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Chinatown (1974 film)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Chinatown
Chinatownposter1.jpg
Theatrical release poster by Jim Pearsall
Directed byRoman Polanski
Written byRobert Towne
Produced byRobert Evans
Starring
CinematographyJohn A. Alonzo
Edited bySam O'Steen
Music byJerry Goldsmith
Production
companies
  • Penthouse
  • Long Road Productions
  • Robert Evans Company
Distributed byParamount Pictures
Release date
  • June 20, 1974 (1974-06-20)
Running time
131 minutes[1]
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Budget$6 million[2]
Box office$29.2 million[3]

Chinatown is a 1974 American neo-noir mystery crime thriller film directed by Roman Polanski from a screenplay by Robert Towne, starring Jack Nicholson and Faye Dunaway. The film was inspired by the California water wars, a series of disputes over southern California water at the beginning of the 20th century, by which Los Angeles interests secured water rights in the Owens Valley.[4] The Robert Evans production, released by Paramount Pictures, was the director's last film in the United States and features many elements of film noir, particularly a multi-layered story that is part mystery and part psychological drama.[5]

In 1991, the film was selected by the Library of Congress for preservation in the United States National Film Registry as being "culturally, historically or aesthetically significant"[6][7] and it is frequently listed as one of the greatest films of all time.[8][9][10] At the 47th Academy Awards, it was nominated for 11 Oscars, with Towne winning Best Original Screenplay. The Golden Globe Awards honored it for Best Drama, Best Director, Best Actor, and Best Screenplay. The American Film Institute placed it second among its top ten mystery films in 2008.

A sequel, The Two Jakes, was released in 1990, again starring Nicholson, who also directed, with Robert Towne returning to write the screenplay. The film failed to generate the acclaim of its predecessor.

Plot

In 1937, a woman identifying herself as Evelyn Mulwray hires private investigator J. J. "Jake" Gittes to follow her husband, Hollis Mulwray, the chief engineer at the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power who she claims is having an affair. Trailing him, Gittes overhears Mulwray publicly state that building a new reservoir would be unsafe. Gittes photographs Mulwray with a young woman, which are published in the next day's newspaper. Back at his office, Gittes is confronted by the real Evelyn Mulwray who threatens to sue him.

Realizing he was set up, Gittes assumes that Hollis Mulwray is the real target. Before he can question him, Lieutenant Lou Escobar fishes Mulwray's body from a reservoir. Now working for Evelyn, Gittes investigates Mulwray's death as a homicide. He discovers that although there is a drought, huge quantities of water are being released from the reservoir every night. Gittes is warned off by Water Department Security Chief Claude Mulvihill and a vicious henchman who slashes Gittes' left nostril. Back at his office, Gittes receives a call from Ida Sessions, who identifies herself as the fake Mrs. Mulwray. She is afraid to identify her employer but tells Gittes to check that day's obituaries.

Gittes learns that Mulwray was once the business partner of Evelyn's wealthy father, Noah Cross. At Cross' home, Cross offers to double Gittes' fee to search for Mulwray's missing mistress. At the hall of records, Gittes discovers that much of the Northwest San Fernando Valley has recently changed ownership. Investigating the valley, he is attacked by angry landowners who believe him to be a water department agent that they claim is sabotaging the water supply to force them out.

Gittes deduces the water department is drying up the land so it can be bought cheaply and Mulwray was murdered when he uncovered the plan. Gittes discovers that a recently deceased retirement home resident has seemingly purchased property a week after his death. Gittes and Evelyn bluff their way into the facility and confirm that other real-estate deals were surreptitiously transacted in the names of some unknowing residents. Their visit is interrupted by the suspicious director, who has called Mulvihill.

After escaping Mulvihill and his thugs, Gittes and Evelyn hide at Evelyn's house and sleep together. During the night, Evelyn receives a phone call and must leave suddenly; she warns Gittes that her father is dangerous. Gittes follows Evelyn's car to a house. Spying through the windows, he sees Evelyn comforting Mulwray's mistress. He accuses Evelyn of holding the woman hostage, but she claims the woman is her sister, Katherine.

