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Amadeus (film)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Amadeus
Theatrical release poster by Peter Sís
Directed byMiloš Forman
Screenplay byPeter Shaffer
Based on
Produced bySaul Zaentz
Starring
CinematographyMiroslav Ondříček
Edited by
Production
company
Distributed by
Release dates
  • September 6, 1984 (1984-09-06) (Los Angeles)
  • September 19, 1984 (1984-09-19) (United States)
Running time
161 minutes[1]
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Budget$18 million[2]
Box office$90 million[3]

Amadeus is a 1984 American period biographical drama film directed by Miloš Forman, and adapted by Peter Shaffer from his 1979 stage play of the same name, in-turn inspired by the 1830 play Mozart and Salieri by Alexander Pushkin. Set in Vienna, Austria, during the latter half of the 18th century, the film is a fictionalized story of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart from the time he left Salzburg, described by its writer as a "fantasia on the theme of Mozart and Salieri". Mozart's music is heard extensively in the soundtrack. The film follows a fictional rivalry between Mozart and Italian composer Antonio Salieri at the court of Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor. The film stars F. Murray Abraham as Salieri and Tom Hulce as Mozart. Abraham and Hulce were both nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor, with Abraham winning.

Amadeus was released by Orion Pictures on September 19, 1984, thirteen days after its world premiere in Los Angeles on September 6, 1984. Upon release, it received widespread acclaim and was a box office hit, grossing over $90 million. Amadeus was nominated for 53 awards and received 40, including eight Academy Awards (winning Academy Award for Best Picture), four BAFTA Awards, four Golden Globe Awards, and a Directors Guild of America award. As of 2024, it was the most recent film to have more than one nomination in the Academy Award for Best Actor category. In 1998, the American Film Institute ranked it 53rd on its 100 Years... 100 Movies list. In 2019, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".[4][5][6]

YouTube Encyclopedic

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Transcription

Plot

In the winter of 1823, aged composer Antonio Salieri is committed to a psychiatric hospital after attempting suicide, during which his servants overhear him confess to murdering Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. A young priest, Father Vogler, approaches Salieri and tells him to confess his sins and find God's peace. Salieri plays two of his own melodies for Vogler, who is unfamiliar with them, and then one of Mozart's, which the priest recognizes at once. Salieri begins his confession by saying that he idolized Mozart from childhood. Salieri recounts that he prayed to God that if He allowed Salieri to become a famous composer, he would—in return—promise his faithfulness, chastity and diligence. Soon after, his father, who had not been supportive of his musical desires, chokes on his food and dies and Salieri takes as a sign that God has accepted his vow. By 1774, Salieri had become court composer to Emperor Joseph II in Vienna.

Seven years later, at a reception in honor of Mozart's patron, the Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg, Salieri anxiously awaits meeting his idol. Guessing his identity, he is shocked to discover that the transcendentally talented Mozart is obscene, silly, and immature. Salieri, a devout Catholic, cannot fathom why God would endow such a great gift onto Mozart instead of him and concludes that God is using Mozart's talent to make Salieri a mediocrity. Salieri renounces God and vows to take revenge on Him by destroying Mozart.

Meanwhile, Mozart's alcoholism ruins his health, marriage, finances, and reputation at court, even as he continues to produce brilliant work. Salieri hires a young girl to work as Mozart's maid and thereby discovers that Mozart is working on an opera based on the play The Marriage of Figaro, which the Emperor has forbidden, owing to its subversive theme. When Mozart is summoned to court to explain, he manages to convince the Emperor to allow his opera to premiere, despite Salieri's attempts at sabotage. When Mozart is informed that his father has died, he writes Don Giovanni in his grief.

Salieri recognizes the dead commander in the opera as symbolic of Mozart's father and concocts a scheme: he leads Mozart to believe that his father has risen to commission a Requiem. He then plans to kill Mozart once the piece is finished and premiere it at Mozart's funeral, claiming the work as his own, forcing God to listen as Salieri is acclaimed. Meanwhile, Mozart's friend Emanuel Schikaneder invites him to write an opera for his theatre. Mozart obliges, despite his wife Constanze's insistence that he finish the Requiem, as the opera is a riskier venture. After arguing with Mozart, Constanze leaves with their young son, Karl.

