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The Silence of the Lambs (film)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Silence of the Lambs
Theatrical release poster
Directed byJonathan Demme
Screenplay byTed Tally
Based onThe Silence of the Lambs
by Thomas Harris
Produced by
CinematographyTak Fujimoto
Edited byCraig McKay
Music byHoward Shore
Strong Heart Productions
Distributed byOrion Pictures
Release dates
  • January 30, 1991 (1991-01-30) (New York City)
  • February 14, 1991 (1991-02-14) (United States)
Running time
118 minutes[1]
CountryUnited States
Budget$19 million[2]
Box office$272.7 million[2]

The Silence of the Lambs is a 1991 American psychological horror thriller film directed by Jonathan Demme and written by Ted Tally, adapted from Thomas Harris's 1988 novel of the same name. It stars Jodie Foster as Clarice Starling, a young FBI trainee who is hunting a serial killer named "Buffalo Bill" (Ted Levine), who skins his female victims. To catch him, she seeks the advice of the imprisoned Dr. Hannibal Lecter (Anthony Hopkins), a brilliant psychiatrist and cannibalistic serial killer. The film also features performances from Scott Glenn, Anthony Heald, and Kasi Lemmons.[3]

The Silence of the Lambs was released on February 14, 1991, and grossed $272.7 million worldwide on a $19 million budget, becoming the fifth-highest-grossing film of 1991 worldwide. It premiered at the 41st Berlin International Film Festival, where it competed for the Golden Bear, while Demme received the Silver Bear for Best Director. It became the third and most recent film (the other two being 1934's It Happened One Night and 1975's One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest) to win Academy Awards in all the major five categories: Best Picture, Best Director, Best Actor, Best Actress, and Best Adapted Screenplay. It was the first (and to date only) horror film to win Best Picture.

The Silence of the Lambs is regularly cited by critics, film directors, and audiences as one of the greatest and most influential films. In 2018, Empire ranked it 48th on their list of the 500 greatest movies of all time.[4] The American Film Institute ranked it the sixty-fifth greatest film in American cinema, as well as the fifth-greatest and most influential thriller film, while Starling and Lecter were ranked among the greatest film heroines and villains. The film is considered "culturally, historically, or aesthetically" significant by the U.S. Library of Congress and was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry in 2011.[5] A sequel, Hannibal, was released in 2001, followed by two prequel films, Red Dragon (2002) and Hannibal Rising (2007).

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • The Silence of the Lambs (1/12) Movie CLIP - Closer! (1991) HD
  • The Silence of the Lambs Official Trailer #1 - Anthony Hopkins Movie (1991) HD
  • THE SILENCE OF THE LAMBS (1991) | Official Trailer | MGM
  • The Silence of the Lambs (10/12) Movie CLIP - Buffalo Bill (1991) HD
  • The Silence of the Lambs (7/12) Movie CLIP - Love Your Suit (1991) HD



Clarice Starling, an FBI trainee, is assigned by her boss, Jack Crawford, to interview the incarcerated Hannibal Lecter, a highly intelligent former psychiatrist and cannibalistic serial killer. Crawford secretly hopes to gain insights into a psychopathic serial killer known as "Buffalo Bill", who kills overweight women and skins them.

Starling meets Lecter in his cell at the Baltimore State Hospital for the Criminally Insane. Although initially courteous, Lecter rebuffs her, deducing Crawford's true motive. As she is leaving, another prisoner, Miggs, flings his semen at her, angering Lecter, who changes his mind and provides Starling a clue. The clue leads to a jar holding a man's severed head. The man is linked to Buffalo Bill, and Lecter offers to profile the killer on the condition that he is transferred away from Dr. Frederick Chilton, whom he detests. Meanwhile, Lecter influences Miggs into swallowing his own tongue and committing suicide, presumably to avenge his revolting action toward Starling, and another victim is found, with a death's head moth lodged in her throat.

In Tennessee, Buffalo Bill abducts Catherine Martin, the daughter of a U.S. senator. Crawford authorizes Starling to offer Lecter a fake deal, promising a prison transfer if he helps them capture Buffalo Bill in time to rescue Catherine. Instead, Lecter demands a quid pro quo, offering clues in exchange for personal information about Starling; she agrees. Chilton exposes Starling's deceit and offers Lecter a new deal. Lecter agrees and is flown to Memphis, where he gives Senator Martin accurate information on Buffalo Bill's appearance but falsely identifies him as "Louis Friend".

