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Kuratas, a mecha made by Suidobashi Heavy Industry at the Maker Faire Tokyo (2012)

In science fiction, mecha (Japanese: メカ, Hepburn: meka) or mechs are giant robots or machines typically depicted as piloted and as humanoid walking vehicles. The term was first used in Japanese after shortening the English loanword 'mechanism' (メカニズム, mekanizumu) or 'mechanical' (メカニカル, mekanikaru), but the meaning in Japanese is more inclusive, and 'robot' (ロボット, robotto) or 'giant robot' is the narrower term.

Fictional mecha vary greatly in size and shape, but are distinguished from vehicles by their humanoid or biomorphic appearance, although they are bigger, often much bigger, than human beings. Different subgenres exist, with varying connotations of realism. The concept of Super Robot and Real Robot are two such examples found in Japanese anime and manga.

Real-world piloted humanoid or non-humanoid robotic platforms, existing or planned, may also be called "mecha". In Japanese, "mecha" may refer to mobile machinery or vehicles (including aircraft) in general, piloted or otherwise.

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'Mecha' is an abbreviation, first used in Japanese, of 'mechanical'. In Japanese, mecha encompasses all mechanical objects, including cars, guns, computers, and other devices, and 'robot' or 'giant robot' is used to distinguish limbed vehicles from other mechanical devices.[citation needed] Outside of this usage, it has become associated with large humanoid machines with limbs or other biological characteristics. Mecha differ from robots in that they are piloted from a cockpit, typically located in the chest or head of the mech.[1]

While the distinction is often hazy, mecha typically does not refer to form-fitting powered armor such as Iron Man's suit. They are usually much larger than the wearer, like Iron Man's enemy the Iron Monger, or the mobile suits depicted in the Gundam franchise.

In most cases, mecha are depicted as fighting machines, whose appeal comes from the combination of potent weaponry with a more stylish combat technique than a mere vehicle. Often, they are the primary means of combat, with conflicts sometimes being decided through gladiatorial matches. Other works represent mecha as one component of an integrated military force, supported by and fighting alongside tanks, fighter aircraft, and infantry, functioning as a mechanical cavalry. The applications often highlight the theoretical usefulness of such a device, combining a tank's resilience and firepower with infantry's ability to cross unstable terrain and a high degree of customization. In some continuities, special scenarios are constructed to make mecha more viable than current-day status. For example, in Gundam the fictional Minovsky particle inhibits the use of radar, making long-range ballistic strikes impractical, thus favouring relatively close-range warfare of Mobile Suits.[2]

However, some stories, such as the manga/anime franchise Patlabor and the American wargame BattleTech universe, also encompass mecha used for civilian purposes, such as heavy construction work, police functions, or firefighting. Mecha also have roles as transporters, recreation, advanced hazmat suits, and other research and development applications.

Mecha have been used in fantasy settings, for example in the anime series Aura Battler Dunbine, The Vision of Escaflowne, Panzer World Galient, and Maze. In those cases, the mecha designs are usually based on some alternative or "lost" science-fiction technology from ancient times. In case of anime series Zoids, the machines resemble dinosaurs and animals, and have been shown to evolve from native metallic organisms.[3][4]

A chicken walker is a fictional type of bipedal robot or mecha, distinguished by its rear-facing knee joint. This type of articulation resembles a bird's legs, hence the name.[5] However, birds actually have forward-facing knees; they are digitigrade, and what most call the "knee" is actually the ankle.[6]

Early history

The 1868 Edward S. Ellis novel The Steam Man of the Prairies featured a steam-powered, back-piloted, mechanical man. The 1880 Jules Verne novel The Steam House (La Maison à Vapeur) featured a steam-powered, piloted, mechanical elephant. One of the first appearances of such machines in modern literature was the tripod (or "fighting-machine", as they are known in the novel) of H. G. Wells' famous The War of the Worlds (1897). The novel does not contain a fully detailed description of the tripods' mode of locomotion, but it is hinted at: "Can you imagine a milking stool tilted and bowled violently along the ground? That was the impression those instant flashes gave. But instead of a milking stool, imagine it a great body of machinery on a tripod stand."

