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1899 Boston mayoral election

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Boston mayoral election, 1899

← 1897 December 12, 1899 1901 →
Thomas Norton Hart (1).png
Mayor PA Collins (1).png
Candidate Thomas N. Hart Patrick Collins
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 40,838 38,557
Percentage 50.2% 47.4%

Mayor before election

Josiah Quincy

Elected Mayor

Thomas N. Hart

The Boston mayoral election of 1899 occurred on Tuesday, December 12, 1899. Republican candidate and former Mayor of Boston Thomas N. Hart defeated Democratic candidate Patrick Collins, and two other contenders, to become mayor for the second time. Incumbent mayor Josiah Quincy had announced in July 1899 that he would not seek re-election.[1]

Hart benefitted from strife within the Democratic party, where John R. Murphy had lost the nomination to Collins.[2] Murphy subsequently announced his intent to cross party lines and vote for Hart.[3] The votes of Murphy and his followers in support of the Republican candidate contributed to Collins' defeat, and was referred to as a "knifing" in contemporary news reports.[4]

Hart was inaugurated on Monday, January 1, 1900.[5]

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- [Announcer] Your support helps us bring you programs you love. Go to Wyoming PBS dot org.ú Click on support and become a sustaining member or an annual member. It's easy and secure. Thank you. (piano music) - [Narrator] Before the interstate highway system, before famed Route 66, before highways were even numbered, there was one road that captured the Public's attention. One road that led to new horizons. One road that changed America forever. Beginning in Times Square, New York City, and ending in San Francisco, it was America's first coast to coast automobile road, The Lincoln Highway. A little over a century ago there was no single auto road across America. There were wagon trails and ranch paths in the West, Turnpikes and farmers lanes in the East, but mostly these roads didn't lead anywhere. - The roads of the time what they were we just simple paths through the dirt and these were roads that ranchers and farmers would use to get to town to get back out. - [Narrator] At the turn of the century there weren't that many automobiles for which to build roads, but there were bicycles. - So, bicyclists actually are the ones that really started the good roads movement because the roads back then of course were dirt which turned to mud and then when the mud hardened you had hard ruts which is fine for horse and buggy, but certainly someone on a bicycle it doesn't work. When the automobile then became more prevalent the automobile entrepreneurs who had the financial wherewithal jumped on the bandwagon. And basically they became the fathers of the good roads movement at that point. - [Narrator] Among those early auto entrepreneurs was Carl G Fisher. Fisher was an Indiana businessman who formed the Prest-O-Lite company which manufactured acetylene headlights for early automobiles. He was also one of the founders of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway home of the famed Indianapolis 500 race. - Carl Fischer was really a promoter, really a grand-stander in many ways. He was not a planner, but he had good ideas. - [Narrator] In 1912, Fisher conceived a hard-surfaced improved highway from the Atlantic to the Pacific. He called it the Coast-to-Coast Rock Highway. In September of that year Fisher met with the automobile industry leaders to pitch his idea and ask for donations to pay for the proposed road. Fisher felt it could be completed in time for the 1915 Exposition in San Francisco. "Let's build it.", he told the group before were too old to enjoy it. Within 30 minutes of his speech Frank Seiberling, President of Goodyear Tires was so inspired he pledged $300,000. Henry Joy president of the Packard Motor Company enthusiastically offered $150,000. - The intention was to connect the country from East Coast to West Coast. Commerce was a big piece of it, but also to encourage people to get out and travel, but they also were patriotic and believed it would benefit the country. - [Narrator] Within a few months Fisher had over 4 million dollars in pledges from auto manufacturers and auto-related businesses all except for one important holdout. Henry Ford was against private enterprise funding roads in America. He thought the government should be responsible. In time he would prove to be right. (piano music) The automobile had been around for a couple of decades before the Lincoln Highway, but they were expensive. - You'd see Maxwells and Premieres and the occasional Studebakers and other fine automobiles, expensive automobiles, that would cost two years wages for a working person at that time and these were playthings for the rich. - [Narrator] But in 1908 a vehicle appeared that shook up the