Starling figures out the name is an anagram of "iron sulfide", also known as "fool's gold". She visits Lecter, now imprisoned in Tennessee. She describes a traumatic childhood incident wherein she heard lambs screaming at slaughter in the barn but could not save them. Lecter speculates that she hopes saving Catherine will end the recurring nightmares she has from this event. Satisfied, he returns the case files to her. That evening, Lecter brutally kills his two guards and escapes from his cell.

With her notes from Lecter, Starling figures out that Buffalo Bill knew his first victim: Frederika Bimmel. She travels to Bimmel's Ohio hometown and discovers that she and Buffalo Bill were both tailors. In Bimmel's room, she finds evidence that reveals Buffalo Bill is making a suit with human skin. The culprit is a man named Jame Gumb, who believes he is transsexual but was deemed too violent to apply for a sex-change operation. Crawford and an FBI Hostage Rescue Team storm Gumb's address in Illinois but find the house empty. Meanwhile, Starling follows a lead that takes her to the house of Bimmel's former client. There, she meets the real Jame Gumb, realizing he is Buffalo Bill after spotting a death's head moth. She pursues him and finds Catherine trapped in a dry well in the cavernous basement. Gumb stalks Starling with night-vision goggles but reveals himself by cocking his revolver; she reacts quickly and shoots him dead.

At the FBI Academy graduation party, Starling receives a phone call from Lecter, who is in the Bahamas at a Bimini airport. He assures her that he has no intention of pursuing her and requests that she return the favor, which she says she cannot. He hangs up, stating that he is "having an old friend for dinner" as he trails a newly arrived Chilton into the crowd.



In the years following its release, The Silence of the Lambs was subject to much film criticism regarding its themes of human sexuality and sexual politics.[8] Throughout the film, Clarice Starling's gender is emphasized as a distinguishing feature, as she is a minority amongst her numerous male peers, though film scholar Barry Forshaw notes that "any feminist agenda is never bluntly formulated verbally".[9]

Some gay male critics and feminists felt that the film's portrayal of Buffalo Bill negatively associated the LGBT community with deviance, psychopathy, and violence.[10] Despite this, Bill's sexual orientation is never explicitly stated in the film, and Lecter expressly states Bill is "not really transsexual".[11] Demme argued that this criticism was misguided, telling The New York Times that "I got all this unfounded abuse... [Buffalo Bill] wasn't a gay character. He was a tormented man who hated himself and wished he was a woman because that would have made him as far away from himself as he possibly could be." Demme added that he "came to realize that there is a tremendous absence of positive gay characters in movies".[12] Despite that, in following years the film (and its claims that Bill is "not really transsexual") has been criticized for transphobia by transfeminists, who claimed that it is "one of the most significant and impactful examples of pop culture transmisogyny" and it "encourages disbelief of trans people’s self-identification".[13][14][15]

In a 1992 interview with Playboy magazine, the feminist and women's rights advocate Betty Friedan stated: "I thought it was absolutely outrageous that The Silence of the Lambs won four [sic] Oscars. [...] I'm not saying that the movie shouldn't have been shown. I'm not denying the movie was an artistic triumph, but it was about the evisceration, the skinning alive of women. That is what I find offensive. Not the Playboy centerfold."[16]



The Silence of the Lambs is based on the 1988 novel by Thomas Harris. It was the second film to feature the character Hannibal Lecter; the first, Manhunter (1986), was also adapted from a Harris novel.[17] Prior to the release of the Silence of the Lambs novel, Orion Pictures partnered with Gene Hackman to adapt it for film. With Hackman set to direct and possibly star in as FBI agent Jack Crawford, negotiations were made to split the $500,000 cost of rights between Hackman and the studio.[18] The producers also had to acquire the rights to the Lecter character, which were owned by Manhunter producer Dino De Laurentiis. Owing to the financial failure of Manhunter, De Laurentiis lent the rights to Orion for free.[17]

In November 1987, Ted Tally was brought on to write the adaptation;[19] Tally had crossed paths with Harris many times, with his interest in adapting The Silence of the Lambs originating from receiving an advance copy of the book from Harris.[20] When Tally was about halfway through with the first draft, Hackman withdrew from the project and financing fell through. However, Orion co-founder Mike Medavoy encouraged Tally to keep writing as the studio took care of financing and searched for a replacement director.[21] Orion sought Jonathan Demme to direct. With the screenplay not yet completed, Demme signed on after reading the novel.[22] From there, the project developed quickly; Tally said: "[Demme] read my first draft not long after it was finished, and we met. Then I was just startled by the speed of things. We met in May 1989 and were shooting in November. I don't remember any big revisions."[23]


