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Kramer vs. Kramer

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Kramer vs. Kramer
Theatrical release poster
Directed byRobert Benton
Screenplay byRobert Benton
Based onKramer Versus Kramer
by Avery Corman
Produced byRichard Fischoff
Stanley R. Jaffe
Starring
CinematographyNéstor Almendros
Edited byGerald B. Greenberg
Music byPaul Gemignani
Herb Harris
John Kander
Erma E. Levin
Roy B. Yokelson
Antonio Vivaldi
Production
company
Distributed byColumbia Pictures
Release date
  • December 19, 1979 (1979-12-19)
Running time
105 minutes
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Budget$8 million[1]
Box office$173 million

Kramer vs. Kramer is a 1979 American legal drama written and directed by Robert Benton, based on Avery Corman's 1977 novel of the same name. The film stars Dustin Hoffman, Meryl Streep, Justin Henry and Jane Alexander. It tells the story of a couple's divorce, its impact on their young son, and the subsequent evolution of their relationship and views on parenting. Kramer vs. Kramer explores the psychology and fallout of divorce, and touches on prevailing or emerging social issues, such as gender roles, fathers' rights, work-life balance, and single parents.

Kramer vs. Kramer was theatrically released December 19, 1979, by Columbia Pictures. The film emerged as a major commercial success at the box office, grossing more than $173 million on an $8 million budget, becoming the highest-grossing film of 1979 in the United States and Canada. It received widespread critical acclaim upon release, with high praise for its direction, story, screenplay and performances of the cast, with major praise directed towards Hoffman and Streep's performances.

Kramer vs. Kramer received a leading 9 nominations at the 52nd Academy Awards, including Best Supporting Actor (for Henry) and Best Supporting Actress (for Alexander), and won a leading 5 awards – Best Picture, Best Director (for Benton), Best Actor (for Hoffman), Best Supporting Actress (for Streep) and Best Adapted Screenplay. At the 37th Golden Globe Awards, the film received a leading 8 nominations, including Best Director (for Benton), Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture (for Henry) and Best Supporting Actress – Motion Picture (for Alexander), and won a leading 4 awards, including Best Motion Picture – Drama, Best Actor in a Motion Picture – Drama (for Hoffman) and Best Supporting Actress – Motion Picture (for Streep). It also received 6 nominations at the 34th British Academy Film Awards, including Best Film, Best Direction (for Benton), Best Actor in a Leading Role (for Hoffman) and Best Actress in a Leading Role (for Streep), but failed to win any.

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Transcription

Plot

Ted Kramer, a workaholic advertising executive in New York City, has just landed an important account and job promotion. However, when he shares the news with Joanna, his wife of eight years, she shocks him by announcing she is leaving him. She walks out of the apartment without Billy, the couple's seven-year-old son, because she feels she is unfit to be his mother. The next morning when Billy asks about Joanna, Ted explains that she went away to be alone for a while.

Ted drops Billy at his elementary school by asking him what grade he attends and leaving him with a woman at the entrance, before rushing to work. At the ad agency, Ted confides about the situation to Jim O'Connor, his boss and friend. Jim is understanding, but hopes that Ted's situation will not interfere with his new responsibility as the lead person on the Mid-Atlantic Airlines account.

Initially, Ted and Billy struggle to adapt to their new living situation as Billy misses Joanna and Ted has to do the extra housework usually done by Joanna. Ted and Billy gradually settle into a routine without Joanna, but Ted's work suffers. Billy and Ted have a fight one evening in which Billy cries for Joanna, but they later reconcile. When Billy worries Joanna's departure is his fault, Ted assures him that Joanna left because she was not happy in the marriage.

Meanwhile, Ted has become good friends with divorced neighbor Margaret Phelps, whom Joanna was confidantes with. One day, Billy has an accident when he falls off a jungle gym. Ted rushes him to the hospital, and asks the doctor to let him stay by Billy's side as he receives ten stitches.

After fifteen months, Ted receives a call from Joanna and meets her at a restaurant. Joanna reveals she is happier after working in California and seeing a therapist. When she states that she is now ready to raise Billy and wants Billy to come live with her in California, Ted becomes furious and leaves. He consults with divorce attorney John Shaunessy, who cautions that the court usually awards custody to the mother when the child is young.