The opera in question, The Magic Flute, is a great success, but the overworked Mozart collapses during one performance. Salieri takes him home and persuades him to continue writing the Requiem, offering to take the bedridden Mozart's dictation; the two lay down the opening of the Confutatis together. The next morning, Mozart thanks Salieri for his friendship and Salieri admits that Mozart is the greatest composer he knows. Constanze returns and, appalled at Mozart working with Salieri, demands that Salieri leave immediately. After putting away the Requiem into a cabinet, she finds that Mozart has passed away; he is unceremoniously buried in a mass grave.

Back in 1823, Vogler is too shaken to absolve Salieri; Salieri then surmises that God preferred to destroy His beloved Mozart rather than allow Salieri to share in the smallest part of his glory. He calls himself the "patron saint" of mediocrities; he promises, with bitter irony, to speak for Vogler and the other mediocrities of the world before God. As Salieri is wheeled down a hallway, absolving the hospital's other patients of their inadequacies, Mozart's laughter rings in the air.

Cast

Production

Kenneth Branagh writes in his autobiography Beginning that he was one of the finalists for the role of Mozart, but was dropped from consideration when Forman decided to make the film with an American cast.[7] Mark Hamill, who replaced Tim Curry as Mozart towards the end of the stage play's Broadway run, read with many actresses auditioning for the part of Mozart's wife Constanze. However, Forman ultimately decided not to cast him due to his association with the character of Luke Skywalker, feeling that audiences would not believe him as the composer.[8] Meg Tilly was cast as Mozart's wife Constanze, but she tore a ligament in her leg the day before shooting started.[9] She was replaced by Elizabeth Berridge. Simon Callow, who played Mozart in the original London stage production of Amadeus, was cast as Emanuel Schikaneder, the librettist of The Magic Flute.

The film was shot on location in Prague[10] and Kroměříž.[11] Notably, Forman was able to shoot scenes in the Count Nostitz Theatre in Prague, where Don Giovanni and La clemenza di Tito debuted two centuries before.[12] Several other scenes were shot at the Barrandov Studios and Invalidovna building, former "hôtel des invalides", built in 1731–1737.[13]

Forman collaborated with American choreographer Twyla Tharp.[14]

Tom Hulce reportedly used John McEnroe's mood swings as a source of inspiration for his portrayal of Mozart's unpredictable genius. He claimed he did not find Mozart's signature laugh until he downed a bottle of whiskey.[9][15]

Reception

Critical reception

Amadeus holds a score of 89% on review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes based on 151 reviews, with an average rating of 8.9/10. The site's consensus states: "Amadeus' liberties with history may rankle some, but the creative marriage of Miloš Forman and Peter Shaffer yields a divinely diabolical myth of genius and mediocrity, buoyed by inspired casting and Mozart's rapturous music."[16]

Giving the film four out of four stars, Roger Ebert acknowledged that it was one of the "riskiest gambles a filmmaker has taken in a long time," but added that "there is nothing cheap or unworthy about the approach," and ultimately concluded that it was a "magnificent film, full and tender and funny and charming".[17] Ebert later added the film to his Great Movies list.[17] Peter Travers of People magazine said that "Hulce and Abraham share a dual triumph in a film that stands as a provocative and prodigious achievement."[18] Stanley Kauffmann of The New Republic put it on his list of films worth seeing.[19]

In one negative review, Todd McCarthy of Variety said that despite "great material and themes to work with, and such top talent involved," the "stature and power the work possessed onstage have been noticeably diminished" in the film adaptation.[20] The film's many historical inaccuracies have attracted criticism from music historians.[21][22]

Box office

The film grossed $52 million in the United States and Canada[2] and by November 1985, while still in theatres overseas, had grossed over $90 million worldwide to date.[3]