Ōgon Bat, a kamishibai that debuted in 1931 (later adapted into an anime in 1967), featured the first piloted humanoid giant robot, Dai Ningen Tanku (大人間タンク),[7] but as an enemy rather than a protagonist. In 1934, Gajo Sakamoto launched Tank Tankuro (タンクタンクロー) on a metal creature that becomes a battle machine.[8]

The first humanoid giant robot piloted by the protagonist appeared in the manga Atomic Power Android (原子力人造人間, Genshi Ryoku Jinzō Ningen) in 1948.[9] The manga and anime Tetsujin 28-Go, introduced in 1956, featured a robot, Tetsujin, that was controlled externally by an operator by remote control. The manga and anime Astro Boy, introduced in 1952, with its humanoid robot protagonist, was a key influence on the development of the giant robot genre in Japan. The first anime featuring a giant mecha being piloted by the protagonist from within a cockpit was the Super Robot show Mazinger Z, written by Go Nagai and introduced in 1972.[10] Mazinger Z introduced the notion of mecha as pilotable war machines, rather than remote-controlled robots. Ken Ishikawa and Go Nagai, later, introduced the concept of 'combination' (gattai (合体)), where several units slot together to form a super robot, with Getter Robo (1974 debut).[11]

An early use of mech-like machines outside Japan is found in "The Invisible Empire", a Federal Men's story arc by Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster (serialized 1936 in New Comics #8–10).[12] Other examples include the Mexican comic Invictus by Leonel Guillermo Prieto and Victaleno León; the Brazilian comic Audaz, o demolidor, by Álvaro "Aruom" Moura and Messias de Mello (1938–1949), inspired by Invictus, created for the supplement A Gazetinha from the newspaper A Gazeta;[13] Kimball Kinnison's battle suit in E. E. "Doc" Smith's Lensman novel Galactic Patrol (1950);[14] the French animated film The King and the Mockingbird (first released 1952),[15] and Robert Heinlein's waldo in his 1942 short story, "Waldo" and the Mobile Infantry battle suits in Heinlein's Starship Troopers (1958).[14]

A transforming mech can transform between a standard vehicle (such as a fighter plane or transport truck) and a fighting mecha robot. This concept of transforming mecha was pioneered by Japanese mecha designer Shōji Kawamori in the early 1980s, when he created the Diaclone toy line in 1980 and then the Macross anime franchise in 1982. In North America, the Macross franchise was adapted into the Robotech franchise in 1985, and then the Diaclone toy line was adapted into the Transformers franchise in 1986. Some of Kawamori's most iconic transforming mecha designs include the VF-1 Valkyrie from the Macross and Robotech franchises, and Optimus Prime (called Convoy in Japan) from the Transformers and Diaclone franchises.[16][17]

In various media

Anime and manga

RX-78-2 Gundam, introduced in Mobile Suit Gundam (1979), the first Gundam anime. It was the first real robot, in contrast to the super robots in earlier anime.

In Japan, "robot anime" (known as "mecha anime" outside Japan) is one of the oldest genres in anime.[18] Robot anime is often tied in with toy manufacturers. Large franchises such as Gundam, Macross, Transformers, and Zoids have hundreds of different model kits.

The size of mecha can vary according to the story and concepts involved. Some of them may not be considerably taller than a tank (Armored Trooper Votoms,Yatterman, Megazone 23, Code Geass), some may be a few stories tall (Gundam, Escaflowne, Bismark, Gurren Lagann), others can be titan sized as tall as a skyscraper (Space Runaway Ideon, Genesis of Aquarion, Science Ninja Team Gatchaman, Neon Genesis Evangelion), some are big enough to contain an entire city (Macross), some the size of a planet (Diebuster), galaxies (Getter Robo, Tengen Toppa Gurren Lagann), or even as large as universes (Tengen Toppa Gurren Lagann: Lagann-hen, Demonbane, Transformers: Alternity).

The first titan robots seen were in the 1948 manga Atomic Power Android (原子力人造人間, Genshiryoku Jinzō Ningen)[9] and Mitsuteru Yokoyama's 1956 manga Tetsujin 28-go. However, it was not until the advent of Go Nagai's Mazinger Z that the genre was established. Mazinger Z innovated by adding the inclusion of futuristic weapons, and the concept of being able to pilot from a cockpit[10] (rather than via remote control, in the case of Tetsujin). According to Go Nagai:

I wanted to create something different, and I thought it would be interesting to have a robot that you could drive, like a car.[10]

Mazinger Z featured giant robots that were "piloted by means of a small flying car and command center that docked inside the head."[10] It was also a pioneer in die-cast metal toys such as the Chogokin series in Japan and the Shogun Warriors in the U.S., that were (and still are) very popular with children and collectors.