At work, Jim notifies Ted the agency is letting him go because the Mid-Atlantic Airlines executives are displeased with his work. Knowing he has no chance at custody if he is unemployed, Ted doggedly tries to land a job within twenty-four hours, despite few ad firms hiring during the holiday season. He convinces two agency executives to consider his application immediately, and accepts a lower-salaried position for which he is overqualified.

The custody hearing begins. In court, Joanna asserts that Ted never abused her or was unfaithful, but she lost her self-esteem as a stay-at-home mother. She insists she has since "become a whole person again" and believes Billy needs her more than Ted. Ted states he has proven that he can parent as well as Joanna, and insists that taking Billy away from him could cause "irreparable" harm.

The legal battle becomes contentious when the attorneys resort to brutal character assassinations. Shaunessy brings Joanna to tears by forcing her to admit that she was part of the marriage's failure. Ted also admits he made mistakes as a father and husband. However, his job loss and Billy's accident are used to discredit him. Ted expresses resentment at Joanna for her attorney's aggressive tactics. Margaret testifies on behalf of Ted and implores Joanna to recognize that he has become a great father.

Later, Ted learns Joanna was awarded custody. He decides not to appeal in order to spare Billy the burden of testifying in court. Billy becomes upset as Ted explains that they will still see each other, even though Billy will be living with Joanna. On the morning Joanna is scheduled to pick up Billy, she rings the apartment building's intercom and asks to see Ted in the lobby alone. She tearfully reveals that she is relinquishing custody after realizing that she does not want to take Billy away from his home. Ted reassures her as she takes the elevator up to inform her son.

Cast

Production

Producer Stanley R. Jaffe and writer and director Robert Benton read Avery Corman's source novel, and were so moved by the story that they bought the rights to make it into a film. Dustin Hoffman was the only actor they envisioned in the lead role of Ted Kramer.[2]

Hoffman, going through a divorce at the time, initially turned down the role.[3] He has since stated that, at that time, he had wanted to quit film acting and return to the stage, due to his depression and distaste for Hollywood. While Jaffe and Benton were courting Hoffman, James Caan was offered the role, but turned it down, as he was concerned the film would be a flop.[4] Al Pacino was offered the role, but felt it was not for him.[5] Jon Voight also turned down the role.[2] Hoffman met with Jaffe and Benton at a London hotel during the making of Agatha (1979), and was convinced to accept the role. Hoffman has credited Benton and this film for rejuvenating his love of film acting, and inspiring the emotional level of many scenes. Hoffman was reminded of his love for children and "got closer being a father by playing a father".[2]

Benton and Jaffe selected Justin Henry to play Billy. Hoffman worked extensively with Henry, then 7 years old, in each scene to put him at ease.[6] Benton encouraged Henry to improvise to make his performance more natural.[3] The ice cream scene in which Billy defies Ted by skipping dinner and eating ice cream was all improvised by Hoffman and Henry.[citation needed] Hoffman contributed many personal moments and dialogue; Benton offered shared screenplay credit but Hoffman declined.[7]

Kate Jackson was offered the role of Joanna Kramer, but had to turn it down, as producer Aaron Spelling was unable to rearrange the shooting schedule of the TV series Charlie's Angels, in which Jackson was starring.[8] The part was offered to Faye Dunaway, Jane Fonda and Ali MacGraw before Meryl Streep was cast.[9]

Streep was initially cast as Phyllis (the role eventually taken by JoBeth Williams), but she was able to force her way into auditioning for Joanna in front of Hoffman, Benton and Jaffe. She found the character in the novel and script unsympathetic ("an ogre, a princess, an ass", as she called her), and approached Joanna from a more sympathetic point of view.[9] Hoffman believed the death of Streep's fiancé, John Cazale, only months earlier, gave her an emotional edge and "still-fresh pain" to draw on for the performance.[9] Streep was contracted to work only 12 days on the film.[10]

Gail Strickland was first cast as Ted's neighbor Margaret, but departed after a week of filming (due to "artistic differences", according to Columbia Pictures), and was replaced by Jane Alexander.[3] Michael Schulman claims Strickland was so rattled by the intensity of filming with Hoffman that she developed a stammer, making her lines difficult to follow.[9] Strickland disputes this account, saying she couldn't quickly memorize improvised lines Hoffman gave her, which agitated him, and she was fired two days later.[9]

Cinematographer Néstor Almendros, a collaborator on numerous François Truffaut films, had been hired with the expectation that Truffaut would direct.[11] Truffaut turned it down, as he was busy with his own projects, and suggested screenwriter Robert Benton direct the film.

