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Taxi Driver
At night, a man stands in front of a bright yellow taxi while looking to the side. Underneath him, the words "Robert De Niro" and "Taxi Driver" appear in red font on a yellow background.
Theatrical release poster
Directed byMartin Scorsese
Written byPaul Schrader
Produced by
CinematographyMichael Chapman
Edited by
Music byBernard Herrmann
  • Bill/Phillips Productions[1]
  • Italo/Judeo Productions[1]
Distributed byColumbia Pictures
Release date
  • February 8, 1976 (1976-02-08)[2]
Running time
114 minutes[3]
CountryUnited States
Budget$1.9 million[4][5]
Box office$28.4 million[2]

Taxi Driver is a 1976 American film directed by Martin Scorsese, written by Paul Schrader, and starring Robert De Niro, Jodie Foster, Cybill Shepherd, Harvey Keitel, Peter Boyle, Leonard Harris, and Albert Brooks. Set in a decaying and morally bankrupt New York City following the Vietnam War, the film follows Travis Bickle (De Niro), a taxi driver and veteran, and his deteriorating mental state as he works nights in the city.

With The Wrong Man (1956) and A Bigger Splash (1973) as inspiration, Scorsese wanted the film to feel like a dream to audiences. With cinematographer Michael Chapman, filming began in the summer of 1975 in New York City, with actors taking pay cuts to ensure that the project could be completed on a low budget of $1.9 million. Production concluded that same year, with a score being composed by Bernard Herrmann in his final score before his death; the film is dedicated to him.

The film was theatrically released by Columbia Pictures on February 8, 1976, where it was a critical and commercial success, despite generating controversy for its graphic violence at the climatic ending, and casting of then-12-year-old Foster in the role of a child prostitute. Considered one of the greatest films ever made, the film received numerous accolades including the 1976 Cannes Film Festival's Palme d'Or, and four nominations at the 49th Academy Awards, including for Best Picture, Best Actor (for De Niro), and Best Supporting Actress (for Foster).

In 2012, Sight & Sound named it the 31st-best film ever in its decennial critics' poll, ranked with The Godfather Part II, and the fifth-greatest film of all time on its directors' poll. In 1994, the film was considered "culturally, historically or aesthetically" significant by the US Library of Congress, and was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry.


Travis Bickle is a 26-year-old honorably discharged U.S. Marine and Vietnam War veteran suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder and living in isolation in New York City. Travis takes a job as a night shift taxi driver to cope with his chronic insomnia. He frequents the porn theaters on 42nd Street and keeps a diary in which he consciously attempts to include aphorisms, such as "you're only as healthy as you feel."

Travis becomes infatuated with Betsy, a campaign volunteer for senator and presidential candidate Charles Palantine. After watching her interact with fellow worker Tom through her window, Travis enters to volunteer as a pretext to talk to her, then takes her out for coffee. Betsy agrees to go on another date with him, during which he takes her to see a pornographic film; a disgusted Betsy leaves. Travis attempts to reconcile with her, to no avail. Enraged, he storms into the campaign office where she works and berates her before he is ordered to leave by Tom.

Experiencing an existential crisis and seeing various counts of prostitution throughout the city, Travis confides in fellow taxi driver Wizard about his thoughts, which are beginning to turn violent; however, Wizard assures him that he will be fine. In an attempt to find an outlet for his rage, Travis begins a program of intense physical training. A fellow taxi driver refers him to a black market gun dealer, "Easy" Andy, from whom Travis buys four handguns. At home, Travis practices drawing his weapons, and modifies one to allow him to hide and quickly deploy it from his sleeve. He also begins attending Palantine's rallies to scope out their security. One night, Travis enters a convenience store to buy food and sees the shopkeeper being robbed; he then shoots the mugger dead and is praised by the owner, who tells Travis he'll take care of matters and lets him leave before the cops arrive.

On his trips around the city, Travis regularly encounters Iris, a child prostitute. He fantasizes about saving her from her life of exploitation. Travis solicits her and tries to convince her to stop prostituting herself. Soon after, Travis cuts his hair into a mohawk, and attends a public rally where he plans to assassinate Palantine. However, he is chased away by Secret Service agents who see him drawing his gun.

