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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Subash Kumar[1]Western films are those "set in the American West that embod[y] the spirit, the struggle and the demise of the  new frontier."[2] Pictured: Clint Eastwood in the Italian Western film A Fistful of Dollars (1964).
Subash Kumar[1]Western films are those "set in the American West that embod[y] the spirit, the struggle and the demise of the  new frontier."[2] Pictured: Clint Eastwood in the Italian Western film A Fistful of Dollars (1964).

A film genre is a motion-picture category based (for example) on similarities either in the  narrative elements or in the emotional response to the film (namely: serious, comic, etc.).[citation needed] Most theories of film genre are borrowed from  literary-genre criticism. Each film genre is associated[by whom?] with "conventions, iconography,  settings, narratives, characters and actors". [3] Standard genre characters vary according to the film genre; for film noir, standard characters are the femme fatale[4] and the  "hardboiled" detective; a Western film may portray the schoolmarm and the gunfighter. Some actors acquire a reputation linked to a single genre, such as John Wayne (the Western) or Fred Astaire (the musical).[5] A film's genre will influence the use of filmmaking styles and techniques, such as the use of  flashbacks and low-key lighting in film noir, tight framing in horror films, fonts that look like rough-hewn logs for the titles of Western films, or the "scrawled" title-font and credits of Se7en (1995), a film about a serial killer.[6] As well, genres have associated  film-scoring conventions, such as lush string orchestras for romantic melodramas or electronic music for science-fiction films.[7]

The basic genres[8] include fiction and documentary, from which subgenres have emerged, such as docufiction and docudrama. Other examples of subgenres include the courtroom- and trial-focused drama known as the legal drama, which is a subtype of drama. Types of fiction which may seem unrelated can also be combined to form hybrid subgenres, such as the melding of horror and comedy in the Evil Dead films. Other popular combinations include the romantic comedy and the action comedy film.  Alan Williams distinguishes three main genre categories:  narrative,  avant-garde and documentary.[9]  Genre movies are "commercial feature films which, through repetition and variation, tell familiar stories with familiar characters and familiar situations".[10] Genre affects how films are broadcast on television, advertised, and organized in video rental stores.[11]

Films can also be classified by the setting, theme, topic, mood, format, target audience or budget. The setting is the environment where the story and action take place (e.g., a war film, a Western film, or a space-opera film). The theme or topic refers to the issues or concepts that the film revolves around (e.g., science-fiction film, sports film, or crime film). The mood is the emotional tone of the film (e.g., comedy film, horror film, or tearjerker film). Format refers to the way the film was shot (e.g., 35 mm, 16 mm or 8 mm) or the manner of presentation (e.g.: anamorphic widescreen). Additional ways of categorizing film genres may involve the target audience (e.g., children's film, teen film or women's film) or by type of  production (e.g., B movie, big-budget blockbuster or low-budget film, such as amateur film). Genre does not just refer to the type of film or its category; spectator expectations about a film, and institutional discourses that create generic structures also play a key role.[12] Genres are not fixed; they change and evolve over time, and some genres may largely disappear (for example, the melodrama).[12]

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  • ✪ Science Fiction Movies History - Film Genres and Hollywood
  • ✪ Introduction to Genre Movies - Film Genres and Hollywood
  • ✪ 10 Movies That Made Shocking Genre Shifts Halfway Through
  • ✪ State of Genre Movies - Film Genres and Hollywood
  • ✪ 3 Superhero Films That Dared To Break Genre Conventions

