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Hyperlink cinema

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hyperlink cinema is a style of filmmaking characterised by complex or multilinear narrative structures, which are used in ways that are informed by the World Wide Web. The term was coined by author Alissa Quart, who used the term in her review of the film Happy Endings (2005) for the film journal Film Comment in 2005.[1] Film critic Roger Ebert popularized the term when reviewing the film Syriana in 2005.[2] These films are not hypermedia and do not have actual hyperlinks, but are multilinear in a more metaphorical sense.

In describing Happy Endings, Quart considers captions acting as footnotes and split screen as elements of hyperlink cinema and notes the influence of the World Wide Web and multitasking.[1] Playing with time and characters' personal history, plot twists, interwoven storylines between multiple characters, jumping between the beginning and end (flashback and flashforward) are also elements.[1] Ebert further described hyperlink cinema as films where the characters or action reside in separate stories, but a connection or influence between those disparate stories is slowly revealed to the audience; illustrated in Mexican director Alejandro González Iñárritu's films Amores perros (2000), 21 Grams (2003), and Babel (2006).[2][3]

Quart suggests that director Robert Altman created the structure for the genre and demonstrated its usefulness for combining interlocking stories in his films Nashville (1975) and Short Cuts (1993).[4] However, his work was predated by several films, including Jean Renoir's The Rules of the Game (1939)[5], Satyajit Ray's Kanchenjunga (1962)[6], Federico Fellini's Amarcord (1973)[7], and Ritwik Ghatak's Titash Ekti Nadir Naam (1973)[8], all of which use a narrative structure based on multiple characters.

Quart also mentions the television series 24 and discusses Alan Rudolph's film Welcome to L.A. (1976) as an early prototype.[1] Crash (2004) is an example of the genre,[9] as are Steven Soderbergh's Traffic (2000), City of God (2002), Syriana (2005) and Nine Lives (2005).


The hyperlink cinema narrative and story structure can be compared to social science's spatial analysis. As described by Edward Soja and Costis Hadjimichalis spatial analysis examines the "'horizontal experience' of human life, the spatial dimension of individual behavior and social relations, as opposed to the 'vertical experience' of history, tradition, and biography."[10] English critic John Berger notes for the novel that "it is scarcely any longer possible to tell a straight story sequentially unfolding in time" for "we are too aware of what is continually traversing the story line laterally."[10]

An academic analysis of hyperlink cinema appeared in the journal Critical Studies in Media Communication, and referred to the films as Global Network Films. Narine's study examines the films Traffic (2000), Amores perros (2000), 21 Grams (2003), Beyond Borders (2003), Crash (2004; released 2005), Syriana (2005), Babel (2006) and others, citing network theorist Manuel Castells and philosophers Michel Foucault and Slavoj Žižek. The study suggests that the films are network narratives that map the network society and the new connections citizens experience in the age of globalization.[11]


