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The Longest Day (film)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Longest Day
Original movie poster for the film The Longest Day.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed by
Produced byDarryl F. Zanuck
Screenplay by
Based onThe Longest Day
by Cornelius Ryan
Starring
Music byMaurice Jarre
Cinematography
Edited bySamuel E. Beetley
Production
company
Darryl F. Zanuck Productions, Inc.
Distributed by20th Century Fox
Release date
  • September 25, 1962 (1962-09-25) (France, U.S.)
  • October 4, 1962 (1962-10-04) (Canada)
  • October 23, 1962 (1962-10-23) (Germany, Mexico, UK)
Running time
178 minutes
CountryUnited States
Language
  • English
  • German
  • French
Budget$7.75 million[1]
Box office$50.1 million[2]

The Longest Day is a 1962 American epic war film based on Cornelius Ryan's 1959 non-fiction of the same name[3] about the D-Day landings at Normandy on June 6, 1944. The film was produced by Darryl F. Zanuck, who paid author Ryan $175,000 for the film rights.[4] The screenplay was by Ryan, with additional material written by Romain Gary, James Jones, David Pursall, and Jack Seddon. It was directed by Ken Annakin (British and French exteriors), Andrew Marton (American exteriors), and Bernhard Wicki (German scenes).

The Longest Day features a large international ensemble cast including John Wayne, Kenneth More, Richard Todd, Robert Mitchum, Richard Burton, Steve Forrest, Sean Connery, Henry Fonda, Red Buttons, Peter Lawford, Eddie Albert, Jeffrey Hunter, Stuart Whitman, Tom Tryon, Rod Steiger, Leo Genn, Gert Fröbe, Irina Demick, Bourvil, Curd Jürgens, George Segal, Robert Wagner, Paul Anka, and Arletty. Many of these actors played roles that were essentially cameo appearances. In addition, several cast members had seen action as servicemen during the war, including Albert, Fonda, Genn, More, Steiger, and Todd; Todd was among the first British officers to land in Normandy in Operation Overlord, and he participated in the assault on Pegasus Bridge.

The film employed several Axis and Allied military consultants who had been actual participants on D-Day, and many had their roles re-enacted in the film. These included Günther Blumentritt (a former German general), James M. Gavin (an American general), Frederick Morgan (Deputy Chief of Staff at SHAEF), John Howard (who led the airborne assault on the Pegasus Bridge), Lord Lovat (who commanded the 1st Special Service Brigade), Philippe Kieffer (who led his men in the assault on Ouistreham), Marie-Pierre Kœnig (who commanded the Free French Forces in the invasion), Max Pemsel (a German general), Werner Pluskat (the major who was the first German officer to see the invasion fleet), Josef "Pips" Priller (the hot-headed pilot), and Lucie Rommel (widow of Field Marshal Erwin Rommel).

The film won two Academy Awards and was nominated for three others. A colorized version of this film was released on VHS in 1994, the 50th anniversary of the D-Day invasion.

Plot synopsis

Shot in a docudrama style (with subtitles identifying the different participants), the film opens in the days leading up to D-Day, concentrating on events on both sides of the English channel. The Allies wait for a break in the poor weather while anticipating the reaction of the Axis forces defending northern France. As Supreme Commander of SHAEF, Gen. Dwight Eisenhower makes the decision to go after reviewing the initial bad weather reports and the reports about the divisions within the German High Command as to where an invasion might happen and what should be their response.

Multiple scenes document the early hours of June 6: Allied airborne troops being sent in to take key locations inland, away from the beaches, and the French resistance reaction to the news that the invasion has started. Also chronicled are important events surrounding D-Day: British troops' glider missions to secure Pegasus Bridge, the counterattacks launched by American paratroopers scattered around Sainte-Mère-Église, the infiltration and sabotage work conducted by the French resistance and SOE agents, and the response by the Wehrmacht to the invasion. The uncertainty of German commanders is also shown as to whether this is a feint in preparation for Allied crossings at the Strait of Dover (see Operation Fortitude), where the senior German staff had always assumed that the invasion would begin.