Transcription

Hello everyone! Welcome to Ministry of Cinema’s web series Film Genres and Hollywood. I’m Bradley Weatherholt, and I’ll be your host on this exploration into genre filmmaking. In this episode we voyage space and stars as we trek Hollywood and the science fiction film genre. It’s important we describe what we mean by science fiction, especially since the genre is so diverse and not easily defined. For instance, where does one draw the lines between science fiction and its sister genres of fantasy and horror? Is 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea a science fiction tale or a fantasy adventure? Is Frankenstein and his monster a story of horror or a fiction of scientific magnitude? For our sake, science fiction is a genre that satisfies two criteria: first, theres a scientific plot element, be it advanced technology, extraterrestrials, future societies or foreign worlds; and second, science fiction generally explores a philosophic theme or asks a metaphysical question. For the most part, science fiction is a genre which aims to engage an audience both with their brain and their eyes. Because of this, science fiction has deep roots in literature and is often on the cutting edge of special effects technology. With definitions and descriptions out of the way, we can now begin with the earliest science fiction films. Science fiction’s first patron was film pioneer Georges Melies. Melies’ A Trip to the Moon serves as an origin for science fiction pictures. A Trip to the Moon was a 15-minute landmark showcasing special effects decades ahead of its time. A quarter of a century after Melies’ landmark film, German expressionistic director Fritz Lang produced his science fiction magnum opus Metropolis. The film introduced many of the genre’s seminal themes. Alongside the thematic, Metropolis also pioneered some of the genre’s most iconic and repeated imagery. One of Hollywood’s early pioneering efforts at science fiction was the Flash Gordon serials starring Buster Crabbe. The success of the franchise’s first serial Flash Gordon: Space Soldier led to a string of sequels including a Trip to Mars and Flash Gordon Conquers the Universe. Serials serve as an exaggerated form of genre filmmaking in that they provide the studio with easy to produce narratives, a set of reusable props and costumes, and easy to shoot scenarios to the highest degree. In 1945 a significant geopolitical event shook the world: the dropping of the atomic bomb. Never before had the magnificent power of science been so obviously displayed. The public’s fear and fascination with science, and by extension science fiction, rapidly expanded in the decades to follow. We now loosely define this period as the Golden Age of Science Fiction, primarily for the prolific literary figures of the time such as Isaac Asimov, Ray Bradbury, and Robert Heinlein. This literary renaissance spilled over to cinema, where science fiction films flourished in the 1950’s. Because of the political environment of Red Scare and the start of the Cold War, many of the critical successes of this time explored a similar theme: that of the threat of invasion from an alien race or way of thought. In The War of the Worlds the human race is threatened with annihilation by a superior alien force. War of the Worlds invites many interpretations, for instance the the War of the Worlds could be a symbolic fight between super powers, and the fear of imminent annihilation already loomed in the air due to threat of atomic war. Released in the same year as The War of the Worlds, Invaders from Mars, was the first science fiction film to show aliens in color. Rushed to beat the release of War of the Worlds, the film is now praised for its groundbreaking special effects by the famed art director William Cameron Menzies in one of his directorial works. Fear of invasion came to a head in 1956’s Invasion of the Body Snatchers, where the ultimate fear of the Red Scare comes to life when extraterrestrial invaders duplicate human beings to a race of “pod people.” The crowning achievement of this era of science fiction was MGM’s Forbidden Planet. The film marks many firsts for the genre. For instance, it was the first to take place entirely on an outside planet that must be reached by human starcraft. Much of the film’s success can be explained by its landmark fully electronic score, its introduction of a sophisticated, personable android called Robby the Robot, and its literary aspirations, having many allusions to Shakespeare’s The Tempest. Special effects have always been a crucial element to the science fiction genre, and during this period of Hollywood, film wizard Ray Harryhausen’s groundbreaking effects heavily influenced filmmaking. The work of Harryhausen, particularly his stop motion breakthroughs, were the go-to source for many science fiction pictures. The Harryhausen legacy carried on with the next titan of film magic, Douglas Trumbull. Trumbull served as special effects supervisor and was responsible for many of the photographic effects in some of science fiction’s most important pictures, including 2001: A Space Odyssey, Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Blade Runner and Tree of Life. Douglas Trumbull’s career is expansive. The massive body of work stands as an unmatched achievement in the genre. One of Trumbull’s films wa Star Trek: The Motion Picture adapted the popular television series for the big screen. The Star Trek franchise started in 1966, but was canceled by the network after only 3 seasons. When it was syndicated, the series caught on, becoming a pop culture phenomenon. Another major science fiction franchise to capture the public was The Planet of the Apes. The original films starred Charlton Heston as an astronaut who crash lands in a mysterious place where the society is dominated by hyper-intelligent apes. Apes was a critical and commercial success, spawning many sequels and multiple reboots, and still to this day features one of cinema’s greatest twist endings. Released in the same year as Apes, science fiction’s tour de force 2001: A Space Odyssey is often cited as one of the greatest films of all time, and for good reason. 2001: A Space Odyssey is the standard by which all science fiction films should be measured. Steven Spielberg called the film the “big bang” of science fiction, having come on to the screen in a burst of brilliance which opened an entirely new dimension for science fiction films to be made. In many ways, modern science fiction begins with 2001. No exaggeration, the film is ground breaking on every major level, thematic and technical. The narrative is a series of vignettes jumping through different periods of human evolution and our contact with a mysterious alien monolith. Thematically through these vignettes, Kubrick delves into some of the genre’s major themes: man vs technology, government conspiracy, artificial intelligence, evolution, extraterrestrials and extra dimensions. Because of the sheer bulk of information, as well as Kubrick’s reluctance to spoonfeed the material, the film warrants multiple viewings. However, even on the first viewing the technical brilliance of the film shines through. Even by today’s standards meaning of the effects and tricks of the camera performed in 2001 are astonishing--and this is after almost half a century has passed! Kubrick’s next film, A Clockwork Orange took a different approach on science fiction. The film explores the controversial psychopath Alex and his set of goons as they terrorize the streets