Accolades

The film was nominated for eleven Academy Awards, winning eight (including Best Picture). At the end of the Oscar ceremony, Laurence Olivier came on stage to present the Oscar for Best Picture. As Olivier thanked the academy for inviting him, he was already opening the envelope. Instead of announcing the nominees, he simply read, "The winner for this is Amadeus." An AMPAS official quickly went onstage to confirm the winner and signalled that all was well before Olivier then presented the award to producer Saul Zaentz. Olivier (in his 78th year) had been ill for many years, and it was because of mild dementia that he forgot to read the nominees.[23] Zaentz then thanked Olivier, saying it was an honour to receive the award from him,[24] before mentioning the other nominees in his acceptance speech: The Killing Fields, A Passage to India, Places in the Heart and A Soldier's Story. Maurice Jarre won Best Original Music Score for his scoring of A Passage to India. In his acceptance speech for the award, Jarre remarked "I was lucky Mozart was not eligible this year".[25]

The film along with The English Patient, The Hurt Locker, The Artist, and Birdman are the only Best Picture winners never to enter the weekend box office top 5 after rankings began being recorded in 1982.[26][27][28][29] The film peaked at No. 6 during its 8th weekend in theaters. Saul Zaentz produced both Amadeus and The English Patient.

Award Category Nominee(s) Result
Academy Awards[30][31] Best Picture Saul Zaentz Won
Best Director Miloš Forman Won
Best Actor F. Murray Abraham Won
Tom Hulce Nominated
Best Screenplay – Based on Material from Another Medium Peter Shaffer Won
Best Art Direction Patrizia von Brandenstein and Karel Černý Won
Best Cinematography Miroslav Ondříček Nominated
Best Costume Design Theodor Pištěk Won
Best Film Editing Nena Danevic and Michael Chandler Nominated
Best Makeup Dick Smith and Paul LeBlanc Won
Best Sound Mark Berger, Tom Scott, Todd Boekelheide and Christopher Newman Won
Amanda Awards Best Foreign Feature Film Miloš Forman Won
American Cinema Editors Awards[32] Best Edited Feature Film Nena Danevic and Michael Chandley Won
American Film Institute AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies 53rd Place
Artios Awards[33] Outstanding Achievement in Feature Film Casting Mary Goldberg Won
British Academy Film Awards[34] Best Film Saul Zaentz and Miloš Forman Nominated
Best Actor in a Leading Role F Murray Abraham Nominated
Best Screenplay – Adapted Peter Shaffer Nominated
Best Cinematography Miroslav Ondříček Won
Best Costume Design Theodor Pištěk Nominated
Best Editing Nena Danevic and Michael Chandler Won
Best Make Up Artist Paul LeBlanc and Dick Smith Won
Best Production Design Patrizia von Brandstein Nominated
Best Sound John Nutt, Christopher Newman and Mark Berger Won
British Society of Cinematographers[35] Best Cinematography in a Theatrical Feature Film Miroslav Ondrícek Nominated
César Awards[36] Best Foreign Film Won
David di Donatello Awards Best Foreign Film Miloš Forman Won
Best Foreign Director Won
Best Foreign Actor Tom Hulce Won
Directors Guild of America Awards[37] Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Motion Pictures Miloš Forman Won
DVD Exclusive Awards Original Retrospective Documentary, Library Release Paul Hemstreet, Bill Jersey and Charles Kiselyak Nominated
Best Audio Commentary, Library Release Miloš Forman and Peter Shaffer Nominated
Golden Globe Awards[38] Best Motion Picture – Drama Won
Best Actor in a Motion Picture – Drama F. Murray Abraham Won
Tom Hulce Nominated
Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture Jeffrey Jones Nominated
Best Director – Motion Picture Miloš Forman Won
Best Screenplay – Motion Picture Peter Shaffer Won
Golden Screen Awards Won
Guild of German Art House Cinemas Awards Best Foreign Film Miloš Forman Won
Japan Academy Film Prize Best Foreign Language Film Won
Joseph Plateau Awards Best Film Won
Best Director Miloš Forman Won
Best Artistic Contribution Won
Jussi Awards Best Foreign Filmmaker Miloš Forman Won
Kansas City Film Critics Circle Awards[39] Best Actor F. Murray Abraham Won
Kinema Junpo Awards Best Foreign Language Film Miloš Forman Won
Los Angeles Film Critics Association Awards[40] Best Picture Won
Best Director Miloš Forman Won
Best Actor F. Murray Abraham Won[a]
Best Screenplay Peter Shaffer Won
Best Music Score Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (posthumously nominated) Runner-up
Nastro d'Argento Best Foreign Director Miloš Forman Won
Best Foreign Actor Tom Hulce Won
National Film Preservation Board National Film Registry Inducted
Online Film & Television Association Awards[41] Hall of Fame – Motion Picture Won
Robert Awards Best Foreign Film Miloš Forman Won
Turkish Film Critics Association Awards Best Foreign Film Won