Set-piece scenes include the parachute drop into Sainte-Mère-Église, the advance inshore from the Normandy beaches, the U.S. Ranger Assault Group's assault on the Pointe du Hoc, the attack on Ouistreham by Free French Forces, and the strafing of the beaches by two lone Luftwaffe pilots. The film concludes with a montage showing various Allied units consolidating their beachheads before they advance inland by crossing France to eventually reach Germany.

Cast

Note: Characters listed in order of rank.

American

Actor Role Notes
Henry Grace

(dubbed by Allen Swift)

Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower Supreme Commander, Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF)
John Meillon Rear Admiral Alan G. Kirk Commander, Western Naval Task Force, U.S. 8th Fleet
Alexander Knox Lieutenant Gen. Walter Bedell Smith Chief of Staff, SHAEF
Nicholas Stuart Lieutenant Gen. Omar N. Bradley Commander, 1st Army
Mel Ferrer Major Gen. Robert Haines Assistant Commander, SHAEF
Edmond O'Brien Major Gen. Raymond O. Barton Commander, 4th Infantry Division
Henry Fonda Brigadier Gen. Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. Assistant Commander, 4th Infantry Division
Robert Mitchum Brigadier Gen. Norman Cota Assistant Commander, 29th Infantry Division[5]
Robert Ryan Brigadier Gen. James M. Gavin, Assistant Commander, 82nd Airborne Division
John Crawford Col. Eugene M. Caffey Commander, 1st Engineer Special Brigade
Eddie Albert Col. Lloyd Thompson Aide-de-camp to Cota, 29th Infantry Division[6]
John Wayne Lieutenant Col. Benjamin H. Vandervoort CO, 2nd Battalion, 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment
Bill Nagy Maj. Waltz XO, 2nd Battalion, 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment
Fred Dur Maj. Stoltz XO, 2nd Ranger Battalion
Rod Steiger Lieutenant Cmdr. Joseph Witherow Jr. Commander, USS Satterlee
Steve Forrest Capt. Harding XO, 2nd Battalion, 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment
Ray Danton Capt. Frank XO, 29th Infantry Division
Don Adams LJG. Mackenzie Officer, USS Satterlee
Stuart Whitman Lt. Sheen Paratrooper, 2nd Battalion, 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment
Tom Tryon Lt. Wilson Paratrooper, 2nd Battalion, 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment
Gary Collins Ensign Sheeran Bridge officer, USS Satterlee
Jeffrey Hunter Sgt. John H. Fuller (later field promoted to Lieutenant) Combat engineer, 29th Infantry Division
Tony Mordente Specialist Wyman Cook, 82nd Airborne Division
Bob Steele Corporal Alexander Paratrooper, 82nd Airborne Division
Richard Beymer Pvt. Arthur 'Dutch' Schultz, Paratrooper, 82nd Airborne Division[7]
Red Buttons Pvt. John Steele Paratrooper, 2nd Battalion, 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment
Sal Mineo Pvt. Martini Paratrooper, 82nd Airborne Division
Roddy McDowall Pvt. Morris Infantryman, 4th Infantry Division
George Segal Pvt. Wohl Infantryman, 2nd Ranger Battalion
Robert Wagner Pvt. Keller Infantryman, 2nd Ranger Battalion
Paul Anka Pvt. Lowell Infantryman, 2nd Ranger Battalion
Mark Damon Pvt. Harris Infantryman, 29th Infantry Division
Fabian Pvt. Forte Infantryman, 2nd Ranger Battalion
Tommy Sands Pvt. Hunt Infantryman, 2nd Ranger Battalion
Mickey Knox Airman Louis Paratrooper flight crew
Ron Randell Joe Williams War correspondent