JoBeth Williams worried about disrobing in the scene with a young Justin Henry. "I was afraid my nudity would traumatize the little boy," she said, but was relieved that he seemed unbothered.[12]

Controversy

Hoffman has been widely reported to have harassed Streep during the making of the film, and the two had a contentious working relationship.[9][13] In a 1979 Time magazine interview, Streep claimed that Hoffman groped her breast on their first meeting, although a representative for Streep said the article was not "an accurate rendering of that meeting".[14] When Streep advocated portraying Joanna as more sympathetic and vulnerable than she was written, she received pushback from Hoffman.[9] Such was his commitment to method acting,[15] he would hurl insults and obscenities at Streep, taunt her with the name of her recently deceased fiancé, John Cazale, claiming it was designed to draw a better performance from her.[16] He famously shattered a wine glass against the wall without telling her (although he did inform the cameraman beforehand), sending glass shards into her hair. Her response was, "Next time you do that, I'd appreciate you letting me know."[9] In 2018, Streep claimed that Hoffman slapped her hard without warning while filming a scene. "This was my first film, and it was my first take in my first film, and he just slapped me. And you see it in the film. It was overstepping."[17]

Reception

Kramer vs. Kramer received widespread critical acclaim upon release, with high praise for its direction, story, screenplay and performances of the cast, with major praise directed towards Hoffman and Streep's performances.

The film holds an 89% approval rating on review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, based on 101 reviews, with an average score of 8.20/10. The consensus reads: "The divorce subject isn't as shocking, but Kramer vs. Kramer is still a thoughtful, well-acted drama that resists the urge to take sides or give easy answers."[18] It has a score of 77 out of 100 on Metacritic, based on nine reviews, indicating "generally favorable reviews".[19]

Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the film four stars, giving praise to Benton's screenplay. "His characters aren't just talking to each other, they're revealing things about themselves and can sometimes be seen in the act of learning about their own motives. That's what makes Kramer vs. Kramer such a touching film: We get the feeling at times that personalities are changing and decisions are being made even as we watch them."[20]

Vincent Canby of The New York Times called it a "fine, witty, moving, most intelligent adaptation of Avery Corman's best-selling novel", with Streep giving "one of the major performances of the year", and Hoffman "splendid in one of the two or three best roles of his career."[21]

Gene Siskel of the Chicago Tribune gave the film four stars out of four, and wrote, "Kramer vs. Kramer never loses its low-key, realistic touch. You will sit at the end of the film wondering why we don't see more pictures like this. After all, its story is not all that unusual." He thought that Hoffman gave "one of his most memorable performances", and "should win the Academy Award next April".[22]

Variety wrote, "Stories on screen about men leaving women, and women leaving men have been abundant as of late, but hardly any has grappled with the issue in such a forthright and honest fashion as Kramer ... While a nasty court battle ensues, the human focus is never abandoned, and it's to the credit of not only Benton and Jaffe, but especially Hoffman and Streep, that both leading characters emerge as credible and sympathetic."[23]

Charles Champlin of the Los Angeles Times declared it "as nearly perfect a film as can be", and "a motion picture with an emotional wallop second to none this year."[24]

Gary Arnold of The Washington Post called the film "a triumph of partisan pathos, a celebration of father-son bonding that astutely succeeds where tearjerkers like The Champ (1979) so mawkishly failed".[25]

Stanley Kauffmann of The New Republic wrote, "All the people go through expected difficulties the way that runners take the hurdles in a track event: no surprise in it, it's just a question of how they do it. But the actors make it more."[26]

Shortly after the film's release, The New York Times and Time magazine published separate articles in which members of the bar and bench criticized the court battle scenes as "legally out of date". According to the legal experts interviewed for the articles, a modern judge would have made use of psychological reports, and also would have considered the wishes of the child. Another criticism was that the option of joint custody was never explored.[27][28]