The next day, an anonymous call draws Gittes to Ida Sessions' apartment where he finds her body. Escobar, who is waiting there, says the coroner found salt water in Mulwray's lungs, indicating that he did not drown in the fresh-water reservoir. Escobar suspects Evelyn murdered him and tells Gittes to produce her quickly. At the Mulwray mansion, Gittes finds Evelyn gone and the servants packing up the house. He discovers that the garden pond is salt water and spots a pair of eyeglasses in it. He confronts Evelyn about Hollis' mistress, who Evelyn now claims is her daughter. Gittes slaps Evelyn repeatedly until she breaks down and reveals Katherine is both her sister and her daughter; her father raped her when she was 15 years old. She says that the eyeglasses are not Mulwray's, as he did not wear bifocals.

Gittes arranges for the women to flee to Mexico and instructs Evelyn to meet him at her butler's home in Chinatown. He summons Cross to the Mulwray home to settle their deal. Cross admits his intention to incorporate the Northwest Valley into the City of Los Angeles, then irrigate and develop it. Gittes accuses Cross of murdering Mulwray. Cross has Mulvihill take the bifocals from Gittes at gunpoint. Gittes is then forced to drive them to Chinatown where Evelyn is waiting. The police are already there and detain Gittes. When Cross approaches Katherine, identifying himself as her grandfather, Evelyn shoots him in the arm and starts to drive away with Katherine. The police open fire, killing Evelyn. Cross clutches the hysterical girl and leads her away. Escobar orders Gittes to be released. Walsh, an employee of Gittes, leads him away from the scene with a title drop, telling him “forget it Jake, it’s Chinatown.”

Cast

Production

Background

In 1971, producer Robert Evans offered Towne $175,000 to write a screenplay for The Great Gatsby (1974), but Towne felt he could not better the F. Scott Fitzgerald novel. Instead, Towne asked for $25,000 from Evans to write his own story, Chinatown, to which Evans agreed.[11][12]

Chinatown is set in 1937 and portrays the manipulation of a critical municipal resource—water—by a cadre of shadowy oligarchs. It was the first part of Towne's planned trilogy about the character J. J. Gittes, the foibles of the Los Angeles power structure, and the subjugation of public good by private greed.[13] The second part, The Two Jakes, has Gittes caught up in another grab for a natural resource—oil—in the 1940s. It was directed by Jack Nicholson and released in 1990, but the second film's commercial and critical failure scuttled plans to make Gittes vs. Gittes,[14] about the third finite resource—land—in Los Angeles, circa 1968.[13]

Origins

The character of Hollis Mulwray was inspired by and loosely based on Irish immigrant William Mulholland (1855–1935) according to Mulholland's granddaughter.[15][16][17] Mulholland was the superintendent and chief engineer of the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, who oversaw the construction of the 230-mile aqueduct that carries water from the Owens Valley to Los Angeles.[16]

Author Vincent Brook considers real-life Mulholland to be split, in the film, into "noble Water and Power chief Hollis Mulwray" and "mobster muscle Claude Mulvihill,"[17] just as Land syndicate and Combination members, who "exploited their insider knowledge" on account of "personal greed," are "condensed into the singular, and singularly monstrous, Noah Cross."[17]

In the film, Mulwray opposes the dam wanted by Noah Cross and the city of Los Angeles, for reasons of engineering and safety, arguing he would not repeat his previous mistake, when his dam broke resulting in hundreds of deaths. This alludes to the St. Francis Dam disaster of March 12, 1928,[18] when the dam had been inspected by Mulholland on the day of its catastrophic failure.[19] The dam's failure inundated the Santa Clara River Valley, including the town of Santa Paula, with flood water, causing the deaths of as many as 600 people (including 42 school-aged children). The event effectively ended Mulholland's career.[20][21]