That evening, Travis drives to the brothel where Iris works. He confronts Iris's pimp, "Sport", outside of the brothel, and shoots him. He enters the building and engages in a shootout with Sport, and Iris's client, and is shot several times. Travis manages to kill the two men, then brawls with the bouncer, stabbing him with his knife and killing him, before slumping on a couch next to a sobbing Iris. He attempts to kill himself, but is out of bullets. As police report to the scene, a delirious Travis imitates shooting himself in the head.

Travis goes into a coma due to his injuries. He is heralded by the press as a heroic vigilante and is not prosecuted for the murders. He receives a letter from Iris's father, thanking him. After recovering, Travis returns to work, where he encounters Betsy as a fare; they interact cordially, with Betsy saying she followed his story in the newspapers and Travis sounding pleased when she confirms Palantine won his party's nomination before adding "I hope he wins". Travis drives her home, and as she opens her purse to pay her fare, he smiles at her and drives off without taking any money. As Travis drives off, he becomes suddenly agitated after noticing something in his rear-view mirror.


Credits adapted from:[1][6]



According to director Martin Scorsese, it was Brian De Palma who introduced him to Paul Schrader and that Taxi Driver arose from his feeling that movies are like dreams or drug-induced reveries; he attempted to incubate within the viewer the feeling of being in a limbo state between sleeping and waking. The director also cites Alfred Hitchcock's The Wrong Man (1956) and Jack Hazan's A Bigger Splash (1973) as inspirations for his camerawork in the movie.[7] In writing the script, Schrader was inspired by the diaries of Arthur Bremer (who shot presidential candidate George Wallace in 1972).[8] For the ending of the story, when Bickle becomes a media hero, Schrader was inspired by Squeaky Fromme's attempted assassination of President Gerald Ford, which resulted in her being on the cover of Newsweek.[9]

Schrader also used himself as inspiration; in a 1981 interview with Tom Snyder on The Tomorrow Show, he related his experience living in New York City while battling chronic insomnia, which led him to frequent pornographic bookstores and theaters because they remained open all night. Following a divorce and a breakup with a live-in girlfriend, he spent a few weeks living in his car. After visiting a hospital for a stomach ulcer, Schrader wrote the screenplay for Taxi Driver in "under a fortnight," he states "The first draft was maybe 60 pages, and I started the next draft immediately, and it took less than two weeks." Schrader recalls that "I realized I hadn't spoken to anyone in weeks [...] that was when the metaphor of the taxi occurred to me. That is what I was: this person in an iron box, a coffin, floating round the city, but seemingly alone." Schrader decided to make Bickle a Vietnam vet because the national trauma of the war seemed to blend perfectly with Bickle's paranoid psychosis, making his experiences after the war more intense and threatening.[10]

In Scorsese on Scorsese, Scorsese mentions the religious symbolism in the story, comparing Bickle to a saint who wants to cleanse or purge both his mind and his body of weakness. Bickle attempts to kill himself near the end of the movie as a tribute to the samurai's "death with honor" principle.[7] Dustin Hoffman was offered the role of Travis Bickle but turned it down because he thought that Scorsese was crazy.[11]


While preparing for his role as Bickle, De Niro was filming Bernardo Bertolucci's 1900 in Italy. According to Boyle, he would "finish shooting on a Friday in Rome ... get on a plane ... [and] fly to New York." De Niro obtained a taxi driver's license, and when on break would pick up a taxi and drive around New York for a couple of weeks, before returning to Rome to resume filming 1900. De Niro apparently lost 16 kilograms (35 pounds) and listened repeatedly to a taped reading of the diaries of criminal Arthur Bremer. When he had time off from shooting 1900, De Niro visited an army base in Northern Italy and tape-recorded soldiers from the Midwestern United States, whose accents he thought might be appropriate for Travis's character.[12]

Scorsese brought in the film title designer Dan Perri to design the title sequence for Taxi Driver. Perri had been Scorsese's original choice to design the titles for Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore in 1974, but Warner Bros would not allow him to hire an unknown designer. By the time Taxi Driver was going into production, Perri had established his reputation with his work on The Exorcist, and Scorsese was now able to hire him. Perri created the opening titles for Taxi Driver using second unit footage which he color-treated through a process of film copying and slit-scan, resulting in a highly stylised graphic sequence that evoked the "underbelly" of New York City through lurid colors, glowing neon signs, distorted nocturnal images, and deep black levels. Perri went on to design opening titles for a number of major films after this including Star Wars (1977) and Raging Bull (1980).[13][14]