of dystopian England. The work of Kubrick has influenced many directors, particularly those of the science fiction genre. Among those directors, Steven Spielberg, drew upon Kubrick’s work in producing his own science fiction classics. Spielberg’s first science fiction film, Close Encounters of the Third Kind, is a sentimental, awe-inspiring spectacle about our first contact with extraterrestrials. The film’s smokey visuals and unique emotional resonance are trademarks that the director later displays in other science fiction classics like E.T. The Extra-Terrestrial, another charming picture involving alien contact. Impressed by Spielberg’s work, Kubrick entrusted his final project to him after his passing. After A.I., Spielberg’s interest in science fiction renewed with Minority Report. After Minority Report, Spielberg teamed up with Tom Cruise again in his retelling of War of the Worlds. One of Spielberg’s contemporaries, George Lucas had another successful career in the science fiction genre. His first feature, THX 1138, was an extension of a short film he produced years earlier. After THX, Lucas directed his masterpiece, science fiction classic and pop culture landmark Star Wars. Star Wars ignited the public’s interest in space and adventure. The success of Star Wars allowed the studio to commission two more films to the trilogy, and a generation later, Lucas returned to the saga with a new prequel trilogy. The science fiction renaissance of the 70’s that saw films such as Close Encounters, Star Wars, and Logan’s Run, also experienced the extraterrestrial thriller Alien, a film which feared audiences with the horrific side of the genre and starred Sigourney Weaver in a breakout role directed by Ridley Scott, a director that would make science fiction history twice. Three years after Alien, Scott directed Blade Runner, an adaptation of Philip K. Dick’s Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep. Blade Runner follows Rick Deckard, a man who hunts down replicants. Blade Runner is a delight for the eyes, but it’s also an in-depth inquiry into the nature of humanity and artificial intelligence. The film’s thematic complexity and philosophical pursuit make it an acclaimed classic. Four years after Blade Runner, a sequel to Scott’s Alien released. This film, Aliens, took the series even further and was shepherded by blockbuster director James Cameron, a filmmaker who had made a name for himself the sci-fi action classic The Terminator. The success of these two films paved the way for Terminator 2: Judgment Day, Cameron’s masterpiece. Judgement Day brings to life Arnold Schwarzenegger’s iconic role in a twist on the series’ original take. Schwarzenegger by this time had reached the heights of Hollywood stardom, featured a year earlier in Total Recall, another Hollywood adaptation of Philip K. Dick’s work. By this time Hollywood adaptations of science fiction literature was commonplace. In 1984, surrealist auteur David Lynch ambitiously tackled science fiction’s quintessential novel, Dune. The project had many setbacks, and some argue it was doomed to fail, but nonetheless Dune stands as an interesting case study in science fiction adaptation. The 1980s also saw a few other notable science fiction pictures, including Disney arcade adventure Tron and Terry Gilliam’s dystopian satire Brazil. Also, the 80’s brought to life sci-fi blockbuster Back to the Future. A decade later, disaster film producer Roland Emmerich directed the science fiction blockbuster Independence Day, the highest grossing film of the year. The following year saw the release of Gattaca, a box office bomb at the time that eventually reached cult status for its masterful exploration in eugenics and the limits of biology. Similar to Gattaca, 1998’s Dark City was another box office flop that wasn’t recognized until after its release. However, sci-fi favorites are not always box office bombs. At the end of the century, Wachowski siblings directed their cyberpunk masterpiece The Matrix, and the film was a massive commercial success. This Western philosophical background was combined with an Eastern take on action and visual style, drawing heavily upon martial arts films and Japanese anime. Four years into the new millenium, writer/director team of Charlie Kaufman and Michel Gondry joined forces for one-of-a-kind science fiction romcom dramedy Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind. The film is unique in its blend of existential inquiry and emotional romance as it follows Jim Carrey and Kate Winslet as a lovesick couple that decides to erase part of their memories to start over. A year after Eternal Sunshine, Joss Whedon brought a more traditional science fiction picture to the big screen with Serenity. Later into the decade Disney/Pixar produced animation film Wall-E about an adorable robot who falls in love with EVE, a sleek state-of-the-art robot who would appear is way out of his league. In the following year, the science fiction experienced a trifecta of successful films. On the smaller end, indie film Moon, directed by Duncan Jones, was a knockout investigation into the nature of identity and self. Another of the year’s successes, this one with a bigger budget, was also directed by a young, upstart director. District 9, directed by Neill Blomkamp, was an innovative pseudo-documentary that featured South Africa in a symbolic allegory for apartheid. The final sci-fi film of that year, this one with a massive budget, was Avatar directed by James Cameron. The film's high budget paid off for the studio, as Avatar’s record breaking theatrical run makes it the highest grossing film of all time, topping the previous record holder, Cameron’s previous film Titanic. In the summer following Avatar, popular director Christopher Nolan released Inception. By this time, Nolan had become a household name from films such as The Dark Knight and Memento. He leveraged this clout to get the financial backing to pull off some of the most spectacular practical effects in recent memory. These practical effects are all the more impressive considering they come at a time when Hollywood’s initial reaction to any cinematic scenario is to rely on computer graphics and special effects. Despite this trend, another director, Alfonso Cuaron, has filmed some of the greatest practical effects that have ever graced the screens of cinema. Cuaron’s masterpiece Children of Men starred Clive Owen in a dystopian about crumbling world order due to two decades of human infertility. But its the film’s intelligent script, dense with many themes and contemporary references, as well as the highly innovative camerawork that make the film a classic. The film contains multiple single-shot action sequences, massive, stretched-out sequences where the camera tracks a dizzying amount of action. Cuaron furthered this style in Gravity, another technical piece of mastery. The film’s impressive visual effects comprise around 80 of the film’s 91 minutes. Like Children of Men, the film is packed with symbolism and philosophical themes. Fortunately, unlike Children of Men, Gravity was a massive box office success and earned widespread public acclaim at its time, including multiple Academy Awards including the Best Picture. Science fiction has a reputation for asking big questions. As technology continues to transform our society into the 21st century, we can expect Hollywood to continue to produce science fiction films which not only ask big questions, but continue to inspire us with a sense of awe and wonder.