Directors associated with hyperlink cinema

Mani Ratnam

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Quart, Alissa (July–August 2005). "Networked". Film Comment. 41 (4): 48–5. Archived from the original on February 3, 2014. Retrieved January 28, 2014.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Ebert, Roger (December 9, 2005). "Syriana". Reviews. Retrieved July 25, 2007.
  3. ^ a b c d Ebert, Roger (September 22, 2007). "Babel". Reviews. Retrieved February 8, 2008.
  4. ^ Ebert, Roger (2006). Roger Ebert's Movie Yearbook 2007. Andrews McMeel Publishing. p. 100. ISBN 0-7407-6157-9
  5. ^ Ten Classic Hyperlink Films - CinemaCatharsis
  6. ^ a b "Kanchenjungha". AMC. Archived from the original on December 11, 2015.
  7. ^ a b c d "20 Great Examples of Hyperlink Cinema Every Film Buff Must Watch". Taste of Cinema - Movie Reviews and Classic Movie Lists.
  8. ^ a b Ghatak, Ritwik (2000). Rows and Rows of Fences: Ritwik Ghatak on Cinema. Ritwik Memorial & Trust Seagull Books. pp. ix & 134–36. ISBN 81-7046-178-2.
  9. ^ “Crossing Over” and Hyperlink Cinema-IFC
  10. ^ a b Soja, Edward W.; Hadjimichalis, Costis (1979). "Between Geographical Materialism and Spatial Fetishism: Some Observations on the Development of Marxist Spatial Analysis". Antipode. 17 (2–3): 59–67. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8330.1985.tb00334.x.
  11. ^ Narine, Neil (2010). "Global Trauma and the Cinematic Network Society". Critical Studies in Media Communication. 27 (3): 209–234. doi:10.1080/15295030903583556. S2CID 143671583.
  12. ^ Ten Classic Hyperlink Films - CinemaCatharsis
  13. ^ a b Bütün Filmleriyle Yilmaz Güney by Agah Özguc
  14. ^ Ebert, Roger (January 14, 2009). "After Hours". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved January 17, 2009.
  15. ^ Ten Classic Hyperlink Films - CinemaCatharsis
  16. ^ a b c "20 Great Examples of Hyperlink Cinema Every Film Buff Must Watch". Taste of Cinema - Movie Reviews and Classic Movie Lists.
  17. ^ Kipp, Jeremiah (August 12, 2008). "Before the Rain | Film Review | Slant Magazine". Retrieved on March 3, 2010.
  18. ^ Roger Ebert (March 11, 2009). "Exotica".
  19. ^ Booker, M. Keith. (2007). In Postmodern Hollywood. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 12–21. ISBN 0-275-99900-9. Google Book Search. Retrieved on October 18, 2008.
  20. ^ a b Keith Booker, M. (2007). Postmodern Hollywood. ISBN 9780275999001.
  21. ^ Holden, Stephen (January 22, 1999). "Movie Review – Playing By Heart – FILM REVIEW; In a Cocktail of Romance, Different Flavors of Love –". Retrieved on March 3, 2010.
  22. ^ a b c "Top 10 Greatest Films of 'Hyperlink Cinema'". March 17, 2018.
  23. ^ "CODE INCONNU". Festival de Cannes.
  24. ^ a b c Ebert, Roger (January 6, 2006). "Cape of Good Hope". Reviews. Retrieved February 8, 2008.
  25. ^ Ebert, Roger (January 18, 2002). "Lantana". Reviews. Retrieved February 14, 2009.
  26. ^ Declan Cochran. "11:14, an obscure gem of a movie (review)". D&CFilm.
  27. ^ Barber, Nicholas (March 17, 2015). "Fragmentation games: the return of the portmanteau film" – via
  28. ^ The 15 Best Glenn Close Movie Performances - Taste of Cinema
  29. ^ "Look Both Ways". Chicago Sun-Times.
  30. ^ Skinner, Marjorie. (September 4, 2008). "The Celestial Prophecy :: Living on The Edge of Heaven". Portland Mercury. Retrieved on September 5, 2008.
  31. ^ Gandert, Sean. (October 18, 2007). "Paste Magazine  :: Review :: Rendition Archived February 24, 2008, at the Wayback Machine". Paste. Retrieved on February 8, 2008.
  32. ^ 20 Great Examples of Hyperlink Cinema Every Film Buff Must Watch - Taste of Cinema
  33. ^ "The Air I Breathe – Movie – Review". The New York Times. Retrieved on May 13, 2008.
  34. ^ "20 Great Examples of Hyperlink Cinema Every Film Buff Must Watch". Taste of Cinema - Movie Reviews and Classic Movie Lists.
  35. ^ Gupta, Shubra (August 23, 2008). "Mumbai Meri Jaan (Hindi) Archived November 4, 2009, at the Wayback Machine". Retrieved on August 8, 2009.
  36. ^ Snider, Eric D. (February 16, 2010). "Portland Film Fest Review: Ajami – Cinematical". Retrieved on March 3, 2010.
  37. ^ Anderson, Melissa. (May 8, 2009). "Powder Blue Review – Read Variety's Analysis Of The Movie Powder Blue". Retrieved on July 21, 2010.
  38. ^ "REVIEW: Hereafter « Marshall and the Movies". Marshall and the Movies.
  39. ^ "Revisiting Vedam: Probably the best Telugu film of recent times?". December 2, 2012.
  40. ^ Osenlund, R. Kurt (December 2, 2011). "Answers to Nothing". Slant Magazine. Retrieved October 16, 2019.
  41. ^ "Bombay March 12 Review". nowrunning. July 3, 2011.
  42. ^ Wickman, Forrest (September 9, 2011). "Steven Soderbergh's Contagion".
  43. ^ LaSalle, Mick (October 25, 2012). "'Cloud Atlas' review: Baring your soul - SFGate". SFGate. Retrieved on June 8, 2013.
  44. ^ Hachard, Thomas (April 7, 2013). "Disconnect". Slant Magazine. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
  45. ^ Kermode, Mark; critic, Observer film (January 24, 2016). "The Big Short review – life with the Wall Street sharks" – via
  46. ^ Subramanian, Anupama (July 17, 2016). "Sree-Regina film Maanagaram with a hyperlink narration". Deccan Chronicle.
  47. ^ "Review : Odu Raja Odu -A black comedy that is watchable (2018)".
  48. ^ Super Deluxe (2019)-IMDB
  49. ^ [1]
  50. ^ a b c d e Hyperlink Cinema and the Prevalence of Intertwining Stories, The Artifice
  51. ^ Ray, Satyajit (2015). Prabandha Sangraha. Kolkata: Ananda Publishers. pp. 120–121. ISBN 978-93-5040-553-6.
  52. ^ Ten Classic Hyperlink Films - CinemaCatharsis
  53. ^ Ten Classic Hyperlink Films - CinemaCatharsis
  54. ^ Ten Classic Hyperlink Films - CinemaCatharsis
  55. ^ Ten Classic Hyperlink Films - CinemaCatharsis

External links

This page was last edited on 18 September 2020, at 15:29
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