On a low budget of $1.9 million, various actors took pay cuts to create the project. De Niro and Cybill Shepherd each received only $35,000 to make the film, and Scorsese was given $65,000. Overall, $200,000 of the budget was given to performers in the film.[4][15]

Taxi Driver was shot during a New York City summer heat wave and sanitation strike in 1975. The film came into conflict with the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) for its violence. Scorsese de-saturated the color in the final shootout, and the film got an R rating. To achieve the atmospheric scenes in Bickle's taxi, the sound men would get in the trunk and Scorsese and his cinematographer, Michael Chapman, would ensconce themselves on the back seat floor and use available light to shoot. Chapman admitted the filming style was greatly influenced by New Wave filmmaker Jean-Luc Godard and his cinematographer Raoul Coutard due to the fact the crew did not have the time nor the money to do "traditional things."[16] When Bickle decides to assassinate Senator Palantine, he cuts his hair into a mohawk. This detail was suggested by actor Victor Magnotta, a friend of Scorsese, who had a small role as a Secret Service agent and who had served in Vietnam. Scorsese later noted: "He told us that, in Saigon, if you saw a guy with his head shaved—like a little Mohawk—that usually meant that those people were ready to go into a certain Special Forces situation. You didn't even go near them. They were ready to kill."[8]

Filming took place on New York City's West Side, at a time when the city was on the brink of bankruptcy. According to producer Michael Phillips, "the whole West Side was bombed out. There really were row after row of condemned buildings and that's what we used to build our sets [...] we didn't know we were documenting what looked like the dying gasp of New York."[17] Filmed in an actual apartment, the tracking shot over the shootout scene took three months of preparation, as the production team had to cut through the ceiling to shoot it.[18]


Taxi Driver: Original Soundtrack Recording
Soundtrack album by
Bernard Herrmann
ReleasedMay 19, 1998
RecordedDecember 22 and 23, 1975[19]
ProducerMichael Phillips, Neely Plumb
Professional ratings
Review scores
AllMusic4.5/5 stars[20]

The music by Bernard Herrmann was his final score before his death on December 24, 1975, and the film is dedicated to his memory. The album The Silver Tongued Devil and I from Kris Kristofferson was used in the film, following Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore (1974) where Kristofferson played a supporting role.[21]


Casting of Jodie Foster

Some critics showed concern over 12-year-old Foster's presence during the climactic shoot-out.[22] Foster said that she was present during the setup and staging of the special effects used during the scene; the entire process was explained and demonstrated for her, step by step. Moreover, Foster said, she was fascinated and entertained by the behind-the-scenes preparation that went into the scene. In addition, before being given the part, Foster was subjected to psychological testing, attending sessions with a UCLA psychiatrist, to ensure that she would not be emotionally scarred by her role, in accordance with California Labor Board requirements monitoring children's welfare on film sets.[23][24]

Additional concerns surrounding Foster's age focus on the role she played as Iris, a prostitute. Years later, she confessed how uncomfortable the treatment of her character was on set. Scorsese did not know how to approach different scenes with the actress. The director relied on Robert De Niro to deliver his directions to the young actress. Foster often expressed how De Niro, in that moment, became a mentor to her, stating that her acting career was highly influenced by the actor's advice during the filming of Taxi Driver.[25]

John Hinckley Jr.

Taxi Driver formed part of the delusional fantasy of John Hinckley Jr.[26] that triggered his attempted assassination of President Ronald Reagan in 1981, an act for which he was found not guilty by reason of insanity.[27] Hinckley stated that his actions were an attempt to impress Foster, on whom Hinckley was fixated, by mimicking Travis's mohawked appearance at the Palantine rally. His attorney concluded his defense by playing the movie for the jury.[28][29] When Scorsese heard about Hinckley's motivation behind his assassination attempt, he briefly thought about quitting film-making as the association brought a negative perception of the film.[30]

R rating

The climactic shoot-out was considered intensely graphic by a few critics, considering an X rating for the film.[31] The film was booed at the Cannes Film Festival for its graphic violence.[32] In order to attain an R rating, Scorsese had the colors de-saturated, making the brightly colored blood less prominent. In later interviews, Scorsese commented that he was pleased by the color change and considered it an improvement over the originally filmed scene.[33] In the special-edition DVD, Michael Chapman, the film's cinematographer, regrets the decision and the fact that no print with the unmuted colors exists anymore, as the originals had long since deteriorated.