British

Actor Role Notes
Trevor Reid Gen. Sir Bernard Montgomery Commander-in-Chief, Allied Armies
John Robinson Adm. Sir Bertram Ramsay Commander-in-Chief, Allied Naval Forces
Simon Lack Air Chief Marshal Sir Trafford Leigh-Mallory Commander-in-Chief, Allied Expeditionary Air Force (AEAF)
Louis Mounier Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur Tedder Deputy Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary Forces
Walter Horsbrugh Rear-Adm. George Creasy Chief of Staff to Admiral Ramsay
Leo Genn Major-Gen. Hollander XO, SHAEF
Peter Lawford Brig. Simon Fraser, Lord Lovat Commander, 1st Special Service Brigade
Richard Todd Maj. John Howard OC, "D" Company, 2nd Battalion, Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry
Howard Marion-Crawford Maj. Jacob Vaughan Medical Officer, 2nd Battalion, Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry
Richard Wattis Maj. Whaley 6th Airborne Division
Patrick Barr Group Capt. J. M. Stagg Meteorologist
Kenneth More Acting Cpt. Colin Maud Beachmaster, Juno Beach, Royal Navy
Lyndon Brook Lt. Ian Walsh "D" Company, 2nd Battalion, Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry
Jack Hedley Lt. Knowles 6th Airborne Division briefing officer
Leslie Phillips Flight Lt. Owens RAF officer with French Resistance
Siân Phillips Chief Wren Jennings Wren assistant to Stagg
Richard Burton Flying Officer David Campbell Fighter pilot, Royal Air Force[8]
Donald Houston Flying Officer Neil Fighter pilot, Royal Air Force
John Gregson Chaplain Wattis Padre, 6th Airborne Division
Bernard Fox Lance-Cpl. Hutchinson[9] Royal Armoured Corps
Norman Rossington Lance-Cpl. Clough 3rd Infantry Division
Richard Dawson Cpl. Purdom
Harry Fowler Cpl. Lehman Paratrooper, 6th Airborne Division
Sean Connery Pvt. Flanagan Infantryman, 3rd Infantry Division[10]
Frank Finlay Pvt. Coke[11]
Michael Medwin Pvt. Watney Universal Carrier driver, 3rd Infantry Division
Leslie de Laspee Pvt. Bill Millin Piper, 1st Special Service Brigade
Victor Maddern Cook
Bryan Coleman Ronald Callen War correspondent

French

Actor Role Notes
Jean Servais Contre-amiral Robert Jaujard Commander, 4th Cruiser Division, Free French Naval Forces
Christian Marquand Capitaine de Corvette Philippe Kieffer Group leader, 1er Bataillon de Fusiliers Marins Commandos
Georges Rivière Second-Maître Guy de Montlaur Section leader, 1er Bataillon de Fusiliers Marins Commandos
Bernard Fresson Dubocq Commando, 1er Bataillon de Fusiliers Marins Commandos
Irina Demick Jeanine Boitard Partisan, Caen[12]
Yves Barsacq Marcel Partisan, Caen
Maurice Poli Jean Partisan, Caen
Jean Champion Édouard Partisan, Caen
André Bourvil Alphonse Lenaux Mayor of Colleville-sur-Orne
Georges Wilson Alexandre Renaud Mayor of Sainte-Mère-Église
Jean-Louis Barrault Father Louis Roulland Parish priest of Sainte-Mère-Église
Madeleine Renaud Justine Mother superior, Ouistreham
Arletty Madame Barrault Resident of Sainte-Mère-Église
Fernand Ledoux Louis Elderly farmer
Pauline Carton Joanna Louis's housekeeper
Alice Tissot Gemma Lenaux's housekeeper
Clément Harari Arrested Man Civilian

