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Spicy Mystery Stories, February 1936.
Spicy Mystery Stories, February 1936.

Pulp magazines (often referred to as "the pulps") were inexpensive fiction magazines that were published from 1896 to the late 1950s. The term pulp derives from the cheap wood pulp paper on which the magazines were printed. In contrast, magazines printed on higher-quality paper were called "glossies" or "slicks". The typical pulp magazine had 128 pages; it was 7 inches (18 cm) wide by 10 inches (25 cm) high, and 0.5 inches (1.3 cm) thick, with ragged, untrimmed edges.

The pulps gave rise to the term pulp fiction in reference to run-of-the-mill, low-quality literature. Pulps were the successors to the penny dreadfuls, dime novels, and short-fiction magazines of the 19th century. Although many respected writers wrote for pulps, the magazines were best known for their lurid, exploitative, and sensational subject matter. Modern superhero comic books are sometimes considered descendants of "hero pulps"; pulp magazines often featured illustrated novel-length stories of heroic characters, such as Flash Gordon, The Shadow, Doc Savage, and The Phantom Detective.

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  • ✪ Lovecraft & Howard - Pulp! Weird Tales - Extra Sci Fi
  • ✪ High Literature from Pulp Magazines with Jason Carney
  • ✪ Hugo Gernsback - Pulp! Amazing Stories - Extra Sci Fi
  • ✪ Creating a Wolverine Pulp Magazine Cover with Photoshop
  • ✪ Men's Pulp Magazines


