To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Back to the Future

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Back to the Future
The poster shows a teenage boy coming out from a nearly invisible DeLorean with lines of fire trailing behind. The boy looks astonishingly at his wristwatch. The title of the film and the tagline "He was never in time for his classes... He wasn't in time for his dinner... Then one day... he wasn't in his time at all" appear at the extreme left of the poster, while the rating and the production credits appear at the bottom of the poster.
Theatrical release poster by Drew Struzan
Directed byRobert Zemeckis
Produced by
Written by
  • Robert Zemeckis
  • Bob Gale
Starring
Music byAlan Silvestri
CinematographyDean Cundey
Edited by
Production
companies
Distributed byUniversal Pictures
Release date
  • July 3, 1985 (1985-07-03)
Running time
116 minutes
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Budget$19 million
Box office$388.8 million

Back to the Future is a 1985 American science fiction film directed by Robert Zemeckis and written by Zemeckis and Bob Gale. It stars Michael J. Fox, Christopher Lloyd, Lea Thompson, Crispin Glover, and Thomas F. Wilson. Set in 1985, Fox portrays Marty McFly, a teenager accidentally sent back in time to 1955 in a time-traveling DeLorean automobile built by his eccentric scientist friend Doctor Emmett "Doc" Brown. Trapped in the past, Marty inadvertently prevents his future parents' meeting— threatening his very existence—and is forced to reconcile the pair and somehow get back to the future.

The outline of Back to the Future originated in 1980 after Gale found his father's school yearbook; he wondered if he and his father would have been friends as youths. Gale and Zemeckis realized that time travel could answer the question. Desperate for a successful film after numerous collaborative failures, they pitched their script but were rejected by over 40 studios. It was not considered raunchy enough to compete with the successful comedies of the era. Zemeckis moved on to directing Romancing the Stone (1984). The success of that film gave Zemeckis the credibility to revisit Back to the Future. He secured a development deal at Amblin Entertainment under his mentor Steven Spielberg. Fox was the first choice to portray Marty, but his working schedule on the sitcom Family Ties prevented his involvement; Eric Stoltz was cast instead. Shortly after commencing principal photography in November 1984, it was determined that Stoltz was not right for the part and Zemeckis made any concessions necessary to hire Fox. This included re-filming scenes already shot with Stoltz, and added $4 million to the budget. Back to the Future was filmed in and around California and on sets at Universal Studios.

Re-casting Stoltz delayed production and pushed back the film's release date. Following highly successful test screenings the date was moved forward to July 3, 1985, to give Back to the Future more time in theaters. This resulted in a limited post-production schedule for editing and special effects; some effects were incomplete on release. Back to the Future was a critical and commercial success, earning $381.1 million to become the highest-grossing film of 1985 worldwide. Critics praised the story, comedy, and the cast—particularly Fox, Lloyd, Thompson, and Glover. It received multiple award nominations and won an Academy Award, Saturn Awards, and a Hugo Award. Its theme song, "The Power of Love" by Huey Lewis and the News was a significant success globally, and also earned an Academy Award nomination.

In the years since its release, Back to the Future has grown in esteem and is now considered to be among the greatest films of the 1980s, one of the best science-fiction films ever made, and one of the greatest films of all time. In 2007, the United States Library of Congress selected the film for preservation in the National Film Registry, finding it "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant". Back to the Future was followed by two less-successful sequels, Back to the Future Part II (1989) and Back to the Future Part III (1990). With its effect on popular culture, and a dedicated fan following, the success of Back to the future launched a multimedia franchise. This includes an animated TV series, video games, comic books, board games, clothing, music, books, food, toys, collectibles, and theme park rides. Its enduring popularity has led to numerous books about its production, documentaries, and commercials. Back to the Future has been adapted into a 2020 stage musical. Despite interest from studios and fans, Gale and Zemeckis have affirmed that they will not make a further sequel as they consider the series concluded and do not want to tarnish its legacy.

Plot

In 1985, Hill Valley, California, teenager Marty McFly lives with his family: his mother Lorraine is an overweight, depressed alcoholic; his cowardly father George is bullied by his supervisor, Biff Tannen; his older siblings are professional and social failures. At school, Marty is berated for his repeated lateness and fails an audition for Battle of the Bands. He confides to his girlfriend Jennifer Parker that he fears that he will end up like his parents, despite his ambitions.

That evening, Marty meets his eccentric scientist friend Emmett "Doc" Brown in the Twin Pines mall parking lot. Doc unveils a time machine built from a modified DeLorean. It is powered by plutonium stolen from Libyan terrorists. Doc programs the DeLorean to travel to November 5, 1955; the day he first conceived of a time travel device. Before he can depart, the terrorists track Doc down and shoot him dead. Marty flees in the DeLorean, inadvertently activating it by driving at 88 miles per hour (MPH).

Marty arrives on November 5, 1955; the plutonium is depleted and Marty is unable to return to 1985. While exploring the now-burgeoning Hill Valley, Marty encounters his teenage father and discovers that Biff has been bullying him since high school. Marty covertly follows his father and learns that George has been spying on the teenage Lorraine. While pushing George to safety, Marty is struck by Lorraine's father's car. He is tended to by Lorraine, who becomes infatuated with him. Marty realizes that he has inadvertently prevented his parents' first meeting.

Marty finds the 1955 version of Doc and convinces him that he is from the future. Doc explains that the only power source equivalent to plutonium would be 1.21 gigawatts of electricity; a lightning bolt. Marty knows that the clocktower is broken in 1985 because it will be struck by lightning in the next few days. Marty's siblings begin to fade from a photo he is carrying with him. He and Doc realize that Marty's actions have altered the future, preventing his siblings from being born. Doc warns Marty that he too will cease to exist if he does not get his parents together. Early attempts to pair up George and Lorraine fail, and only strengthen Lorraine's affection for Marty, especially after he stands up to Biff.

Lorraine invites Marty to the school dance. He devises a plan to feign inappropriate advances on Lorraine, allowing George to intervene and "rescue" her. The plan goes awry when Lorraine is receptive to Marty's advances, and then Biff intervenes. Biff's gang drags Marty away and locks him in a car trunk while Biff attempts to force himself on Lorraine. George arrives, but Biff once again bullies him into submission. When Biff also hurts Lorraine, George strikes Biff, knocking him unconscious. George escorts a grateful Lorraine to the dance. The dance band rescue Marty but the lead guitarist is injured in doing so and Marty takes his place. One student takes Lorraine away from George to dance, and Marty begins to feel himself fading away until George asserts himself and re-takes Lorraine; the pair kiss, fully restoring Marty and his siblings in the photo. The storm arrives and Marty travels to the courthouse. He conceals a note in Doc's coat warning him of his future death. Doc destroys it, refusing to know too much about his own destiny. Marty recalibrates the DeLorean to take him to just before Doc's death.

The lightning strikes and Marty returns to 1985. The DeLorean breaks down and Marty is forced to run to the now Lone Pine mall, arriving just in time to see Doc killed again. While Marty grieves at his side, Doc sits up, revealing he wore a bulletproof vest after piecing Marty's note back together. He takes Marty home before departing to the future in the DeLorean. Marty wakes the next morning to find that his father is now a successful, confident author, his mother is fit and happy, his siblings are successes, and Biff is a servile valet in George's employ. After Marty reunites with Jennifer, Doc reappears, insisting that they return with him to the future to help the pair's future children.[N 1]

Cast

Michael J. Fox in 2012 (left) and Christopher Lloyd in 2015

As well as the main cast, Back to the Future features a 1985-era cast that includes Claudia Wells as Marty's girlfriend Jennifer Parker, and Marc McClure and Wendie Jo Sperber as Marty's siblings Dave McFly and Linda McFly respectively.[4] Elsa Raven portrays the Clocktower Lady, who tells Marty about the lightning strike on the clocktower. Singer Huey Lewis cameos as a judge for the Battle of the Bands contest.[5][6] Richard L. Duran and Jeff O'Haco portray the Libyan terrorists.[7]

The 1955-era cast includes George DiCenzo and Frances Lee McCain as, respectively, Lorraine's parents Sam and Stella Baines,[4] and Jason Hervey as Lorraine's younger brother Milton. Biff's gang includes Jeffrey Jay Cohen as Skinhead, Casey Siemaszko as 3-D, and Billy Zane as Match. Harry Waters Jr. portrays Chuck Berry's cousin Marvin Berry, Donald Fullilove appears as Goldie Wilson, and Will Hare portrays Pa Peabody. Courtney Gains portrays Dixon, the youth who interrupts George's and Lorraine's dance.[7] James Tolkan portrays Hill Valley high school principal Strickland in both eras.[4]

Production

Conception and writing

Director Robert Zemeckis in 2015. He developed Back to the Future with his longtime friend Bob Gale.
Director Robert Zemeckis in 2015. He developed Back to the Future with his longtime friend Bob Gale.

Long-time collaborators Bob Gale and Robert Zemeckis conceived of Back to the Future in 1980.[8][9][10] They wanted to develop a film about time travel but were struggling for a satisfying narrative.[8] The pair were desperate for a successful project following the performances of their recent efforts.[10] Their comedies I Wanna Hold Your Hand (1978) and Used Cars (1980) had fared well critically but failed financially, and 1941 (1979) had failed critically and commercially. All three projects were collaborations with Zemeckis' mentor Steven Spielberg.[9]

Following Used Cars' release, Gale visited his parents and came across his father's high school yearbook.[10][11] Gale questioned whether he and his father would have been friends had they attended school together; he did not think so. He realized he could test his theory if he could travel back in time to when he and his parents were a similar age.[11] He shared the idea with Zemeckis who recalled how his mother's childhood stories were often contradictory.[10]

Gale and Zemeckis began a draft in late 1980. They sketched and acted out each scene to help develop the dialogue and actions.[11] The pair believed that many time travel films focused on the past being immutable. They wanted to show the past being changed and the impact those changes would have on the future.[10] In the draft, video pirate Professor Brown builds a time machine that sends his young friend Marty back to the 1950s where he interrupts his parents' first meeting.[12] In September 1980, Gale and Zemeckis pitched their idea to then-President of Columbia Pictures Frank Price. Price had liked Used Cars and was keen to work with the pair. Gale recalling having to rein in Zemeckis' enthusiastic pitch out of concern it would give Price time to change his mind.[9] Gale and Zemeckis completed the first draft for Price on February 21, 1981. Price deemed it to be in need of significant refinement.[12]

Some early concepts were abandoned. The changes to 1955 originally had a more significant impact on 1985, making it more futuristic, but every person who read the script hated the idea.[8][13] Marty's father also became a boxer, a result of his knockout punch on Biff; Gale and Zemeckis decided that it was not a good solution to Marty's 1985 problems.[13] The time machine was conceived of as a stationary object that was moved around on the back of a truck.[13][14][6] Inspired by the documentary The Atomic Cafe, the pair wrote that the drained time machine would be powered by Marty driving it into a nuclear explosion at a testing site, combined with an additional ingredient; Coca-Cola.[15][13][14][16] Gale and Zemeckis took inspiration from tales of legendary scientists and their creations, opting to make the time machine's creator an individual instead of a faceless corporation or government.[8] The pair knew that the time travel had to be an accident because they did not want the hero to be seeking personal gain.[13]

The pair drew humor from the contrasts between 1955 and 1985, such as Marty entering a 1955 soda shop while wearing 1985 clothing. The shop owner enquires if Marty is a sailor because his jacket resembles a life preserver. They also identified conveniences of 1985 that Marty would take for granted and be denied in 1955. The pair struggled for ideas as they were in their 30s and did not particularly identify with either era.[11] They were also inspired by the All-American aesthetic of films by Frank Capra featuring white picket fences and exaggerated characters like Biff,[17] The Twilight Zone, science-fiction films, and books by Robert Silverberg and Robert A. Heinlein.[18] The romantic relationship between 1955 Lorraine and her future son was one of the more difficult writing challenges.[19] Gale and Zemeckis attempted to take the concept as far as possible to keep the audience feeling on edge. They knew that it had to be Lorraine that stopped the relationship; she remarks that kissing Marty feels like kissing her brother. Gale jokingly said that no-one asked what she had been doing with her brother to make the comparison, but that audiences would accept it because they did not want the relationship to happen.[9] The second draft was completed by April 7, 1981.[12]

Development

Steven Spielberg in 2018. He mentored Zemeckis and lent his experience and Hollywood studio clout to support the production of Back to the Future.
Steven Spielberg in 2018. He mentored Zemeckis and lent his experience and Hollywood studio clout to support the production of Back to the Future.