nascent auto industry and set the stage for a revolution in personal transportation. That vehicle was the Ford Model T. The Model T was the first automobile mass-produced on moving assembly lines with completely interchangeable parts and marketed to the middle class. It was a rugged and reliable little car that could easily be repaired by its owner. Standing on 30 inch tires it had good ground clearance, Bbt it's most important attribute was its price. Due to constantly improving mass production the price of a new model T dropped from $850 at its introduction to $260 by 1925. With costs coming down, Model T sales shot up. The 1 millionth Model T was produced in 1915. By 1921 5 million of them were on the road. And just three years later there were 10 million. At the end of its run in 1927, 15 million Model Ts had been manufactured. This singular vehicle propelled Henry Ford to National prominence and the Ford Motor Company to unimagined success. but more importantly it was the car they put America on the road. People could now journey at their own pace, on their own schedule to potentially any destination. The only problem was there still weren't many improved roads. After pledging his company's monetary support Henry Joy suggested a different name for Fisher's Coast to Coast Rock Highway. - "Let's call it the Lincoln Highway." He said that the Carl Fisher and Carl Fisher instantly knew that was the right name for it because Abraham Lincoln did link the country back together. - [Narrator] The Lincoln Highway Association was formed in Detroit on July 1st 1913. It was the first real attempt to develop, map, sign and promote a road across America. Henry Joy became the association's first President. Carl Fischer was named Vice President. Stringing together an assortment of existing roads the route of the Lincoln Highway was made public on September 14th 1913. It traversed more than 3300 miles, cutting across 12 States and four time zones. Bonfires and speeches, fireworks and parades occurred in hundreds of cities and towns along the Route upon its dedication, October 31st 1913, but now that the road was official reality set in. (car horn) After all the promotion, all the anticipation, and all the celebrations the Lincoln Highway was still just an assemblage of existing roads and trails. How difficult would a Coast to Coast Auto trip actually be. In July 2013 members of the new Lincoln Highway Association set out to discover the answer. - Cars of the tour are wonderful because we have 100 years of cars from 1913 clear up to present day cars and I love the diversity. - The Lincoln Highway was for everybody. You know when you get out, when you take the dirt roads you really see what it was like in 1913 to 1935, especially here I'm in a car that was around at that time. It's just really, really need to just go back in time and live the way they lived back then. ♪ Standing in the sagebrush battered by the wind ♪ Hey there it was I saw it ♪ Drive by that thing again ♪ There's a marker made of concrete ♪ From 80 years ago ♪ When this broken blacktop was country's only road ♪ From Coast to Coast ♪ Now the road who was the first ♪ To think of that ♪ Now the road long before Jack Pure-O was ♪ Down the road I'd rather come back ♪ We're looking for the Lincoln Highway ♪ Down the road (harmonica) - Highway 30 goes through a lot of small towns that don't see the kind of traffic that used to see. They are fabulous, quaint little towns with wonderful people and you would never get a chance to see them otherwise. - [Narrator] The 1916 Lincoln Highway Association Road guide had advice for those venturing out on the new highway. - [Narrator] For a real vacation nothing beats a camping trip. - [Narrator] The guide suggested bringing camping equipment, canned and dried food and an assortment of rugged clothing. - Equipment was essential. They had four or five spare tires, six if they could get them on their cars. They had tire chains. They used tire chains quite a bit. They had jacks and shovels, poles that they could stick under the bumper to lift up and get them out of a mud hole. They used flat lumber slabs to put under the tires. - [Narrator] Heeding the advice and warnings and purchasing the necessary provisions early auto enthusiasts packed up their vehicles and began to venture forth on the Lincoln Highway. The great American Road Trip was born. One such adventurer was Effie Price Gladding. In 1914 she and her husband set out from San Francisco and drove the new Lincoln Highway to New Jersey. Her ensuing book was the first of many to talk about the trans-continental route. - [Female Speaker] We resolved at the outset to take the days and the roads as they came, not looking for luxury and well satisfied with simplicity. It is surprising how one is fortified for the vicissitudes of the road by such a deliberate attitude of mind, Effie Price Gladding. - [Narrator] Cheyenne, Wyoming