In 2003, The New York Times placed the film on its Best 1000 Movies Ever list.[29]

Box office

Kramer vs. Kramer grossed $5,559,722 in its opening week from 534 theaters.[30] It went on to gross $106.3 million in the United States and Canada.[31][32] In its first 13 weeks overseas, it grossed more than $67 million.[33] It went on to become Columbia's highest-grossing film overseas, with theatrical rentals of $57 million, until surpassed in 1990 by Look Who's Talking (released by Columbia TriStar internationally).[34]

Awards and nominations

Award Category Nominee(s) Result Ref.
Academy Awards Best Picture Stanley R. Jaffe Won [35]
Best Director Robert Benton Won
Best Actor Dustin Hoffman Won
Best Supporting Actor Justin Henry Nominated
Best Supporting Actress Jane Alexander Nominated
Meryl Streep Won
Best Screenplay – Based on Material from Another Medium Robert Benton Won
Best Cinematography Néstor Almendros Nominated
Best Film Editing Gerald B. Greenberg Nominated
Blue Ribbon Awards Best Foreign Language Film Robert Benton Won
British Academy Film Awards Best Film Stanley R. Jaffe Nominated [36]
Best Direction Robert Benton Nominated
Best Actor in a Leading Role Dustin Hoffman Nominated
Best Actress in a Leading Role Meryl Streep Nominated
Best Screenplay Robert Benton Nominated
Best Editing Gerald B. Greenberg Nominated
César Awards Best Foreign Film Robert Benton Nominated [37]
David di Donatello Awards Best Foreign Film Won [37]
Best Foreign Actor Dustin Hoffman Won[a]
Special David Justin Henry Won
Directors Guild of America Awards Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Motion Pictures Robert Benton Won [38]
Fotogramas de Plata Best Foreign Performer Dustin Hoffman Nominated
Meryl Streep[b] Nominated
Golden Globe Awards Best Motion Picture – Drama Won [39]
Best Actor in a Motion Picture – Drama Dustin Hoffman Won
Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture Justin Henry Nominated
Best Supporting Actress – Motion Picture Jane Alexander Nominated
Meryl Streep Won
Best Director – Motion Picture Robert Benton Nominated
Best Screenplay – Motion Picture Won
New Star of the Year – Actor Justin Henry Nominated
Hochi Film Awards Best International Picture Robert Benton Won
Japan Academy Film Prize Outstanding Foreign Language Film Won [37]
Jupiter Awards Best International Actor Dustin Hoffman Nominated
Kansas City Film Critics Circle Awards Best Film Robert Benton Won [40]
Best Director Won
Best Actor Dustin Hoffman Won
Best Supporting Actress Meryl Streep Won
Kinema Junpo Awards Best Foreign Film Robert Benton Won
Korean Association of Film Critics Awards Best Foreign Film Won
Los Angeles Film Critics Association Awards Best Film Won [41]
[42]
Best Director Won
Best Actor Dustin Hoffman Won
Best Supporting Actress Meryl Streep[c] Won
National Board of Review Awards Top Ten Films Won [43]
Best Supporting Actress Meryl Streep[c] Won
National Society of Film Critics Awards Best Film Robert Benton Nominated [44]
[45]
Best Director Won
Best Actor Dustin Hoffman Won
Best Supporting Actress Jane Alexander Nominated
Meryl Streep[c] Won
New York Film Critics Circle Awards Best Film Robert Benton Won [46]
Best Director Nominated
Best Actor Dustin Hoffman Won
Best Supporting Actress Jane Alexander Nominated
Meryl Streep[d] Won
Online Film & Television Association Awards Hall of Fame – Motion Picture Won [47]
Writers Guild of America Awards Best Drama – Adapted from Another Medium Robert Benton Won [48]
Young Artist Awards Best Leading Young Actor in a Feature Film Justin Henry Won [49]
American Film Institute Lists

Cultural impact

Kramer vs. Kramer reflected a cultural shift that occurred during the 1970s, when ideas about motherhood and fatherhood were changing.[2] The film was widely praised for the way in which it gave equal weight and importance to both Joanna and Ted's points of view.[20]

The film made use of the first movement of Antonio Vivaldi's Mandolin Concerto in C Major, making the piece more familiar among classical music listeners.[53]

"Mon fils, ma bataille", the song about a painful divorce and a father's struggle to keep custody of his child, was inspired by Daniel Balavoine's parents' divorce, his guitarist Colin Swinburne's divorce, and by the film Kramer vs. Kramer.[54]

Adaptation

In 1990, the film was remade in Turkish as Oğulcan, directed and acted by Cüneyt Arkın, in Hindi as Akele Hum Akele Tum in 1995, starring Aamir Khan and Manisha Koirala, and in Urdu as Zindagi Kitni Haseen Hay in 2016, starring Sajal Ali and Feroze Khan.