When Gale and Zemeckis returned to Price with the second draft, he opted not to green-light the project.[20] The most successful comedies at the time featured sexual and bawdy elements like Animal House (1978), Porky's (1981), and Fast Times at Ridgemont High (1982). Back to the Future was considered too tame in comparison.[21][9] Price liked the draft, but he did not think it would impress others.[20] He put the project in turnaround—a process that allowed it to be pitched to, and purchased by other studios to compensate Columbia Pictures initial investment.[9][22] The script was rejected approximately 40 times, in some cases receiving multiple rejections from the same studios.[8] Studios gave many reasons for turning the project down, including the concept being unappealing to the contemporary rebellious youth,[22] and the failures of other time travel films like The Final Countdown (1980) and Time Bandits (1981).[23][9] Walt Disney Productions rejected Back to the Future because the setup of Marty having to fight off advances from his future mother was considered too risqué for their brand.[21] The only person supportive of the project was Spielberg. However, with their previous collaborations being considered relative failures, Gale and Zemeckis were concerned that another misstep would give them a reputation of only getting work because they were friends with Spielberg.[21][8]

Zemeckis opted to accept the next project offered to him, Romancing the Stone (1984).[24][10][21] Against pre-release expectations, the film was a significant success. It gave Zemeckis enough credibility to return to Back to the Future.[25][21][13][8] Zemeckis held a grudge against the studios that had failed to support him and Gale, and turned to Spielberg.[26] Spielberg had set up his own production company, Amblin Entertainment, at Universal Studios, where Price now worked.[17] Spielberg disliked Price because he had rejected E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, and demanded that his involvement in Back to the Future be minimal. Sidney Sheinberg installed himself as chief executive on Back to the Future to oversee the studio's investment.[27] Amblin executives Kathleen Kennedy and Frank Marshall joined Spielberg as executive producers on the film.[9][28]

A third draft of the script was completed by July 1984.[29] However, the script remained tied to Columbia Pictures. Price had moved from Columbia Pictures to Universal Pictures shortly after greenlighting Ghostbusters. His successor, Guy McElwaine, was developing a satire of the Universal-owned noir film Double Indemnity (1944) called Big Trouble (1986). Columbia Picture's legal department assessed that Big Trouble was so similar to Double Indemnity that they would be violating Universal Pictures' copyright. With production imminent, McElwaine requested the rights from Price. Price agreed in exchange for the rights to Back to the Future.[30]

Sheinberg offered numerous suggestions on how to modify the film. He wanted the title to be changed to Spaceman from Pluto because he believed Back to the Future would not resonate with audiences. He also wanted Marty to introduce himself to George as a spaceman from Pluto.[31][18] Gale and Zemeckis did not know how to reject Sheinberg's suggestions without risking his ire. Spielberg intervened, sending Sheinberg a memo that read: "Hi Sid, thanks for your most humorous memo, we all got a big laugh out of it, keep 'em coming." Spielberg knew that Sheinberg would be too embarrassed to admit that his memo was to be taken seriously.[17][31] Sheinberg later said the story about his request was "bullshit".[32] He also wanted to change the name of Marty's mother from Meg to Lorraine (a tribute to his wife Lorraine Gary), and rename Professor Brown to Doc Brown because he considered it shorter and more accessible.[29][18]

The lengthy development time allowed Gale and Zemeckis to refine the script's jokes, especially ones that had become dated since 1980.[11] The joke about former actor Ronald Reagan becoming President of the United States endured because he was re-elected in 1984.[11]

Casting

Eric Stoltz pictured in 2012. He was cast as Marty McFly and spent several weeks filming Back to the Future before it was determined he was not right for the role.
Eric Stoltz pictured in 2012. He was cast as Marty McFly and spent several weeks filming Back to the Future before it was determined he was not right for the role.

Michael J. Fox was the first choice to portray Marty McFly. Gale and Zemeckis believed his acting timing in the sitcom Family Ties (1982–1989) as the sophisticated Alex P. Keaton could be translated to Marty's clumsiness.[33][10]

Spielberg requested that the show's producer Gary David Goldberg have Fox read the script. Concerned that Fox would take the role and his absence would damage Family Ties' success—especially with fellow star Meredith Baxter already absent for maternity leave—Goldberg did not give Fox the script.[34] Other young stars were considered including John Cusack, C. Thomas Howell, Johnny Depp, Ralph Macchio, Charlie Sheen, Jon Cryer, Ben Stiller, Peter DeLuise, Billy Zane, George Newbern,[29] Robert Downey Jr., Christopher Collet,[35] and Corey Hart (who declined to audition).[36][37][6][23][15] Howell was the preferred option,[36] but Sheinberg wanted Eric Stoltz, who had impressed the producers with his portrayal of Rocky Dennis in an preview screening of the drama film Mask (1985).[38][37] With the filming date approaching, Zemeckis opted to go with Stoltz.[38] Sheinberg promised that if Stoltz did not work out that they could reshoot the film.[9] The character's name was derived from Used Cars production assistant Marty Casella. Zemeckis suggested McFly because it sounded like an "All-American" name.[8]

Jeff Goldblum, Dudley Moore, John Lithgow, John Cleese, John Candy, Danny DeVito, Michael Keaton, Gene Hackman, Steve Martin, Chevy Chase, Eddie Murphy, Randy Quaid, Joe Piscopo, Mickey Rourke, and Gene Wilder were considered for the role of Doc Brown.[37][6][39] Producer Neil Canton suggested Lithgow, having worked wth him and Christopher Lloyd on Buckaroo Banzai (1984). Lithgow was unavailable and the role was offered to Lloyd. Lloyd was reluctant to join the production until a friend encouraged him to take the part.[40] Lloyd's wild, white hair was inspired by theoretical physicist Albert Einstein and conductor Leopold Stokowski.[41] Lloyd affected a hunched posture to lower his 6 feet 1 inch (1.85 m) height closer to the 5 feet 5 inches (1.65 m) tall Fox.[37]

While researching Stoltz in the comedy-drama The Wild Life (1984), the filmmakers became aware of Lea Thompson.[42] Crispin Glover used many of his own mannerisms in portraying George McFly. Gale described his performance as "nuts". Glover was told to be more restrained when appearing as the older George of 1985.[13] He lost his voice during filming and dubbed in some of his lines later.[6] According to Glover, Zemeckis was very unhappy with his performance choices.[43]

Tim Robbins and J. J. Cohen were considered to play Biff Tannen.[6][44] Cohen was not considered physically imposing enough against Stoltz, and the role went to Thomas F. Wilson; his first feature starring role.[45][46] Cohen instead portrayed Biff's minion Skinhead.[44] Tannen's name was taken from then-Universal Studios executive Ned Tanen who had been unpleasant with Gale and Zemeckis.[6] Claudia Wells was offered the role of Jennifer Parker but had to turn it down because of her commitment to the short-lived television series Off the Rack (1984). The show was canceled, freeing up Wells.[47] In the interim, Melora Hardin was cast and signed a two-film contract. After Stoltz was replaced, the crew were polled about Hardin being taller than Fox; the female crew overwhelmingly voted that Marty should not be shorter than his girlfriend, and Hardin was replaced with Wells.[37][48][49] Actress Jill Schoelen was also considered but was told she looked too "exotic" and not All-American enough.[50]

Doc Brown's pet dog Einstein was scripted as a chimpanzee named Shemp. Sheinberg insisted that films featuring chimps never did well.[23][6] James Tolkan was the first choice for principal Strickland after Zemeckis saw him in the crime drama Prince of the City (1981).[51] Singer and soundtrack contributor Huey Lewis cameos as a Battle of the Bands judge. Zemeckis requested his appearance; Lewis agreed as long as it was uncredited and he could wear a disguise.[5] Back to the Future also features the first film appearance of Billy Zane, as another of Biff's minions.[52] Gale has a brief cameo, portraying the hand in the radiation suit tapping the DeLorean time display.[53]

Filming with Stoltz

A residential home in Arleta, Los Angeles. It served as the home of the McFly family in the film.
A residential home in Arleta, Los Angeles. It served as the home of the McFly family in the film.

Principal photography began November 26, 1984, with a schedule of 22 weeks.[54] The budget was reported to be $14 million.[55] Filming took place mainly in the Universal Studios lot and on location in California.[13] Dean Cundey served as the cinematographer. He had previously worked with Zemeckis on Romancing the Stone.[13] Editor Arthur Schmidt was hired after Zemeckis saw his work on the drama film Firstborn (1984); Schmidt recommended hiring Harry Keramidas as co-editor.[56] Marshall also served as a second unit director.[57] Spielberg spent fewer than 2 hours in total on the set, being present for the first scene filmed, and offering advice on tone.[10]

Owing to the tight schedule, Zemeckis opted to have the film edited while he was shooting it.[58] On December 30, 1984, Zemeckis went into Schmidt's and Keramidas' editing trailer and reviewed the existing scenes with the pair.[59] Zemeckis did not want to review the footage this early because he knew he would be critical of his own work.[60] However, he had come to believe that Stoltz was not working in the main role and needed to see if he was imagining the problem.[60][8][13] He had already made notes of several scenes he wanted to reshoot.[61] Zemeckis called in Gale, Canton, Marshall, Kennedy, and Spielberg to show them the footage; all agreed that Stoltz was not right for the role.[8] Stoltz was performing the role with an intense and serious tone and not providing the "manic" energy they wanted from the character.[33][45] Gale said that Stoltz was a good actor, but in the wrong part.[62]

Stoltz utilized method acting on set and stayed in character as Marty when not filming, refusing to answer to his own name.[45] This had resulted in some personal animosity with some of the cast and crew, including Wilson. When required to shove Biff, Stoltz put his full strength into pushing Wilson rather than imitate doing so, despite Wilson's requests for Stoltz to stop.[45] Spielberg told Zemeckis that he needed to have a replacement in place before asking Sheinberg to fire Stoltz, or he risked the production being canceled altogether.[63] Zemeckis and the producers asked Sheinberg for permission to fire Stoltz and do whatever necessary to accommodate Fox's participation.[45] Spielberg made another call to Goldberg. On January 3, 1985, Goldberg told Fox about withholding the Back to the Future script from him, and that the filmmakers wanted to know if he was interested. Baxter had returned to the show and they could be more flexible with Fox's time, but Family Ties was to be given priority over the film. Fox agreed to join without reading the script;[64] The transition was unable to take place immediately and filming continued with Stoltz in the lead role, unaware that he was to be replaced.[45]

On January 10, 1985,[65][9][45] Stoltz turned up for filming as scheduled. He was informed by Zemeckis that he would no longer be involved in the film. Spielberg was nearby in case he was needed.[45] Zemeckis described it as "the hardest meeting I've ever had in my life and it was all my fault. I broke [Stoltz's] heart."[9] Stoltz was reported to have told his make-up artist that he was not a comedian and did not understand why he was cast.[66] The producers then informed the principal cast. Thomson had, against the instruction of the studio, left the country to visit her then-boyfriend Dennis Quaid. When she saw she had received numerous messages relating to Stoltz, she initially believed she had been fired for her actions. The rest of the crew was then informed that much of Back to the Future would have to be re-filmed.[45] Cinematographer Dean Cundey said that most of the crew saw Stoltz's removal as "good news".[13] Some crew later said that there were obvious signs that Stoltz would be replaced. The set designers were told to not change the 1955 set as it would be required again, and a scene involving a discussion between Marty and Doc was only filmed to show Doc.[45] Stoltz had shot numerous key scenes including Marty traveling to 1955 in the DeLorean, and the DeLorean breaking down on Marty as he prepares to return to 1985. His final filmed scene was Marty's return to the altered 1985.[43][45] Filming fell behind schedule, with 34 days of filming lost and an additional cost of $3.5–$4 million.[67][62][9] This included Stoltz being paid his salary in full.[68]

Filming with Fox

The Hill Valley town square and clocktower were a set built on the Universal Studios backlot
The Hill Valley town square and clocktower were a set built on the Universal Studios backlot

Fox's first day on set was January 15, 1985.[69] He had to accommodate filming for Family Ties between 10 am and 6 pm, and then travel to the current Back to the Future filming location. Often he would not return home until 2:30 am the following day. On weekends, the Back to the Future schedule was pushed back further as Family Ties was then filmed in front of a live audience. This meant that Fox would not finish work until 7 am the following day.[13][33][9] Sometimes the teamster dropping Fox at home had to carry the actor to bed.[9] This continued until April when Family Ties finished filming.[70] Gale said that Fox's youth meant he could cope with less sleep than usual.[13] Fox described it as exhausting, but worth the effort.[33] Even so, further into the filming schedule, Fox would manage to be energetic in his scenes and then struggle to stay awake in-between. He also ad-libbed some lines when he forgot the intended dialog.[13][71] Fox recalled how he spent time looking for a camcorder on the Family Ties set, later realizing it was a prop on Back to the Future.[71] In addition to his filming schedules, Fox had to learn to mimic playing guitar and choreograph skateboarding routines, the latter of which was taught by Per Welinder and Bob Schmelzer; the pair also taught Stoltz and the involved stuntmen.[72]

To compensate for his conflicting schedules and to keep the production costs low, some scenes involving Marty were shot without Fox; Fox would film his part separately.[13][10] Re-shooting scenes in full gave the filmmakers the opportunity to see what had not worked, and implement new ideas; an opening scene in which Marty sets off a fire alarm to get out of detention was replaced to avoid building an additional classroom set, replaced with the opening pan across the array of clocks in Doc Brown's laboratory.[73][16] Other changes were forced because of the height differences between Stoltz and Fox; a scene of Fox teaching George how to punch had to be re-worked because Fox could not reach the necessary prop.[74] According to Gale, once Fox replaced Stoltz, the atmosphere on set improved.[9] Thompson anecdotally said that while Stoltz ate alone in his trailer, Fox ate alongside the cast and crew.[75] The Universal Pictures marketing team was tasked with liaising with the press to mitigate the negative implications of a project replacing its main star.[67]

Many locations in and around Los Angeles were used in the production. The clocktower is a structure on the Universal Studios Lot in Universal City, California.[76][77] When filmed from below, Lloyd was positioned on a recreation of the clocktower, but when filmed from above, Lloyd stood atop the tower itself.[78] Production designer Lawrence G. Paull insisted on using the Universal backlot sets because of the difficulties and costs involved in making an on-location area look 1955 appropriate.[79] Whittier High School in the city of Whittier is the Hill Valley high school. Marty's home and the surrounding Lyon estates are in Arleta, Los Angeles. Several of the residential locations were filmed in Pasadena: Lorraine's and George's 1955 homes, and Doc Brown's 1955 home—its exterior is the Gamble House and interiors were shot at the Blacker House.[77] The Walt Disney Studios-owned Golden Oak Ranch in Newhall, Santa Clarita, California serves as the Twin Pines ranch where Marty lands in 1955, and Puente Hills Mall in Rowland Heights is the Twin Pines mall that replaces the ranch in 1985.[77][45] Other locations include the basement of the Hollywood United Methodist Church where the school dance was filmed, and Griffith Park where Marty begins his drive to the courthouse to return to 1985, crossing a lampost situated outside of the Greek Theatre.[77]

Filming concluded after 107 days on April 26, 1985. The final day of filming included pick-up shots of Marty and Einstein in the DeLorean.[70]

Post-production

A rough cut of the film was test screened for audiences at Century 22 theater in San Jose, California only three weeks after filming concluded.
A rough cut of the film was test screened for audiences at Century 22 theater in San Jose, California only three weeks after filming concluded.