Time to get spooky! [ opening titles music ] Amidst the sea of pulp that washed over the newsstands every day, one in particular stood out. In fact, it even subtitled itself "The Unique Magazine". This was Weird Tales, a home for horror and the macabre, the otherworldly and the paranormal. But it didn't exactly start out that way. When it was first put into print, it was founded with the goal of being exactly what we think of as Weird Tales today. But they hired an editor who didn't really like "creepy stories". He liked detective stories, so he got stories with a twist, but he didn't really get anything "haunting". But then, one day, he received a small pile of work with a cover letter attached. This letter spent a thousand words detailing why these stories probably shouldn't be picked, then demanded that not a single semicolon should be changed if they WERE picked, and, finally, wrapped up with a well-meaning paragraph, that still basically said: "all of the writers in your magazine are bad..." "...but it is quaint that they try." This, of course, was H.P. Lovecraft. He had sent Weird Tales five stories, including "Dagon" and "The Statement of Randolph Carter." In fact it's from this letter that we learn that the Randolph Carter character is a stand-in for Lovecraft, and that the whole thing was based on a dream he had. But it is also here that Weird Tales really begins, because that editor immediately offered to commission all five. This moment is pivotal, because for all of his faults, Lovecraft had a fundamentally different view on horror than anyone else at the time. In a letter touching on the fundamentals of horror, which he sent to the founder of Weird Tales, he said: "There is only a passing horror in sordid, sanguinary gruesomeness" "in bloody axe-murders and sadistic morbidities," "what really moves the profoundest springs of human fear and unholy fascination," "is something which suggests black, infinite vistas of cryptic, brooding, half-inscrutable monstrosities" "forever lurking behind nature, and as capable of being manifested again as in the case treated." "The supreme principle of this sort of horror, is any suggestion of the major violation of some basic law of nature," "the breaking-down of the line betwixt life and death..." " and the other animals." This philosophy became a founding principle of Weird Tales, as Lovecraft – ever a prolific correspondent – began writing to and communicating with some of the other regulars who appeared in its pages. This idea took root that there was something more horrifying and more fascinating than gore or even death; That the idea of our fundamental understanding of the universe, and our place in it , could be wrong, might be even more frightening than mortality. Soon, Weird Tales got a new editor who was more in tune with these ideas, (All hail our betentacled overlord!) and the Lovecraft circle began to expand. with authors like August Derleth and Clark Ashton Smith being featured regularly. And it was around this time that another writer, Robert E. Howard, began to spin out worlds of his own. Howard worked with the fury of a man hounded by demons and debt. In seven years he gave us: Solomon Kane, Kull the Conquerer, Bran Mak Morn, and of course, Conan the Barbarian. He also wrote countless Westerns, sea stories, boxing tales, and historical adventures. Even many of his minor characters, like Red Sonja, have acquired their place in our pop consciousness. He brought a grit and a danger to fantasy. The frenzy of his writing established the beginnings of Grimdark. He moved sword-wielding away from the medieval romances, or even the swashbuckling of many of the other pulps, and made it into something more primal, more visceral and real. For many later writers in both science-fiction and fantasy, he was an object lesson in how to write an action sequence. The economy of his prose was almost the opposite of Lovecraft's discursive writing. He was laconic where Lovecraft was verbose. But his untrained pen did far more than provide the simple, reductivist writing that you may think of if you only know his work from later interpretations. Film, television, and even comics have never really done Howard justice. His works were a commentary on civilization, on the ruin he saw brought to his hometown in Texas by the Oil Boom. His characters were not merely men of brutality. They didn't only rely on brawn alone. Almost universally, they were as smart as they were strong, using their wits as often as their swordarms. Howard was also swept up by certain ideas of the occult, like Theosophy. His most famous tales are set in the Hyborian Age. Itself named after the place the ancient Greeks thought lay behind the West Wind. He imagined this age to be the time after the fall of Atlantis, but before the beginning of any historical record we have today. Here, he could mash together cultures and places and historical periods as he wanted, creating magic and sorcery, and playing with some of those Theosophic ideas of elder civilizations and forgotten races. His work defined the "Swords & Sorcery" branch of fantasy, and was arguably some of the best of it. As such, those stories had an enormous impact on what we would later come to call "Science-Fantasy," especially the darker kind. But, as financial burdens from his mother's health began to pile up, Weird Tales itself began to falter, struggling through the Great Depression. When Howard's mother passed, he took his own life, tragically cutting short his writing career, but leaving us a legacy that would influence science-fiction and fantasy for generations to come. Weird Tales would survive, but like many of the other pulps, it would never again have quite the impact it once had. It would live on past World War II and struggle into the 50s as one continuous magazine, but its glory days were done. Still, its impact – and the impact of the writers it fostered – echo down to us today. But, we would be remiss if we only acknowledged the good side of that impact. We also have to ascribe to Weird Tales some of the racism and sexism that, inadvertently, worked its way into the bones of our favourite genres. Weird Tales published Lovecraft, who, many times in print, both in his stories, his personal writings, and his letters, expressed racist views. Howard's legacy here is more mixed, having a number of minority characters that were fully realized and sympathetic, or even heroic, but he also used race as a quick-and-easy way to define groups. Often, he would have the dark-skinned cultures be tribal and savage, while the Asian cultures would be mysterious and decadent. And this has inadvertently flowed through fantasy – especially the cheaper hack fantasy – ever since. And it was also Weird Tales that really helped to cement our "damsel in distress" tropes, and our chainmail bikinis. Even Howard, who was an avowed feminist (...for the time), wrote scenes of nearly-nude, helpless princesses, bound or chained to a rock. Largely because of an incidental fact about Weird Tales' pay structure. Y'see, Weird Tales had always set out to be a boundary-pushing, transgressive magazine. As such, unlike many of the other pulps, Weird Tales never shied away from depicting nudity on its cover. Incidentally, Weird Tales – like almost all the pulps of the time – paid more for whatever story was featured on the cover of the magazine. In what will come as a surprise to none of you... issues of the magazine which featured lurid depictions of nude women on the front... ...tended to sell better. So, over time, a higher percentage of their covers ended up involving nude and hapless women being seduced or held prisoner. Which meant that any author needing some money could write such a scene into their stories, in order to up their chances of being featured on the cover and getting that bigger paycheque. So, in the end, Weird Tales brought us things that no other magazine could, with the discovery of authors like Lovecraft and Howard. It brought the weird, the spooky, the truly cosmic horror. But it also left a legacy of some of the more troubling elements still lingering in science-fiction and fantasy. Someday, we are going to do a deep dive on both Howard and Lovecraft, but for right now, in our headlong rush into the history of sci-fi we must wend our way towards one of the other great influencers to come out of this generation of pulp magazines. Next Week: Noir, and the idea of being "Hard Boiled." [end credits music]




The first "pulp" was Frank Munsey's revamped Argosy magazine of 1896, with about 135,000 words (192 pages) per issue, on pulp paper with untrimmed edges, and no illustrations, even on the cover. The steam-powered printing press had been in widespread use for some time, enabling the boom in dime novels; prior to Munsey, however, no one had combined cheap printing, cheap paper and cheap authors in a package that provided affordable entertainment to young working-class people. In six years, Argosy went from a few thousand copies per month to over half a million.[1]