Script

According to Robert Towne, Carey McWilliams's Southern California Country: An Island on the Land (1946) and a West magazine article called "Raymond Chandler's L.A". inspired his original screenplay.[22] In a letter to McWilliams, Towne wrote that Southern California Country "really changed my life. It taught me to look at the place where I was born, and convinced me to write about it."[23]

Towne wrote the screenplay with Jack Nicholson in mind.[11] He took the title (and the exchange "What did you do in Chinatown?" / "As little as possible") from a Hungarian vice cop who had worked in Chinatown and explained to the writer that the complicated array of dialects and gangs in Los Angeles's Chinatown made it impossible for the police to know whether their interventions were helping victims or furthering their exploitation.[11]

Polanski learned of the script through Nicholson, with whom he had been searching for a suitable joint project. Producer Robert Evans wanted Polanski to direct due to his European vision of the United States, which Evans believed would be darker and more cynical. Polanski, a few years removed from the murder of his pregnant wife, Sharon Tate, in Los Angeles, was initially reluctant to return but was persuaded on the strength of the script.[11]

Towne wanted Cross to die and Evelyn Mulwray to survive. The screenwriter and director argued over it, with Polanski insisting on a tragic end. "I knew that if Chinatown was to be special," Polanski said, "not just another thriller where the good guys triumph in the final reel, Evelyn had to die."[24] They parted ways over this dispute and Polanski wrote the final scene a few days before it was shot.[11]

The original script was more than 180 pages and included a narration by Gittes; Polanski cut and reordered the story so the audience and Gittes unraveled the mysteries at the same time.

Characters and casting

  • J. J. Gittes was named after Nicholson's friend, producer Harry Gittes.
  • Evelyn Mulwray is, according to Towne, intended to initially seem the classic "black widow" character typical of lead female characters in film noir, but is eventually revealed to be a tragic victim. Jane Fonda was strongly considered for the role, but Polanski insisted on Dunaway.[11]
  • Noah Cross: Towne said that Huston was, after Nicholson, the second-best-cast actor in the film and that he made the Cross character menacing, through his courtly performance.[11]
  • Polanski appears in a cameo as the gangster who cuts Gittes' nose. The effect was accomplished with a special knife which could have actually cut Nicholson's nose if Polanski had not held it correctly.

Filming

William A. Fraker accepted the cinematographer position from Polanski when Paramount agreed. He had worked with the studio previously on Polanski's Rosemary's Baby. Robert Evans, never consulted about the decision, insisted that the offer be rescinded since he felt pairing Polanski and Fraker again would create a team with too much control over the project and complicate the production. Fraker was eventually replaced by John A. Alonzo.[25]

Between Fraker and Alonzo, the two compromised on Stanley Cortez, but Polanski grew frustrated with Cortez’s slow process, old fashioned compositional sensibility, and unfamiliarity with the Panavision equipment. Alonzo was chosen for his fleetness and skill with natural light a few weeks into production. Ultimately, only a handful of scenes in the finished film, including the orange grove confrontation, were shot by Cortez. [26]

In keeping with a technique Polanski attributes to Raymond Chandler, all of the events of the film are seen subjectively through the main character's eyes; for example, when Gittes is knocked unconscious, the film fades to black and fades in when he awakens. Gittes appears in every scene of the film.[11]

On set, Polanski and Dunaway had well-documented conflict. Mediating pitched battles between the abrupt, abrasive Polanski and the temperamental, histrionic Dunaway was a challenge. "She demonstrated certifiable proof of insanity," said Polanski.