Jodie Foster was interested in playing FBI agent Clarice Starling immediately after reading the novel.[24] However, despite having just won an Academy Award for her performance in The Accused (1988), Demme was not initially convinced that she was right for the role.[25][26] Having just collaborated on Married to the Mob (1988), Demme's first choice for the role of Starling was Michelle Pfeiffer, who turned it down, later saying, "It was a difficult decision, but I got nervous about the subject matter."[27] He then approached Meg Ryan, who also turned it down for its gruesome themes. The studio was skeptical about Laura Dern as a bankable choice,[28] so Foster was ultimately awarded the role due to her passion for the character.[29] Molly Ringwald auditioned but was deemed "too young."[30]

For the role of Lecter, Demme originally approached Sean Connery. After Connery turned it down, Anthony Hopkins was offered the role based on his performance in The Elephant Man (1980).[31] When Hopkins's agent told him that a script was on his way titled The Silence of the Lambs, Hopkins responded, "Is it a children's story?"[32] Hopkins called his agent back after reading the first 10 pages and said, "This is the best part I've ever read." He accepted the role after having dinner with Demme.[32]

Other actors considered for the role included Al Pacino,[33] Robert De Niro,[33] Dustin Hoffman,[33] Derek Jacobi[34] and Daniel Day-Lewis.[34] Forest Whitaker has stated that he also auditioned for the role. The mask Hopkins wore became an iconic symbol of the film. It was created by Ed Cubberly, of Frenchtown, New Jersey, who had made masks for NHL goalkeepers.[35]

Hopkins developed his portrayal of Lecter by drawing inspiration from the HAL 9000 computer as voiced by Douglas Rain in 2001: A Space Odyssey, as well as the vocal patterns of writer Truman Capote.[36][37][better source needed] In a 2001 interview with GQ, Hopkins clarified that he did not base Lecter's vocal cadence on Katharine Hepburn, as some people had believed. He also revealed that the decision to play Lecter as still and unblinking was not influenced by Charles Manson, as some had speculated.[38] Hopkins admitted to being intimidated by Foster, who had just won an Academy Award, and initially felt scared to talk to her.[32]

Gene Hackman was cast to play Jack Crawford, the Agent-in-Charge of the Behavioral Science Unit of the FBI in Quantico, Virginia, but he found the script too violent.[33] Scott Glenn was then cast in the role. In preparation for the role, Glenn met with John E. Douglas. Douglas gave Glenn a tour of the Quantico facility and also played for him an audio tape containing various recordings that serial killers Lawrence Bittaker and Roy Norris had made of themselves raping and torturing a 16-year-old girl.[39][40] According to Douglas, Glenn wept as he listened to the recordings, and even changed his liberal stance on the death penalty.[41]


Principal photography on The Silence of the Lambs began on November 15, 1989, and wrapped on March 1, 1990.[42] Filming primarily took place in and around Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, with some scenes shot in nearby northern West Virginia.[43][failed verification] The Victorian home in Perryopolis, Pennsylvania, used as Buffalo Bill's home in the film went up for sale in August 2015 for $300,000.[44] The home sat on the market for nearly a year, before finally selling for $195,000.[45][46] The exterior of the Western Center near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, served as the setting for Baltimore State Hospital for the Criminally Insane.[47] A scene set in the FBI Director's office was filmed in the office of United States Secretary of Labor Elizabeth Dole in Washington, D.C.[48] In what was a rare act of cooperation at the time, the FBI allowed scenes to be filmed at the FBI Academy in Quantico; some FBI staff members even acted in bit parts.[49][50]

The design for the basement and pit used by Buffalo Bill was inspired by the real-life kidnappings and murders performed by Gary M. Heidnik.