Street & Smith, a dime novel and boys' weekly publisher, was next on the market. Seeing Argosy's success, they launched The Popular Magazine in 1903, which they billed as the "biggest magazine in the world" by virtue of its being two pages (the interior sides of the front and back cover) longer than Argosy. Due to differences in page layout however, the magazine had substantially less text than Argosy. The Popular Magazine did introduce color covers to pulp publishing, and the magazine began to take off when in 1905 the publishers acquired the rights to serialize Ayesha, by H. Rider Haggard, a sequel to his popular novel She. Haggard's Lost World genre influenced several key pulp writers, including Edgar Rice Burroughs, Robert E. Howard, Talbot Mundy and Abraham Merritt.[2] In 1907, the cover price rose to 15 cents and 30 pages were added to each issue; along with establishing a stable of authors for each magazine, this change proved successful and circulation began to approach that of Argosy. Street and Smith's next innovation was the introduction of specialized genre pulps, with each magazine focusing on a particular genre, such as detective stories, romance, etc.[3]

Cover of the pulp magazine Spicy Detective Stories vol. 2, #6 (April 1935) featuring "Bullet from Nowhere" by Robert Leslie Bellem
Cover of the pulp magazine Spicy Detective Stories vol. 2, #6 (April 1935) featuring "Bullet from Nowhere" by Robert Leslie Bellem

Peak of popularity

At their peak of popularity in the 1920s and 1930s, the most successful pulps could sell up to one million copies per issue. In 1934, Frank Gruber (writer) said there were some 150 pulp titles. The most successful pulp magazines were Argosy, Adventure, Blue Book and Short Stories, collectively described by some pulp historians as "The Big Four".[4] Among the best-known other titles of this period were Amazing Stories, Black Mask, Dime Detective, Flying Aces, Horror Stories, Love Story Magazine, Marvel Tales,[5] Oriental Stories, Planet Stories, Spicy Detective, Startling Stories, Thrilling Wonder Stories, Unknown, Weird Tales and Western Story Magazine.[5]

Although pulp magazines were primarily an American phenomenon, there were also a number of British pulp magazines published between the Edwardian era and World War II. Notable UK pulps included Pall Mall Magazine, The Novel Magazine, Cassell's Magazine, The Story-Teller, The Sovereign Magazine, Hutchinson's Adventure-Story and Hutchinson's Mystery-Story.[6] The German fantasy magazine Der Orchideengarten had a similar format to American pulp magazines, in that it was printed on rough pulp paper and heavily illustrated.[7]

World War II and market decline

Pulp magazines began to decline during the 1940s, giving way to paperbacks, comics and digest-sized novels.

During the Second World War paper shortages had a serious impact on pulp production, starting a steady rise in costs and the decline of the pulps. Beginning with Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine in 1941, pulp magazines began to switch to digest size; smaller, thicker magazines. In 1949, Street & Smith closed most of their pulp magazines in order to move upmarket and produce slicks.[8]

The pulp format declined from rising expenses, but even more due to the heavy competition from comic books, television, and the paperback novel. In a more affluent post-war America, the price gap compared to slick magazines was far less significant. In the 1950s, men's adventure magazines began to replace the pulp.

The 1957 liquidation of the American News Company, then the primary distributor of pulp magazines, has sometimes been taken as marking the end of the "pulp era"; by that date, many of the famous pulps of the previous generation, including Black Mask, The Shadow, Doc Savage, and Weird Tales, were defunct.[1] Almost all of the few remaining pulp magazines are science fiction or mystery magazines now in formats similar to "digest size", such as Analog Science Fiction and Fact and Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine. The format is still in use for some lengthy serials, like the German science fiction weekly Perry Rhodan (over 3,000 issues as of 2019).

Over the course of their evolution, there were a huge number of pulp magazine titles; Harry Steeger of Popular Publications claimed that his company alone had published over 300, and at their peak they were publishing 42 titles per month.[9] Many titles of course survived only briefly. While the most popular titles were monthly, many were bimonthly and some were quarterly.

The collapse of the pulp industry changed the landscape of publishing because pulps were the single largest sales outlet for short stories. Combined with the decrease in slick magazine fiction markets, writers attempting to support themselves by creating fiction switched to novels and book-length anthologies of shorter pieces. Some ex-pulp writers like Hugh B. Cave and Robert Leslie Bellem moved on to writing for television by the 1950s.