Arthur F. Repola served as the post-production supervisor. Normally producers Kathleen Kennedy and Frank Marshall were in charge of pre-production and post-production respectively. However, as both were involved in numerous other films at the same time, Repola became responsible for many aspects outside of his role, including budgets, storyboarding, and general problem-solving.[80] Arthur Schmidt found editing the film difficult, as he had to imagine where the special effects would be later, as there was no time or budget to re-edit afterward.[81]

A rough version of the movie was cut together for a test screening at Century 22 theater in San Jose, California in mid-May 1985, just three weeks after filming concluded. The audience was seemingly uninterested at first at the exposition-heavy opening but were engaged after the appearance of the DeLorean.[82] 94% of audiences at a test screening in Long Beach, California responded that they would definitely recommend the film; 99% rated it very good or excellent.[21] Gale said that there was some concern as Doc's dog Einstein was sent through time, as the audience believed he had been killed.[13] The film was re-cut and screened again at the Alfred Hitchcock theater at Universal Studios for studio executives, including Sheinberg.[83] He was so impressed that he moved the scheduled release date forward to July 3, 1985, to give it more time in theaters.[62] This reduced the post-production schedule to just nine weeks for special effects and editing.[13][62] Zemeckis spent much of June 1985 rushing to finish the film.[21]

Several scenes were filmed but did not make it into the finished film: a scene of Doc looking at an issue of Playboy, remarking that the future looks better; a scene of 1985 George being coerced into buying a large amount of peanut brittle from a young girl;[8][84] a scene of George being trapped in a phone booth by the man who interrupts his dance with Lorraine;[85] and the scene of Marty pretending to be "Darth Vader" to influence George was shortened.[84] Zemeckis also considered cutting the "Johnny B. Goode" performance scene because it did not advance the story, but test-audiences reacted well to it.[86] There is a dispute if a scene of Stoltz's hand is in the finished film in the scene where Marty punches Biff. Wilson said he did not recall re-shooting a close-up scene with Fox and so it must be Stoltz. Gale has said the scene was re-shot with Fox, but Keramidas marked it as low quality. Gale noted that it is impossible to tell without checking the original film negative, which would risk damaging it.[52][87] The final cut was completed on June 23, 1985.[88] It had a runtime of 116 minutes.[89] Universal Studios took out a full-page advertisement in Variety magazine, thanking the entire post-production crew for completing their work on time.[88] The final budget was $19 million.[90][91]

Music

Alan Silvestri composed the score for Back to the Future; he had worked with Zemeckis previously on Romancing the Stone. The only guide Zemeckis gave to Silvestri was that "it's got to be big". Silvestri used a big orchestral score to create a sound that contrasted the small-town setting with the significant time-changing events occurring within it. He wanted to create a heroic theme that would be instantly recognizable in just a few notes.[9]

Lewis was approached to write a theme song for the film; he was coming off the success of his recent album Sports. He had a meeting with Gale, Spielberg, and Zemeckis, who intended for Huey Lewis and the News to be Marty's favorite band. Though flattered, Lewis did not want to participate because he did not know how to write film songs and did not want to write one called "Back to the Future". Zemeckis assured Lewis that he could write any song he wanted. Lewis agreed to submit the next song he wrote, which was "The Power of Love".[5] Lewis maintains that "Power of Love" was his first submission, but Zemeckis recalled a different song was sent first which was rejected.[92] Around the same time, Lewis was approached to write the theme song for the 1984 supernatural comedy Ghostbusters, but he had already committed to Back to the Future.[93] Lewis later acquiesced to Zemeckis' request for a second song, "Back in Time". Marty and his band the Pinheads sing a version of "The Power of Love" during their battle of the band audition.[5]

Musician Eddie Van Halen performed the guitar riff that Marty (in guise as "Darth Vader") uses to wake George. The filmmakers wanted to play music by the band Van Halen but they refused to participate, and Eddie opted to take part on his own. Mark Campbell provided Marty's voice when singing.[84] Campbell did not receive credit as the filmmakers wanted to create the illusion that Fox was singing. When music supervisor Bones Howe learned of this, he secured Campbell a small percentage of the soundtrack revenue as compensation.[94] Paul Hanson taught Fox how to use a guitar to play "Johnny B. Goode", and choreographer Brad Jeffries spent 4 weeks teaching Fox to replicate various rock star movements popularized by artists like Pete Townshend, Jimi Hendrix, and Chuck Berry.[95][96] Berry withheld permission to use "Johnny B. Goode" until the day before filming. Eventually Gale and Zemeckis paid him $50,000 for the rights.[97] Harry Waters Jr. provided the vocals of "Earth Angel".[98]

Design

Special effects

The special effects for Back to the Future were developed by Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) under the supervision of Ken Ralston and Kevin Pike.[99][1] The film contains approximately 27–32 special effects shots, compared to the 300 effects typical to most higher-budget films of its time.[6][80][1] The effects studio was simultaneously working on effects for The Goonies and Cocoon.[1] The Goonies was given priority because of its earlier release date.[80] Ralston took on the additional work of Back to the Future because it required a small number of effects and he was interested in realizing the then-planned ending of Marty driving the time machine into a nuclear explosion. Ralston expressed difficulty with the schedule; he worked on Cocoon during the day and Back to the Future at night.[1]

The team was given nine-and-a-half weeks to develop the special effects, but once Universal Pictures moved up the release date this was reduced to eight weeks. Ralston said that ILM was working on Back to the Future up to the last possible minute before it had to be handed over to print the theatrical film reels.[1][100] The tight schedule had an impact on the special effects quality. A scene where Marty's hand fades away as his future is altered was considered disappointing by Ralston. Fox was filmed separately from his hand and the two were composited together; because the hand was filmed with a wide-angle lens, it appeared larger than normal and had to be scaled down. Zemeckis wanted the fade to be subtle, but it resulted in a small circle of the hand fading away and there was no time to fix it.[101][1]

In the same scene, Marty and his siblings fade away from a photo. ILM found it difficult to individually fade the photo's different aspects, especially as it is moving on the neck of a guitar.[101] A replica of the guitar neck was constructed at 4 times the normal size; the guitar strings were made of cable up to a quarter-inch thick. An 11x14 inch aluminum plate was attached to the guitar to hold the enlarged photograph.[101] ILM used a version of the photo without Marty or his siblings and individually pasted each character into the photo.[101] When this did not work, four different photos were used: one containing the background, and one for each McFly sibling. A Tondreau Mechanical camera allowed them to cycle through each photo as it was aligned into the shot and print it to the film.[101] The enlarged guitar was moved around to add to the realism.[1]

The original nuclear test site was considered too complicated and expensive, with an estimated cost of $1 million.[16][14][1] Art director Andrew Probert storyboarded the scene, which would have been created using a combination of sets and miniature recreations.[14][101] With the ending moved to the clocktower, ILM researched storms to achieve the right look.[101] Clouds were constructed from Polyester Fiberfill and suspended in a net. The clouds were filmed from above while Ralston shone a powerful light from below.[78] Ralston used a rheostat to rapidly change the lights intensity to imitate lightning.[78]

The lightning bolt that strikes the clocktower was described as "the largest bolt of lightning in cinematic history."[78] Wes Takahashi's animation department developed the effect. It was intended to originate far in the distance and move towards the camera, but the scene had been filmed too close to the clocktower and there was not enough space between it and the top of the frame for the effect to fit.[102] There was also an issue of showing the bolt onscreen for too long (initially 100–120 frames) as it made it more obvious that it was animated.[102][78] The frame count was reduced to 30 but the effect did not look erratic enough.[78] Viewing the animation on a moviola, Zemeckis picked out a single frame of the bolt in an "S" shape. He asked that the effect focus on that shape and be reduced to 20 frames.[78][102] The bolt was drawn in black ink on white paper; a glow and diffusion effects were added by the Optical department.[102]

The DeLorean time machine

The DeLorean time machine on display in 2011
The DeLorean time machine on display in 2011

The DeLorean was developed under the supervision of Lawrence Paull,[99] and designed by artist Ron Cobb, illustrator Andrew Probert, and Paull.[103][23] The vehicle was designed to look fixed together from common parts.[99] The time machine was conceived as a stationary device, and at one point was a refrigerator; Spielberg vetoed the idea out of concern that children would climb into their own.[14] Zemeckis suggested the DeLorean because it offered mobility, a unique design, and the gull-wing doors would appear like an alien UFO to a 1950s family.[8][9][10] The Ford Motor Company offered $75,000 to use a Ford Mustang instead; Gale responded that "Doc Brown doesn't drive a fucking Mustang".[9] Michael Fink was hired as an art department liaison. He was tasked with realizing Cobb's sketches and overseeing its construction. He was recruited by Paull and Canton who had worked with him on Blade Runner (1982) and Buckaroo Bonzai respectively. Fink had a project lined up but agreed to help in the free weeks he had remaining.[99]

Three DeLoreans were purchased from a collector for the film: one for stunts, one for special effects, and one for normal shots.[103][104] The DeLoreans were unreliable and often broke down.[9] 88 mph (142 km/h) was chosen as the speed for time travel because it was simple to remember and looked "cool" on the speedometer.[97] A custom speedometer was built to simulate 88 mph, as a 1979 law passed by then-President Jimmy Carter had limited cars to 85 mph to reduce speeding.[23] The Flux Capacitor, necessary for time travel in the film, was called the Temporal Field Capacitor; Zemeckis said that the name was not believable. From his work on the 1979 drama The China Syndrome, Fink had learned of Neutron flux. He and Zemeckis simultaneously suggested renaming it the Flux Capacitor. Cobb and Probert had alternately placed the Flux Capacitor on the external and interior roof of the DeLorean. Fink placed it next to the driver.[99] Fink constructed the device using a NEMA box and backlit Torr High-Voltage relays. The time display was constructed from LMB boxes. When Fink left, he picked Michael Scheffe to replace him. Scheffe finished the Flux Capacitor build and built the "Mr. Fusion" replacement power supply out of a Krups coffee grinder.[99]

The flying DeLorean used a combination of live-action footage, animation, and a 1:5 scale (approximately 33 inches (840 mm) long) model DeLorean built by Steve Gawley and the model shop crew that was filmed against a blue screen.[105][1] Months were spent building the model from epoxy, steel, and aluminum. Halogen lamps were fitted to the tires to simulate thrusters; the tires were made from aluminum to withstand the heat.[1][106] Blue chalk was rubbed on the windscreen to conceal the lack of riders.[1] It was the last effect produced by ILM for the film.[107]

The act of the DeLorean traveling through time is referred to as the "time slice" effect. Zemeckis only knew that he wanted it to be a violent transition. He described it like a "Neanderthal sitting on the hood of the Delorean and chipping away the fabric of time in front of him".[102] He suggested a crack in time opening before the car, but animators could not determine what would be on the reverse of the opening visible to the audience. An electrical effect enveloping the car was abandoned because a similar process had been used in the science fiction film The Terminator (1984).[108] Other ideas included a wave of energy that moved over the car before exploding open a hole in time, and a "cubist" effect where the car would break into separate segments, each individually expanding in proportions before disappearing. Takahashi developed artwork showing the segments popping out from the Delorean and glowing. Gale liked the effect, but Zemeckis did not and Spielberg found it unrealistic.[108][102]

Takahashi animated separate effects like contrails and flashing lights; Zemeckis opted to use them all.[102] The effects were drawn in black and white and optically manipulated afterward. This resulted in the Delorean appearing to emit various effects that strike in front of the car to create an explosion that opens the time slice. This was combined with practical effects on the car including smoke, sparks, and flash-bulbs.[108] Fire emitting from the tires was intended to start the sequence but the gas jet mechanism repeatedly failed; it only functioned for two out of the six shots required.[109] Peggy Regan animated flames and reflections for consistency.[110] The trails of fire left behind the Delorean were practical, but the actual movement was slow. The footage was sped up and smoke added where the car disappeared. Fox and Lloyd were filmed against a reflective mylar blue screen set to match the car park's wet surface and composited into the trails of fire.[108][1] Reflections of the actors were matte paintings filmed through a ripple glass to add texture.[108] A stuntman in a dog suit portrays Doc's dog when in the moving car.[52] It was suggested that the DeLorean emerges from the time slice in sections that slam into each preceding section. Norwood and Charlie Mullen outlined an animation and Ellen Lichtwardt animated a glow to the vehicle. The effect is so quick as to be imperceptible. Zemeckis preferred this as he did not want the audience to think too much about how everything worked.[110]

Design

Artist Drew Struzan in 2012. He designed the Back to the Future theatrical release poster.
Artist Drew Struzan in 2012. He designed the Back to the Future theatrical release poster.