Themes and interpretations

Roger Ebert has written of the film's ending:

There has been much discussion about the ending, in which we see newspaper clippings about Travis's "heroism" of saving Iris, and then Betsy gets into his cab and seems to give him admiration instead of her earlier disgust. Is this a fantasy scene? Did Travis survive the shoot-out? Are we experiencing his dying thoughts? Can the sequence be accepted as literally true? ... I am not sure there can be an answer to these questions. The end sequence plays like music, not drama: It completes the story on an emotional, not a literal, level. We end not on carnage but on redemption, which is the goal of so many of Scorsese's characters.[34]

James Berardinelli, in his review of the film, argues against the dream or fantasy interpretation, stating:

Scorsese and writer Paul Schrader append the perfect conclusion to Taxi Driver. Steeped in irony, the five-minute epilogue underscores the vagaries of fate. The media builds Bickle into a hero, when, had he been a little quicker drawing his gun against Senator Palantine, he would have been reviled as an assassin. As the film closes, the misanthrope has been embraced as the model citizen—someone who takes on pimps, drug dealers, and mobsters to save one little girl.[35]

On the LaserDisc audio commentary, Scorsese acknowledged several critics' interpretation of the film's ending as being Bickle's dying dream. He admits that the last scene of Bickle glancing at an unseen object implies that Bickle might fall into rage and recklessness in the future, and he is like "a ticking time bomb".[36] Writer Paul Schrader confirms this in his commentary on the 30th-anniversary DVD, stating that Travis "is not cured by the movie's end", and that "he's not going to be a hero next time."[37] When asked on the website Reddit about the film's ending, Schrader said that it was not to be taken as a dream sequence, but that he envisioned it as returning to the beginning of the film—as if the last frame "could be spliced to the first frame, and the movie started all over again."[38]

The film has also been connected with the 1970s wave of vigilante films and has been noted as a more respectable New Hollywood counterpart to the numerous exploitation vigilante films of the decade.[39] However, despite similarities between Taxi Driver and the vigilante films of the 1970s, the film has also been explicitly distinguished as not being a vigilante film or not belonging to the 1970s vigilante film wave.[40]

The film can be viewed as a spiritual successor to The Searchers. As Roger Ebert pointed out, both films center on a lonely war veteran who attempts to rescue a young girl who does not want to be saved. Both also portray the main character as someone who is alienated from society and who cannot establish normal relationships with people. It is not clear whether Paul Schrader looked for this film specifically for inspiration, but the similarities are apparent.[41]

Some critics have described the film as "neo-noir".[42][43] It has also been referred to as an antihero film.[44][45]

Television edits of the film featured a black screen with a disclaimer during the ending credits, mentioning that "the distinction between hero and villain is sometimes a matter of interpretation or misinterpretation of facts". This was thought to have been added after the 1981 Ronald Reagan assassination attempt, but it is mentioned in a review of the film from 1979.


Box office

Jodie Foster and Robert De Niro's performances garnered critical praise and earned them Academy Award nominations for Best Supporting Actress and Best Actor, respectively.

The film opened at the Coronet Theater in New York City and grossed a house record $68,000 in its first week.[46] It went on to gross $28.3 million in the United States,[47] making it the 17th-highest-grossing film of 1976.