Pulp magazines often contained a wide variety of genre fiction, including, but not limited to,

The American Old West was a mainstay genre of early turn of the 20th century novels as well as later pulp magazines, and lasted longest of all the traditional pulps. In many ways, the later men's adventure ("the sweats") was the replacement of pulps.

Many classic science fiction and crime novels were originally serialized in pulp magazines such as Weird Tales, Amazing Stories, and Black Mask.

Notable original characters

While the majority of pulp magazines were anthology titles featuring many different authors, characters and settings, some of the most enduring magazines were those that featured a single recurring character. These were often referred to as "hero pulps" because the recurring character was almost always a larger-than-life hero in the mold of Doc Savage or The Shadow.[10]

Popular pulp characters that headlined in their own magazines:

Popular pulp characters who appeared in anthology titles such as All-Story or Weird Tales:


Pulp covers were printed in color on higher-quality (slick) paper. They were famous for their half-dressed damsels in distress, usually awaiting a rescuing hero. Cover art played a major part in the marketing of pulp magazines. The early pulp magazines could boast covers by some distinguished American artists; The Popular Magazine had covers by N.C. Wyeth, and Edgar Franklin Wittmack contributed cover art to Argosy[11] and Short Stories.[12] Later, many artists specialized in creating covers mainly for the pulps; a number of the most successful cover artists became as popular as the authors featured on the interior pages. Among the most famous pulp artists were Walter Baumhofer, Earle K. Bergey, Margaret Brundage, Edd Cartier, Virgil Finlay, Frank R. Paul, Norman Saunders, Nick Eggenhofer, (who specialized in Western illustrations), Hugh J. Ward, George Rozen, and Rudolph Belarski.[13] Covers were important enough to sales that sometimes they would be designed first; authors would then be shown the cover art and asked to write a story to match.

Later pulps began to feature interior illustrations, depicting elements of the stories. The drawings were printed in black ink on the same cream-colored paper used for the text, and had to use specific techniques to avoid blotting on the coarse texture of the cheap pulp. Thus, fine lines and heavy detail were usually not an option. Shading was by crosshatching or pointillism, and even that had to be limited and coarse. Usually the art was black lines on the paper's background, but Finlay and a few others did some work that was primarily white lines against large dark areas.

Authors and editors

Another way pulps kept costs down was by paying authors less than other markets; thus many eminent authors started out in the pulps before they were successful enough to sell to better-paying markets, and similarly, well-known authors whose careers were slumping or who wanted a few quick dollars could bolster their income with sales to pulps. Additionally, some of the earlier pulps solicited stories from amateurs who were quite happy to see their words in print and could thus be paid token amounts.[14]

There were also career pulp writers, capable of turning out huge amounts of prose on a steady basis, often with the aid of dictation to stenographers, machines or typists. Before he became a novelist, Upton Sinclair was turning out at least 8,000 words per day seven days a week for the pulps, keeping two stenographers fully employed. Pulps would often have their authors use multiple pen names so that they could use multiple stories by the same person in one issue, or use a given author's stories in three or more successive issues, while still appearing to have varied content. One advantage pulps provided to authors was that they paid upon acceptance for material instead of on publication; since a story might be accepted months or even years before publication, to a working writer this was a crucial difference in cash flow.

Some pulp editors became known for cultivating good fiction and interesting features in their magazines. Preeminent pulp magazine editors included Arthur Sullivant Hoffman (Adventure),[15] Robert H. Davis (All-Story Weekly), Harry E. Maule (Short Stories),[16] Donald Kennicott (Blue Book), Joseph T. Shaw (Black Mask), Farnsworth Wright (Weird Tales, Oriental Stories), John W. Campbell (Astounding Science Fiction, Unknown) and Daisy Bacon (Love Story Magazine, Detective Story Magazine).[17]

Authors featured

Well-known authors who wrote for pulps include:

Sinclair Lewis, first American winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature, worked as an editor for Adventure, writing filler paragraphs (brief facts or amusing anecdotes designed to fill small gaps in page layout), advertising copy and a few stories.[18]


Cover of the pulp magazine Dime Mystery Book Magazine, January 1933
Cover of the pulp magazine Dime Mystery Book Magazine, January 1933