The filmmakers used a stylized adaptation of 1950 aesthetics closer to TV show interpretations than an exact recreation. Modern technologies such as fabrics were used because they determined that the actual fashions of the time were less aesthetically pleasing.[19] Real brand names like Texaco were used to make the sets more realistic.[8] Paull said that the producers mandated the inclusion of certain brands who had paid. An unnamed gas company offered a large sum to be included but Paull used Texaco because it reminded him of a joke from The Milton Berle Show.[111] This led to some disputes as Pepsi makers PepsiCo did not want a joke about Tab in the film as it was made by rival The Coca-Cola Company.[8] 20 clock wranglers were needed for the opening scene to synch up the many clocks. The wranglers used pullies to start the clocks in sync with the scene recording.[97] The film's poster was produced by artist Drew Struzan.[112] It was hoped Struzan's in-demand poster artwork would help generate public interest in the film.[113]

To represent characters across three decades, the filmmakers did not want to have older actors stand-in for the younger ones. They believed that the change would be obvious and detrimental to the film. Special effects artist Ken Chase was hired for his prosthetics experience. He ran several make-up tests on the young actors to age them; the results were initially discouraging. In particular, Chase said that the result for Glover was terrible. Chase created a prosthetic neck and a bald cap with receding hairline for Glover's character, but the effect was considered excessive. Chase found it difficult to balance aging the actors while retaining enough of their natural faces so they remained recognizable.[103]

Casts were taken of the actors' faces, from which plaster molds were made. Chase sculpted more subtle effects over the plaster molds using latex. For Lorraine, he crafted jowls and eye bags, plus body padding to reflect her increased weight and alcohol abuse.[114] Instead of a receding hairline, Chase just changed the style of George's hair and used prosthetics to give him a less defined jawline.[115] Biff's character was given more significant changes: he was made to look fatter, given sideburns, and a comb over hairstyle to hide a growing bald-spot. Chase wanted him to look "obnoxious".[115] The prosthetics were combined with makeup and lighting to further visually age the characters.[103]

Chase found the work frustrating compared to his more fantastical prostheses on other films that made it easier to hide defects. In comparison, blending small prosthetics into natural skin was harder.[103] The rubber latex did not reflect light in the same manner as natural skin. Chase used a stippling process—creating a pattern with small dots—to add varied colors to the actors faces to better conceal where the skin and prosthetics met.[115] Close-up shots were avoided for the same reason.[115] Doc's appearance was not significantly altered. Chase employed a technique where he could paint latex on Lloyd's skin which, when removed, caused crinkles in the skin. Extra elements like liver spots and shadows were painted on to Lloyd.[115]

Release

By June 1985, the theatrical industry had seen a 14% decline in ticket sales over the previous year's own $4 billion record sales. The summer period (beginning in the final week of May) had 45 films scheduled for release, including action film Rambo: First Blood Part II, adventure film The Goonies, the comedies Brewster's Millions and Fletch and the latest James Bond film A View to a Kill.[116] This represented a 25% increase in the number of releases over the previous year's, leading to concerns among industry professionals that the competition would divide audiences and limit financial returns.[116] Financial success was considered more important as the average cost of making a film had increased to $14.5 million and the average cost of marketing a film to $7 million. A higher budget to secure a popular cast was considered a suitable risk as the box office returns were typically higher as a result.[116] The majority of expected film releases were aimed at younger audiences, focusing on fantasy and the supernatural. Reflecting the times, these fantasy elements often employed a technological source instead of a magical one.[117] Only a few films, like Cocoon and Prizzi's Honor, were targeted at adults.[118]

Back to the Future was initially scheduled to release in May 1985.[119] It was pushed back to June 21, the earliest Zemeckis could have it ready. The production delay following Stoltz's replacement pushed it back to July 19, and later to August.[9] After previewing the film, Sheinberg was impressed. He moved the release date forward to July 3, giving it an extra 16 days of theatrical screentime during the industry's most profitable time of the year. This would offer approximately 100,000 extra screenings worth an estimated $40 million. Sheinberg said he also wanted to avoid the negative perception of films released later in the summer period, instead of early like other blockbuster films.[62] The change required renegotiations with theater owners to secure screens in an already crowded marketplace. In some cities, it was legally required that exhibitors be shown a film prior to purchase. An unfinished cut of the film featuring a temporary music score and incomplete special effects was shown to exhibitors and young test audiences. Exhibitors described it as not at the same level as E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial or Ghostbusters, but a guaranteed box office hit.[62] Fox was unavailable to promote the film because he was making Family Ties Vacation (1985) in London.[120]

Box office

In North America, Back to the Future received a wide release Wednesday on July 3, 1985, ahead of Independence Day holiday weekend.[4][121] The film earned $3.6 million during the opening Wednesday and Thursday.[121] During its inaugural weekend, it earned a further $11.3 million from 1,420 theaters—an average of $7,853 per theatre.[122] Back to the Future finished as the number 1 film of the weekend ahead of the western film Pale Rider ($7 million) in its second weekend, and Rambo: First Blood Part II ($6.4 million) in its seventh.[123] It retained the number 1 position in its second weekend with a further gross of $10.6 million, ahead of the debuting action film Mad Max Beyond Thunderdome ($7.8 million) and Cocoon ($5 million).[124] It remained number 1 in its third weekend, ahead of the re-release of E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial ($8.8 million) and Mad Max Beyond Thunderdome ($5.4 million).[125] In its fourth weekend it briefly fell to number 2 behind the release of the comedy film National Lampoon's European Vacation ($12.3 million). It returned to number 1 in its fifth weekend with $ million, and remained there for the following 8 weeks.[122][126] Recalling the opening weeks, Gale said "our second weekend was higher than our first weekend, which is indicative of great word of mouth. National Lampoon's European Vacation came out in August and it kicked us out of number one for one week and then we were back to number one."[8]

The film remained a steady success through to September. By October, it had surpassed Rambo: First Blood Part II's $149 million box office earnings to become the year's highest-grossing film with $155 million.[127][118] In total, Back to the Future was the number 1 film for 11 of its 12 first weeks of release. It remained in the top ten highest-grossing films for its first 24 weeks of release.[122] By the end of its theatrical run, Back to the Future earned an approximate box office gross of $210.6 million.[91] This figure made it the highest-grossing film of 1985, ahead of Rambo: First Blood Part II ($150.4 million), the sports drama Rocky IV ($127.9 million), and drama film The Color Purple ($94.2 million).[128][129] According to estimates by Box Office Mojo, this indicates that over 77 million tickets were bought to see the film.[130] Industry experts suggest that as of 1997, the box office returns to the studio—minus the theaters' share—was $105.5 million.[131]

Outside of North America, the film earned a further estimated $170.5 million.[132][91] This made it the third-highest-grossing film behind the romantic drama Out of Africa ($179.1 million) and Rocky IV ($172.6 million).[132] Cumulatively, Back to the Future earned a worldwide gross of $381.1 million, making it the highest-grossing film of 1985 worldwide, ahead of Rocky IV ($300.5 million) and Rambo: First Blood Part II ($300.4 million).[91][133][134]

Back to the Future has received several theatrical re-releases to celebrate the film's anniversaries, including a remastered version screened in 2010. These releases have raised the film's worldwide total to $388.8 million.[135][136]

Reception

Critical response

Lea Thompson in 2008 (left) and Crispin Glover in 2012. Critics praised the central cast, including Fox, Lloyd, Thompson, and Glover.

Back to the Future received generally positive reviews from critics.[137][138][139] Janet Maslin called it the "most sustained and entertaining" of the summer's films.[140] Richard Corliss referenced Marty's dialogue during the "Johnny B. Goode" scene, saying that the audiences' kids will love the film over the next 30 years.[141] Paul Attanasio said the film offered a return to a focus on storytelling in film. He added that even though every facet seemed mechanically designed to create a broadly-appealing film, it never felt too safe. Attanasio concluded that Back to the Future was a "wildly pleasurable" and sweet science-fiction comedy.[142] Several reviewers compared it favourably to the 1946 fantasy drama It's a Wonderful Life.[2][143][144] Roger Ebert said that Zemeckis had delivered a "fine comic touch" and a humanity. He said that the film had charm, humor, and held a lot of surprises that offered the film's "greatest pleasures".[144] Kirk Ellis (writing for The Hollywood Reporter) offered a similar sentiment, saying Zemeckis' direction added a comic humanity to the science-fiction setting.[143] Ellis called it the Oedipal version of It's a Wonderful Life. He said that despite Spielberg's role as a producer, Back to the Future was clearly Zemeckis' film, being more subtle, gentler, and less noisy.[143]

Gene Siskel said that initially Back to the Future seems to be everything wrong with movies of its era that are aimed at a young audience. However, it subverted his expectations by avoiding traveling to an unidentifiable future or historical event to focus on the unique perspective through a relatable tale of a child being able to meet his parents in their youth. It offered something for both children and adults.[145] Sheila Benson was more critical; she called it "big, cartoonish and empty". She said that Back to the Future had an interesting premise but the film was overproduced and underdeveloped. Benson believed that the film lacked tension because there was never any doubt that Marty would succeed, and the ending was left feeling hollow with materialistic rewards.[146] Siskel countered that the tension came by defying the expectations of a typical time travel film in making the past mutable and the future uncertain.[145]

Kehr remarked that Gale and Zemeckis were among the first wave of filmmakers openly influenced by growing up on televised entertainment, and their inspirations are evident throughout Back to the Future. He described it as "zestfully tasteless" with a uniquely American vulgarity, crassness and manic energy.[147] Attansio appreciated that the film had irreverent humor that was not mean spirited. He described that the film succeeds by having an emotional core that keeps the audiences' interest among the laughter.[142]

Reviewers agreed that the exposition heavy opening leads into a better half. Loynd described the opening as "shaky" and exposition heavy, but the rest of the film is filled with wit, wonder, and fresh ideas. He appreciated the comparisons between 1955 and 1985, and the "delicious" premise of Marty returning to the past only for his mother to fall for him romantically.[2] Corliss agreed that the opening was akin to a "long fuse that explodes into comic epiphany mid way".[141] Leonard Maltin said it takes a while to get to the action, but in describing the ending, he said it was a "wow".[137]

All of the cast performances were generally well received, particularly Fox, Lloyd, Thompson, and Glover.[143][117][142] Reviewers were consistent in their praise for Fox's "appealing" performance.[145][143][137] Several reviewers believed that Lloyd's performance stole the film.[143][142][145] Ellis said that Lloyd was at his "scene-stealing best", offering an uncontrolled performance that would redefine movie scientists for the modern audience.[143] Attanasio agreed; he said that Lloyd demonstrated that his unique "intensity" could carry a film.[142] Dave Kehr called Lloyd's character a tribute to every great mad scientist portrayed by the likes of Sid Caesar and John Belushi.[147] Vincent Canby and Ray Loynd (writing for Variety) said that both Fox and Lloyd were good, but that it was Glover and Thompson who were the stand-out performers.[117][2] Loynd said that Glover's bumbling-to-confident George McFly was the highlight, supported by Thompson's "deceptively passionate" performance.[2] Some reviewers considered the use of Libyan terrorists, a real fear of the time, to be in poor taste.[146][143]

Accolades

At the 1986 Academy Awards, Back to the Future received one award for Best Sound Effects Editing. It received a further three nominations: Best Original Screenplay for Gale and Zemeckis (losing to Earl W. Wallace, Pamela Wallace, and William Kelley for the crime-drama Witness); Best Sound Mixing for Bill Varney, B. Tennyson Sebastian II, Robert Thirlwell, William B. Kaplan (losing to Chris Jenkins, Gary Alexander, Larry Stensvold, and Peter Handford for Out of Africa); and Best Original Song for "The Power of Love" by Chris Hayes, Johnny Colla, and Huey Lewis (losing to "Say You, Say Me" by Lionel Richie for the drama film White Nights).[148] It received four nominations at the 43rd Golden Globe Awards:[10] Best Motion Picture (Musical or Comedy) (losing to Prizzi's Honor), Best Actor in a Motion Picture (Musical or Comedy) for Fox (losing to Jack Nicholson in Prizzi's Honor), Best Original Song (again losing to "Say You, Say Me"), Best Screenplay for Gale (losing to Woody Allen for The Purple Rose of Cairo).[149]

At 39th British Academy Film Awards, Back to the Future received five nominations including: Best Film and Best Original Screenplay (losing both to The Purple Rose of Cairo), Best Visual Effects and Best Production Design (losing both to Brazil), and Best Editing (losing to Nena Danevic and Michael Chandler for Amadeus).[150] At the 13th Saturn Awards, the film won three awards: Best Science Fiction Film, Best Actor for Fox, and Best Special Effects for Kevin Pike.[151] Back to the Future also named Favorite Motion Picture at the 12th People's Choice Awards and won the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation.[152][153] The film performed well internationally: it won Best Foreign Producer (Spielberg) and Best Foreign Screenplay at the David di Donatello awards (Italy), Outstanding Foreign Film from the Japan Academy, and the Goldene Leinwand (Germany) for selling more than 3 million tickets in its first 18 months.[154]

Post-release

Performance analysis and aftermath

1985 was considered an unsuccessful year for the film industry. Despite a record number of film releases for the decade, many films failed at the box office, and ticket sales were down 17% compared to 1984.[155][118] Industry executives believed the problem, in part, was a lack of original concepts.[156] Films about fantasy and magic failed, as audiences began to trend towards science-fiction.[117][118] Janet Maslin said that the fault for this lay partly with Spielberg, who had created such a successful template with films like E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial and Close Encounters of the Third Kind that many fantasy films had closely emulated them.[140] There was also an over-saturation of youth-oriented films targeted at those under 18 years old. Executives were not fond of these films, but the financial rewards were too significant to ignore. Only a few films were aimed at older audiences, leading to surprise successes like Cocoon.[118][157][118] Only Back to the Future and Rambo: First Blood Part II were considered successful blockbusters, earning more than double the box office of Cocoon.[118] Films offering escapism and pro-America themes like Rambo: First Blood Part II and Rocky IV had also fared well.[157]

The glut of youth-targeted films like Return to Oz and The Black Cauldron, and science-fiction comedies like Weird Science, Real Genius, and My Science Project had resulted in a string of failures. Executives said that the films were all very similar and marketed in the same way, offering no variety for audiences.[118][117] Back to the Future was seen as one of the few original concepts.[156]