Contents

History

The term "genre" was used to organize films according to type since the earliest days of cinema.[12] By the 1950s, André Bazin was discussing the concept of "genre" by using the Western film as an example; during this era, there was a debate over auteur theory versus genre.[12] In the late 1960s, the concept of genre became a significant part of film theory.[12][12]

Film genres draw on genres from other forms; Western novels existed before the Western film, and musical theatre existed before film musicals were made.[13] The perceived genre of a film can change over time; for example, The Great Train Robbery (1903) is seen in the 2010s as a key early Western film, but when it was released, it was seen as related to the "then-popular genres of the chase film, the railroad film and the crime film".[14] A key reason that the early Hollywood industrial system from the 1920s to the 1950s favoured genre films is that in "Hollywood's industrial mode of production, genre movies are dependable products" to market to audiences, they are easy to produce and it is easy for audiences to understand a genre film.[15] In the 1920s to 1950s, genre films had clear conventions and iconography, such as the heavy coats worn by gangsters in films like Little Caesar (1931).[16] The conventions in genre films enable filmmakers to create them in an industrial, assembly line fashion, an approach which can be seen in the James Bond spy films, which all use a formula of "lots of action, fancy gadgets, beautiful woman and colourful villains", even though the actors, directors and screenwriters changed. [17]