Historicity

From the beginning, writer Peter Shaffer and director Miloš Forman both were open about their desire to create entertaining drama only loosely based on reality, calling the work a "fantasia on the theme of Mozart and Salieri".[42]

The idea of animosity between Mozart and Salieri was popularized by Alexander Pushkin in 1830 in his play Mozart and Salieri. In it, Salieri murders Mozart on stage. The play was made into the opera Mozart and Salieri by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov 67 years later,[42] which in turn had its first screen adaptation by silent-film director Victor Tourjansky in 1914.[43]

Another significant departure in the film is the portrayal of Salieri as a pious loner trapped in a vow of chastity when in reality he was a married family man with eight children and at least one mistress.[22]

Mozart was indeed commissioned to compose a Requiem Mass by an anonymous benefactor. In reality, the patron turned out to be Count Franz von Walsegg, who was grieving after the death of his wife.[44]

Alternative version

Amadeus premiered in 1984 as a PG-rated movie with a running time of 161 minutes. Director Miloš Forman introduced an R-rated version with nearly 20 minutes of restored footage. This version was released by the studios as a Director's Cut on September 24, 2002.[45] Forman justified why those scenes were cut in the first place in the 1995 supplemental material for Pioneer's deluxe LaserDisc. However, he explained why the scenes were eventually restored in a subsequent 2002 interview with The A.V. Club:

When you finish a film, before the first paying audience sees it, you don't have any idea. You don't know if you made a success or a flop when it comes to the box office. And in the '80s, with MTV on the scene, we are having a three-hour film about classical music, with long names and wigs and costumes. Don't forget that no major studio wanted to finance the film, for these reasons. So we said, "Well, we don't want to be pushing the audience's patience too far". Whatever was not directly connected to the plot, I just cut it out. But it was a mutual decision [to limit the running time]. I wanted the best life for the film myself... Well, once we are re-releasing it on DVD, it doesn't matter if it is two hours and 40 minutes long, or three hours long. So why don't we do the version as it was written in the script?[46]

Music

Amadeus music performed live in-sync with the movie by an orchestra and choir at Meridian Hall in Toronto

Film credits

Original soundtrack recording

The soundtrack album[47] reached No. 1 in the Billboard Classical Albums Chart, No. 56 in the Billboard Popular Albums Chart, has sold over 6.5 million copies and received thirteen gold discs, making it one of the most popular classical music recordings of all time.[48] It won the Grammy Award for Best Classical Album in 1984.[49]

  • Disc 1
  1. Mozart: Symphony No. 25 in G minor, K. 183, 1st movement
  2. Giovanni Battista Pergolesi: Stabat Mater: "Quando corpus morietur" and "Amen"
  3. Early 18th Century Gypsy Music: Bubak and Hungaricus
  4. Mozart: Serenade for Winds in B-flat major, K. 361, 3rd movement
  5. Mozart: The Abduction from the Seraglio, K. 384, Turkish Finale
  6. Mozart: Symphony No. 29 in A major, K. 201, 1st movement
  7. Mozart: Concerto for Two Pianos in E-flat major, K. 365, 3rd movement
  8. Mozart: Great Mass in C minor, K. 427, Kyrie
  9. Mozart: Symphonie Concertante in E-flat major, K. 364, 1st movement
  10. Mozart: Piano Concerto No. 15 in B-Flat, K. 450, 3rd movement
  • Disc 2
  1. Mozart: Piano Concerto No. 22 in E-flat major, K. 482, 3rd movement
  2. Mozart: The Marriage of Figaro, K. 492, Act III, "Ecco la Marcia"
  3. Mozart: The Marriage of Figaro, K. 492, Act IV, "Ah, tutti contenti"
  4. Mozart: Don Giovanni, K. 527, Act II, Commendatore scene
  5. Mozart: Zaide, K. 344, Aria, "Ruhe sanft"
  6. Mozart: Requiem, K. 626, Introitus (orchestral introduction)
  7. Mozart: Requiem, K. 626, Dies irae
  8. Mozart: Requiem, K. 626, Rex tremendae majestatis
  9. Mozart: Requiem, K. 626, Confutatis
  10. Mozart: Requiem, K. 626, Lacrimosa
  11. Mozart: Piano Concerto No. 20 in D minor, K. 466, 2nd movement