See also

Explanatory notes

References

  1. ^ "Kramer vs. Kramer". Oscarblogger. June 3, 2012. Archived from the original on August 15, 2014. Retrieved April 1, 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d Nepales, Janet Susan R. (November 28, 2022). "1980: "Kramer vs. Kramer" Reflects an Intersection of Life, Art". Golden Globes. Retrieved February 11, 2024.
  3. ^ a b c "Kramer vs. Kramer (1979)". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. American Film Institute. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  4. ^ "Caan Rues the Bad Choices That Prompted Him to Turn Down Movies". Contact Music. September 12, 2005.
  5. ^ Grobel, Lawrence (April 22, 2008). Al Pacino. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9781416955566.
  6. ^ Kakutani, Michiko (December 28, 1979). "Child Star of 'Kramer' Takes Role in Stride". The New York Times. Retrieved February 11, 2024.
  7. ^ Kemp, Stuart (October 16, 2012). "Dustin Hoffman Breaks Down While Recounting His Past Movie Choices". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved February 11, 2024.
  8. ^ Spelling, Aaron; Graham, Jefferson (1996). A Prime-Time Life: An Autobiography. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-312-14268-1.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Schulman, Michael (March 29, 2016). "How Meryl Streep Battled Dustin Hoffman, Retooled Her Role, and Won Her First Oscar". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on December 19, 2017. Retrieved January 3, 2018.
  10. ^ "Oscar sidelights". Daily Variety. April 15, 1980. p. 4.
  11. ^ Stevens, Dana; Collins, Kameron (January 12, 2020). "Transcript of Flashback: Kramer vs. Kramer (1979)". slate.com. Retrieved February 17, 2024.
  12. ^ Scott, Vernon (June 21, 1982). "Scott's World: Naked Lady Finds Career". www.upi.com. Retrieved February 13, 2022.
  13. ^ Harris, Hunter (January 3, 2018). "Meryl Streep Calls Out Dustin Hoffman for Kramer vs. Kramer slap: 'It was overstepping'". Vulture. Retrieved January 3, 2018.
  14. ^ Graham, Ruth (November 2, 2017). "Meryl Streep once said Dustin Hoffman groped her breast the first time they met". Slate. Archived from the original on November 10, 2017. Retrieved January 3, 2018.
  15. ^ Simkins, Michael (March 31, 2016). "Method acting can go too far - just ask Dustin Hoffman". The Guardian. Archived from the original on December 3, 2019. Retrieved January 3, 2018.
  16. ^ Blair, Olivia (March 30, 2016). "Dustin Hoffman 'slapped and taunted Meryl Streep with the name of her dead boyfriend during filming', book claims". The Independent.
  17. ^ Buckley, Cara (January 3, 2018). "Meryl Streep and Tom Hanks on the #MeToo Moment and 'The Post'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 3, 2018. Retrieved January 3, 2018.
  18. ^ Kramer vs. Kramer at Rotten Tomatoes
  19. ^ "Kramer vs. Kramer". Metacritic. Retrieved February 11, 2024.
  20. ^ a b Ebert, Roger (December 1, 1979). "Kramer vs. Kramer". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on May 9, 2013. Retrieved April 29, 2010.
  21. ^ Canby, Vincent (December 19, 1979). "Screen: Kramer vs. Kramer". The New York Times. p. C23. Archived from the original on June 5, 2020.
  22. ^ Siskel, Gene (December 19, 1979). "An American family on trial in the '70s". Chicago Tribune. Section 3, pp. 1-2.
  23. ^ Pollock, Dale (November 28, 1979). "Kramer Vs. Kramer". Variety. Retrieved February 18, 2024.
  24. ^ Champlin, Charles (December 16, 1979). "Kramer vs. Kramer: Living Anguished Realities". Los Angeles Times. p. 1.