Critical response

The film received critical acclaim. Roger Ebert instantly praised it as one of the greatest films he had ever seen, claiming:

Taxi Driver is a hell, from the opening shot of a cab emerging from stygian clouds of steam to the climactic killing scene in which the camera finally looks straight down. Scorsese wanted to look away from Travis's rejection; we almost want to look away from his life. But he's there, all right, and he's suffering.[48]

On review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 96% based on 93 reviews and an average rating of 9.1/10. The website's critical consensus reads, "A must-see film for movie lovers, this Martin Scorsese masterpiece is as hard-hitting as it is compelling, with Robert De Niro at his best."[49] Metacritic gives the film a score of 94 out of 100, based on reviews from 23 critics, indicating "universal acclaim".[50]

Taxi Driver was ranked by the American Film Institute as the 52nd-greatest American film on its AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition) list, and Bickle was voted the 30th-greatest villain in a poll by the same organization. Empire also ranked him 18th in its "The 100 Greatest Movie Characters" poll,[51] and the film ranks at No. 17 on the magazine's 2008 list of the 500 greatest movies of all time.[52]

Time Out magazine conducted a poll of the 100 greatest movies set in New York City. Taxi Driver topped the list placing at No. 1.[53] Schrader's screenplay for the film was ranked the 43rd-greatest ever written by the Writers Guild of America.[54] By contrast, Leonard Maltin gave a rating of only 2 stars and called the film a "gory, cold-blooded story of a sick man's lurid descent into violence" which was "ugly and unredeeming".[55]


Award Category Nominee Result Ref.
Academy Awards Best Picture Michael Phillips and Julia Phillips Nominated [56]
Best Actor Robert De Niro Nominated
Best Supporting Actress Jodie Foster Nominated
Best Original Score Bernard Herrmann (posthumous nomination) Nominated
Blue Ribbon Awards Best Foreign Film Martin Scorsese Won
British Academy Film Awards Best Film Nominated [57]
Best Direction Nominated
Best Actor in a Leading Role Robert De Niro Nominated
Best Actress in a Supporting Role Jodie Foster (also for Bugsy Malone) Won
Most Promising Newcomer to Leading Film Roles Won
Best Film Editing Marcia Lucas, Tom Rolf and Melvin Shapiro Nominated
Anthony Asquith Award for Film Music Bernard Herrmann Won
Cannes Film Festival Palme d'Or Martin Scorsese Won [58]
David di Donatello Awards Special David Jodie Foster Won
Martin Scorsese Won
Directors Guild of America Awards Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Motion Pictures Nominated
Fotogramas de Plata Best Foreign Movie Performer Robert De Niro Won
Golden Globe Awards Best Actor in a Motion Picture – Drama Nominated [59]
Best Supporting Actress – Motion Picture Jodie Foster Nominated
Grammy Awards Best Album of Original Score Written for a Motion Picture or Television Special Bernard Herrmann Nominated
Hochi Film Awards Best Foreign Film Martin Scorsese Won
Kansas City Film Critics Circle Awards Best Supporting Actress Jodie Foster Won
Kinema Junpo Awards Best Foreign Language Film Director Martin Scorsese Won
Los Angeles Film Critics Association Awards Best Actor Robert De Niro Won [60]
Best Music Bernard Herrmann (posthumous award) Won
New Generation Award Jodie Foster and Martin Scorsese Won
National Film Preservation Board National Film Registry Inducted [61]
National Society of Film Critics Awards Best Film 2nd Place
Best Director Martin Scorsese Won
Best Actor Robert De Niro Won
Best Supporting Actor Harvey Keitel 2nd Place
Best Supporting Actress Jodie Foster Won
Best Cinematography Michael Chapman 3rd Place
New York Film Critics Circle Awards Best Director Martin Scorsese Runner-up
Best Actor Robert De Niro Won
Best Supporting Actor Harvey Keitel Runner-up
Best Supporting Actress Jodie Foster Runner-up
Online Film & Television Association Awards (1998) Hall of Fame – Motion Picture Won
Online Film & Television Association Awards (2021) Hall of Fame – Film Characters Travis Bickle (played by Robert De Niro) Won
Sant Jordi Awards Best Performance in a Foreign Film Robert De Niro Won
Turkish Film Critics Association Awards Best Foreign Film 4th Place
Writers Guild of America Awards Best Drama Written Directly for the Screen Paul Schrader Nominated

American Film Institute

Other Honors


Taxi Driver, American Gigolo, Light Sleeper, and The Walker make up a series referred to variously as the "Man in a Room" or "Night Worker" films. Screenwriter Paul Schrader (who directed the latter three films) has said that he considers the central characters of the four films to be one character, who has changed as he has aged.[65][66] The film also influenced the Charles Winkler film You Talkin' to Me?[67]