Pure and hybrid genres

Films are rarely purely from one genre, which is in keeping with the cinema's diverse and derivative origins, it being a blend of "vaudeville, music-hall, theatre, photography" and novels.[12] American film historian Janet Staiger states that the genre of a film can be defined in four ways. The "idealist method" judges films by predetermined standards. The "empirical method" identifies the genre of a film by comparing it to a list of films already deemed to fall within a certain genre. The apriori method uses common generic elements which are identified in advance. The "social conventions" method of identifying the genre of a film is based on the accepted cultural consensus within society.[18] Martin Loop contends that Hollywood films are not pure genres because most Hollywood movies blend the love-oriented plot of the romance genre with other genres.[18] Jim Colins claims that since the 1980s, Hollywood films have been influenced by the trend towards "ironic hybridization", in which directors combine elements from different genres, as with the Western/science fiction mix in Back to the Future Part III.[18]

Many films cross into multiple genres. Susan Hayward states that spy films often cross genre boundaries with thriller films. [12] Some genre films take genre elements from one genre and place them into the conventions of a second genre, such as with The Band Wagon (1953), which adds film noir and detective film elements into "The Girl Hunt" ballet.[19] In the 1970s New Hollywood era, there was so much parodying of genres that it can be hard to assign genres to some films from this era, such as Mel Brooks' comedy-Western Blazing Saddles (1974) or the private eye parody The Long Goodbye (1973). [12] Other films from this era bend genres so much that it is challenging to put them in a genre category, such as Roman Polanski's Chinatown (1974) and William Friedkin's The French Connection (1971).[12]

Film theorist Robert Stam challenged whether genres really exist, or whether they are merely made up by critics. Stam has questioned whether "genres [are] really 'out there' in the world or are they really the construction of analysts?". As well, he has asked whether there is a "... finite taxonomy of genres or are they in principle infinite?" and whether genres are "...timeless essences ephemeral, time-bound entities? Are genres culture-bound or trans-cultural?" Stam has also asked whether genre analysis should aim at being descriptive or prescriptive. While some genres are based on story content (the war film), other are borrowed from literature (comedy, melodrama) or from other media (the musical). Some are performer-based (Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers films) or budget-based (blockbusters, low budget film), while others are based on artistic status (the art film), racial identity (Race films), location (the Western), or sexual orientation (Queer cinema).[20]

Audience expectations

Many genres have built-in audiences and corresponding publications that support them, such as magazines and websites. For example, horror films have a well-established fanbase that reads horror magazines such as Fangoria. Films that are difficult to categorize into a genre are often less successful. As such, film genres are also useful in the areas of marketing, film criticism and the analysis of consumption. Hollywood story consultant John Truby states that "...you have to know how to transcend the forms [genres] so you can give the audience a sense of originality and surprise."[21]

Some screenwriters use genre as a means of determining what kind of plot or content to put into a screenplay. They may study films of specific genres to find examples. This is a way that some screenwriters are able to copy elements of successful movies and pass them off in a new screenplay. It is likely that such screenplays fall short in originality. As Truby says, "Writers know enough to write a genre script but they haven’t twisted the story beats of that genre in such a way that it gives an original face to it".[22]

Cinema technologies are associated with genres. Huge widescreens helped Western films to create an expansive setting of the open plains and desert. Science fiction and fantasy films are associated with special effects, notably computer generated imagery (e.g., the Harry Potter films).[12]

Grouping vs. genre

There are other methods of dividing films into groups besides genre. For example, auteur critics group films according to their auteur-directors. Production attributes, such as the low-budget film, can also be considered a grouping. Some groupings may be casually described as genres although the definition is questionable.[citation needed] For example, while independent films are sometimes discussed as if they are a genre in-and-of themselves, independent productions can belong to any genre. Similarly, while art films are referred to as a genre by film scholar David Bordwell, who states that "art cinema itself is a [film] genre, with its own distinct conventions",[18] an art film can be in a number of genres (e.g., drama, experimental film, black comedy, etc.).