Professional ratings
Review scores

The musical score for The Silence of the Lambs was composed by Howard Shore, who would also collaborate with Demme on Philadelphia. Recorded in Munich during the latter half of the summer of 1990, the score was performed by the Munich Symphony Orchestra.[51] "I tried to write in a way that goes right into the fabric of the movie," explained Shore on his approach. "I tried to make the music just fit in. When you watch the movie you are not aware of the music. You get your feelings from all elements simultaneously, lighting, cinematography, costumes, acting, music. Jonathan Demme was very specific about the music."[52] The music editor was Suzana Peric.[53][54] A soundtrack album was released by MCA Records on February 5, 1991.[55] Music from the film was later used in the trailers for its 2001 sequel, Hannibal.[56]

In addition to Shore's score, recordings of popular music are used prominently in the film. This includes British post-punk music, such as the song "Hip Priest" by the Fall which can be heard playing during the climactic scene in which Starling enters Buffalo Bill's house.[57] The song "Goodbye Horses" by Q Lazzarus became a cult hit after it was featured in an iconic scene with Buffalo Bill applying makeup and speaking to himself in the mirror.[58]


Box office

The Silence of the Lambs was released on February 14, 1991, grossing almost $14 million from 1,497 theaters over the 4-day Presidents' Day weekend, placing at number one at the US box office. It remained at number one for five weeks.[59]

The film opened at the Odeon Leicester Square in London in June 1991 and grossed £290,936 in its opening week, which distributor Rank claimed was a world record opening week from one theatre.[60] The following week, it expanded to 281 screens and grossed £4,260,472 for the week, a UK record.[61]

The film grossed $131 million in the United States and Canada with a total worldwide gross of $273 million.[59] It was the fourth-highest grossing film of 1991 in North America and the fifth-highest-grossing film worldwide.[62]

Critical response

The performances of Jodie Foster and Anthony Hopkins garnered widespread critical acclaim, earning them the Academy Awards for Best Actress and Best Actor respectively.

The Silence of the Lambs was a sleeper hit that gradually gained widespread success and critical acclaim.[63] Foster, Hopkins, and Levine garnered much acclaim for their performances. Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reports that 95% of 153 film critics have given the film a positive review, with an average rating of 8.80/10. The website's critical consensus reads: "Director Jonathan Demme's smart, taut thriller teeters on the edge between psychological study and all-out horror, and benefits greatly from stellar performances by Anthony Hopkins and Jodie Foster."[64] Metacritic, another review aggregator, assigned the film a weighted average score of 86 out of 100, based on 20 reviews from mainstream critics, indicating "universal acclaim".[65] Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "A−" on an A+ to F scale.[66]

Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times, specifically mentioned the "terrifying qualities" of Hannibal Lecter.[67] Ebert later added the film to his list of The Great Movies, recognizing the film as a "horror masterpiece" alongside such classics as Nosferatu, Psycho, and Halloween.[68] However, the film is also notable for being one of two multi-Academy Award winners (the other being Unforgiven) to get a bad review from Ebert's colleague, Gene Siskel. Writing for Chicago Tribune, Siskel said, "Foster's character, who is appealing, is dwarfed by the monsters she is after. I'd rather see her work on another case."[69]


Academy Awards record
Best Picture, Edward Saxon, Kenneth Utt, Ronald M. Bozman
Best Director, Jonathan Demme
Best Actor, Anthony Hopkins
Best Actress, Jodie Foster
Best Adapted Screenplay, Ted Tally
Golden Globe Awards record
Best Actress, Jodie Foster
British Academy Film Awards record
Best Actor, Anthony Hopkins
Best Actress, Jodie Foster

The film won the Big Five Academy Awards: Best Picture, Best Director (Demme), Best Actor (Hopkins), Best Actress (Foster), and Best Adapted Screenplay (Ted Tally), making it only the third film in history to accomplish that feat.[70] It was also nominated for Best Sound (Tom Fleischman and Christopher Newman) and Best Film Editing, but lost to Terminator 2: Judgment Day and JFK, respectively.[71]

Other awards include Best Film by the National Board of Review of Motion Pictures, CHI Awards and PEO Awards. Demme won the Silver Bear for Best Director at the 41st Berlin International Film Festival[72] and was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Director. The film was nominated for the Grand Prix of the Belgian Film Critics Association. It was also nominated for the British Academy Film Award for Best Film. Screenwriter Ted Tally received an Edgar Award for Best Motion Picture Screenplay. The film was awarded Best Horror Film of the Year during the 2nd Horror Hall of Fame telecast, with Vincent Price presenting the award to the film's executive producer Gary Goetzman.[73]

In 1998, the film was listed as one of the 100 greatest films in the past 100 years by the American Film Institute.[74] In 2006, at the Key Art Awards, the original poster for The Silence of the Lambs was named best film poster "of the past 35 years".[75] The Silence of the Lambs placed seventh on Bravo's The 100 Scariest Movie Moments for Lecter's escape scene. The American Film Institute named Hannibal Lecter (as portrayed by Hopkins) the number one film villain of all time[76] and Clarice Starling (as portrayed by Foster) the sixth-greatest film hero of all time.[76] In 2011, ABC aired a prime-time special, Best in Film: The Greatest Movies of Our Time, that counted down the best films chosen by fans based on results of a poll conducted by ABC and People magazine. The Silence of the Lambs was selected as the best suspense/thriller and Dr. Hannibal Lecter was selected as the fourth-greatest film character.