Robot/mecha anime and manga differ vastly in storytelling and animation quality from title to title, and content ranges from children's shows to ones intended for an older teen or adult audience.

Some of the first mecha featured in manga and anime were super robots. The super robot genre features superhero-like giant robots that are often one-of-a-kind and the product of an ancient civilization, aliens or a mad genius. These robots are usually piloted by Japanese teenagers via voice command or neural uplink, and are often powered by mystical or exotic energy sources.[19]

The later real robot genre features robots that do not have mythical superpowers, but rather use largely conventional, albeit futuristic weapons and power sources, and are often mass-produced on a large scale for use in wars.[19] The real robot genre also tends to feature more complex characters with moral conflicts and personal problems.[20] The genre is therefore aimed primarily at young adults instead of children.[21] Mobile Suit Gundam (1979) is largely considered the first series to introduce the real robot concept and, along with The Super Dimension Fortress Macross (1982), would form the basis of what people would later call real robot anime.[22]

Some robot mecha are capable of transformation (Macross and Zeta Gundam) or combining to form even bigger ones (Beast King GoLion and Tengen Toppa Gurren Lagann), the latter called 'combination'. Go Nagai and Ken Ishikawa are often credited with inventing this in 1974 with Getter Robo.

Not all mecha need to be completely mechanical. Some have biological components with which to interface with their pilots, and some are partially biological themselves, such as in Neon Genesis Evangelion, Eureka Seven, and Zoids.

Mecha based on anime have seen extreme cultural reception across the world. The personification of this popularity can be seen as 1:1-sized Mazinger Z, Tetsujin, and Gundam statues built across the world.


Imperial AT-AT walkers during the Battle of Hoth in The Empire Strikes Back, the second film of the original Star Wars trilogy.

Video games

Strike Suit Zero is a 2013 space combat video game featuring mecha designs by Junji Okubo.
Mecha selection menu in the roguelike, GearHead RPG.

Mecha are often featured in computer and console video games. Because of their size and fictional power, mecha are quite popular subjects for games, both tabletop and electronic. They have been featured in video games since the 1980s, particularly in vehicular combat and shooter games, including Sesame Japan's side-scrolling shooter game Vastar in 1983,[23] various Gundam games such as Mobile Suit Gundam: Last Shooting in 1984 and Z-Gundam: Hot Scramble in 1986,[24] the run and gun shooters Hover Attack in 1984 and Thexder in 1985, and Arsys Software's 3D role-playing shooters WiBArm in 1986 and Star Cruiser in 1988. Historically mecha-based games have been more popular in Japan than in other countries.[25]