His favorite illustration of this was the "parable of the hair". Robert Evans had flown in Ara Gallant from New York to streak Dunaway's coiffure for the movie, and in the course of one of Polanski's more complicated lighting setups, an errant hair escaped. During a scene set inside the Brown Derby restaurant, Polanski tried to shoot past the loose strand in what would otherwise have been a perfect 1930's marcel: tight, blonde, and lacquered against her skull à la Jean Harlow. But eventually Polanski plucked it from Dunaway's scalp. She shrieked at Polanski, "Don't you dare ever do that sort of thing to me again!" Dunaway remembered howling before she raced back to her trailer in tears. Polanski remembered it as: "I just don't believe it! That motherfucker pulled my hair out!"

It took a summit meeting in Evans's Paramount office before Dunaway would return to work. Polanski fanned the incident in the press as a perfect example of American star hysterics, while Dunaway insisted her hair wasn't the point. "It was not the hair", she said. "It was the incessant cruelty that I felt, the constant sarcasm, the never-ending need to humiliate me."[27]

Soundtrack

Jerry Goldsmith composed and recorded the film's score in ten days, after producer Robert Evans rejected Phillip Lambro's original effort at the last minute. It received an Academy Award nomination and remains widely praised,[28][29][30] ranking ninth on the American Film Institute's list of the top 25 American film scores.[31] Goldsmith's score, with "haunting" trumpet solos by Hollywood studio musician and MGM's first trumpet Uan Rasey, was released through ABC Records and features 12 tracks at a running time just over 30 minutes. It was later reissued on CD by the Varèse Sarabande label. Rasey related that Goldsmith "told [him] to play it sexy — but like it's not good sex!"[29]

  1. "Love Theme from Chinatown (Main Title)"
  2. "Noah Cross"
  3. "Easy Living"
  4. "Jake and Evelyn"
  5. "I Can't Get Started"
  6. "The Last of Ida"
  7. "The Captive"
  8. "The Boy on a Horse"
  9. "The Way You Look Tonight"
  10. "The Wrong Clue"
  11. "J. J. Gittes"
  12. "Love Theme from Chinatown (End Title)"

Historical background

In his 2004 film essay and documentary Los Angeles Plays Itself, film scholar Thom Andersen lays out the complex relationship between Chinatown's script and its historical background:

Chinatown isn't a docudrama, it's a fiction. The water project it depicts isn't the construction of the Los Angeles Aqueduct, engineered by William Mulholland before the First World War. Chinatown is set in 1938, not 1905. The Mullholland-like figure—"Hollis Mulwray"—isn't the chief architect of the project, but rather its strongest opponent, who must be discredited and murdered. Mulwray is against the "Alto Vallejo Dam" because it's unsafe, not because it's stealing water from somebody else.... But there are echoes of Mullholland's aqueduct project in Chinatown.... Mullholland's project enriched its promoters through insider land deals in the San Fernando Valley, just like the dam project in Chinatown. The disgruntled San Fernando Valley farmers of Chinatown, forced to sell off their land at bargain prices because of an artificial drought, seem like stand-ins for the Owens Valley settlers whose homesteads turned to dust when Los Angeles took the water that irrigated them. The "Van Der Lip Dam" disaster, which Hollis Mulwray cites to explain his opposition to the proposed dam, is an obvious reference to the collapse of the Saint Francis Dam in 1928. Mullholland built this dam after completing the aqueduct and its failure was the greatest man-made disaster in the history of California. These echoes have led many viewers to regard Chinatown, not only as docudrama, but as truth—the real secret history of how Los Angeles got its water. And it has become a ruling metaphor of the non-fictional critiques of Los Angeles development.[32]

Reception

Box office

The film earned $29 million at the North American box office.[3]

Critical response

On Rotten Tomatoes, Chinatown holds an approval rating of 99% based on 76 reviews, with an average rating of 9.40/10. The website's critical consensus reads: "As bruised and cynical as the decade that produced it, this noir classic benefits from Robert Towne's brilliant screenplay, director Roman Polanski's steady hand, and wonderful performances from Jack Nicholson and Faye Dunaway."[33] Metacritic assigned the film a weighted average score of 92 out of 100, based on 22 critics, indicating "universal acclaim".[34] Roger Ebert added it to his "Great Movies" list, saying that Nicholson's performance was "key in keeping Chinatown from becoming just a genre crime picture", along with Towne's screenplay, concluding that the film "seems to settle easily beside the original noirs".[35]

