
  26. ^ a b c Gray J., Jones J.P., Thompson E. (2009). Satire TV: Politics and Comedy in the Post-network Era. NYU Press. ISBN 9780814731994. Quote: [T]he economics of cable programming showed that while satirical programming is popular, there are limitations to the types of satirical programs that make economic sense in the post-network era."
  27. ^ Cornell J, R.U. Sirious (2015). Transcendence: The Disinformation Encyclopedia of Transhumanism and the Singularity, Red Wheel Weiser, p. 309, ISBN 9781609259594.
  28. ^ Drazen, Patrick (2014). Anime Explosion!: The What? Why? and Wow! of Japanese Animation, Revised and Updated Edition. Stone Bridge Press. ISBN 9781611725506.
  29. ^ Telotte, J.P. (2008), The Essential Science Fiction Television Reader, University Press of Kentucky, p. 298 (pp. 134-35), ISBN 9780813138732.
  30. ^ Dani Cavallaro (January 2013). Japanese Aesthetics and Anime: The Influence of Tradition. p. 81-83. ISBN 978-0786471515.
  31. ^ Jonathan Lynn (2011). Comedy Rules: From the Cambridge Footlights to Yes, Prime Minister. Faber & Faber. p. 146. Retrieved 2014-07-04.
  32. ^ a b c d Hodgart, Matthew John Caldwell (1969). Satire: Origins and Principles, Transaction Publishers, p. 242, ISBN 9781412833646.
  33. ^ a b c Freedman, Leonard (2008). The Offensive Art: Political Satire and Its Censorship around the World from Beerbohm to Borat: Political Satire and Its Censorship around the World from Beerbohm to Borat, ABC-CLIO, p. 35, ISBN 9780313356018.
  34. ^ Gournelos T, Greene V (2011). A Decade of Dark Humor: How Comedy, Irony, and Satire Shaped Post- 9/11 America, Univ. Press of Mississippi, pages xxix, 63, 224, ISBN 9781617030079.
  35. ^ Kayorie, James Stephen Merritt (2019). "Introduction". In Baumgartner, Jody C. (ed.). American Political Humor: Masters of Satire and Their Impact on U.S. Policy and Culture. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 240-250. ISBN 9781440854866.
  36. ^ a b de Baets, Antoon (2002) Censorship of Historical Thought: A World Guide, 1945-2000, Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 529, ISBN 9780313311932.
  37. ^ Censorship: A World Encyclopedia (edited by Derek Jones, 2001), Routledge, p. 423, ISBN 9781136798641.
  38. ^ Reform and human rights: the Gorbachev record. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1988., p. 75.
  39. ^ a b Marsh, R. (1995). History and Literature in Contemporary Russia, Springer, pp. 34-35, ISBN 9780230377790.
  40. ^ The New York Times Biographical Service, A compilation of current biographical information of general interest, Volume 25, Arno Press (1994). Quote: "Mr. Abduladze was best known for his 1984 film "Repentance," a fierce satire of Stalinism that won the special jury prize."
  41. ^ Inside Soviet Film Satire (edited by Andrew Horton, 2005), Cambridge University Press, p. 111. ISBN 9780521021074.
This page was last edited on 18 September 2020, at 16:09
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