To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Iranian New Wave

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Iranian New Wave refers to a movement in Iranian cinema. It started in 1964 with Hajir Darioush's second film Serpent's Skin (جلد مار), which was based on D.H. Lawrence's Lady Chatterley's Lover featuring Fakhri Khorvash and Jamshid Mashayekhi. Darioush's two important early social documentaries But Problems Arose (ولی افتاد مشکلها) in 1965, dealing with the cultural alienation of the Iranian youth, and Face 75 (چهره 75), a critical look at the westernization of the rural culture, which was a prizewinner at the 1965 Berlin Film Festival, also contributed significantly to the establishment of the New Wave. In 1969, after the release of The Cow (گاو) directed by Darius Mehrjui followed by Masoud Kimiai's Qeysar (قیصر), and Nasser Taqvai's Calm in Front of Others آرامش در حضور دیگران(banned in 1969 and re-release in 1972), immediately followed by Bahram Beyzai's Downpour, the New Wave became well established as a prominent cultural, dynamic and intellectual trend. The Iranian viewer became discriminating, encouraging the new trend to prosper and develop.[1]

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    121 037
    51 742
    355 931
    11 419
    66 858
  • ✪ Inside Iranian Cinema (Part 1/3)
  • ✪ Video Essay: How the French New Wave Changed Cinema
  • ✪ Top 10 Most Important Film Movements of All Time
  • ✪ Apple - Keep the Money
  • ✪ Inside Iranian Cinema (Part 2/3)