The term pulp fiction can also refer to mass market paperbacks since the 1950s. The Browne Popular Culture Library News noted:

Many of the paperback houses that contributed to the decline of the genre–Ace, Dell, Avon, among others–were actually started by pulp magazine publishers. They had the presses, the expertise, and the newsstand distribution networks which made the success of the mass-market paperback possible. These pulp-oriented paperback houses mined the old magazines for reprints. This kept pulp literature, if not pulp magazines, alive. The Return of the Continental Op reprints material first published in Black Mask; Five Sinister Characters contains stories first published in Dime Detective; and The Pocket Book of Science Fiction collects material from Thrilling Wonder Stories, Astounding Science Fiction and Amazing Stories.[19] But note that mass market paperbacks are not pulps.

In 1992, Rich W. Harvey came out with a magazine called Pulp Adventures reprinting old classics. It came out regularly until 2001, and then started up again in 2014.[20]

In 1994, Quentin Tarantino directed the film Pulp Fiction. The working title of the film was Black Mask,[21] in homage to the pulp magazine of that name, and it embodied the seedy, violent, often crime-related spirit found in pulp magazines.

In 1997 C. Cazadessus Jr. launched PULPDOM, a continuation of his Hugo Award-winning ERB-dom which began in 1960. It ran for 75 issues and featured articles about the content and selected fiction from the pulps. It became PULPDOM ONLINE in 2013 and continues quarterly publication.

After the year 2000, several small independent publishers released magazines which published short fiction, either short stories or novel-length presentations, in the tradition of the pulp magazines of the early 20th century. These included Blood 'N Thunder, High Adventure and a short-lived magazine which revived the title Argosy. These specialist publications, printed in limited press runs, were pointedly not printed on the brittle, high-acid wood pulp paper of the old publications and were not mass market publications targeted at a wide audience. In 2004, Lost Continent Library published Secret of the Amazon Queen by E.A. Guest, their first contribution to a "New Pulp Era", featuring the hallmarks of pulp fiction for contemporary mature readers: violence, horror and sex. E.A. Guest was likened to a blend of pulp era icon Talbot Mundy and Stephen King by real-life explorer David Hatcher Childress.

In 2002, the tenth issue of McSweeney's Quarterly was guest edited by Michael Chabon. Published as McSweeney's Mammoth Treasury of Thrilling Tales, it is a collection of "pulp fiction" stories written by such current well-known authors as Stephen King, Nick Hornby, Aimee Bender and Dave Eggers. Explaining his vision for the project, Chabon wrote in the introduction, "I think that we have forgotten how much fun reading a short story can be, and I hope that if nothing else, this treasury goes some small distance toward reminding us of that lost but fundamental truth."

The Scottish publisher DC Thomson publishes "My Weekly Compact Novel" every week.[22] It is literally a pulp novel, though it does not fall into the hard-edged genre most associated with pulp fiction.[citation needed]

In 2010, Pro Se Press released three new pulp magazines Fantasy & Fear, Masked Gun Mystery and Peculiar Adventures. In 2011, they amalgamated the three titles into one magazine Pro Se Presents which came out regularly until Winter/Spring 2014.[23]