German

Actor Role Notes
Paul Hartmann Generalfeldmarschall Gerd von Rundstedt CO, OB West
Werner Hinz Generalfeldmarschall Erwin Rommel CO, Army Group B
Wolfgang Lukschy Generaloberst Alfred Jodl Chief of Operations, Oberkommando der Wehrmacht
Ernst Schröder Generaloberst Hans von Salmuth CO, 15th Army
Curd Jürgens General der Infanterie Günther Blumentritt Chief of Staff, OB West
Richard Münch General der Artillerie Erich Marcks CO, LXXXIV Army Corps
Wolfgang Büttner Generalleutnant Dr. Hans Speidel Chief of Staff, Army Group B
Wolfgang Preiss Generalleutnant Max Pemsel Chief of Staff, 7th Army
Karl John Generalleutnant Wolfgang Häger CO, Luftwaffe Kommando West
Walter Gotell SS-Obersturmbannführer Wilhelm Mohnke CO, 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend
Paul Edwin Roth Oberst Ludwig Schiller
Heinz Reincke Oberstleutnant Josef Priller, Kommodore, Jagdgeschwader 26
Heinz Spitzner Oberstleutnant Helmuth Meyer Chief of Intelligence, 15th Army
Peter van Eyck Oberstleutnant Karl-Williams Ocker CO, 352nd Artillery Regiment, 352nd Infantry Division
Hans Christian Blech Major Werner Pluskat CO, 352nd Artillery Regiment, 352nd Infantry Division
Eugene Deckers Major Becker Officer in church
Hartmut Reck Oberfeldwebel Bernhard Bergsdorf Pilot, Jagdgeschwader 26
Vicco von Bülow Oberfeldwebel Leuchter Pemsel's adjutant
Kurt Meisel Hauptmann Ernst Düring CO, 352nd Infantry Division
Til Kiwe Hauptmann Helmuth Lang Aide-de-camp to Rommel
Hans Söhnker Hauptmann Witt Pemsel's staff officer
Robert Freitag Leutnant Weber Meyer's aide
Rainer Penkert Leutnant Fritz Theen 352nd Artillery Regiment, 352nd Infantry Division
Dietmar Schönherr Leutnant Vogel Häger's aide
Gert Fröbe Unteroffizier "Kaffeekanne" ("coffee pot") Security officer, Wehrmacht
Ruth Hausmeister Lucie Rommel Rommel's wife
Michael Hinz Manfred Rommel Rommel's son

Production

Development

French producer Raoul Lévy signed a deal with Simon & Schuster to purchase the filming rights to Cornelius Ryan's book The Longest Day: June 6, 1944 D-Day on March 23, 1960. After finishing The Truth, Lévy set up a deal with the Associated British Picture Corporation and got director Michael Anderson attached. Ryan would receive $100,000, plus $35,000 to write the adaptation's screenplay. Lévy intended to start production in March 1961, filming at Elstree Studios and the English and French coasts. But the project went into a halt once ABPC could not get the $6 million budget Lévy expected. Eventually, former 20th Century Fox mogul Darryl F. Zanuck learned about the book while producing The Big Gamble, and in December purchased Lévy's option for $175,000.[13] Zanuck's editor friend Elmo Williams wrote a film treatment, which piqued the producer's interest and made him attach Williams to The Longest Day as associate producer and coordinator of battle episodes. Ryan was brought in to write the script, but had conflicts with Zanuck as soon as the two met. Williams was forced to act as a mediator; he would deliver Ryan's script pages to Zanuck, then return them with the latter's annotations.[14] While Ryan developed the script, Zanuck also brought in other writers for cleanups, including James Jones and Romain Gary. As their contributions to the finished screenplay were relatively minor, Ryan managed to get the screenplay credit after an appeal to the Writers Guild arbitration,[15] but the four other writers are credited for "additional scenes" in the closing credits.