The film and its characters have appeared in the following AFI "100 Years" lists:

In 2015, Entertainment Weekly's 25th anniversary year, it included The Silence of the Lambs in its list of the 25 best movies made since the magazine's beginning.[77]

Year Organization Award Nominee Result Ref.
1991 Academy Awards Best Picture Edward Saxon, Kenneth Utt, Ron Bozman Won [78]
Best Director Jonathan Demme Won
Best Actor Anthony Hopkins Won
Best Actress Jodie Foster Won
Best Adapted Screenplay Ted Tally Won
Best Film Editing Craig McKay Nominated
Best Sound Tom Fleischman, Christopher Newman Nominated
1991 Golden Globe Awards Best Motion Picture – Drama Kenneth Utt Nominated [79]
Best Director Jonathan Demme Nominated
Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama Anthony Hopkins Nominated
Best Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama Jodie Foster Won
Best Screenplay Ted Tally Nominated
1991 British Academy Film Awards Best Film Ron Bozman, Edward Saxon, Kenneth Utt Nominated
Best Direction Jonathan Demme Nominated
Best Actor in a Leading Role Anthony Hopkins Won
Best Actress in a Leading Role Jodie Foster Won
Best Adapted Screenplay Ted Tally Nominated
Best Cinematography Tak Fujimoto Nominated
Best Editing Craig McKay Nominated
Best Film Music Howard Shore Nominated
Best Sound Skip Lievsay, Christopher Newman, Tom Fleischman Nominated

Home media

The film was released on VHS in October 1991 by Orion Home Video. It was the most rented video in the United States upon release.[80] It was released on DVD on March 6, 2001 by MGM Home Entertainment in both Widescreen (1.85:1) and Full Screen (1.33:1) versions.[81] The Criterion Collection, which had released the film on LaserDisc in 1994, released a DVD special edition in 1998, and later a Blu-Ray edition in 2018.[82]


The sequel Hannibal (2001) only saw the return of Hopkins after Foster and director Jonathan Demme declined to return because of the onscreen increase of violence and gore.[83][84] Hopkins again returned to the role of Hannibal Lecter in the prequel film Red Dragon (2002) while another prequel, Hannibal Rising (2007), saw Gaspard Ulliel take over the role.[85] The TV series Clarice (2021) takes place after the events of the film, with actress Rebecca Breeds portraying Clarice.[86] The series Hannibal (2013-2015) is another adaptation of Red Dragon and Hannibal Rising, taking place before the events of The Silence of the Lambs.[87]


According to The Guardian, before The Silence of the Lambs, serial killers in film had been "claw-handed bogeymen with melty faces and rubber masks. By contrast, Lecter was highly intelligent with impeccable manners," and played by an actor with "impeccable credentials".[88]

When The Silence of the Lambs was re-released in the United Kingdom in 2017, the British Board of Film Classification reclassified it from an 18 to a 15 certificate. The film's co-producer Ed Saxon said audiences had become desensitized and that the film had become less shocking.[88] However, the BBFC's Craig Lapper felt that audiences had instead become used to procedural crime dramas with serial killers as dramatic tropes, and suggested that The Silence of the Lambs had created interest in these themes.[88]