  • Metal Gear series (1987 – 2018) by Hideo Kojima, includes mecha as part of its main premise. The series takes place during the modern day and near future, and the prototype nuclear-capable bipedal tanks called Metal Gears are a recurring element.
  • A popular classic of mecha in games is the MechWarrior series (1989 – 2021) of video games, which takes place in the Battletech universe.
  • Intelligent Systems-developed and Nintendo-published games that feature mecha include Battle Clash (1992) and Metal Combat: Falcon's Revenge (1993), a single-player mecha-themed shooter series with real robot-style. All battles are fought with mechas called Standing Tanks (ST).
  • One Must Fall (1994 – 2003) is a series of mecha fighting games developed by Diversions Entertainment wherein the stats of the player's mech vary based on the selected pilot, allowing for a large range of customization. It is the earliest fighting game to feature an all-mech roster.
  • Capcom's arcade beat 'em up Armored Warriors (1994) and followup fighting game Cyberbots: Full Metal Madness (1995) feature mechs known as "Variant Armor" which the player can customize by mixing and matching a selection of limb and weaponry options. The latter game also has the player choose a pilot for the mech from a lineup of characters, though this only impacts the game's story mode and not gameplay.
  • Squaresoft-developed games that feature mecha include Front Mission (1995 – 2019), a turn-based tactical series of games with real robot-style mecha utilized by near future military forces. Xenogears (1998) also used mecha, called Gears, as a main aspect of the story, and the series continues the use of mecha with the Monolith Soft-developed Xenoblade Chronicles series (2010 – ).
  • In the Virtual-On (1996 – 2018) fighting game series, players assume control of humanoid mecha named Virtuaroids.
  • Armored Core (1997 – ) is a fast-paced action mecha series developed by FromSoftware, set in the distant post apocalyptic futures where mechas called "Armored Core" pilot by mercenaries are the dominant forces on the battlefield. Armored Core games have a wide selection in customizations with the first entry in the series Armored Core (video game) being as one of the early few 3D mecha games that introduced extensive customizations to the mechas in-game.
  • Tech Romancer (1998) is an arena fighting game with a roster of playable mechs and corresponding pilots. The game heavily spoofs mecha anime, with designs paying homage to several influential series of the genre and a highly stylized presentation meant to emulate a mecha TV show. It is the second Capcom fighting game to revolve around mecha, following Cyberbots.
  • In StarCraft series (1998 – 2017), two of the fictional races (Terran and Protoss) extensively use walkers. In the first game of the series, each faction had only one walker: Goliath (Terran) and Dragoon (Protoss). As of the latest release, in multiplayer games, Terrans have four different walkers (Viking, Thor, Hellbat, and Widow Mine,) while Protoss have three (Colossus, Stalker, and Immortal.) On the whole there are 18 different Terran walkers and 21 Protoss walkers across the entire franchise.
  • The Monolith Productions game Shogo: Mobile Armor Division (1998) blended mecha gameplay with that of traditional first-person shooter games.[26]
  • Heavy Gear 2 (1999) offers a complex yet semi-realistic control system for its mecha in both terrain and outer space warfare.
  • In Zone of the Enders (2001 – 2012) by Hideo Kojima, real robots called LEVs exist alongside a more super robot-like mecha type known as the Orbital Frame.
  • Sonic Adventure 2 (2001) features Tails and Dr. Eggman in their own mecha suits, the Cyclone and Egg Walker respectively.
  • Phantom Crash (2002) and S.L.A.I.: Steel Lancer Arena International (2005) by Genki, are mecha games set in a future where the sport of "rumbling" takes place. In each game the player must climb the ranks of rumbling using a Scoot Vehicle that they have customized and accompanied by an animal intelligence chip.
  • In Mario Party 5 (2003), the minigame Mario Mechs features the solo player piloting a big warlike machine while the team of three players pilot smaller scooters.
  • In Battlefield 2142 (2006), walking mechs fight alongside conventional military units such as infantry, tanks, APCs, and aircraft in the forces of the European Union and Pan-Asian Coalition.
  • In Supreme Commander (2007), all three factions utilize mechs, along with tanks and gunships. The player's Armored Command Unit is one such mech.
  • The Command & Conquer: Tiberian series franchise (1995 – 2012) features many mechanized walker units. In the last video game of this series, Command & Conquer 4, walkers have gained such predominance that even command centers walk. (In the prior games, they were stationary buildings.) Titan, Wolverine, and Juggernaut are three of such units that have appeared in four Command & Conquer titles.
  • League of Legends (2009), developed by Riot Games, include mecha as part of champion skins, designed as super robots (Mecha Malphite, Mecha Kha Zix, Mecha Aatrox, Mecha Zero Sion, etc.).
  • Hawken (2012) is an online first person shooter in which players can choose from a variety of bipedal mechas with different specializations and abilities.
  • War Thunder (2012) held an April Fools event in which players were able to control mecha tanks, comprising multiple tank turrets and various other parts, after destroying a certain number of vehicles in a battle.
  • Halo 4 (2012) introduced the HRUNTING/YGGDRASIL Mark IX Armor Defense System (or Mantis), which would later reappear in Halo 5 (2015).
  • In Titanfall (2014) and Titanfall 2 (2016) from Respawn Entertainment, mechas are heavily involved within gameplay and the story.[27]
  • In War Robots (2014) from Russian developer Pixonic, players only can control mechas to fight each other in a 6v6 battlefield.
  • In Heroes of the Storm (2015), developed by Blizzard Entertainment, players can take control of the giant mecha, called "Triglav Protector", as a reward for winning objective on Volskaya Foundry battleground. The mecha is co-piloted by two different players, the first serving as a pilot, and the second serving as a gunner. Each player is given control to a different set of unique abilities.[28] In January 2018 and June 2019, Blizzard created two "MechaStorm" events for Heroes of the Storm, featuring multiple mecha skins for a number of heroes, as well as other items for the Collection.[29][30] A MechaStorm "anime video trailer" was also released, heavily inspired by series such as Mobile Suit Gundam, and Neon Genesis Evangelion.
  • In Just Cause 3 (2015) and Just Cause 4 (2018) mecha make an appearance as downloadable content in both games where they are owned by fictional in-game factions named the eDen Corporation and The Black Hand respectively. In both games, they are able to be piloted by the player.
  • Overwatch (2016), team shooter from Blizzard Entertainment, includes D.Va, a tank hero who pilots a mecha. Stylized as MEKA (Mobile Exo-Force of the Korean Army), D.Va's mecha provides her primary hero abilities as well as being a driver of her backstory in the game's lore.[31] Wrecking Ball is a tank-class quadrupedal mecha robot driven by a genetically engineered hamster named Hammond. The mecha is armed with automatic assault weapons known as the "quad cannons", and can be transformed into a high-speed "wrecking ball" equipped with a grappling hook.[32]
  • Brigador (2016), an isometric real-time tactical game, features mechas (as well other vehicles, including tanks and flying "antigravs") with loadouts customizable for different objectives.
  • Kirby: Planet Robobot (2016) features extensive use of mecha suit known as the Robobot Armor to solve puzzles and fight enemies. Mecha resembling Kirby with the ability to copy enemy abilities (known as Modes).
  • Daemon X Machina (2019).
  • Iron Harvest (2020) features many mechs piloted by multiple factions. It is set in the 1920+ alternate history universe Scythe, created by Jakub Różalski.
  • "The Legend of Zelda: Tears of the Kingdom (2023) features a ridable mech which can be unlocked through a main quest.