During pre-production, producer Frank McCarthy, who had worked for the United States Department of War during World War II, arranged for military collaboration with the governments of France, Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States. Zanuck also realized that with eight battle scenes, shooting would be accomplished more expediently if multiple directors and units worked simultaneously, so he hired German directors Gerd Oswald and Bernhard Wicki, British director Ken Annakin, and Hungarian-American director Andrew Marton.[16] Zanuck's son Richard D. Zanuck was reluctant about the project, particularly the high budget.[17]

Filming

Casting

John Wayne in The Longest Day
John Wayne in The Longest Day
  • Charlton Heston actively sought the role of Lt. Col. Benjamin H. Vandervoort, but the last-minute decision of John Wayne to take the role prevented Heston's participation. At 55, Wayne was 28 years older than Vandervoort at the time of action (and 10 years older in real life). All the other major actors accepted $25,000 as payment, but Wayne insisted on $250,000 to punish Zanuck for referring to him as "poor John Wayne" regarding Wayne's problems with his lavish film The Alamo.[20]
  • Zanuck hired more than 2,000 serving soldiers for the film as extras.
  • Sgt. Kaffeekanne's (Gert Fröbe) name is German for "coffee pot", which he always carries.
  • Several pop stars such as Paul Anka, Tommy Sands and Fabian appear as Rangers together.[21]
  • Bill Millin was the piper who accompanied Lord Lovat to Normandy with his bagpipes, and it is a common misconception that he played himself in the film. He was actually portrayed by Pipe Major Leslie de Laspee, the official piper to the Queen Mother in 1961.[22][23]
  • In Sainte-Mère-Église, Pvt. John Steele from the 82nd Airborne (played by Red Buttons) has been memorialized by the local population with a dummy hanging from a parachute from the church tower on which he accidentally landed.
  • Richard Todd played Maj. John Howard, leader of the British airborne assault on the Pegasus Bridge, and Todd himself took part in the real bridge assault on D-Day. He was offered the chance to play himself but took the part of Maj. Howard instead.
  • Joseph Lowe landed on Omaha Beach and scaled the cliffs at Pointe du Hoc on D-Day. He repeated the climb for the cameras 17 years later as a serving member of the 505th Airborne Battle Group who provided US Army extras.
  • Former President Dwight D. Eisenhower was considered for the role of himself in the film, and he indicated his willingness. However, it was decided that makeup artists couldn't make him appear young enough to play his World War II self. The role of Gen. Eisenhower went to Henry Grace, a set decorator with no acting experience but who had been in the film industry since the mid-1930s. He was a dead ringer for the younger Eisenhower, though his voice differed.
  • The film marked the last film appearance of Sean Connery before he was cast in the role of James Bond. Gert Fröbe (Sgt. Kaffeekanne) and Curd Jürgens (Gen. Günther Blumentritt) later played Bond villains Auric Goldfinger (Goldfinger (1964)) and Karl Stromberg (The Spy Who Loved Me) respectively. Connery played Maj. Gen. Roy Urquhart in the 1977 film A Bridge Too Far, which was also based on a book by Cornelius Ryan. Likewise, Wolfgang Preiss played Maj. Gen. Max Pemsel in The Longest Day and Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt in A Bridge Too Far.
  • Mel Ferrer was originally signed to play the role of Gen. James M. Gavin but withdrew due to a scheduling conflict.[18]
  • According to the 2001 documentary Cleopatra: The Film That Changed Hollywood, Richard Burton and Roddy McDowall were so bored having not been used for several weeks while filming in Rome that they phoned Zanuck begging to do "anything" on his film. They flew themselves to the location and each did a day's filming for their cameos for free.
  • One of the stuntmen was Robert Weinstein (Dec 7, 1936 - Sept 22, 2019), a French Jew who narrowly avoided the death camps. In his seventies, he wrote his memoirs with the help of Stéphanie Krug. "Vent printanier" was published by L'Harmattan, and was subsequently renamed "L'orphelin du Vel' D'Hiv" for its second edition. In it he recounts the details of his life, including his work on this film.