was one of five state capitals through which the Lincoln Highway passed. At the request of the association Cheyenne 16th Street was renamed Lincoln Way, a moniker that still exists today. In Cheyenne many early travelers stayed at the Plains Hotel. Built in 1911 it was considered by locals to be the best lodging on the Lincoln Highway between Chicago and San Francisco. For those who couldn't afford a hotel a free Municipal Campground was located along the lake at the North end of town. In 1920 40,000 people camped there. Tourists from the East Coast crossing over the Laramie Mountains West of Cheyenne must have been bewildered by the dryness, the odd rock formations and the general lack of trees along the Route. This wasn't the Rocky Mountains they had envisioned, yet many were enthusiastic of the sites they encountered on this portion of the trip. One of the landmarks was the monument to Oakes and Oliver Ames, financiers and developers of the Union Pacific Railroad. - I'm here at the Ames Monument now and I can hardly wait to get out and see the view from up here. This is really an amazing structure. It's just way cool. I'm amazed that something like this is out in the middle of Wyoming. Awesome, I love it. - [Narrator] Over the years the Lincoln Highway was moved a number of times to provide motorists with a better alignment an improved road and a reduced distance. The original 1913 route traveled Southwest along Hermosa Road then to Tie Siding where it turned North and followed today's Highway 287 through Red Butte and on to Laramie, but by 1919 a new Lincoln Highway segment was opened. It continued due West from Ames Monument on to Sherman Hill Summit, highest point in the Lincoln at 8835 feet. In the 1920s a gas station and Road House known as The Summit Tavern was built on Sherman Summit. With improvements to the highway the Summit Tavern also improved over the years. Today there's a rest stop on the interstate not far from the original high point of the Lincoln Highway. Here modern travelers stop to see two memorials that stand high above the freeway. The bronze head of Lincoln was designed and created in 1958 by a University of Wyoming art Professor Robert Russin. Due to the extremes of Wyoming's temperatures he cast this sculpture in Mexico. It was shipped to Laramie in a truck to its original destination on Sherman Hill where it was dedicated. Russin and said that he wanted to show a contemplative Lincoln in the last years of his life. His great heart sorrowing over the rent of his Nation. Another Memorial at the Summit rest stop sits next to that of Lincoln. The Henry B Joy Monument honors the first President of the Lincoln Highway Association and the President of the Packard Motor Car Company. Joy was an avid Outdoorsman who drove cross-country multiple times testing the latest production Packards. He often encountered unfavorable conditions, but loved every minute away from the corporate boardroom. His memorial was moved to the rest area from a remote site near Creston, Wyoming, about a 100 miles to the West. - Where we're standing at right now is the site of the original Henry Joy Monument. The story goes that he was really enamored of the Wyoming sunset and decided that maybe he wanted to be buried here. In 1939 his wife placed monument here at this location and this monument remained here until it got moved to the Lincoln rest stop between Cheyenne and Laramie. - [Narrator] After cresting Sherman Summit The Lincoln Highway descended West through Telephone Canyon into Laramie. Wyoming road workers built The Lincoln Highway through this tight Canyon from 1919 to 1920. It was an amazing feat of engineering that shaved miles off the trip. - The whole idea of the Western, of the cowboy was really coming into its form in the early 20th century. People loved Western movies, so these travelers would get to Wyoming and they'd meet cowboys. They'd see people herding cattle. They would get to interact with these folks in the cafes, and saloons, and hotels, and towns along the Lincoln Highway. - [Effie] We came to Laramie reaching there on the eve of the 4th of July. Laramie boasts a good hotel which was crowded with people. Ranch men had brought their families for the festivities of the fourth. Tall Cowboys lounged about wearing their most ornamental tall boots, their best silk shirts, and brightest neck ties, Effie Price Gladding. - [Narrator] Laramie was home to a true Wyoming, auto Pioneer Elmer Lovejoy. Always a tinkerer and inventor he had a garage on South Second Avenue where he built bicycles, but in 1898 he was hard at work on a new project. - What Elmer Lovejoy did in May of 1898 was to take some of his skills in repairing bicycles and some of those bicycles parts that de had in his shop and put it together with an internal combustion engine mounted on four wheels and drive around Laramie in May of 1898 in what was Wyoming's first car. - [Narrator] Soon