See also


  1. ^ a b "A Two-Minute History of the Pulps", in The Adventure House Guide to the Pulps, edited by Doug Ellis, John Locke, and John Gunnison. Silver Spring, MD, Adventure House, 2000. (p. ii–iv).
  2. ^ See Lee Server, Encyclopedia of Pulp Fiction Writers (2002), pg.131.
  3. ^ Reynolds, Quentin. The Fiction Factory ; Or, From Pulp Row to Quality Street: The Story of 100 Years of Publishing at Street & Smith. Random House, 1955. (Covers: Street & Smith, Nick Carter, Max Brand, Buffalo Bill, Frank Merriwell, Gerald Smith, Richard Duffy, Frederick Faust, dime novel, Horatio Alger, Henry Ralston, Ned Buntline, Ormond Smith, Beadle's, Edward Stratemeyer, detective fiction, Laura Jean Libbey, Astounding Science Fiction, Edith Evans)
  4. ^ Hulse, Ed. (2009) "The Big Four (Plus One)" in The Blood 'n' Thunder Guide to Collecting Pulps. Murania Press, ISBN 0-9795955-0-9 (pp. 19–47).
  5. ^ a b Server, Lee (1993). Danger Is My Business: an illustrated history of the Fabulous Pulp Magazines. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. pp. 62–65. ISBN 978-0-8118-0112-6.
  6. ^ a b Ashley, Michael (2006). The Age of the Storytellers: British Popular Fiction Magazines, 1880–1950. British Library. ISBN 1-58456-170-X
  7. ^ "Orchideengarten, Der". in: M.B. Tymn and Mike Ashley, Science Fiction, Fantasy, and Weird Fiction Magazines. Westport: Greenwood, 1985. pp. 866. ISBN 0-313-21221-X
  8. ^ Ashley , Michael. The history of the science-fiction magazine: the story of the science-fiction magazines from 1950 to 1970, Transformations, Volume 2 (2005), pg. 3 ISBN 978-0-85323-779-2
  9. ^ Haining, Peter (1975). The Fantastic Pulps. Vintage Books, a division of Random House. ISBN 0-394-72109-8.
  10. ^ Hutchison, Don (1995). The Great Pulp Heroes. Mosaic Press. ISBN 0-88962-585-9.
  11. ^ Hulse, Ed (2009). The Blood 'n' Thunder Guide to Collecting Pulps. Muriana Press. pp. 26, 163. ISBN 978-0979595509.
  12. ^ Robinson, Frank M., and Davidson, Lawrence. Pulp Culture – The Art of Fiction Magazines. Collectors Press, 2007. ISBN 1-933112-30-1 (p.42).
  13. ^ The Adventure House Guide to the Pulps, edited by Doug Ellis, John Locke, and John Gunnison. Silver Spring, MD, Adventure House, 2000. (p. xi–xii).
  14. ^ John A. Dinan, Sports in the Pulp Magazines. McFarland, 1998, ISB0786404817 (pp. 130–32).
  15. ^ Bleiler,Richard "Forgotten Giant: Hoffman’s Adventure". Purple Prose Magazine, November 1998, p. 3-12.
  16. ^ Sampson,Robert.(1991) Yesterday's Faces:Dangerous Horizons Popular Press, 1991, (p.87).
  17. ^ Locke, John ed. “Editors You Want to Know: Daisy Bacon” by Joa Humphrey in Pulpwood Days: Editors You Want to Know. Off-Trail, 2007. ISBN 0-9786836-2-5 (p. 77). Daisy Bacon (1899?–1986) was nicknamed "Queen of the Woodpulps".
  18. ^ Schorer, M. Sinclair Lewis: An American Life, pp. 3–22. McGraw-Hill, 1961.
  19. ^ "They Came from the Newsstand: Pulp Magazines from the Browne Library". Browne Popular Culture Library News. Bowling Green State University. May 31, 1994.
  20. ^ Stephensen-Payne, Phil (2018). "Pulp Adventures". Magazine Data File.
  21. ^ "Pulp Fiction". October 14, 1994 – via IMDb.
  22. ^ "DC Thomson Shop – Home Page". Archived from the original on August 18, 2010. Retrieved December 8, 2010.
  23. ^ "Magazine Data File".


Further reading

  • Dinan, John A. (1983) The Pulp Western : A Popular History of the Western Fiction Magazine in America. Borgo Press, ISBN 0-89370-161-0.
  • Goodstone, Tony (1970) The Pulps: 50 Years of American Pop Culture, Bonanza Books (Crown Publishers, Inc.), ISBN 978-0-394-44186-3.
  • Goulart, Ron (1972) Cheap Thrills: An Informal History of the Pulp Magazine, Arlington House, ISBN 978-0-87000-172-7.
  • Goulart, Ron (1988) The Dime Detectives. Mysterious Press, 1988. ISBN 0-89296-191-0.
  • Hamilton, Frank and Hullar, Link (1988), Amazing Pulp Heroes, Gryphon Books, ISBN 0-936071-09-5.
  • Robbins, Leonard A. (1988). The Pulp Magazine Index. (Six Volumes). Starmont House. ISBN 1-55742-111-0.
  • Sampson, Robert (1983) Yesterday's Faces: A Study of Series Characters in the Early Pulp Magazines . Volume 1. Glory figures, Vol. 2. Strange days, Vol. 3. From the Dark Side, Vol. 4. The Solvers, Vol 5. Dangerous Horizons, Vol. 6. Violent lives. Bowling Green University Popular Press, ISBN 0-87972-217-7.

External links

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