All tracks on the album were performed specifically for the film. According to the film commentary by Forman and Schaffer, Marriner agreed to score the film if Mozart's music was completely unchanged from the original scores. Marriner did add some notes to Salieri's music that are noticeable at the beginning of the film, as Salieri begins his confession.

The aria "Ruhe sanft" from the opera Zaide does not appear in the film.

Charts

More Music from the Original Soundtrack

In 1985 an additional album with the title More Music from the Original Soundtrack of the Film Amadeus was issued containing further selections of music that were not included in the original soundtrack release.[63]

  1. Mozart: The Magic Flute, K. 620, Overture
  2. Mozart: The Magic Flute, K. 620, act 2, Queen of the Night aria
  3. Mozart: Masonic Funeral Music, K. 477
  4. Mozart: Piano Concerto No. 20 in D minor, K. 466, 1st movement
  5. Antonio Salieri: Axur, re d'Ormus, Finale
  6. Mozart: Eine kleine Nachtmusik (Serenade No. 13 for Strings in G major), K. 525, 1st movement, arranged for woodwind octet by Graham Sheen
  7. Mozart: Concerto for Flute and Harp in C major, K. 299, 2nd movement
  8. Mozart: Six German Dances (Nos. 1–3), K. 509
  9. Giuseppe Giordani: "Caro mio ben"
  10. Mozart: The Abduction from the Seraglio, K. 384, Chorus of the Janissaries (Arr.) and "Ich möchte wohl der Kaiser sein" ("Ein deutsches Kriegslied"), K. 539 (Arr.)

The Masonic Funeral Music was originally intended to play over the closing credits, but was replaced in the film by the second movement of the Piano Concerto No. 20 in D minor[64] (included on the Original Soundtrack Recording).

Director's Cut soundtrack

In 2002, to coincide with the release of the Director's Cut of the film, the soundtrack was remastered with 24-bit encoding and reissued with the title Special Edition: The Director's Cut – Newly Remastered Original Soundtrack Recording on two 24-karat gold CDs.[65] It contains most of the music from the previous two releases, but with the following differences.

The following pieces were added for this release:

The following pieces, previously released on More Music from the Original Soundtrack of the Film Amadeus, were not included:

TV Series

A TV series adaptation of the original Shaffer play starring Will Sharpe and Paul Bettany will air on Sky TV in late 2024 [66]