Although the film was widely acclaimed by prominent critics upon its release, Vincent Canby of The New York Times was not impressed with the screenplay as compared to the film's predecessors, saying: "Mr. Polanski and Mr. Towne have attempted nothing so witty and entertaining, being content instead to make a competently stylish, more or less thirties-ish movie that continually made me wish I were back seeing The Maltese Falcon or The Big Sleep", but noted Nicholson's performance, calling it the film's "major contribution to the genre".[36]

Subsequent works

A sequel film, The Two Jakes, was released in 1990, again starring Nicholson, who also directed, with Robert Towne returning to write the screenplay. It was not met with the same financial or critical success as the first film.

In November 2019, it was reported that David Fincher and Towne would write a prequel series for Netflix about Gittes starting his agency.[37] In August 2020, it was announced Ben Affleck would write and direct a film about the making of Chinatown, based on the non-fiction book The Big Goodbye: Chinatown and the Last Years of Hollywood.[38]

Legacy

Towne's screenplay has become legendary among critics and filmmakers, often cited as one of the best examples of the craft,[13][39][40] though Polanski decided on the fatal final scene. While it has been reported that Towne envisioned a happy ending, he has denied these claims and said simply that he initially found Polanski's ending to be excessively melodramatic. He explained in a 1997 interview, "The way I had seen it was that Evelyn would kill her father but end up in jail for it, unable to give the real reason why it happened. And the detective [Jack Nicholson] couldn't talk about it either, so it was bleak in its own way." Towne retrospectively concluded that "Roman was right",[41] later arguing that Polanski's stark and simple ending, due to the complexity of the events preceding it, was more fitting than his own, which he described as equally bleak but "too complicated and too literary."[42]

Chinatown brought more public awareness to the land dealings and disputes over water rights, which arose while drawing Los Angeles' water supply from the Owens Valley in the 1910s.[43]

Awards and honors

Award[44] Category Nominee(s) Result
Academy Awards[45] Best Picture Robert Evans Nominated
Best Director Roman Polanski Nominated
Best Actor Jack Nicholson Nominated
Best Actress Faye Dunaway Nominated
Best Original Screenplay Robert Towne Won
Best Art Direction Richard Sylbert, W. Stewart Campbell and Ruby R. Levitt Nominated
Best Cinematography John A. Alonzo Nominated
Best Costume Design Anthea Sylbert Nominated
Best Film Editing Sam O'Steen Nominated
Best Original Dramatic Score Jerry Goldsmith Nominated
Best Sound Charles Grenzbach and Larry Jost Nominated
Bodil Awards Best Non-European Film Roman Polanski Won
British Academy Film Awards Best Film Nominated
Best Direction Won
Best Actor in a Leading Role Jack Nicholson (also for The Last Detail) Won
Best Actress in a Leading Role Faye Dunaway Nominated
Best Actor in a Supporting Role John Huston Nominated
Best Screenplay Robert Towne (also for The Last Detail) Won
Best Art Direction Richard Sylbert Nominated
Best Cinematography John A. Alonzo Nominated
Best Costume Design Anthea Sylbert Nominated
Best Film Editing Sam O'Steen Nominated
Best Original Music Jerry Goldsmith Nominated
Directors Guild of America Awards Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Motion Pictures Roman Polanski Nominated
Edgar Allan Poe Awards Best Motion Picture Screenplay Robert Towne Won
Fotogramas de Plata Best Foreign Movie Performer Jack Nicholson (also for Five Easy Pieces) Won
Golden Globe Awards Best Motion Picture – Drama Won
Best Actor in a Motion Picture – Drama Jack Nicholson Won
Best Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama Faye Dunaway Nominated
Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture John Huston Nominated
Best Director – Motion Picture Roman Polanski Won
Best Screenplay – Motion Picture Robert Towne Won
Best Original Score – Motion Picture Jerry Goldsmith Nominated
International Film Music Critics Awards Best Re-Release or Re-Recording of an Existing Score Jerry Goldsmith, Douglass Fake, Roger Feigelson, Jeff Bond and Joe Sikoryak Nominated
Kansas City Film Critics Circle Awards Best Actor Jack Nicholson Won
Best Supporting Actor John Huston Won
National Board of Review Awards Top Ten Films 3rd Place
National Film Preservation Board National Film Registry Inducted
National Society of Film Critics Awards Best Actor Jack Nicholson (also for The Last Detail) Won
New York Film Critics Circle Awards Best Actor Won
Best Screenplay Robert Towne Runner-up
Online Film & Television Association Awards Hall of Fame – Motion Picture Won
Producers Guild of America Awards PGA Hall of Fame – Motion Pictures Robert Evans Won
Sant Jordi Awards Best Foreign Film Roman Polanski Won
Writers Guild of America Awards Best Drama Written Directly for the Screenplay Robert Towne Won