  25. ^ Arnold, Gary (December 22, 2023). "'Kramer vs. Kramer': The Family Divided". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved February 18, 2024.
  26. ^ Kauffmann, Stanley (December 22, 1979). "Here Be Actors: A review of 'Kramer vs. Kramer'". The New Republic. Archived from the original on August 3, 2020. Retrieved June 4, 2020.
  27. ^ Dullea, Georgia (December 21, 1979). "Child Custody: Jurists Weigh Film vs. Life". The New York Times. p. B6. Retrieved February 11, 2024.
  28. ^ "Law: Custody: Kramer vs. Reality". Time. February 4, 1980. p. 77. Retrieved February 11, 2024.
  29. ^ "Movies". The New York Times. April 29, 2003. Archived from the original on June 12, 2008. Retrieved September 27, 2020.
  30. ^ Pollock, Dale (January 2, 1980). "Christmas Pix Are Perking; 'Star Trek,' 'Jerk' Pacing Field". Variety. p. 9.
  31. ^ "Kramer vs Kramer (1979)". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on March 1, 2009. Retrieved November 17, 2008.
  32. ^ Sternbergh, Adam (October 3, 2014). "Why Was Kramer vs. Kramer the Top-Grossing Movie of 1979?". Vulture. Retrieved February 17, 2024.
  33. ^ "Kramer vs. Kramer (advertisement)". Variety. June 11, 1980. pp. 10–11.
  34. ^ "With $55-mil rentals, 'Look Who's Talking' becomes Col's No. 2 moneymaker o'seas". Variety. August 15, 1990. p. 42.
  35. ^ "1980 Academy Awards". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved February 11, 2024.
  36. ^ "Film in 1981 | BAFTA Awards". British Academy Film Awards. Retrieved February 11, 2024.
  37. ^ a b c "Kramer vs. Kramer (1979) Awards & Festivals". Mubi. Retrieved February 17, 2024.
  38. ^ "Awards / History / 1979". Directors Guild of America Awards. Retrieved February 11, 2024.
  39. ^ "Kramer vs. Kramer". Golden Globe Awards. Retrieved February 11, 2024.
  40. ^ "KCFCC Award Winners – 1970-79". Kansas City Film Critics Circle. Retrieved May 6, 2024.
  41. ^ "The 5th Annual Los Angeles Film Critics Association Awards". Los Angeles Film Critics Association. Retrieved May 6, 2024.
  42. ^ "Kramer film named best of '79". The Phoenix. December 28, 1979. p. B6. Retrieved February 11, 2024.
  43. ^ "1979 Archives". National Board of Review. Retrieved February 11, 2024.
  44. ^ "Past Awards". National Society of Film Critics. Retrieved May 6, 2024.
  45. ^ Maslin, Janet (January 3, 1980). "National Film Critics Select 'Breaking Away'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 11, 2024.
  46. ^ "Film critics vote top award for 'Kramer vs. Kramer'". The Day. December 22, 1979. p. 38. Retrieved February 11, 2024.
  47. ^ "Film Hall of Fame: Productions". Online Film & Television Association. Retrieved February 18, 2024.
  48. ^ "1980 Awards Winners". Writers Guild of America Awards. Archived from the original on December 5, 2012. Retrieved February 11, 2024.
  49. ^ "2nd Youth in Film Awards". Young Artist Awards. Archived from the original on September 10, 2015. Retrieved February 11, 2024.
  50. ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies Nominees" (PDF). American Film Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 26, 2013. Retrieved December 10, 2011.
  51. ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition) Ballot" (PDF). American Film Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 16, 2013. Retrieved December 10, 2011.
  52. ^ "AFI's 10 Top 10". American Film Institute. Retrieved February 11, 2024.
  53. ^ "Kramer vs. Kramer: Music". www.shmoop.com. Retrieved February 17, 2024.
  54. ^ "Daniel Balavoine : l'histoire de son tube "Mon fils, ma bataille"". Chérie FM (in French). June 13, 2019. Retrieved February 17, 2024.

External links

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