Categorization

Because genres are easier to recognize than to define, academics agree they cannot be identified in a rigid way.[23] Furthermore, different countries and cultures define genres in different ways. A typical example are war movies. In US, they are mostly related to the two World Wars whereas, in other countries, movies related to wars in other historical periods are considered war movies.

Film genres may appear to be readily categorizable from the setting of the film. Nevertheless, films with the same settings can be very different, due to the use of different themes or moods. For example, while both The Battle of Midway and All Quiet on the Western Front are set in a wartime context and might be classified as belonging to the war film genre, the first examines the themes of honor, sacrifice, and valour, and the second is an anti-war film which emphasizes the pain and horror of war. While there is an argument that film noir movies could be deemed to be set in an urban setting, in cheap hotels and underworld bars, many classic noirs take place mainly in small towns, suburbia, rural areas, or on the open road.[24]

The editors of filmsite.org argue that animation, pornographic film, documentary film, silent film and so on are non-genre-based film categories.[25]

Linda Williams argues that horror, melodrama, and pornography all fall into the category of "body genres" since they are each designed to elicit physical reactions on the part of viewers. Horror is designed to elicit spine-chilling, white-knuckled, eye-bulging terror; melodramas are designed to make viewers cry after seeing the misfortunes of the onscreen characters; and pornography is designed to elicit sexual arousal.[26] This approach can be extended: comedies make people laugh, tear-jerkers make people cry, feel-good films lift people's spirits and inspiration films provide hope for viewers.

A genre movie is a film that follows some or all of the conventions of a particular genre, whether or not it was intentional when the movie was produced.[27]

Film and history

In order to understand the creation and context of each film genre, we must look at its popularity in the context of its place in history. For example, the 1970s Blaxploitation films have been called an attempt to "undermine the rise of Afro-American's Black consciousness movement" of that era.[12] In William Park's analysis of film noir, he states that we must view and interpret film for its message with the context of history within our minds; he states that this is how film can truly be understood by its audience.[28] Film genres such as film noir and Western film reflect values of the time period. While film noir combines German expressionist filming strategies with post World War II ideals; Western films focused on the ideal of the early 20th century. Films such as the musical were created as a form of entertainment during the Great Depression allowing its viewers an escape during tough times. So when watching and analyzing film genres we must remember to remember its true intentions aside from its entertainment value.

Over time, a genre can change through stages: the classic genre era; the parody of the classics; the period where filmmakers deny that their films are part of a certain genre; and finally a critique of the entire genre.[12] This pattern can be seen with the Western film. In the earliest, classic Westerns, there was a clear hero who protected society from lawless villains who lived in the wilderness and came into civilization to commit crimes.[12] However, in revisionist Westerns of the 1970s, the protagonist becomes an anti-hero who lives in the wilderness to get away from a civilization that is depicted as corrupt, with the villains now integrated into society. Another example of a genre changing over time is the popularity of the neo-noir films in the early 2000s (Mulholland Drive (2001), The Man Who Wasn't There (2001) and Far From Heaven (2002); are these film noir parodies, a repetition of noir genre tropes, or a re-examination of the noir genre?[12]

This is also important to remember when looking at films in the future. As viewers watch a film they are conscious of societal influence with the film itself. In order to understand it's true intentions, we must identify its intended audience and what narrative of our current society, as well as it comments to the past in relation with today's society. This enables viewers to understand the evolution of film genres as time and history morphs or views and ideals of the entertainment industry.