Other awards

American Film Institute recognition

See also

References

  1. ^ "Chinatown". British Board of Film Classification. Archived from the original on September 25, 2013. Retrieved September 21, 2013.
  2. ^ "Film History Milestones - 1974". Filmsite.org. Archived from the original on August 27, 2015. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
  3. ^ a b "Chinatown (1974)". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on January 28, 2012. Retrieved January 17, 2012.
  4. ^ "Barringer, Felicity. 'The Water Fight That Inspired Chinatown' in The New York Times, 25 April 2012". April 25, 2012. Archived from the original on July 28, 2020. Retrieved February 10, 2020.
  5. ^ Wasson, Sam. The Big Goodbye. Chinatown and the Last Years of Hollywood, Flatiron Books, 2020.
  6. ^ Kehr, Dave. "U.S. FILM REGISTRY ADDS 25 'SIGNIFICANT' MOVIES". chicagotribune.com. Archived from the original on June 17, 2020. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  7. ^ "Complete National Film Registry Listing | Film Registry | National Film Preservation Board | Programs at the Library of Congress | Library of Congress". Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. Archived from the original on October 31, 2016. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  8. ^ a b Pulver, Andrew (October 22, 2010). "Chinatown: the best film of all time". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on October 10, 2017. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
  9. ^ "100 Greatest Films". Archived from the original on October 14, 2013. Retrieved December 10, 2010.
  10. ^ "Greatest film ever: Chinatown wins by a nose". The Sydney Morning Herald. October 24, 2010. Archived from the original on March 21, 2016. Retrieved December 10, 2010.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h Robert Towne, Roman Polanksi and Robert Evans (April 11, 2007). Retrospective interview from Chinatown (Special Collector's Edition) (DVD). Paramount. ASIN B000UAE7RW.
  12. ^ * Thomson, David (2005). The Whole Equation: A History of Hollywood. ISBN 0-375-40016-8
  13. ^ a b c The Hollywood Interview. "Robert Towne: The Hollywood Interview". Archived from the original on December 16, 2017. Retrieved November 7, 2009.
  14. ^ "'My sister! My daughter!' and other tales of 'Chinatown' - CNN.com". CNN. September 29, 2009. Archived from the original on January 23, 2018. Retrieved April 28, 2010.
  15. ^ "William Mulholland Gave Water to LA and Inspired Chinatown Archived September 15, 2016, at the Wayback Machine" by Jon Wilkman, The Daily Beast, February 28, 2016
  16. ^ a b "Catherine Mulholland dies at 88; historian wrote key biography of famed grandfather Archived January 15, 2017, at the Wayback Machine" by Elaine Woo, Los Angeles Times, July 7, 2011
  17. ^ a b c Brook, Vincent. Land of Smoke and Mirrors: A Cultural History of Los Angeles; Rutgers University Press; January 22, 2013; ISBN 978-0813554563
  18. ^ Nazaryan, Alexander (April 10, 2016). "On the edge of L.A. lies the remains of an engineering disaster that offers a warning for us today". Newsweek. Archived from the original on March 11, 2018. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
  19. ^ "Transcript of Testimony and Verdict of the Coroner's Jury in the Inquest over Victims of St. Francis Dam Disaster", 615-616, Book 26902, box 13, folder 2; Richard Courtney Collection, Huntington Library, San Marino, California; Ostrom, Water & Politics