Release

The film premiered in France on September 25, 1962, followed by the United States on October 4 and 23 for the United Kingdom. Because Fox was suffering with the financial losses of Cleopatra, the studio intended that The Longest Day should have a wide release to reap quick profits. Zanuck forced them to do a proper Roadshow theatrical release, even threatening to sell distribution to Warner Bros. if Fox had refused to do so.[24] The Longest Day eventually became the box office hit Fox needed, with $30 million in worldwide rentals on a $7.5 million budget.[1]

There were special-release showings of the film in several United States cities. Participants in D-Day were invited to see the film with their fellow soldiers; in Cleveland, Ohio, as one example, this took place at the Hippodrome Theater.[citation needed]

Uniquely for British- and American-produced World War II films of the time, all French and German characters speak in their own languages, with subtitles running below in English. Another version, which was shot simultaneously, has all the actors speaking their lines in English. (This version was used for the film's trailer, as the Germans deliver their lines in English.) However, this version saw limited use during the film's initial release. It was used more extensively during the film's late 1960s re-release.[citation needed]

The film was re-released in 1969 and opened at number one at the US box office with a first week gross of $501,529.[25] In the first four days of its worldwide re-release in 544 theatres, it grossed $2,846,627.[26]

Home media

The Longest Day was released on LaserDisc in 1989, its first wide-screen and stereo surround home video presentation. It was subsequently released on DVD on November 6, 2001.[27]

Reception

The day after the film opened at the Warner Theatre in New York City, Bosley Crowther of The New York Times declared: "The total effect of the picture is that of a huge documentary report, adorned and colored by personal details that are thrilling, amusing, ironic, sad ... It is hard to think of a picture, aimed and constructed as this one was, doing any more or any better or leaving one feeling any more exposed to the horror of war as this one does".[28] Variety described it as "a solid and stunning war epic" that "emerges as a sort of grand scale semi-fictionalized documentary concerning the overall logistics needed for this incredible invasion".[29] Richard L. Coe of The Washington Post called it "a tingling, eye-gripping, fantastic picture" that "must rank as the screen's most massive battle epic". His only criticism was "the lack of perspective in depicting the German belief that the Normandy landings might not have succeeded had Hitler not taken a sleeping pill ... 'The Longest Day' should have taken infinitely more care to put this German belief, however strongly held, into proper proportion".[30] Brendan Gill of The New Yorker called the film "a tour de force of audio-visual verisimilitude," but confessed that "my emotions were hardly ever engaged, and I ended, rather to my embarrassment, by being bored". He went on, "Mr. Zanuck made it all the harder for me to take this mock-documentary seriously by stuffing it with innumerable celebrated actors, most of whom make such fugitive appearances that the audience finds itself engaged in a distracting game of instant identification".[31] The Monthly Film Bulletin stated, "The Longest Day is a monument split down the middle by compromise. At its best, what comes across very strongly is the feeling of immense and careful organisation that went into the whole D-Day operation, the sheer crippling weight of noise, the simple fact that a lot of people died, and the sense of personal confusion and dismay of soldiers wandering alone through the countryside ... But the film is, first and foremost, a spectacle, and therefore it has stars—a multitude of them, often with barely a line to speak, and usually with no real part to play".[32]

The film holds a rating score of 87% at the film review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, based on 23 reviews.[33]

Awards and nominations

Year Award Category Nominee(s) Result Ref.
1962 Academy Award Best Art Direction Ted Haworth, Léon Barsacq, Vincent Korda and Gabriel Béchir Nominated [34]
Best Cinematography Jean Bourgoin and Walter Wottitz Won
Best Editing Samuel E. Beetley Nominated
Best Picture Darryl F. Zanuck Nominated
Best Special Effects Robert MacDonald and Jacques Maumont Won
Golden Globe Award Best Motion Picture – Drama Darryl F. Zanuck Nominated [35]
Best Cinematography - Black and White Henri Persin, Walter Wottitz and Jean Bourgoin Won
Eddie Awards1 Best Edited Feature Film – Dramatic Samuel E. Beetley Won [36]
David di Donatello Best Foreign Production Darryl F. Zanuck Won [37]
Directors Guild of America Award Outstanding Directing – Feature Film Ken Annakin, Andrew Marton and Bernhard Wicki Nominated [38]

References

Notes

  1. ^ The Eddie Awards are not archived. The website refers people to IMDb.