Lovejoy, E.L. Emery and others in Wyoming began publishing travel guides for motorists. These guides often often had detailed turn-by-turn instructions, but failed to mention the pool road conditions. But rudimentary maps and misleading descriptions were the least of the problems encountered by early Lincoln Highway travelers. - The drive was pretty tough. It was unmarked and most places. It was dirt or mud or a little gravel now and then. There was really no paving to speak of outside of towns and cities. Even when the road was marked if it rained you might get into some pretty serious mud holes because it was just natural road there was no paving, no improvement, no embankment of any kind. - [Narrator] Some farmers and ranchers came to the aid of stuck motorists, often accepting no payment for their efforts. Others detested autos especially the initial wave of wealthy owners who obliviously ran over chickens and other farm animals. They often fought back by scattering tacks along the road. Some ranchers in Wyoming disliked automobiles so much they would sometimes threaten motorists with guns. Others sought revenge using less hostile tactics. - The guidebooks what's a helpful things like, "Turn right at the red barn." And then the farmer would paint the barn white and then you were lost, so these things take a while to iron out until things got better marked. - [Narrator] But eventually farmers and ranchers began to accept autos especially the Model T which could navigate rocky, muddy trails and could even be used as a power plant for ranch machinery. In Wyoming and other states fences surrounding farms and ranches often blocked the way. The early route of the Lincoln Highway between Laramie and Rawlins had no less than 18 gates through which motorist had to stop, open and close again. Alternative routes were often advertised. Bridges were another problem because at first there weren't too many of them. To cross a stream bed or dry ravine side banks were cut and large rocks moved before cars could push across. To avoid this effort some Travelers used railroad bridges. Sometimes consulting with railroad time schedules, sometimes not with all the dangers that implied. But in 1916 local communities were working hard to improve the highway that passed through their towns. Fix the bad places first was their Credo. They installed culverts. reinforced bridges, filled holes and smoothed out ruts. The Lincoln Highway Association encouraged and sponsored Civic groups and businesses along the route to get it marked. - In terms of signage The Lincoln Highway first tried to get local groups out to mark the highway in any way they could. There were red, white and blue pole painting with the L was one of the first ways, simple wooden signs that would say this way to Evanston, this way to, you know, this way to Wamsutter. - [Narrator] From Laramie to Medicine Bow this section of Lincoln Highway along US 30 has been called the best in Wyoming, but in 1912 and 1913 a furious battle raged over the route to The Lincoln Highway between Laramie and Rollins. - Really the big struggle with Medicine Bow versus Elk Mountain and we have a hotel in Medicine Bow, The Virginian and then we have the Elk Mountain Hotel, so there's a big battle. They both lobby The Lincoln Highway Association to make a case for why the highway should go to through their town. - [Narrator] August Rim was an entrepreneur, saloon owner, and first Mayor of Medicine Bow. His landmark, Virginia Hotel had electric lights, indoor plumbing and cost of whopping $65,000 to build. - The hotel was completed in 1911, had a grand opening, two months later the Union Pacific stopped stopping their trains in Medicine Bow. Rim was stuck with this huge white elephant which wasn't making any money at all without the train. He had heard that there was going to be a trans-continental highway across the United States. He was determined to make sure that the highway came through Medicine Bow in order to save his floundering business, The Virginian Hotel. - [Narrator] Meanwhile the town fathers of Elk Mountain bragged about it's fine hotel and the abundance of innumerable springs and streams of nice clear, cool, good water. That a route through their area was also 18 miles shorter, but August Rim was not to be denied. He got together with like-minded businessmen and formed of plan. - He decided that they had to take matters into their own hands. He called some of his cronies in one afternoon, in his bar in Medicine Bow and he said we're going to have to do this ourselves because we can't get a decision out of anybody else. The group sat down and they made about 60 of these facsimile Lincoln Highway signs and in one day they signed the entire route from Laramie to Rawlins with these facsimile signs. He then invited The Laramie Chamber of Commerce and the Rawlins Chamber of Commerce to drive the route to Medicine Bow. When they