After years of poor performances, Back to the Future, alongside Fletch, Brewster's Millions, and Mask, reversed Universal Picture's fortunes. This was credited to the foresight of Frank Price; it was the second-highest-grossing studio that year.[158][157] For Fox, before Family Ties and Back to the Future, he was financially struggling, had no car or home, and contacted his agent using payphones. Afterward, he became one of the most in-demand stars in Hollywood, receiving marriage proposals and letters from fans around the world.[159][33] "The Power of Love" also gave Huey Lewis and the News their first number 1 song on the Billboard Hot 100 and their first international success.[5]

Home media

Back to the Future was released in on VHS on May 22, 1986, priced at $79.95.[160][161] It was also the most rented cassette of the year.[162] A sequel was not planned until after Back to the Future's release. A "To Be Continued..." graphic was added to the VHS release to promote awareness of future sequels.[163] When the film was released on DVD in 2002, the graphic was removed because Gale and Zemeckis wanted it to be as it was seen in theaters.[161][163] It has not appeared in releases since.[163]

On the film's 25th-anniversary in 2010, it debuted on Blu-ray. The release included a six-part documentary including interviews with the cast and crew, behind-the-scenes footage, deleted scenes, and associated music videos from all three films. The release was notable for including the first released footage of Stoltz in the role of Marty McFly.[135][18][164][165] For its 35th anniversary in 2020, a remastered 4K Ultra HD version was released on Blu-ray. Alongside extras included in previous releases, this edition included audition footage and an exploration of the film props hosted by Gale. Limited edition steelbook cases or a display replicate of the levitating hoverboard from Back to the Future Part II were also available.[166][167]

The Back to the Future soundtrack was released in July 1985, on cassette tape, LP record, and Compact disc.[168] Sales were initially slow, but it eventually peaked at number 12 on the Billboard 200, in part because of the success of "The Power of Love".[169]

Cinematic analysis

(Left to right) Nancy McKeon, Michael J. Fox, Nancy Reagan, and then-United States President Ronald Reagan in October 1985. Back to the Future has been interpreted as an endorsement of Reagan-era policies concerning the American dream, self-reliance, initiative, and technological advancement.
(Left to right) Nancy McKeon, Michael J. Fox, Nancy Reagan, and then-United States President Ronald Reagan in October 1985. Back to the Future has been interpreted as an endorsement of Reagan-era policies concerning the American dream, self-reliance, initiative, and technological advancement.

The main theme of Back to the Future concerns taking control and personal responsibility over one's own destiny. A situation can be changed even if it seems otherwise impossible to overcome.[8] Thompson said that the film represents how one moment can have a significant and lasting impact on a person's life.[42][13] Gale said that Doc Brown provided the perfect summary of the theme running throughout the film series, when in Back to the Future Part III he said: "Your future is whatever you make it, so make it a good one."[8]

Even so, Marty's future is enriched at the expense of others. At the start of the film, Marty is rejected at Battle of the Bands and admits his fears that his ambitions will remain unrealized. He worries he will end up like his parents, and sees direct evidence in 1955 of George, also afraid of rejection, being unable to approach Lorraine; his fears risk Marty's future.[170][84] Marty sets about manipulating the past to ensure his own survival without concern for what impact his presence in 1955 is having on others. On his return to 1985, he is rewarded with wealthier parents and a nicer car, but he has simultaneously damaged Biff's future, reducing him to a valet for the McFlys.[171][43] Glover was critical of the film's ending. He believed that Marty's reward should have been happy parents actually in love with each other. He considered it a result of the film serving a corporate interest, promoting the accumulation of wealth and purchasing new things.[43] In 2015, Zemeckis said the ending was perfect for its time but would be different if he made it now. Gale disagreed and said he did not apologize for the scene. American audiences largely had no issue with this ending, but some international audiences did criticise it.[172]

Despite rejection by film studios for not being raunchy enough,[9] Back to the Future alludes to sexual assault, racism, and the oedipus complex—a psychiatric theory developed by psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud that says a child has an unconscious sexual desire for their opposite-sexed parent. This refers to the relationship between Marty and his future mother Lorraine in 1955.[117][171] Many elements of the film are based around the relationships between parents and children. Where most people are only able to know their parents, Marty is given the opportunity to see his parents as his peers, when they were his age and shared the same ambitions and dreams as him.[13][18]

The film can also be seen as promoting Reaganism—the political positions of then-president Ronald Reagan—promoting the older values of the American dream, self-reliance, initiative, and technological advancement. 1985 is presented as run down and in decay, while 1955 is presented as a more simplistic and seemingly safer time seen through the lens of nostalgia.[171] Marty's future is bettered because he goes back to 1955 and teaches George to be more assertive and self-reliant, leading to a more prosperous future for Marty with materialistic rewards.[170][171] The film uses many brand names of the time to make the setting more realistic—like Mountain Dew, Pepsi, and Texaco—but the filmmakers were financially compensated for their inclusion, making them symbols of commercialism and thus materialistic.[170][8]

Sorcha Ní Fhlainn argues that many films of the 1980s were a result of the American publics' desire for escapism from cultural anxieties and fears including Nuclear proliferation, unemployment, crime, growing inequality, and the AIDS crisis. Films like those of the Star Wars series and Back to the Future are designed to offer a child-like reassurance of safety and comfort. They emphasize idealized American values and the positive effects of instilling power in a patriarchal figure like George McFly or Darth Vader.[173] Susan Jeffords notes that Doc Brown is an analog for Reagan, a man who embraces technological advancement, who is in conflict with Libyan terrorists, and provides the means for a failing family to better themselves.[174]

The song "Johnny B. Goode" by Chuck Berry is used during the film's final act. Berry resisted allowing the song to be used in the film at first. NPR argued that while this may have been a matter of money for Berry, there are underlying racial issues involved in Marty, a Caucasian male, effectively rewriting history to invent the rock and roll music genre, which was heavily influenced by African American music styles.[175][171] The 1955 segment also presents a distorted view of America, showing an African American band playing at the high school dance at a time when they would never have been allowed to.[146] Similarly, the African American character Goldie Wilson is seemingly inspired to work towards becoming mayor by Marty's intervention, inspiring a Reagan-style initiative and self-reliance.[170]

As film fans, Gale's and Zemeckis' influences are seen throughout Back to the Future. There are references to The Wizard of Oz (1939), The Shaggy Dog (1959), Dr. Strangelove (1964), Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977), the Star Wars film series, and television shows including Mister Peabody, Star Trek: The Original Series, The Outer Limits, and The Twilight Zone.[84][18] There are also allusions to The Time Machine (1960)—based on the 1895 novella of the same name by H. G. Wells—and A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court by Mark Twain, in which the central character seemingly moves through time.[176] The DeLorean dashboard chronomoeter uses the same colour scheme as the time device of The Time Machine.[177] Ray Loynd opined that Doc can be seen as a King Arthur-type, with Marty serving as his knight.[2]

Legacy

A left-profile picture of actor Thomas F. Wilson smiling
Actor Thomas F. Wilson in 2011. He developed a comedy song that answers the repetitive questions he was asked by fans about the Back to the Future film series.

Back to the Future is now considered a landmark of American cinema and an enduring popular culture touchstone.[10][175][171] The film has global popular appeal, and is particularly popular in the United States, United Kingdom, France, Argentina, the Netherlands, and Japan.[178] It has continued to find fans decades after its release. In October 2015, the day Doc and Marty travel to at the end of Back to the Future and depicted in Back to the Future II, an estimated 27 million social media users discussed the films; the most active users were in the United States, Mexico, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Brazil.[175][179]

As of 2003, Gale had continued to receive mail from fans, mainly addressing the first film in the trilogy. Gale said he understood the continuing appreciation for the film as it was the "purest" and "most complete" film in the series.[8] Fox compared it to The Wizard of Oz (1939), saying that it still appeals to children because they do not think of it as an old film.[180] In 2012, Thompson said that her role as Lorraine was the greatest of her career. She said Back to the Future had remained relevant to new generations because of its core idea that the viewer's parents were once kids and had the same dreams they do.[42] Dean Cundey believed it still resonated with fans because it offers the fantasy of going back in time to change things and make the present better.[13] Glover said that he had watched it once and likes parts of it, but he believed that it sent the wrong message that the hero is rewarded with wealthier parents and a new car instead of the reward being his parents are actually happily in love.[43] As of 2020, Wilson still carries around cards containing answers to fan questions he has been asked over the preceding years, to avoid constantly repeating himself.[181] Lloyd described being approached by fans from around the world, who have said the film inspired them to become a scientist.[182]

Many of the principal cast have reunited in the years since Back to the Future's release. Often these reunions are for charitable purposes, including The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's disease (Fox was diagnosed with the disease at age 29), and Project HOPE.[183][184][185][53] A 2019 reunion for the TCM Classic Film Festival featured the premiere of the film's 4K restored version.[186] The cast have also appeared in adverts only loosely related to Back to the Future, trading on their associated popularity.[187]

The DeLorean is considered one of the most iconic vehicles in film history.[188] The DeLorean creator John DeLorean was a fan of the film and sent personal letters to Gale and Zemeckis, thanking them for using his vehicle.[9] The DeLorean was not a popular vehicle prior to the films release. However, in the years since it has become a popular collectors item, and the DeLorean company issued kits that enabled fans to make their vehicle look more like the DeLorean time machine.[37][189] $78,500 was crowdfunded to restore one of the original film-used DeLoreans, and an associated documentary about the restoration, Out of Time: Saving the DeLorean Time Machine.[189]

Contemporary reception

Back to the Future is considered one of the greatest films ever made.[190][191] It is listed in the film reference book 1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die, which says:

Michael J. Fox...became a full-fledged movie star thanks to this time-traveling comedy adventure... An extremely clever premise is further enlivened by quick-fire direction from Robert Zemeckis and a superb, witty script... Fox is perfect as the teen trying to unite his parents... Lloyd suitably foolish as the nutty scientist, while Glover and Lea Thompson (as Marty's mom) have a great time playing their characters as both middle-aged parents and teenagers. A timeless comedy adventure.[192]

In 2004, The New York Times listed it as one the 1,000 Best Movies Ever.[193] In 2005, the film's screenplay was listed as the fifth-sixth greatest screenplay of the preceding 75 years on the Writer's Guild of America's (WGA) 101 Greatest Screenplays list.[194][195] In 2006, it was listed at number 10 on Film4's 50 Films to See Before You Die.[196] In 2008, Empire listed the film at number 23 on its list of the 500 Greatest Movies of All Time, behind the 1977 space opera Star Wars. They said, "Weird science and teenage dreams combine in a wish-fulfilment sci-fi lent heart by the fantastic Mr. Michael J. Fox."[190] That same year, the American Film Institute listed Back to the Future as the number 10 best science-fiction film, based on a poll of 1,500 people from the creative community.[197] In 2010, Total Film named it one of the 100 greatest movies ever made.[198] In 2014, a poll of 2,120 entertainment-industry members by The Hollywood Reporter ranked it the twelfth best film of all time, again behind Star Wars.[191] In 2015, the screenplay was listed as the number 67 funniest on the WGA's 101 Funniest Screenplays list, positioning it behind Some Like It Hot (1958) and Annie Hall (1977).[199][200] That same year, Entertainment Weekly named it the number 28 best high school movie.[201] Rotten Tomatoes also listed the film number 84 on its list of 200 essential movies to watch.[202]

Several publications have listed it as one of the best science-fiction films ever made, including: number 2 by Rotten Tomatoes;[203] number 7 by Syfy;[204] number 8 by Empire;[205] number 14 by GamesRadar+,[206] and Paste;[207] number 17 by IGN;[208] number 20 by Business Insider;[209] number 27 by Thrillist;[210] and unranked by Esquire,[211] The Guardian,[212] Time Out,[213] and Wired.[214] Similarly, it has been listed as one of the best films of the 1980s by publications including: number 1 by Consequence of Sound,[215] and Rotten Tomatoes,[216] number 3 by ShortList,[217] number 4 by Elle,[218] number 5 by Empire,[219] number 12 by Parade,[220] number 20 by Time Out,[221] number 25 by GamesRadar+,[222] and unranked by Cosmopolitan,[223] Esquire,[224] Harper's Bazaar,[225] Highsnobiety,[226] Marie Claire,[227] Town & Country,[228]

Popular Mechanics and Rolling Stone listed it as the number 1 and number 4 best time travel film ever made.[229][230] Entertainment Weekly named it the number 40 most essential film to be watched by pre-teens.[231] Based on average review score, Rotten Tomatoes lists it as the number 87 best Action and Adventure film.[232] USA Today listed it as the number 2 comedy of the 1980s.[233] Rotten Tomatoes assesses a 96% approval rating from the aggregated reviews of 83 critics, with an average rating of 8.80/10. The consensus reads, "Inventive, funny, and breathlessly constructed, Back to the Future is a rousing time-travel adventure with an unforgettable spirit."[234] The film has a score of 87 out of 100 on Metacritic based on 15 critics, indicating "universal acclaim".[235] In the United Kingdom, readers of Empire voted the film as 11 their 2017 list of "The 100 Greatest Movies".[236] In March 2011, the film was voted by BBC Radio 1 and BBC Radio 1Xtra listeners as their 4th favorite film of all time.[237]

Cultural impact

In 2007, the film was selected by the United States Library of Congress to be preserved in the National Film Registry for being culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant.[238] Ronald Reagan was also a fan. When he first saw the joke about Doc Brown's incredulous response to Reagan becoming president, he ordered the projectionist of the theater to stop the reel, roll it back, and run it again.[170] At his 1986 State of the Union Address , he referenced the film to appeal to America's young voters.[175] He said "Never has there been a more exciting time to be alive, a time of rousing wonder and heroic achievement. As they said in the film Back to the Future, 'Where we're going, we don't need roads'."[239][240] Back to the Future is also seen as responsible for a resurgence in the popularity of skateboarding in the 1980s.[241][18] It made skateboarding a mainstream concept that was acceptable for all, not just rebellious teens.[242]