See also

References

  1. ^ Lauterpacht, E.; Greenwood, C. J., eds. (1993), "SUBASH KUMAR v. PRINCIPAL OFFICER", International Law Reports, Cambridge University Press, pp. 578–584, doi:10.1017/cbo9781316152195.039, ISBN 9781316152195
  2. ^ "America's 10 Greatest Films in 10 Classic Genres". American Film Institute. Retrieved 2010-06-06. AFI defines 'western' as a genre of films set in the American West that embodies the spirit, the struggle and the demise of the new frontier.
  3. ^ Compare: Grant, Barry Keith (2007). Film Genre: From Iconography to Ideology. Short cuts. 33 (reprint ed.). London: Wallflower Press. p. 2. ISBN 9781904764793. Retrieved 2018-10-13. [...] the various elements of genre films, including conventions, iconography, settings, narratives, characters and actors.
  4. ^ Grant, Barry Keith. Film Genre: From Iconography to Ideology. Wallflower Press, 2007. p. 17
  5. ^ Grant, Barry Keith. Film Genre: From Iconography to Ideology. Wallflower Press, 2007. p. 18
  6. ^ Grant, Barry Keith. Film Genre: From Iconography to Ideology. Wallflower Press, 2007. p. 11
  7. ^ Grant, Barry Keith. Film Genre: From Iconography to Ideology. Wallflower Press, 2007. p. 11
  8. ^ Judith Butler and genre theory
  9. ^ Compare: Hayward, Susan (1996). Cinema Studies: The Key Concepts. Routledge Key Guides (5 ed.). Abingdon: Routledge (published 2017). ISBN 9781317214793. Retrieved 2018-10-13. Alan Williams (quoted in Neale, 1990: 62) speaks of 'principal genres' to refer to what he sees as the three main categories of film: narrative film, avant-garde film and documentary. He reserves the term sub-genres to refer to what we term film genres.
  10. ^ Grant, Barry Keith. Film Genre: From Iconography to Ideology. Wallflower Press, 2007. p. 1
  11. ^ Grant, Barry Keith. Film Genre: From Iconography to Ideology. Wallflower Press, 2007. p. 1
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Hayward, Susan. "Genre/Sub-genre" in Cinema Studies: The Key Concepts (Third Edition). Routledge, 2006. p. 185-192
  13. ^ Grant, Barry Keith. Film Genre: From Iconography to Ideology. Wallflower Press, 2007. p. 4
  14. ^ Grant, Barry Keith. Film Genre: From Iconography to Ideology. Wallflower Press, 2007. p. 6
  15. ^ Grant, Barry Keith. Film Genre: From Iconography to Ideology. Wallflower Press, 2007. p. 7-8
  16. ^ Grant, Barry Keith. Film Genre: From Iconography to Ideology. Wallflower Press, 2007. p. 8
  17. ^ Grant, Barry Keith. Film Genre: From Iconography to Ideology. Wallflower Press, 2007. p. 8
  18. ^ a b c d Grant, Barry Keith (2007). Film Genre: From Iconography to Ideology. Wallflower Press. ISBN 9781904764793.
  19. ^ Grant, Barry Keith. Film Genre: From Iconography to Ideology. Wallflower Press, 2007. p. 8
  20. ^ Stam, Robert (2000-02-21). Film Theory: An Anthology. Wiley. ISBN 9780631206545.
  21. ^ Truby, John. "What's My Genre?". Writers Store. Retrieved 2007-07-31.
  22. ^ Ward, Lewis. "Interview: John Truby on Screenwriting and Breaking In". Script Magazine. Archived from the original on 2007-07-02. Retrieved 2007-07-31.
  23. ^ Thompson, Kristin; Bordwell, David (2012-07-06). Film Art: An Introduction. McGraw-Hill Education. ISBN 9780073535104.
  24. ^ Lamster, Mark (2000). Architecture and Film. Princeton Architectural Press. p. 217. ISBN 9781568982076.
  25. ^ "Other Major Film Categories". filmsite.org. Retrieved 2015-03-14.
  26. ^ Williams, Linda (Summer 1991). "Film Bodies: Gender, Genre, and Excess". Film Quarterly. 44 (4): 2–13. doi:10.2307/1212758.
  27. ^ McNair, Brian (2010). Journalists in Film: Heroes and Villains. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 9780748634477.
  28. ^ Park W. What Is Film Noir? [e-book]. Lanham, Md: Bucknell University Press; 2011. Available from: eBook Collection (EBSCOhost), Ipswich, MA. Accessed November 19, 2017.

Further reading

  • Friedman, Lester et al. An Introduction to Film Genres. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2014 ISBN 978-0-393-93019-1 609p.
  • Grant, Barry Keith. Film Genre Reader I, II & III. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1986, 1995, 2003
  • López, Daniel. Films By Genre: 775 categories, styles, trends, and movements defined, with a filmography for each. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co., 1993 ISBN 0-89950-780-8 495p.
  • Summers, Howard. The Guide To Movie Lists 2: Genres, Subjects and Themes. Borehamwood: Howcom Services, 2018 ISBN 978-1-982904-72-2 418p.

External links

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