  20. ^ Pollack, Alan (March–April 2010). "President's Message" (PDF). The Heritage Junction Dispatch. Santa Clara Valley Historical Society. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 9, 2013. Retrieved October 17, 2013.
  21. ^ * Reisner, Marc (1986). Cadillac Desert. ISBN 0-670-19927-3
  22. ^ Towne, Robert (May 29, 1994). "It's Only L.A., Jake". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on June 19, 2016. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
  23. ^ Richardson, Peter (2005). American Prophet: The Life and Work of Carey McWilliams. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. pp. 260. ISBN 978-0472115242.
  24. ^ "Chinatown" Archived June 5, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved August 22, 2012.
  25. ^ Beach, Christopher (May 2015). A Hidden History of Film Style: Cinematographers, Directors, and the Collaborative Process. Univ of California Press. ISBN 9780520284357.
  26. ^ Wasson, Sam. The Big Goodbye. Chinatown and the Last Years of Hollywood, Flatiron Books, 2020.
  27. ^ McDougal, Dennis. (2008). Five easy decades: how Jack Nicholson became the biggest movie star in modern times. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-72246-5. OCLC 122261646.
  28. ^ Teachout, Terry (July 10, 2009). "The Perfect Film Score". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on October 28, 2016. Retrieved December 7, 2016.
  29. ^ a b Team Empire (April 27, 2013). "The 20 Soundtracks That Defined The 1970s". Empire. Archived from the original on December 4, 2016. Retrieved December 7, 2016.
  30. ^ Schweiger, Daniel (March 15, 2010). "CD Review: The Ghost Writer – Original Soundtrack". Film Music Magazine. Global Media Online. Archived from the original on January 15, 2017. Retrieved December 7, 2016. ...of all of his movies that involve some sort of conspiracy, Jerry Goldsmith's Oscar-nominated film noir stylings for Chinatown are the most renowned. I can dare to say that while nothing is going to top that classic score...
  31. ^ "AFI's 100 Years of Film Scores". American Film Institute. Archived from the original on March 30, 2014. Retrieved December 7, 2016.
  32. ^ Andersen, Thom (writer, director), voiceover narration in Los Angeles Plays Itself (2004), released (2014) by The Cinema Guild.
  33. ^ "Chinatown (1974)". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on February 24, 2021. Retrieved March 27, 2021.
  34. ^ "Chinatown Reviews". Metacritic. Archived from the original on September 8, 2018. Retrieved August 31, 2018.
  35. ^ Ebert, Roger. "Chinatown". RogerEbert.com. Archived from the original on January 20, 2016. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  36. ^ Canby, Vincent. "Chinatown (1974)". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 29, 2016. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
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Bibliography

  • Easton, Michael (1998) Chinatown (B.F.I. Film Classics series). Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 0-85170-532-4.
  • Thomson, David (2004). The Whole Equation: A History of Hollywood. New York, New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-375-40016-8.
  • Towne, Robert (1997). Chinatown and the Last Detail: 2 Screenplays. New York: Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3401-7.
  • Tuska, Jon (1978). The Detective in Hollywood. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company. ISBN 0-385-12093-1.
  • Wasson, Sam (2020). The Big Goodbye. Chinatown and the Last Years of Hollywood, Flatiron Books. ISBN 9781250301826.

External links

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