got to Medicine bow they were greeted by a cocktail party and a home ranch saloon and then a meal in The Virginian Hotel. After this is all done and they got back home they contacted the state engineer this gentleman, Mister Parshall and they said, "What's the problem the highway was already marked. "Its already located. "There's no use fighting over this anymore." So, (mumbles) agreed and that's how the highway got to Medicine Bow. It was strictly by the relentless effort of Rim and they take the bull by the horns attitude that he had the brought Lincoln Highway to Medicine Bow. - [Narrator] In the 1960s the table's turned on Medicine Bow. The new Interstate 80 traveled West past Elk Mountain and bypassed all the towns between Laramie and Rollins along the old Lincoln Highway. - Medicine Bow had 57 small businesses when I 80 open in 1970. We now have five. It killed Medicine Bow. It killed Rock River. It killed Vosler. I 80 was a disaster for our town and for the towns that existed along the original route. - [Narrator] By the 1920s the Lincoln Highway and auto touring had captured the imagination of the middle and working classes. People were being paid better wages. They had more leisure time due to a shortened work week and they were purchasing automobiles mostly the Model T. As a result many Americans begin taking longer auto trips. Packing up their autos with camping gear and luggage. Loading in their families, they followed their guidebooks and struck out for new horizons on The Lincoln Highway. ♪ Rolling down that Lincoln Highway ♪ The oldest road from shore to shore ♪ Built way back when ♪ By those hard working man ♪ They had a dream but the still wanted more ♪ Now old Abe Lincoln was a straight shooting man ♪ He shot a question to the soul of this land ♪ Shouldn't all men be free ♪ And except the different crowd ♪ Yes, he answers ringing clear and loud (horn honking) ♪ Rolling down that Lincoln Highway ♪ Rolling down that Lincoln Highway ♪ Rolling down that Lincoln Highway ♪ Rolling down that Lincoln Highway (horn beeps) - [Narrator] These new Travelers couldn't afford hotels and fine meals. They barely had enough for food and gas. They would simply pull over onto any open land and set up camp often without asking permission. These budget auto travelers were called tincan tourists not because of the Model T Tin Lizzy's they drove, but because of the food they ate out of tin cans. - [Effie] As we drive along we'd constantly see the remains of former camps by the roadside. Old tin tea kettles, pieces of worn-out camp stools piles of tin cans, these are mute and inglorious monuments to the bivouacs of other days. These immense plateau states are very dependent upon canned foods and all along tin cans marked the trail, Effie Price Gladding. - [Narrator] But at one location in Wyoming tourist left more than their tin can refuse. - We're standing at an inscription site along a segment of The Lincoln Highway between Rock Springs and Rawlins. Just like the Overland Trail immigrants in the 1840s and 50s who stopped at Independence rock to sign their names, the travelers here on The Lincoln Highway also stopped here and scratched their names and initials into the rocks. - [Narrator] Camps sponsored by cities and towns began to grow because tourists were trashing farmer's fields and ranch lands with their litter. - If there didn't happen to be anybody in the community who was willing to provide the kinds of services that travelers may wish to avail themselves of to maybe stop and throw up a tent camp the Municipality would go ahead and do it because they recognized pretty early on that people who stopped at a free campground in close proximity of the town would spend some money in the local community. - [Narrator] Tourist traffic on The Lincoln Highway proved to be a financial bonanza for towns both large and small. Auto repair garages and restaurants, hotels and gas stations, tourist stops of all varieties reap the rewards of The Lincoln Highway. - People realize maybe a little shelter from the Wyoming wind would be nice and they built little cabins. Well and then pretty soon these cabins were kind of popular. Let's kind of put them all in a row and put them together and we'll call it the motel. That was really development of the first sort of roadside Motel. These elongated rows of rooms that early on often had a little garage between each cabin. These cottages were built in the early 1920s 26, 30. People started using them all the time for camping at night. They had showers, garages to park in, and all the facilities inside. They were great. They mushroomed all over town. - Part motel, part camping facility, travelers can get a good night's rest, take a shower and rustle up a meal all for a very affordable price. - We're at the Sunset Cabins in Evanston, Wyoming, one of the great culture resources in our community. It typifies what happened when The Lincoln