The 1994 portrayal of psychopath Albie Kinsella by Robert Carlyle in British television series Cracker was in part inspired by Travis Bickle, and Carlyle's performance has frequently been compared to De Niro's as a result.[68][69]

In the 2012 film Seven Psychopaths, psychotic Los Angeles actor Billy Bickle (Sam Rockwell) believes himself to be the illegitimate son of Travis Bickle.[70]

The vigilante ending inspired Jacques Audiard for his 2015 Palme d'Or-winning film Dheepan. The French director based the eponymous Tamil Tiger character on the one played by Robert De Niro in order to make him a "real movie hero".[71] The script of Joker by Todd Phillips also draws inspiration from Taxi Driver.[72][73][74]

"You talkin' to me?"

De Niro's "You talkin' to me?" speech has become a pop culture mainstay. In 2005, it was ranked number 10 on the American Film Institute's AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes.

In the relevant scene, the deranged Bickle is looking into a mirror at himself, imagining a confrontation that would give him a chance to draw his gun:

"You talkin' to me? You talkin' to me? You talkin' to me? Then who the hell else are you talkin' to? You talkin' to me? Well I'm the only one here. Who the fuck do you think you're talking to?"

While Scorsese said that he drew inspiration from John Huston's 1967 movie Reflections in a Golden Eye in a scene in which Marlon Brando's character is facing the mirror,[75] screenwriter Paul Schrader said De Niro improvised the dialogue and that De Niro's performance was inspired by "an underground New York comedian" he had once seen, possibly including his signature line.[76] Roger Ebert said of the latter part of the phrase "I'm the only one here" that it was "the truest line in the film.... Travis Bickle's desperate need to make some kind of contact somehow—to share or mimic the effortless social interaction he sees all around him, but does not participate in."[77] In his 2009 memoir, saxophonist Clarence Clemons said that De Niro explained the line's origins during production of New York, New York (1977), with the actor seeing Bruce Springsteen say the line onstage at a concert.[78] In the 2000 film The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle, De Niro went on to repeat the monologue with some alterations in the role as the character Fearless Leader.[79]

Home media

The first 'Collector's Edition' DVD, released in 1999, was packaged as a single-disc edition release. It contained special features, such as behind-the-scenes and several trailers, including one for Taxi Driver.

In 2006, a 30th-anniversary 2-disc 'Collector's Edition' DVD was released. The first disc contains the film itself, two audio commentaries (one by writer Schrader and the other by Professor Robert Kolker), and trailers. This edition also retains some of the special features from the earlier release on the second disc, as well as some newly produced documentary material.[80]

A Blu-ray was released on April 5, 2011, to commemorate the film's 35th anniversary. It includes the special features from the previous 2-disc collector's edition, plus an audio commentary by Scorsese released in 1991 for the Criterion Collection, previously released on LaserDisc.[81]

As part of the Blu-ray production, Sony gave the film a full 4K digital restoration, which included scanning and cleaning the original negative (removing emulsion dirt and scratches). Colors were matched to director-approved prints under guidance from Scorsese and director of photography Michael Chapman. An all-new lossless DTS-HD Master Audio 5.1 soundtrack was also made from the original stereo recordings by Scorsese's personal sound team.[82][83] The restored print premiered in February 2011 at the Berlin Film Festival, and to promote the Blu-ray, Sony also had the print screened at AMC Theatres across the United States on March 19 and 22.[84][85][86]

Possible sequel and remake

In late January 2005, a sequel was announced by De Niro and Scorsese.[87] At a 25th-anniversary screening of Raging Bull, De Niro talked about the story of an older Travis Bickle being in development. Also in 2000, De Niro mentioned interest in bringing back the character in conversation with Actors Studio host James Lipton.[88] In November 2013, he revealed that Schrader had done a first draft but both he and Scorsese thought that it was not good enough to go beyond.[89]

In 2010, Variety reported rumors that Lars von Trier, Scorsese, and De Niro planned to work on a remake of the film with the same restrictions that were used in The Five Obstructions.[90] In 2014, Paul Schrader said that it was not being made. He said, "It was a terrible idea" and "in Marty's mind, it never was something that should be done."[91]


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