  • Bionicle features many types of mecha sets such as Exo-Toa, Boxor, Nivawk and Skopio XV-1. Most of the story takes place inside Mata Nui, a colossal mecha maintained by its inhabitants.

Tabletop games

  • In Warhammer 40,000, the forces use mecha of a variety of sizes and shapes.
  • Battletech uses hex-maps, miniatures & paper record sheets that allow players to use mecha in tactical situations and record realistic damage.


Real mecha

There are a few real prototypes of mecha-like vehicles. Currently almost all of these are highly specialized or just for concept purpose, and as such may not see mass production. Most of these experimental projects were made and first presented in East Asia.

  • In 2012, Suidobashi Heavy Industry unveiled their prototype of a driveable mecha, the Kuratas.[34][35]
  • In December 2016, Korean company Hankook Mirae posted a video featuring a test run of their bi-pedal prototype mecha METHOD-01, designed by Vitaly Bulgarov.[36]
  • A machine called Land Walker was developed by Sakakibara Kikai with the intention of giving the impression of a bipedal mecha.[37][38]
  • In 2018, Japanese engineer Masaaki Nagumo from Sakakibara Kikai completed construction of a functional bipedal mecha inspired by the Gundam franchise. The device, standing 8.5 meters tall and weighing about 7 tonnes, possesses fully functional arm and leg servos.[39]
  • Another Gundam-based mecha, 60 feet tall and with fully functional articulation, was put on exhibit by Gundam Factory Yokohama on December 19, 2020, and is expected to remain until March 31, 2024.[40][41][42]
  • In 2023, the Japanese startup Tsubame Industries developed a 4.5-metre-tall four-wheeled robot called ARCHAX.[43]

In the Western world, there are few examples of mecha, however, several machines have been constructed by both companies and private figures.

  • In 1813, British engineer William Brunton designed and built a steam locomotive propelled by mechanical legs, called the Steam Horse.
  • The GE Beetle, a mobile piloted manipulator for nuclear materials, which entered operation in 1961.
  • In 2006, Timberjack, a subsidiary of John Deere, built a practical hexapod walking harvester.[44]
  • In 2015, Megabots Inc. completed the MKII "Iron Glory" before challenging Kuratas to a duel. In 2017 they completed the MKIII "Eagle Prime".
  • In 2017, Canadian engineering company, Furrion Exo-Bionics,[45] unveiled Prosthesis: The Anti-Robot,[46] invented by Jonathan Tippett, as the company's flagship prototype mech. It is a 3500 kg, 200 hp, electric powered, 4-legged, all-terrain walking mech intended for use in competitive sport. It is controlled by the human pilot inside via a full-body exo-skeletal interface. In 2020 it was awarded the Guinness World Record as "the world's largest tetrapod exoskeleton".[47]