See also


  1. ^ "The Silence of the Lambs". British Board of Film Classification. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved September 20, 2013.
  2. ^ a b "The Silence of the Lambs (1991)". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on November 27, 2014. Retrieved November 30, 2014.
  3. ^ "The Silence of the Lambs". Turner Classic Movies. Archived from the original on March 18, 2016. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
  4. ^ "The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time – #400–301". Empire Online. Archived from the original on October 11, 2011. Retrieved June 3, 2010.
  5. ^ "Silence of the Lambs added to U.S. film archive". London, England: BBC. December 28, 2011. Archived from the original on December 28, 2011. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
  6. ^ Kennedy, Michael (February 4, 2021). "Silence Of The Lambs: George Romero's Cameo Role Explained". Screen Rant. Retrieved June 24, 2021.
  7. ^ Saperstein, Pat (July 16, 2017). "George A. Romero, 'Night of the Living Dead' Director, Dies at 77". Variety. Retrieved June 24, 2021.
  8. ^ Tasker 2019, p. 38.
  9. ^ Forshaw 2014, p. 32.
  10. ^ Tasker 2019, p. 37.
  11. ^ ""Dr. Lecter, My Name Is Clarice Starling"". Vanity Fair. February 23, 2021. Archived from the original on February 25, 2021. Retrieved February 25, 2021.
  12. ^ Schmalz, Jeffrey (February 28, 1993). "From Visions of Paradise to Hell on Earth". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 15, 2017. Retrieved February 18, 2017.
  13. ^ Truitt, Jos (March 10, 2016). "My Auntie Buffalo Bill: The Unavoidable Transmisogyny of Silence of the Lambs". Feministing. Retrieved December 24, 2023.
  14. ^ Romano, Aja (February 16, 2021). "Understanding Silence of the Lambs' complicated cultural legacy". Vox. Retrieved December 24, 2023.
  15. ^ Ophelders, E. P. H. (2019). The Transvestite, the Transsexual and the Trans Woman: The Transmisogynist Representation of Transgender Killers in Psycho, The Silence of the Lambs and The Mantis (Bachelor thesis).
  16. ^ "Interview of Friedan" by David Sheff, Playboy, September 1992, pp. 51–54, 56, 58, 60, 62, 149; reprinted in full in Interviews with Betty Friedan, Janann Sherman, ed. Univ. Press of Mississippi, 2002, ISBN 1-57806-480-5.
  17. ^ a b Bernstein, Jill (February 8, 2001). "How Ridley Scott's Hannibal came to be made". The Guardian. London, England. Archived from the original on May 9, 2014. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
  18. ^ Tiech 2012, p. 63.
  19. ^ Medavoy 2013, p. 183.
  20. ^ Konow 2012, p. 459.
  21. ^ Engel 1995, p. 110.
  22. ^ Kapsis 2008, pp. 71–75.
  23. ^ Scott 2006, p. 17.
  24. ^ Mishra, Anubhuti (June 14, 2023). "20 Best suspense movies as per IMDb that will keep you hooked". Pinkvilla. Archived from the original on December 21, 2022. Retrieved July 20, 2023.
  25. ^ "The Total Film Interview – Jodie Foster". Total Film. Bath, England: Future Publishing. December 1, 2005. Archived from the original on March 14, 2014. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
  26. ^ Davis, Cindy (February 27, 2012). "Mindhole Blowers: 20 Facts About The Silence of the Lambs That Might Make You Crave a Nice Chianti". Pajiba. Archived from the original on March 14, 2014. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
  27. ^ The Barbara Walters Special, American Broadcasting Company, 1992
  28. ^ Davis, Cindy (April 2, 2015). "'Silence of the Lambs' director admits he didn't want to cast Jodie Foster". NME. London, England: TI Media. Archived from the original on January 15, 2018. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
  29. ^ Maslin, Janet (February 19, 1991). "How to Film a Gory Story With Restraint". The New York Times. New York City. Archived from the original on January 17, 2015. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
  30. ^ Molly Ringwald Felt Limited by ‘Brat Pack’ Label, But ‘The Bear’ and ‘Feud’ Roles Excite Her for What’s Next
  31. ^ Odam, Matthew (October 26, 2013). "AFF panel wrap: Jonathan Demme in conversation with Paul Thomas Anderson". Austin American-Statesman. Austin, Texas: Cox Media Group. Archived from the original on November 22, 2014. Retrieved March 15, 2014.
  32. ^ a b c Setoodeh, Ramin (January 20, 2021). "Jodie Foster and Anthony Hopkins Reunite for 'Silence of the Lambs' 30th Anniversary". Variety. Los Angeles: Variety Media. Archived from the original on January 19, 2021. Retrieved February 1, 2021.
  33. ^ a b c d White, Peter (November 6, 2017). "Jodie Foster Lifts The Lid On 'The Silence of the Lambs' At BFI – Q&A". Deadline Hollywood. Los Angeles, California: Penske Media Corporation. Archived from the original on November 6, 2017. Retrieved November 6, 2017.
  34. ^ a b Lang, Brent (September 11, 2013). "Derek Jacobi, Daniel Day-Lewis Almost Played Hannibal Lecter in 'Silence of the Lambs'". The Wrap. Los Angeles, California: TheWrap. Archived from the original on April 11, 2014. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
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