[MUSIC - THE NORMAL, "WARM LEATHERETTE"] SHANE SMITH: In Western mainstream media right now, we're hearing a lot about Islamic fundamentalism, nuclear proliferation, rogue states. And public enemy number one is Iran. BRET BAIER: The Iranians are moving forward with their nuclear program quicker than expected. -Iran's President is warning it is too late to stop Iran's nuclear program. -Iran basically has a strategy to dominate the region. DAN GILLERMAN: What I can tell you is that Iran must be stopped. SHANE SMITH: Now, it's interesting to us that on one hand you have footage like this from Fox News saying that Iran is an imminent threat. But on the other hand, you have all these films coming out where critics are saying, hey, these are some of the best films coming out right now. They're beautiful, they're amazing, they're great. So how is it that we have on one side an Islamic fundamentalist state, but on the other all these amazing movies? We had to go to Iran and find out the truth behind Iranian cinema. [MUSIC PLAYING] SHANE SMITH: Now, getting into Iran as a journalist is nearly impossible. They have a very bad reputation with journalists. Many have been arrested, a lot have been tortured, and some have even been killed. In fact, there's a World Press Freedom Index, and Iran is number 166. Right at the back of the bus with only the worst offenders like Turkmenistan, North Korea, Eritrea and Cuba ahead of it. Now what scared me personally about going into Iran as a journalist was that I knew two things. One is that Zahra Kazemi, a Canadian journalist who got into Iran, was kidnapped, raped, and beaten to death in 2003. And that our friend Ben Anderson from the BBC, who did "Holidays in the Axis of Evil," went in with a handycam and was kidnapped and tortured for a week before they kicked him out without his tapes. So we didn't want to go in with a handycam. And we didn't want to sneak in like we usually do. So we tried for about a year and a half to get into the country legitimately. And finally, the producers of the Third International Urban Film Festival got us our visas, arranged for us to be able to bring in the cameras, and did the impossible and got us into Iran. [MUSIC PLAYING] [POLICE HORN] SHANE SMITH: Uh oh. What was that? That was cops. -No. No, no, no. -No, no, no. Yeah, I know. SHANE SMITH: I don't know if we got that do-da-lu on thing, but if the cops see a camera, they can turn their bloopers on. We're waiting for permission to shoot outside, so we're shooting from the car, which we're not supposed to do either. -What'd he say? -Police. Police. SHANE SMITH: Why don't they want people shooting? -With your small camera, you don't have any problem. It's just the size of the camera that makes it professional as a journalist. When you have a big camera, you need to have permission. SHANE SMITH: Can I shoot with this guy around, or no? -It's better not to do it now. SHANE SMITH: We were told from the first day we got there that we weren't allowed to shoot anything that didn't have to do with film. And they warned us that we could be arrested if we shot anything that had to do with police, military or the government, which is basically everything in Iran. The only places we could really shoot freely were when we were indoors, or things that were directly sponsored by the Film Festival, and even then it wasn't easy. We're about to meet the coordinator of the Film Festival here. And on the way here, we were told that we're being watched. And they talk a lot about our beards. They want to know if we got beards just to come here and why we're dressed the way we are. Why we're so dressed up. But we were told to wear suits. So there's all kinds of undercurrents that we don't know anything about. So we're trying to be good baby boys and not get in trouble. So we were nervous. We were freaked out. We got there and he had a nice office. We sat down and it was kind of like talking to a super cool Omar Sharif or something. ALI REZA SHOJA-NOORI: Hello. SHANE SMITH: Hi. ALI REZA SHOJA-NOORI: How are you? SHANE SMITH: Good, how are you? ALI REZA SHOJA-NOORI: Fine. SHANE SMITH: Good to see you. ALI REZA SHOJA-NOORI: Thanks for dropping by. SHANE SMITH: Ali Reza Shoja-Noori was one of the guys who's responsible for taking Iranian cinema to all the film festivals during the '80s and '90s. ALI REZA SHOJA-NOORI: For myself, that I was promoting the Iranian films abroad. Then came the big question-- do we have any place in the world? Is anyone waiting for our cinema? And the first film that we succeeded was "Frosty Roads." '86, I think-- '85, '86. It went to Berlin Film Festival. And when I saw the response of the audience there, I found out that yes, it's possible to do that. And then we went to do other films and other festivals. At that time we made one objective for us that we are going for a day that there would be no festival in the world without an Iranian film. And we got to that point. SHANE SMITH: Is there a big culture of going to the cinema? ALI REZA SHOJA-NOORI: Yes. SHANE SMITH: A big culture of going to watch movies? ALI REZA SHOJA-NOORI: Yes. The Iranian people like films very much. Very, very much. They like the school of their children and they like cinema. [MUSIC PLAYING] SHANE SMITH: The next place they took us was to Khaneh Cinema, or "The House of Iranian Cinema." And there we walked into kind of a really surreal situation. Because even though most American films are banned in Iran, they had invited the American Academy Awards people over for the first time in 35 years to exchange information on film and film festivals. So we walk into the building and the president of the Academy, Sid Ganis is over here. Oh, there's Annette Bening, who we had heard in the Western media before flying to Iran had been arrested. And forced to apologize to the Iranian people for the Hollywood propaganda of films like the "300," "The Wrestler," and "Not Without My Daughter." Meanwhile, we go to the House of Cinema and there they are. Everybody's having lunch together. There's no problems. Everybody really likes each other. This is going to get super weird. They're going to wonder who the hell we are. We're going to totally crash this lunch. He wants to ask what the fuck we're doing here. We just pretend to be Iranian. [MUSIC PLAYING] SHANE SMITH: So here they're just shooting around. And the Americans thought we were Iranian secret police. And the Iranians thought we just knew each other. -Let's go. SHANE SMITH: That was great. Before leaving the House of Cinema, we went downstairs to check out their filmmaker's library. And when we were there, we asked one of the board members what he thought about this whole apologizing business. -[SPEAKING PERSIAN] SHANE SMITH: So who asked them to apologize? -[SPEAKING PERSIAN] -[SPEAKING PERSIAN] SHANE SMITH: So that was our first freaky glimpse into how crazy and how much propaganda there is that surrounds everything about Iran. [MUSIC PLAYING]



Early Iranian cinema

Cinema in Iran began to develop in 1900, when Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar was introduced to the cinematograph upon traveling to France. He ordered his chief photographer, Mirza Ibrahim Khan Akasbashi, to buy one. Visiting the Festival of Flowers in Belgium, Akasbashi turned the cinematograph toward the flower-adorned carriages, making him the first Iranian to ever film anything. Theaters were opened beginning in 1903 by Mirza Ibrahim Sahfbashi. The first film school was opened in 1930 by Russian-Armenian immigrant Ovanes Ohanian, who had studied at The School of Cinematic Art in Moscow. He started his first cinema school 1924 after arriving in Calcutta, India: after facing many difficulties he decided to move to Iran to start the first cinema school in Tehran where he created the first full-length Iranian silent film called Haji Agha and his second movie Abi va Rabi.[2] After traveling to India in 1927, Abdul-Hussein Sepanta was inspired to make Persian language films, of which he ended up making four. Due to domination of the Pahlavi regime over all aspects of culture and the economy, as well as its very harsh censorship of films from 1925 to 1979, the cinema had difficulty developing in a way that reflected its own culture. In this time, Film Farsi began which has been described as “low-quality movies for audiences who were becoming addicted to such fare, losing any taste or demand for anything different.” Film Farsi is characterized by its mimicking of the popular cinemas of Hollywood and India, and its common use of song and dance routines.[3] Forough Farrokhzad made the short documentary film The House Is Black in 1963, and this film is considered to be a precursor to the new wave cinema. Its unflinching depictions of life in a leper colony, paired with artistically composed shots and her own poetry, made this a truly unique film. Other films such as Farrokh Ghaffari's The Night of the Hunchback (1964), Abrahim Golestan's Mud-Brick and Mirror (1965), and Ferydoon Rahnema's Siavush in Persepolis are all considered to be precursors as well.