Notes

References

  1. ^ a b "Amadeus". British Board of Film Classification. Archived from the original on September 21, 2020. Retrieved May 13, 2014.
  2. ^ a b "Amadeus (1984) – Financial Information". The Numbers. Archived from the original on February 12, 2018. Retrieved December 22, 2014.
  3. ^ a b Watkins, Roger (November 20, 1985). "Zaentz High On Back-End Deals As 'Amadeus' B.O. Tops $90-Mil". Variety. p. 6.
  4. ^ Tartaglione, Nancy (December 11, 2019). "National Film Registry Adds 'Purple Rain', 'Clerks', 'Gaslight' & More; 'Boys Don't Cry' One Of Record 7 Pics From Female Helmers". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on February 25, 2021. Retrieved December 11, 2019.
  5. ^ "Women Rule 2019 National Film Registry". Library of Congress. Archived from the original on December 11, 2019. Retrieved September 14, 2020.
  6. ^ "Complete National Film Registry Listing". Library of Congress. Archived from the original on May 7, 2016. Retrieved September 14, 2020.
  7. ^ Branagh, Kenneth (1990). Beginning. New York: Norton. pp. 105–109. ISBN 978-0-393-02862-1. OCLC 20669813.
  8. ^ Brady, Tara (November 25, 2017). "Mark Hamill: 'If I had to climb a Skellig, I was staying at the top'". The Irish Times. Dublin. Archived from the original on May 17, 2021. Retrieved November 28, 2021.
  9. ^ a b The Making of Amadeus. DVD. Warner Bros Pictures, 2001. 20 min.
  10. ^ "Prague in Films". Prague City Tourism. Archived from the original on January 17, 2018. Retrieved November 28, 2021.
  11. ^ "The château and the famous film Amadeus". City of Kromeriz (in Czech). Archived from the original on July 5, 2018. Retrieved November 28, 2021.
  12. ^ "Estates Theatre History". Mozart's Estates Theatre Prague. Archived from the original on November 29, 2021. Retrieved November 28, 2021.
  13. ^ "Amadeus film locations". The Worldwide Guide to Movie Locations. Archived from the original on May 18, 2016.
  14. ^ Riefe, Jordan (October 2, 2015). "Twyla Tharp Recalls Amadeus, Gene Kelly, Baryshnikov as She Marks 50th Anniversary". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on January 17, 2018. Retrieved January 17, 2018.
  15. ^ Broughton, Chris (October 23, 2023). "'John McEnroe was my reference point': how we made hit Mozart movie Amadeus". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on October 23, 2023. Retrieved November 15, 2023.
  16. ^ "Amadeus". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on May 30, 2022. Retrieved July 11, 2022.
  17. ^ a b Ebert, Roger (September 8, 1984). "Amadeus". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on September 16, 2018. Retrieved September 16, 2018 – via RogerEbert.com.
  18. ^ Travers, Peter (October 1, 1984). "Screen". People. 22 (14): 14. Archived from the original on September 16, 2018. Retrieved September 16, 2018.
  19. ^ Kauffmann, Stanley (October 29, 1984). "Films Worth Seeing". The New Republic. Vol. 191, no. 17. pp. 24–26. Archived from the original on February 9, 2024. Retrieved September 16, 2018.
  20. ^ McCarthy, Todd (September 5, 1984). "Amadeus". Variety. Archived from the original on September 16, 2018. Retrieved September 16, 2018.
  21. ^ A Study Guide for Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Antonio Salieri's "Amadeus". Gale, Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-1-4103-9260-2. Archived from the original on February 9, 2024. Retrieved August 5, 2019.
  22. ^ a b von Tunzelmann, Alex (October 22, 2009). "Amadeus: the fart jokes can't conceal how laughably wrong this is". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on August 5, 2019. Retrieved August 5, 2019.
  23. ^ Olivier, by Terry Coleman, 2005, p. 484
  24. ^ "Academy Awards Acceptance Speeches". Academy of Motion Picture Arts & Sciences. March 25, 1985. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved February 24, 2011.
  25. ^ Waxman, Sharon (March 21, 1999). "The Oscar Acceptance Speech: By and Large, It's a Lost Art". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on March 24, 2017. Retrieved September 20, 2017.
  26. ^ "The English Patient weekend box office results". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on October 6, 2018. Retrieved March 15, 2008.
  27. ^ "Amadeus weekend box office results". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on July 14, 2019. Retrieved March 15, 2008.
  28. ^ "The Hurt Locker weekend box office results". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on June 11, 2010. Retrieved May 4, 2010.
  29. ^ "Birdman weekend box office results". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on March 3, 2015. Retrieved March 9, 2015.
  30. ^ "The 57th Academy Awards (1985) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved October 13, 2011.
  31. ^ "Amadeus (1984)". Movies & TV Dept. The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 14, 2008. Retrieved November 28, 2021.
  32. ^ Morton, Ray (2011). Amadeus: Music on Film Series. Limelight Editions. ISBN 978-0-8791-0417-7. Archived from the original on February 9, 2024. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  33. ^ "Nominees/Winners". Casting Society of America. Archived from the original on February 9, 2019. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  34. ^ "BAFTA Awards: Film in 1986". BAFTA. 1986. Archived from the original on August 17, 2020. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
  35. ^ "Best Cinematography in Feature Film" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on June 4, 2021. Retrieved June 3, 2021.
  36. ^ "The 1985 Caesars Ceremony". César Awards. Archived from the original on August 4, 2021. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  37. ^ "37th DGA Awards". Directors Guild of America Awards. Archived from the original on January 28, 2022. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
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External links

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