Back to the Future has influenced or been referenced in a variety of media, including: American Dad,[152] A Million Ways to Die in the West,[243] Avengers: Endgame,[244] Family Guy,[152] Grand Theft Auto V,[245] Rocket League,[246] Stranger Things,[247] and The Simpsons.[152] The eponymous characters of the 2013 animated television show Rick and Morty are inspired by Doc and Marty respectively.[248] The British pop rock band McFly are named for Marty McFly.[249] The 2011 novel Ready Player One by Ernest Cline 2018 film adaptation (directed by Spielberg) both heavily reference the film, including the central character using a DeLorean for transport.[250][251] Filmmaker J. J. Abrams has also cited it as an inspiration.[48]

The 2015 crowdfunded documentary Back in Time follows various fans of the series and details the impact it has had on their lives, interspersed with interviews from the crew including Fox and Lloyd.[252]

Merchandise

Merchandising for a film was a relatively new concept popularized by the Star Wars film series.[253] As Back to the Future was not specifically aimed at children, there was no significant merchandising at the time of its release. One of the earliest items was a rideable DeLorean for children, released in 1986.[254] Since then, the film and its sequels have been represented across a wide variety of merchandise produced for fans including: Playmobil, playing cards, clothing, pottery, posters,[255] board games,[255][256] sculpted figures, plush toys,[256] Funko POP! figures,action figures,[254] Hot Wheels and die-cast vehicles,[257][254] books, music albums,[258] and Christmas ornaments.[257]

There have been several video game adaptations of the film. Back to the Future was released alongside the film for the Amstrad CPC, Commodore 64, and ZX Spectrum.[259][260][261] An arcade-adventure game, Back to the Future, was released in 1989 for the Nintendo Entertainment System. In it, the player guides Marty around levels to collect clocks and avoid obstacles. Gale called it one of the worst games ever made and advised people not to purchase it.[260][262] Back to the Future: The Pinball was released in 1990. Fox did not give permission for the developers to use his likeness, so a different model was used for Marty McFly.[262] An episodic graphic adventure game, Back to the Future: The Game, was released in 2010. Gale contributed to the game's narrative, which takes place after the events of the third film in the series. It follows Doc's and Marty's adventures through time. Lloyd voiced Doc Brown, and Fox performed minor voice work as a McFly ancestor.[262][189] An area in Lego Dimensions is based on Back to the Future and features voice work by Lloyd.[262][263]

Back to the Future: The Ride, a simulator ride, ran from 1991 to 2007 at Universal Studios Hollywood and Universal Studios Florida. The development of the ride was supervised by Spielberg and featured Lloyd reprising his role as Doc Brown to chase down Biff (played by Wilson) who has stolen the DeLorean. A version of the ride is still active at Universal Studios Japan.[189][175] A Back to the Future-themed Monopoly board-game was released in 2015.[255][264] A Funko board game was released in 2020. It casts players as one of the main characters from the films to battle different Tannens across history.[256][265]

There have also been several books about the making of the film series. We Don't Need Roads: The Making of the Back to the Future Trilogy is an oral history from those involved in the production, including Gale and Zemeckis.[175] Back to the Future: The Ultimate Visual History—a book chronicling the development of the entirety of the Back to the Future franchise—was released in 2015. It contains previously unseen photos from the production.[266] The British Film Institute also released BFI Film Classics: Back to the Future about the film's background.[258] A novelization by George Gipe was released in 1985.[267][268] There has also been a crossover between the Back to the Future and Transformers franchises. This included featuring a transforming DeLorean toy and associated comic books.[269]

Sequels and adaptations

Elisabeth Shue pictured in 2009. When Claudia Wells left the series to care for her mother, Shue replaced her in the role of Jennifer Parker.
Elisabeth Shue pictured in 2009. When Claudia Wells left the series to care for her mother, Shue replaced her in the role of Jennifer Parker.

The film's success spawned the Back to the future franchise comprising film sequels, animated television shows, video games, comic books, and a wide variety of merchandise. It is considered one of the most successful film franchises.[18][270] A sequel was not planned before Back to the Future's release. The teaser ending of Doc, Marty, and Jennifer flying off in the DeLorean was intended to suggest their adventures would continue off screen.[84] Again written by Gale and Zemeckis, the sequel script was so long that it was split into two films, Back to the Future Part II and Back to the Future Part III; both films were shot back to back.[13][271]

Part II was released in 1989. In its story, Marty and Doc travel to 2015, inadvertently enabling the now-elderly Biff Tannen to steal the DeLorean and return to 1955, rewriting history in his favour.[271] Wells and Glover did not return for the sequels. Wells opted to care for her ailing mother and was replaced by Elisabeth Shue. Glover was replaced by Jeffrey Weissman. The reason for Glover's replacement is disputed: Gale maintains that Glover demanded too much money to participate; Glover countered that Gale and Zemeckis never intended to bring him back as they were upset that he had challenged them over the moral message of the first film's ending.[175][6][43][272] Part II was a financial success but was criticized for its complex, convoluted narrative.[273] Zemeckis has said that Part II is his least favorite film in the series.[271] The final film in the trilogy, Part III, was released in 1990. Its plot follows Marty as he travels to 1885 to rescue a time-stranded Doc.[274] While the film fared less well financially than the previous two films, it was more critically well-received than Part II.[273]

A 2018 poll by The Hollywood Reporter of 2,200 people found that 71% of those asked wanted a Back to the Future sequel, ahead of another Toy Story or Indiana Jones film.[275] In the years since the release of Part III, studios have attempted to convince Gale and Zemeckis to make another film; the pair share a controlling interest in the series preventing sequels being made without their permission. Gale has said there will never be a fourth film. He likened it to "selling your kids into prostitution." He added that a Back to the Future film could never happen without Marty McFly, and Fox could not participate because of the effects of his Parkinson's disease. There was also concern that other popular film series had been revived for sequels only to be critical failures.[276][277]

The films were followed by an animated television series, Back to the Future, which aired on the CBS from 1991–1992. The series followed Doc's and Marty's adventures through various historical periods, intercut with live-action segments featuring Lloyd, as Doc, performing science experiments alongside Bill Nye.[189] The series' narrative has been expanded on in comics and video games that detail Doc's and Marty's adventures before and after the events depicted in the films.[270] A short film Doc Brown Saves the World was released in 2015 to celebrate the film's 35th anniversary. Written by Gale and Zemeckis, it follows Doc Brown, portrayed by Lloyd, who must travel to the future to prevent a nuclear holocaust in 2045.[278] Josh Gad, as part of his "Reunited Apart" charity series of events during the COVID-19 pandemic, included a Back to the Future retrospective episode in May 2020 that included the participation of Fox, Lloyd, Thompson, Steenburgen, Wells, Shue, Gale, Zemeckis, Silvestri, Lewis, and a guest appearance from J.J. Abrams who expressed his admiration for the film.[279]

A musical theater production, Back to the Future, was announced in 2014.[280] The musical was written by Gale and Zemeckis, with music written by Silvestri and Glen Ballard. It debuted at the Manchester Opera House, England, in February 2020, to positive critical reviews.[281][282] Gale said the musical was the best way to give fans more Back to the Future without adding to the film series.[276]