First Wave

The first wave of Iranian new wave cinema came about as a reaction to the popular cinema at the time that did not reflect the norms of life for Iranians or the artistic taste of the society. It began in 1969 and then ended with the beginning of the Iranian revolution in 1979. The films produced were original, artistic and political. The first films considered to be part of this movement are Masoud Kimiai's Qeysar and Darius Mehrjui's The Cow (1969). Other films considered to be part of this movement are Nasser Taghvai's Peace in the Presence of Others (1969/1972) which was banned and then heavily censored upon its release, Bahram Beyzai's Downpour, and Sohrab Shahid Saless's “A Simple Event” (1973) and “Still Life” (1974).

Second and Third Wave

The pioneers of the Iranian New Wave were directors like Hajir Darioush, Dariush Mehrjui, Masoud Kimiay, Nasser Taqvai, Ebrahim Golestan, Sohrab Shahid Saless, Bahram Beizai, and Parviz Kimiavi, who made innovative art films with highly political and philosophical tones and poetic language. Subsequent films of this type have become known as the New Iranian cinema to distinguish them from their earlier roots. The most notable figures of the Second Wave (after Islamic Revolution) are Amir Naderi, Abbas Kiarostami, Mohsen Makhmalbaf, Jafar Panahi, Hossein Shahabi, Majid Majidi & Asghar Farhadi .

The factors leading to the rise of the New Wave in Iran were, in part, due to the intellectual and political movements of the time. A romantic climate was developing after the 19 August 1953 coup in the sphere of arts. Alongside this, a socially committed literature took shape in the 1950s and reached a peak in the 1960s, which many consider the golden era of contemporary Persian literature.[4]

Iranian New Wave films shared some characteristics with the European art films of the period, in particular Italian Neorealism. However, in her article 'Real Fictions', Rose Issa argues that Iranian films have a distinctively Iranian cinematic language "that champions the poetry in everyday life and the ordinary person by blurring the boundaries between fiction and reality, feature film with documentary." She also argues that this unique approach has inspired European cinema directors to emulate this style, citing Michael Winterbottom's award-winning In This World (2002) as an homage to contemporary Iranian cinema. Issa claims that "This new, humanistic aesthetic language, determined by the film-makers' individual and national identity, rather than the forces of globalism, has a strong creative dialogue not only on homeground but with audiences around the world."[5]

Moreover, Iranian new wave films are rich in poetry and painterly images. There is a line back from modern Iranian cinema to the ancient oral Persian storytellers and poets, via the poems of Omar Khayyam.[6]

Features of New Wave Iranian film, in particular the works of legendary Abbas Kiarostami, have been classified by some as postmodern.[7]

In Close Up: Iranian Cinema, Past, Present, Future (2001), Hamid Dabashi describes modern Iranian cinema and the phenomenon of [Iranian] national cinema as a form of cultural modernity. According to Dabashi, "the visual possibility of seeing the historical person (as opposed to the eternal Qur'anic man) on screen is arguably the single most important event allowing Iranians access to modernity."


  • realistic, documentary style
  • poetic & allegorical storytelling
  • use of 'child trope' (in response to regulations on adult material within films)
  • self-aware, reflexive tone
  • focus on rural lower-class
  • lack of 'male gaze'

Precursors and Influences

First Wave

Second Wave

Major Figures

See also


  1. ^ Al-Ahram Weekly | People | Limelight Archived 2006-10-09 at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ Mirbakhtyar, Shahla (2006). Iranian Cinema And The Islamic Revolution. McFarland & Company Incorporated.
  4. ^ The New Wave in Iranian Cinema - From Past to Present
  5. ^ Real Fictions
  6. ^ Steve Nottingham: Iranian Cinema
  7. ^ Abbas Kiarostami? The Truth Behind Reality

External links

This page was last edited on 11 January 2019, at 13:52
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.