Citations

  1. ^ a b Solomon, Aubrey (1989). Twentieth Century Fox: A Corporate and Financial History (The Scarecrow Filmmakers Series). Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. p. 253. ISBN 978-0-8108-4244-1.
  2. ^ "The Longest Day – Box Office Data". The Numbers. 2015. Retrieved April 5, 2015.
  3. ^ Ryan, Cornelius (1959). The Longest Day (1st ed.). New York City: Simon & Schuster. ASIN B002YJG2WU.
  4. ^ a b "Operation Overblown". TIME. October 19, 1962. Retrieved December 18, 2018.
  5. ^ In the Movie Cota is credited with the remark the only types of persons remaining on the beach are the dead and those going to die; in fact this was made by Colonel George A. Taylorof the US 16th Infantry Regiment.
  6. ^ Colonel Thompson of the 6th Engineer Special Brigade is listed in Longest Day [p.308]; however unlike the movie he survived the battle. In the film, a line from Thompson about getting the troops off the beaches is actually a quote that was spoken by Norman Cota.
  7. ^ BBC June 2019
  8. ^ [No RAF Officer by the name of Campbell is in Ryan's book; however the story of a wounded men leg being treated with safety pins is true [Longest Day .p.202]; likewise the report of a German putting his boots on backwards is true -although he was not shot and killed [Longest Day .p.108]; lastly Pvt Schultz did not meet with any RAF officer while being lost see BBC June 8, 2019
  9. ^ Not listed in Ryans book
  10. ^ Only One Flanagan is listed in Ryans book..a US Soldier [Longest Day .p.289]
  11. ^ Not listed in Ryans book
  12. ^ An Actual person; while she did help in the escape of two RAF Officers on D Day [Longest Day .p.252] the scene of her being involved in a gunfight with two German soldiers and a wrecked train is fictional
  13. ^ Rubin 1981, p. 91.
  14. ^ Williams 2006, p. 138-40.
  15. ^ Lev 2013, p. 234.
  16. ^ Rubin 1981, p. 93.
  17. ^ Gussow 1971, p. 198-9.
  18. ^ a b c "Notre jour le plus long" [Our longest day]. La Presse de la Manche. Cherbourg, France. 2012.
  19. ^ "The Longest Day". American Film Institute. 2015. Retrieved April 5, 2015.
  20. ^ Wills, Garry (1997). John Wayne's America: The Politics of Celebrity. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-80823-9.
  21. ^ Vagg, Stephen (August 26, 2019). "The Cinema of Fabian". Diabolique.
  22. ^ "Piper Bill Millin". The Pegasus Archive. Retrieved November 1, 2007.
  23. ^ "D-Day Piper – Bill Millin". The Miniatures Page. August 3, 2006. Retrieved November 1, 2007.
  24. ^ Gussow, Mel (February 1, 1971). "The Last Movie Tycoon". New York. Retrieved December 18, 2018.
  25. ^ "50 Top-Grossing Films". Variety. June 18, 1969. p. 11.
  26. ^ "The Longest Day advertisement". Variety. June 11, 1969. p. 29.
  27. ^ The Longest Day (DVD). Century City, Los Angeles: 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment. November 6, 2001. ASIN B00005PJ8S. Retrieved January 17, 2018.
  28. ^ Crowther, Bosley (October 5, 1962). "Screen: Premiere of 'The Longest Day'". The New York Times. 28.
  29. ^ "Film Reviews: The Longest Day". Variety. October 3, 1962. 6.
  30. ^ Coe, Richard L. (October 12, 1962). "'Longest Day' Is Battle Epic". The Washington Post. B12.
  31. ^ Gill, Brendan (October 14, 1962). "The Current Cinema". The New Yorker. 188.
  32. ^ "The Longest Day". The Monthly Film Bulletin. 29 (346): 149. November 1962.
  33. ^ "The Longest Day". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved April 13, 2019.
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Bibliography

External links

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