References

Notes

  1. ^ As depicted in the film's 1989 sequel Back to the Future Part II.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Turner, George E. (March 20, 2020). "Back to the Future: Wheels on Fire". American Cinematographer. Archived from the original on March 28, 2020. Retrieved September 18, 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Loynd, Ray (June 25, 1985). "Film Review: 'Back to the Future'". Variety. Archived from the original on October 25, 2015. Retrieved September 10, 2020.
  3. ^ Cipriani, Casey (July 23, 2020). "Marty McFly's entire backstory explained". Looper.com. Archived from the original on October 9, 2020. Retrieved October 9, 2020.
  4. ^ a b c d Maslin, Janet (July 3, 1985). "The Screen: In 'Future,' Boy Returns To The Past". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 21, 2017. Retrieved August 27, 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d e della Cava, Marco (October 20, 2015). "Huey Lewis almost passed on going 'Back to the Future'". USA Today. Archived from the original on September 7, 2020. Retrieved September 7, 2020.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Chacksfield, Marc (May 10, 2020). "Back To The Future facts: 20 Things You (Probably) Didn't Know". ShortList. Archived from the original on June 22, 2020. Retrieved September 7, 2020.
  7. ^ a b "Back to the Future". AFI.com. Archived from the original on June 24, 2017. Retrieved October 9, 2020.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Holleran, Scott (November 18, 2003). "Brain Storm: An Interview with Bob Gale". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on December 6, 2008. Retrieved September 8, 2020.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Koknow, David (June 9, 2015). "How Back to the Future Almost Didn't Get Made". Esquire. Archived from the original on July 26, 2016. Retrieved July 14, 2016.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Bahiana, Ana Maria (October 21, 2015). "An Oral History of Back to the Future, by Robert Zemeckis". goldenglobes.com. Archived from the original on June 24, 2019. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Fein, Esther B. (July 21, 1985). "Three New Films: From Vision To Reality". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 25, 2017. Retrieved August 27, 2020.
  12. ^ a b c Gaines 2015, p. 12.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Gilbey, Ryan (August 25, 2014). "How we made Back to the Future". The Guardian. Archived from the original on May 15, 2016. Retrieved July 14, 2016.
  14. ^ a b c d e Sciretta, Peter (July 15, 2009). "How Back To The Future Almost Nuked The Fridge". Slashfilm. Archived from the original on August 4, 2012. Retrieved September 10, 2020.
  15. ^ a b Lussier, Germain (July 29, 2020). "Jon Cryer and Ben Stiller Auditioned for a Very Different Back to the Future". io9. Archived from the original on August 3, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  16. ^ a b c Chitwood, Adam (October 19, 2020). "How the Original 'Back to the Future' Ending Inspired 'Indiana Jones 4'". Collider. Retrieved October 19, 2020.
  17. ^ a b c Chacksfield, Marc (October 20, 2014). ""Back To The Future Wouldn't Have Been The Same Without Spielberg"". ShortList. Archived from the original on May 14, 2020. Retrieved September 7, 2020.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h Hanks, Henry (October 26, 2010). "Going 'Back to the Future,' 25 years later". CNN. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  19. ^ a b Maslin, Janet (June 28, 1985). "At the Movies". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 22, 2017. Retrieved August 27, 2020.
  20. ^ a b Gaines 2015, pp. 12,13.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g Friendly, David T. (June 27, 1985). "Zemeckis' 'Future' In High Gear". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on September 6, 2020. Retrieved September 6, 2020.
  22. ^ a b Gaines 2015, p. 13.
  23. ^ a b c d e Anders, Charlie Jane (June 17, 2015). "11 Incredible Secrets About The Making Of Back To The Future". io9. Archived from the original on February 29, 2020. Retrieved September 15, 2020.
  24. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 14.
  25. ^ Gaines 2015, pp. 15–16.
  26. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 16.
  27. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 17.
  28. ^ Ellison, Sarah (February 8, 2016). "Meet the Most Powerful Woman in Hollywood". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on May 16, 2018. Retrieved September 10, 2020.
  29. ^ a b c Gaines 2015, p. 18.
  30. ^ Fleming, Mike. "Blast From The Past On Back To The Future: How Frank Price Rescued Robert Zemeckis' Classic From Obscurity". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on October 22, 2015. Retrieved October 22, 2015.
  31. ^ a b Harrison, Ellie (August 30, 2016). "Back to the Future almost had a really bad title: Here's a memo to prove it..." Radio Times. Archived from the original on September 2, 2016. Retrieved September 1, 2016.
  32. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 111.
  33. ^ a b c d e Fein, Esther B. (July 26, 1985). "New Face: Michael J. Fox; Conversation With A Time Traveler". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 22, 2017. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  34. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 5.
  35. ^ Gaines 2015, pp. 2,3.
  36. ^ a b Gaines 2015, p. 19.
  37. ^ a b c d e f "The Lost Roles of 'Back to the Future'". Vulture. Archived from the original on December 28, 2019. Retrieved December 28, 2019.
  38. ^ a b Gaines 2015, p. 20.
  39. ^ Schneider, Caitlin (October 20, 2015). "See a List of All the Actors Who Could Have Played Doc Brown". Mental Floss. Archived from the original on October 19, 2019. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  40. ^ Girolamo, Dan (February 22, 2020). "Back To The Future: The Actor Who Almost Played Doc Brown". Screen Rant. Archived from the original on February 23, 2020. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  41. ^ Gouras, Matt (June 12, 2009). "Lloyd: 'Back to the Future' still gratifying". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on September 27, 2013. Retrieved August 8, 2013.
  42. ^ a b c Harris, Will (February 21, 2012). "Random Roles: Lea Thompson". The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on December 7, 2013. Retrieved September 10, 2020.
  43. ^ a b c d e f Robinson, Tasha (January 13, 2012). "Crispin Glover". The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on June 25, 2020. Retrieved September 13, 2020.
  44. ^ a b Burns-Fusaro, Nancy (July 15, 2020). "'Back to the Futures J.J. Cohen to make appearance at Misquamicut Drive-In". The Westerly Sun. Archived from the original on July 17, 2020. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  45. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Gaines, Caseen (October 1, 2015). "How the Back to the Future Cast and Crew Knew Eric Stoltz Would Be Fired". Vulture. Archived from the original on August 23, 2020. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
  46. ^ Sharp, Nathan (June 17, 2015). "10 Things You Didn't Know About The Making Of Back To The Future". Screen Rant. Archived from the original on October 7, 2020. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  47. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 43.
  48. ^ a b Mattise, Nathan (December 8, 2011). "Marty McFly's Original Girlfriend Goes Back to the Future". Wired. Archived from the original on November 19, 2012. Retrieved September 13, 2020.
  49. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 42.
  50. ^ Gingold, Michael (June 13, 2011). "Jill's Spielberg Memories". Fangoria. Archived from the original on November 19, 2012. Retrieved September 10, 2020.
  51. ^ Gaines 2015, pp. 84,85.
  52. ^ a b c Bui, Hoai-Tran (October 21, 2015). "15 things you probably didn't know about 'Back to the Future'". USA Today. Archived from the original on September 16, 2020. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  53. ^ a b Parker, Ryan (July 3, 2020). "'Back to the Future' at 35: It's Time to Decipher an Eric Stoltz Fan Theory". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  54. ^ Gaines 2015.
  55. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 32.
  56. ^ Gaines 2015, pp. 2–3,23.
  57. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 87.
  58. ^ Gaines 2015, pp. 1–2.
  59. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 22,27.
  60. ^ a b Gaines 2015, pp. 21,22.
  61. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 21.
  62. ^ a b c d e f Mathews, Jack (June 14, 1985). "Universal Speeds Up Release Of 'Back To Future'". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on September 6, 2020. Retrieved September 6, 2020.
  63. ^ Gaines 2015, pp. 28–29.
  64. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 31–33.
  65. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 35–36.
  66. ^ Gaines 2015, pp. 25–26.
  67. ^ a b Gaines 2015, p. 52.
  68. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 33.
  69. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 41,43.
  70. ^ a b Gaines 2015, p. 103–104.
  71. ^ a b Gaines 2015, p. 114.
  72. ^ Cronin, Brian (February 9, 2019). "Did Tony Hawk Choreograph the Skateboarding in Back to the Future?". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on October 21, 2019. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  73. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 50.
  74. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 51.
  75. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 47.
  76. ^ Rudolph, Christopher (November 12, 2013). "The Surprising History Of The 'Back To The Future' Clock Tower". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on November 12, 2013. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  77. ^ a b c d Chiland, Elijah; Staff, Curbed (March 31, 2020). "The ultimate 'Back to the Future' filming locations map". Curbed. Archived from the original on June 17, 2020. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  78. ^ a b c d e f g Pourro 1985, p. 64.
  79. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 143.
  80. ^ a b c Pourro 1985, p. 40.
  81. ^ Shaffer, Mark (February 10, 2014). "About Schmidt". lcweekly.com. Archived from the original on August 6, 2016. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  82. ^ Gaines 2015, pp. 104, 106–107.
  83. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 108–109.
  84. ^ a b c d e f Patrick, Seb (November 22, 2019). "Back to the Future: 88 Things You Missed in the Trilogy". Den of Geek. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  85. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 108.
  86. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 107–108.
  87. ^ Anderton, Joe (June 7, 2020). "Back to the Future writer responds to Marty McFly fan theory". Digital Spy. Archived from the original on August 21, 2020. Retrieved September 17, 2020.
  88. ^ a b Gaines 2015, p. 109.
  89. ^ "Back to the Future (PG)". BBFC.co.uk. July 8, 1985. Archived from the original on June 22, 2015. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
  90. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 132.
  91. ^ a b c d "Back to the Future". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on September 29, 2020. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  92. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 96.
  93. ^ "Ghostbusters (1984)". AFI.com. Archived from the original on January 13, 2019. Retrieved January 12, 2019.
  94. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 88.
  95. ^ Travis, Ben (July 9, 2020). "Back To The Future: Michael J. Fox On Shooting The Iconic Johnny B. Goode Scene". Empire. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  96. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 90.
  97. ^ a b c "Back to the Future: 13 things you may not know". Telegraph.co.uk. October 21, 2015. Archived from the original on February 6, 2020. Retrieved September 15, 2020.
  98. ^ Gaines 2015, pp. 92–93.
  99. ^ a b c d e f "Interview: Special Effects Consultant Michael Fink". BacktotheFuture.com. Archived from the original on August 7, 2020. Retrieved September 20, 2020.
  100. ^ Pourro 1985, pp. 40, 59.
  101. ^ a b c d e f g Pourro 1985, p. 63.
  102. ^ a b c d e f g Failes, Ian (October 21, 2015). "The future is today: how ILM made time travel possible". Fxguide. Archived from the original on July 1, 2016. Retrieved June 12, 2016.
  103. ^ a b c d e Pourro 1985, p. 56.
  104. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 63.
  105. ^ Pourro 1985, p. 66,67.
  106. ^ Pourro 1985, p. 66.
  107. ^ Pourro 1985, p. 67.
  108. ^ a b c d e Pourro 1985, p. 60.
  109. ^ Pourro 1985, pp. 60, 62.
  110. ^ a b Pourro 1985, p. 62.
  111. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 143–144.
  112. ^ Walsh, Michael (June 29, 2020). "Mondo Goes Back to the Future for 35th Anniversary". Nerdist.com. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  113. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 53.
  114. ^ Pourro 1985, pp. 56,59.
  115. ^ a b c d e Pourro 1985, p. 59.
  116. ^ a b c Harmetz, Aljean (June 11, 1985). "Industry Fears A Summer Film Glut". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 24, 2017. Retrieved August 27, 2020.
  117. ^ a b c d e f Canby, Vincent (September 8, 1985). "Film: Season Preview; Even Wands Can't Create Magic At The Box Office". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 22, 2017. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  118. ^ a b c d e f g h Harmetz, Aljean (September 2, 1985). "A Bleak Summer For Movie Makers". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 23, 2017. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  119. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 2.
  120. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 113.
  121. ^ a b "Back to the Future". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on September 29, 2020. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  122. ^ a b c "Back to the Future - Domestic Weekend". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on September 29, 2020. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  123. ^ "Domestic 1985 Weekend 27 - July 5-7, 1985". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on September 29, 2020. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  124. ^ "Domestic 1985 Weekend 28 - July 12-14, 1985". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on September 29, 2020. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  125. ^ "Domestic 1985 Weekend 29 - July 19-21, 1985". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on September 29, 2020. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  126. ^ "'Back to the Future' Leads Box Office Sales". The New York Times. Associated Press. August 7, 1985. Archived from the original on November 21, 2017. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  127. ^ Harmetz, Aljean (October 4, 1985). "At The Movies". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 24, 2017. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  128. ^ "Top 1985 Movies at the Domestic Box Office". The Numbers. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  129. ^ "Domestic Box Office For 1985". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on September 29, 2020. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  130. ^ "Back to the Future (1985)". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on August 4, 2016. Retrieved May 31, 2016.
  131. ^ "Rental champs: Rate of return". Variety. December 15, 1997. Archived from the original on June 7, 2019. Retrieved April 29, 2020.
  132. ^ a b Gaines 2015, p. 115.
  133. ^ "Top 1985 Movies at the Worldwide Box Office". The Numbers. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  134. ^ "1985 Worldwide Box Office". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on September 29, 2020. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  135. ^ a b "'Back to the Future' 25 years later". The Independent. September 29, 2010. Archived from the original on April 10, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  136. ^ "Back to the Future (1985)". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on September 29, 2020. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  137. ^ a b c Rome, Emily (July 3, 2015). "'Back to the Future': What the critics said in 1985". Uproxx. Archived from the original on April 27, 2017. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
  138. ^ "Back to the Future (1985)". BBC Online. Archived from the original on February 25, 2012. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
  139. ^ Bledenharn, Isabella (July 2, 2015). "Back to the Future anniversary: What critics thought 30 years ago". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on June 19, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  140. ^ a b Maslin, Janet (July 21, 1985). "Film View; Maverick Tales Add Spice To Summer". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 25, 2017. Retrieved August 27, 2020.
  141. ^ a b Corliss, Richard (July 1, 1985). "Cinema: This Way to the Children's Crusade". Time Out. Archived from the original on April 12, 2011. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
  142. ^ a b c d e Attanasio, Paul (July 3, 1985). "'The Future' Is Wow!Comedy with A Story to Tell". Archived from the original on August 3, 2020. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
  143. ^ a b c d e f g h Ellis, Kirk (July 3, 1985). "'Back to the Future': THR's 1985 Review". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on June 6, 2020. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
  144. ^ a b Ebert, Roger (July 3, 1985). "Back to the Future". RogerEbert.com. Archived from the original on May 6, 2020. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
  145. ^ a b c d Siskel, Gene (July 3, 1985). "'Future's' Sci-fi Twist A Warm Look At Family". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on September 25, 2020. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
  146. ^ a b c Benson, Sheila (July 3, 1985). "Movie Review : An Underpowered Trip 'Back To The Future'". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on September 6, 2020. Retrieved September 6, 2020.
  147. ^ a b Kehr, Dave. "Back to the Future". Chicago Reader. Archived from the original on July 30, 2019. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
  148. ^ "The 58th Academy Awards (1986) Nominees and Winners". Oscars.org. Archived from the original on August 16, 2016. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
  149. ^ "Winners & Nominees 1986". GoldenGlobes.com. Archived from the original on December 6, 2008. Retrieved September 20, 2020.
  150. ^ "Film in 1986". BAFTA.org. Archived from the original on August 17, 2020. Retrieved September 20, 2020.
  151. ^ "Past Saturn Awards". SaturnAwards.org. Archived from the original on September 14, 2008. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  152. ^ a b c d Ní Fhlainn 2014, p. 2.
  153. ^ "1986 Hugo Awards". TheHugoAwards.org. Archived from the original on September 28, 2008. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  154. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 116.
  155. ^ Canby, Vincent (December 29, 1985). "Film View; Vivid Joys Among The Vast Array Of Failures". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 26, 2017. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  156. ^ a b Harmetz, Aljean (July 3, 1985). "'Pale Rider' Heads List In Theaters". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 10, 2020. Retrieved August 27, 2020.
  157. ^ a b c Harmetz, Aljean (January 15, 1986). "Christmas Film Sales Set Record". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  158. ^ Fabrikant, Geraldine (October 20, 1985). "A Movie Giant's Unfinished Script". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 21, 2017. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  159. ^ Holden, Stephen (August 8, 1986). "At the Movies". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 3, 2018. Retrieved September 5, 2020.
  160. ^ "In Brief: Recent Films". The New York Times. June 29, 1986. Archived from the original on February 3, 2018. Retrieved September 5, 2020.
  161. ^ a b Gaines 2015, p. 122.