See also


  1. ^ "Mech (Object) - Giant Bomb". Giant Bomb. Archived from the original on 2018-10-03. Retrieved 2018-10-03.
  2. ^ Simmons, Mark (2002). Animerica Gundam official guide. Benjamin Wright, Animerica. San Francisco, CA: Viz Communications. ISBN 1-56931-739-9. OCLC 49661605.
  3. ^ "Zoids (TV) - Anime News Network". Retrieved 2023-03-19.
  4. ^ Ueyama, Michiro (2002). ZOIDS : chaotic century. San Francisco, CA: Viz Comics. ISBN 1-56931-750-X. OCLC 50021886.
  5. ^ Slavicsek, Bill (2000). A Guide to the Star Wars Universe: Third Edition. Del Rey and Lucas Books. pp. 14. ISBN 0-345-42066-7.
  6. ^ Kochan, Jack (1994). Feet & Legs. Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-2515-4.
  7. ^ Dai Ningen Tanku (大人間タンク) means Giant Ningen Tanku (人間タンク) , Ningen Tanku (人間タンク) is the Japanese title of The Master Mystery(1919), and the Japanese name of the Powered exoskeleton appearing in the film."人間タンク : 奇蹟の人". NDL Digital Collections. Archived from the original on 2018-06-29. Retrieved 2018-06-29.It was a general Japanese phrase meaning "humanoid tank" too.井上晴樹 (August 2007). 日本ロボット戦争記 1939~1945. NTT出版. ISBN 9784757160149. Archived from the original on 2018-07-02. Retrieved 2018-07-02.
  8. ^ "Preview: Tank Tankuro". The Comics Journal. 18 July 2011. Retrieved 2020-12-01.
  9. ^ a b "原子力人造人間". NDL Digital Collections. Archived from the original on 2018-03-25. Retrieved 2018-03-23.
  10. ^ a b c d Gilson, Mark (1998). "A Brief History of Japanese Robophilia". Leonardo. 31 (5): 367–369. doi:10.2307/1576597. JSTOR 1576597. S2CID 191411400.
  11. ^ Clements, Jonathan (2017). Anime: A History. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 150–1. ISBN 978-1-84457-884-9.
  12. ^ Carper, Steve (2019-06-27). Robots in American Popular Culture. McFarland. pp. 11–112. ISBN 978-1-4766-3505-7.
  13. ^ de Rosa, Franco (2019). Prado, Joe; Freitas da Costa, Ivan (eds.). Grande Almanaque dos Super-Heróis Brasileiros (PDF) (in Portuguese). Brazil: Chiaroscuro Studios. pp. 16, 127. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2022-05-16. Retrieved 2022-07-16.
  14. ^ a b Sofge, Erik (2010-04-08). "A History of Iron Men: Top 5 Iconic Exoskeletons". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 2020-12-01.
  15. ^ "Le Roi et l'Oiseau de Paul Grimault (1980)] – commentary" (PDF).
  16. ^ Barder, Ollie (December 10, 2015). "Shoji Kawamori, The Creator Hollywood Copies But Never Credits". Forbes. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  17. ^ Knott, Kylie (27 February 2019). "He created Macross and designed Transformers toys: Japanese anime legend Shoji Kawamori". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  18. ^ "Gn-mazingerz01.JPG (1445x2156 pixels)". Archived from the original on 2004-05-29. Retrieved 2004-05-29.
  19. ^ a b Hornyak, Timothy N. (2006). "Chapter 4". Loving the Machine: the Art and Science of Japanese Robots (1st ed.). Tokyo: Kodansha International. pp. 57–70. ISBN 4770030126. OCLC 63472559.
  20. ^ Tomino, Yoshiyuki (2012). Mobile Suit Gundam: Awakening, Escalation, Confrontation. Schodt, Frederik L., 1950– (2nd ed.). Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-1611720051. OCLC 772711844.
  21. ^ Denison, Rayna (2015). "Chapter 5". Anime: a Critical Introduction. London. ISBN 978-1472576767. OCLC 879600213.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  22. ^ 10 commandments of Real robot, Gundam Sentinel introduction, Gundam workshop, Format ACG
  23. ^ Vastar at the Killer List of Videogames
  24. ^ Savorelli, Carlos (October 6, 2017). "Kidō Senshi Z-Gundam: Hot Scramble". Hardcore Gaming 101. Archived from the original on November 16, 2017. Retrieved November 15, 2017.
  25. ^ "Iron Rain". Next Generation. No. 17. Imagine Media. May 1996. p. 86.
  26. ^ Sabbagh, Michel (December 17, 2015). "Effort Upon Effort: Japanese Influences in Western First-Person Shooters" (PDF). Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 1, 2016. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
  27. ^ Arts, Electronic (2017-03-22). "Titanfall 2". Archived from the original on 2017-07-23. Retrieved 2017-07-20.
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External links

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