  162. ^ Holden, Stephen (December 31, 1986). "The Pop Life; 1986, A Musically Conservative Year". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 6, 2012. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  163. ^ a b c Cronin, Brian (October 21, 2015). "Did Back to the Future Originally Not End With 'To be Continued'?". HuffPost. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  164. ^ Lumenick, Lou (October 26, 2010). "DVD Extra: Early Chaplin, late Sirk, full-frontal Burstyn with bedbugs". New York Post. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  165. ^ Lawler, Richard (June 28, 2010). "Back to the Future's 25th Anniversary celebrated by a Blu-ray box set October 26". Engadget. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  166. ^ Goldberg, Matt (July 27, 2020). "'Back to the Future' Trilogy Coming to 4K with New Bonus Features". Collider. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  167. ^ Archer, John (July 27, 2020). "'Back To The Future' Trilogy 4K Blu-Ray Boxset Details Announced - Including Awesome Amazon Exclusive Limited Edition". Forbes. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  168. ^ "Music From The Motion Picture Soundtrack". BacktotheFuture.com. Archived from the original on September 14, 2020. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  169. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 94.
  170. ^ a b c d e Mancini, Vince (July 2, 2020). "'Back To The Future' At 35: Looking Back On The Movie That Made America Great Again". Uproxx. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  171. ^ a b c d e f Chang, Justin; Olsen, Mark (July 16, 2020). "Has 'Back to the Future' aged well? Our critics take a closer look at a summer fave". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  172. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 124.
  173. ^ Ní Fhlainn 2014, p. 5.
  174. ^ Ní Fhlainn 2014, p. 7.
  175. ^ a b c d e f g Valentine, Genevieve (July 1, 2015). "For This Nostalgia Trip, 'We Don't Need Roads'". NPR. Archived from the original on November 7, 2015. Retrieved September 5, 2020.
  176. ^ Ní Fhlainn 2015, pp. 165,166.
  177. ^ Ní Fhlainn 2015, p. 167.
  178. ^ Gaines 2015, pp. 240–241.
  179. ^ Gettell, Oliver (October 22, 2015). "Back to the Future Day: 27 million Facebook users went on a nostalgia trip". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on June 19, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  180. ^ Gettell, Oliver (December 24, 2016). "Back to the Future: Michael J. Fox on film's timeless nature". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on June 19, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  181. ^ Busis, Hillary (August 3, 2020). "All your 'Back to the Future' questions answered". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on June 19, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  182. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 241.
  183. ^ Huff, Lauren (March 5, 2020). "Great Scott! Michael J. Fox and Christopher Lloyd have a Back to the Future reunion". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on June 19, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  184. ^ Cordero, Rosy (May 11, 2020). "Great Scott! Watch Back to the Future cast have virtual reunion hosted by Josh Gad". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on June 19, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  185. ^ Pasquini, Marla (August 12, 2018). "Back to the Future stars reunite at fan convention: 'This was special'". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on June 19, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  186. ^ Lenker, Maureen Lee (December 11, 2019). "Back to the Future cast to reunite for 35th anniversary at TCM Classic Film Festival". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on October 3, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  187. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 242.
  188. ^ Slead, Evan (October 20, 2016). "Back to the Future: Michael J. Fox, Lea Thompson talk about the iconic DeLorean". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on June 19, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  189. ^ a b c d e Coulston, John Connor (July 6, 2015). "Cultural Legacy: Back to the Future". Paste. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  190. ^ a b "The 500 Greatest Movies Of All Time". Empire. October 3, 2008. Archived from the original on November 6, 2016. Retrieved May 2, 2020.
  191. ^ a b "Hollywood's 100 Favorite Films". The Hollywood Reporter. June 25, 2014. Archived from the original on July 5, 2019. Retrieved July 5, 2019.
  192. ^ Schneider 2013.
  193. ^ "The Best 1,000 Movies Ever Made". The New York Times. April 29, 2003. Archived from the original on July 22, 2016. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
  194. ^ "101 Greatest Screenplays". WGA.org. 2005. Archived from the original on May 2, 2020. Retrieved May 2, 2020.
  195. ^ "101 Greatest Screenplays". WGA.org. 2005. Archived from the original on November 30, 2019. Retrieved May 2, 2020.
  196. ^ "Film4's 50 Films To See Before You Die". Film4. August 28, 2015. Archived from the original on February 21, 2009. Retrieved February 10, 2009.
  197. ^ "AFI Crowns Top 10 Films in 10 Classic Genres". ComingSoon.net. June 17, 2008. Archived from the original on June 19, 2008. Retrieved June 18, 2008.
  198. ^ "Total Film features: 100 Greatest Movies of All Time". Total Film. January 25, 2010. Archived from the original on February 9, 2010. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  199. ^ "101 Funniest Screenplays List". WGA.org. November 11, 2015. Archived from the original on February 2, 2016. Retrieved May 2, 2020.
  200. ^ "Writers Choose 101 Funniest Screenplays". WGA.org. November 11, 2015. Archived from the original on May 2, 2020. Retrieved May 2, 2020.
  201. ^ "50 Best High School Movies". Entertainment Weekly. August 28, 2015. Archived from the original on September 22, 2020. Retrieved September 22, 2020.
  202. ^ "200 Essential Movies to Watch Now". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on December 16, 2019. Retrieved May 2, 2020.
  203. ^ "150 Essential Sci-Fi Movies to Watch Now". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on September 26, 2020. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  204. ^ "The Top 10 Science Fiction Films of All Time". SyFy. Archived from the original on August 15, 2020. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  205. ^ Travis, Ben; White, James (May 27, 2020). "The 50 Greatest Sci-Fi Movies". Empire. Archived from the original on July 27, 2020. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  206. ^ Shepherd, Jack (2020). "The 30 best sci-fi movies of all time". GamesRadar+. Archived from the original on September 25, 2020. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  207. ^ Burgin, Michael (November 13, 2018). "The 100 Best Sci-Fi Movies of All Time". Paste. Archived from the original on April 30, 2020. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  208. ^ "Top 100 Sci-Fi Movies". IGN. Archived from the original on April 11, 2020. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  209. ^ Lynch, John. "The 100 best science fiction movies of all time, according to critics". Business Insider. Archived from the original on October 1, 2020. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  210. ^ Fischer, Russ (April 1, 2018). "The 50 Greatest Sci-Fi Films of All Time". Thrillist. Archived from the original on July 6, 2020. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  211. ^ Hersey, Will; Nicholson, Tom (September 23, 2020). "The 23 Best Sci-Fi Movies Of All Time". Esquire. Archived from the original on August 3, 2020. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  212. ^ "The best sci-fi and fantasy films: in pictures". The Guardian. October 21, 2010. Archived from the original on March 31, 2020. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  213. ^ Plim, Alex; Huddleston, Tom; Andrew, Geoff; Bray, Catherine; Calhoun, Dave; Clarke, Cath; Dudok de Wit, Alex; Frankel, Eddy; Johnston, Trevor; Kheraj, Alim; Rothkopf, Joshua; de Semlyen, Phil; Smith, Anna; Uhlich, Keith (February 20, 2020). "The 100 best sci-fi movies". Time Out. Archived from the original on July 28, 2020. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  214. ^ "The best sci-fi movies everyone should watch once". Wired. September 4, 2020. Archived from the original on April 2, 2020. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  215. ^ "The 80 Greatest Movies of the '80s". Consequence of Sound. July 2, 2019. Archived from the original on October 7, 2020. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  216. ^ "140 Essential '80s Movies". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on July 18, 2020. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  217. ^ Chacksfield, Marc (September 9, 2020). "Best '80s movies: the greatest films of the 1980s". ShortList. Archived from the original on October 7, 2020. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  218. ^ Blair, Olivia (August 8, 2020). "The Best 80s Movies To Give You All The Nostalgic Feels". Elle. Archived from the original on August 22, 2020. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  219. ^ de Semlyen, Phil; Nugent, John; Thrower, Emma; White, James; Williams, Owen; Jolin, Dan (May 11, 2016). "The 80 best '80s movies: 39-1". Empire. Archived from the original on July 6, 2019. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  220. ^ Watkins, Gwynne (August 16, 2020). "The 80 Best Movies of the '80s—From The Breakfast Club to The Princess Bride". Parade. Archived from the original on July 27, 2020. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  221. ^ Rothkpf, Joshua (June 11, 2020). "The 30 best '80s movies". Time Out. Archived from the original on May 26, 2020. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  222. ^ Edwards, Richard (July 1, 2019). "The 25 best 80s movies, from Back to the Future to Blade Runner and beyond". GamesRadar+. Archived from the original on October 7, 2020. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  223. ^ Thomas, Leah Marilla (May 11, 2020). "These '80s Movies Are Here to Inject Some Nostalgia Into Your Movie Night". Cosmopolitan. Archived from the original on July 22, 2020. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  224. ^ Carey, Emma (September 6, 2020). "The Best '80s Movies to Pair With An Ice-Cold New Coke". Esquire. Archived from the original on September 17, 2020. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  225. ^ Janes, Deanna (April 21, 2020). "25 Totally '80s Movies We All Need Right Now". Harper's Bazaar. Archived from the original on October 7, 2020. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  226. ^ Banks, Alec (2020). "68 Classic '80s Movies Every Highsnobiety Reader Should See". Highsnobiety. Archived from the original on October 7, 2020. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  227. ^ Buddemeyer, Ruby; Roberts, Kayleigh (March 20, 2020). "The 68 Best '80s Movies Ever Made". Marie Claire. Archived from the original on October 7, 2020. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  228. ^ Rathe, Adam (June 12, 2020). "54 of the Best Movies From the 1980's". Town & Country. Archived from the original on October 7, 2020. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  229. ^ Orf, Darren (November 19, 2019). "The 30 Best Time Travel Movies". Popular Mechanics. Archived from the original on October 5, 2020. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
  230. ^ Edwards, Gavin (June 29, 2020). "Future Tense: The 20 Best Time-Travel Movies". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on August 17, 2020. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
  231. ^ "The 55 Essential Movies Your Child Must See (Before Turning 13)". Entertainment Weekly. June 23, 2014. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
  232. ^ "Top 100 Action & Adventure Movies". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on August 7, 2020. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
  233. ^ Stockdale, Charles. "The 75 best movie comedies of the '80s". USA Today. Archived from the original on July 14, 2020. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  234. ^ "Back to the Future". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on November 22, 2012. Retrieved May 24, 2020.
  235. ^ "Back to the Future Reviews". Metacritic. Archived from the original on February 17, 2015. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  236. ^ "The 100 Greatest Movies". Empire. June 23, 2017. Archived from the original on November 29, 2017. Retrieved November 29, 2017.
  237. ^ Chris, Producer (March 10, 2011). "Your favourite movies!". BBC Radio 1. Archived from the original on April 24, 2011. Retrieved November 27, 2017.
  238. ^ "National Film Registry 2007, Films Selected for the 2007 National Film Registry". loc.gov. Archived from the original on January 31, 2008. Retrieved February 4, 2008.
  239. ^ "President Ronald Reagan's Address Before a Joint Session of Congress on the State of the Union". C-SPAN. February 4, 1986. Archived from the original on September 28, 2006. Retrieved November 26, 2006.
  240. ^ Harmetz, Aljean (February 5, 1986). "State Of The Union: Reagan Reports To The Nation; President Reagan's Speech Before Joint Session Of Congress". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 26, 2016. Retrieved September 5, 2020.
  241. ^ Cavanaugh, Jack (May 10, 1987). "Towns Cite Safety Cares As Skateboarding Gains". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 10, 2017. Retrieved September 5, 2020.
  242. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 236.
  243. ^ Ray, Amber (May 24, 2014). "See Doc Brown's cameo in 'A Million Ways to Die in the West'". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on June 3, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  244. ^ Parker, Ryan (May 10, 2019). "'Back to the Future' Writer "Delighted" by Those 'Avengers: Endgame' References". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on August 6, 2020. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
  245. ^ Roberts, Samuel; Senior, Tom (December 21, 2017). "Flying cars are rad as hell in GTA Online's Doomsday Heist". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on October 6, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  246. ^ Dornbush, Jonathon (October 12, 2015). "Rocket League adds Back to the Future DeLorean". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on June 19, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  247. ^ Chaney, Jen (July 19, 2019). "Stranger Things 3 Is Basically One Big Back to the Future Homage". Vulture. Archived from the original on July 31, 2019. Retrieved July 31, 2019.
  248. ^ Sims, David (December 2, 2013). "Dan Harmon's new series is a warped take on the Doc Brown/Marty McFly dynamic". The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved December 3, 2013.
  249. ^ "McFly Biography". Contactmusic.com. Archived from the original on August 25, 2020. Retrieved August 25, 2020.
  250. ^ Gilsdorf, Ethan (June 5, 2012). "Ready Player One Author to Give Away DeLorean". Wired. Archived from the original on August 1, 2019. Retrieved August 1, 2019.
  251. ^ Power, Ed (March 29, 2018). "Ready Player One: a guide to the legal nightmare of Spielberg's pop culture references". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on February 6, 2020. Retrieved February 6, 2020.
  252. ^ Estrella, Ernie (April 23, 2015). "Exclusive: Back In Time Director Jason Aron On Making The Definitive Back To The Future Documentary". Syfy. Archived from the original on October 6, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  253. ^ Harmetz, Aljean (June 14, 1989). "Movie Merchandise: The Rush Is On". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 16, 2019. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
  254. ^ a b c Stone, Loryn (July 2, 2020). "Back To The Future's 35Th Anniversary Shows Just How Far Toy Collecting Has Come". Syfy. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  255. ^ a b c White, James (June 10, 2020). "The Best Back To The Future Merchandise". Empire. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  256. ^ a b c Marrongelli, Rocco (October 6, 2020). "'Back to the Future' 35th Anniversary Blasts Off With New Toys From Funko, Playmobil & More". Newsweek. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  257. ^ a b Gaines 2015, p. 232.
  258. ^ a b Jensen, K. Thor. "10 Must-Have Gifts for 'Back to the Future' Superfans". PCMag. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved October 19, 2015.
  259. ^ "Back to the Future". ComputingHistory.org.uk. Archived from the original on January 13, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  260. ^ a b Birch, Aaron (July 30, 2015). "The Back to the Future Game You've Probably Never Played". Den of Geek. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  261. ^ AmstradAction 1987, p. 13.
  262. ^ a b c d Workman, Robert (October 21, 2015). "The Bumpy History Of Back To The Future Video Games". Geek & Sundry. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  263. ^ Dornbush, Jonathon (September 29, 2015). "Doc Brown Saves the World Back to the Future teaser". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on June 19, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  264. ^ Sciretta, Peter (August 6, 2015). "Cool Stuff: Back to the Future Monopoly". Slashfilm. Archived from the original on August 28, 2019. Retrieved October 15, 2020.
  265. ^ Edwards, Chris (June 21, 2020). "Back to the Future's new board game will let you battle Biff just like Marty McFly". Digital Spy. Archived from the original on July 15, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  266. ^ Rome, Emily (June 25, 2015). "Exclusive: Your first look at 'Back to the Future: The Ultimate Visual History'". Uproxx. Archived from the original on July 23, 2019. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  267. ^ "Back to the Future Paperback – 15 Nov. 1985". Amazon. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  268. ^ Anders, Charlie Jane (June 17, 2015). "Is the novelization of Back to the Future a literary masterpiece? Shockingly, no". io9. Archived from the original on September 29, 2020. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  269. ^ Walsh, Michael (July 22, 2020). "Transformers Unveils Back To The Future Bot". Nerdist.com. Archived from the original on September 19, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  270. ^ a b McMillan, Graeme (October 4, 2017). "'Back to the Future' Writer Finally Addresses the Last Line of 'Part III'". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  271. ^ a b c Brew, Simon (October 21, 2015). "Giving Back to the Future Part II Its Due". Den of Geek. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  272. ^ Banks, Alec (October 22, 2015). "Why Crispin Glover Refused To Do the 'Back to the Future' Sequels". Highsnobiety. Archived from the original on September 13, 2020. Retrieved September 13, 2020.
  273. ^ a b Pirello, Phil (May 25, 2020). "How 'Back to the Future III' Got Better With Age". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  274. ^ Brew, Simon (October 20, 2010). "Looking back at Back To The Future Part III". Den of Geek. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  275. ^ "Back To The Future tops poll of most wanted film sequels - but which movie series should return?". Sky News. November 23, 2018. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  276. ^ a b Cremona, Patrick (February 18, 2020). "Back to the Future creator explains why franchise will never get a fourth film". Radio Times. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  277. ^ McComb, David (May 15, 2012). "Back to the Future: The Game Review". Empire. Archived from the original on October 6, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  278. ^ Cotter, Padraig (August 15, 2019). "Doc Brown Saves The World Isn't Back To The Future 4 (But It's Great)". Screen Rant. Archived from the original on November 30, 2019. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  279. ^ Blistein, Jon (May 12, 2020). "Michael J. Fox, Christopher Lloyd Lead 'Back to the Future' Reunion on Josh Gad's 'Reunited Apart'". Rolling Stone. Retrieved October 19, 2020.
  280. ^ "Back to the Future musical announced". BBC News Online. January 31, 2014. Archived from the original on January 31, 2014. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  281. ^ Edmonds, Lizzie (September 8, 2020). "Back to the Future musical heading to London's West End next year". Evening Standard. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  282. ^ Campbell, Lucy (February 23, 2020). "'This is the new standard for spectacle': fans react to the Back to the Future musical". The Guardian. Archived from the original on May 13, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.

Works cited

Further reading

External links

This page was last edited on 23 October 2020, at 15:07
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.