Highway in it's heyday went right next door here. When the cabins were built in the 20s they were the first lodging cabins in Evanston. - Astonishingly the remains of the cabins are still standing, but are in dire need of repair and restoration. So, the cabins are there, campground over here. That's fantastic. - Some wise enough to build into their business the whole identity of gas, food, and lodging. You could you could buy gas. You could get a sandwich and you could rent a little tourist cabin. - [Narrator] One business in particular rose from the ranks of Mom-and-Pop establishments to become a major player in the travel service industry, Little America. Little America was founded in 1934 by Stephen Mack Covey. As a young sheep herder, the story goes, he once spent the night without shelter when a blizzard struck and temperatures plummeted to 40 below. After surviving this ordeal he was inspired to build an oasis for travelers he called Little America after Admiral Byrd's encampment in the Antarctic. The penguin became its logo. At first the business was a modest affair, located near Granger, Wyoming, with 12 cabins, two gas pumps and 24 seats in the cafe. It was a handy stop on the Lincoln for gas food and a good night's sleep. Soon a cocktail lounge called the Palm room was added. Later a hotel was built. In 1949 Little America moved to its present location at exit 68 along the proposed route for the I-80 Interstate. In 1952 Earl Holding, Covey's son-in-law began managing it. Later he purchased the business. By the 1960s it billed itself as the largest gas station in the world with 55 pumps. Today long after many Mom-and-Pop cabin courts have faded away, Little America is still a popular Lincoln Highway vestige along I-80. - [Effie] Rollins was our halting place for the night. It is a pleasant town with wide streets and plenty of sunshine. In Rollins as in most Western towns we stayed at a hotel managed on the European plan and ate our meals in a nearby restaurant. It is always a surprise to me to see the number of people in the restaurants and cafeterias of the West. Even in small towns these places are crowded, Effie Price Gladding. - [Narrator] The hotel she was referring to was The Ferris Hotel, a downtown Rollins landmark since 1901. After falling into disrepair it was demolished in 1999, but the Ferris Mansion still stands in Rollins. Lincoln Highway travelers must have gawked at this elaborate Queen Anne style building. Today it's currently run as a B&B for modern highway travelers. Westward from Rollins the route of the Lincoln Highway crosses the Continental Divide and enters The Great Divide Basin. Here water flows neither East nor West, but simply evaporates into thin air. It is the beginning of the Red Desert at over 9,000 square miles, the largest un-fenced area in the continental United States. Some Lincoln Highway travelers loved the desert. - [Effie] The Wyoming desert has a sharper and more vivid coloring than that of Nevada. The table land is more rolling and the mountains are farther away. The smell of the sagebrush, pungent and aromatic is in my nostrils from day-to-day. I love it in it's cleanness and spiciness and she'll be sorry when we have left the desert behind, Effie Price Gladding. - [Narrator] Others couldn't wait to cross it. One trailer called the Red Desert a place where even the prairie dogs, rattlesnakes, and coyotes had given up the country in disgust. The Lincoln Highway in this part of Wyoming, follow the old Union Pacific Rail bed or more precisely it was the abandoned rail bed. - So in 1913 when they established the first grade they simply put people going down these railroad grades and they were better than virtually any other thing in Wyoming because they were raised berms. You were up out of the mud. They were well drained. Moisture would drain off of them, so what they did was they just had to crop the top off of these grades, widen them, dump the dirt on the sides, and turn them into a rather narrow two-lane road. - [Narrator] With increased traffic after 1920 major changes were required in grade, alignment, and bridges. The Lincoln Highway Association helped the state complete 105 miles of graded gravel. - We're standing on a segment of the 1920s Lincoln Highway. This is the first purpose-built version of the Highway. It's a berm 24 foot wide, two lane, generally covered with crushed rock similar to the ballast that the Union Pacific Railroad used on its tracks. Occasionally covered with oil in places to stabilize the berm, but very rarely paved at least until the 1930s. This is the last version of the Lincoln Highway. we refer to it as the 1930s variant, although officially it is United States highway US 30. This version was built between the mid-1930s and the early 1940s. It is a very typical two-lane highway, 36 foot wide, paved with the traffic lines signs, everything that a modern highway would have. - [Narrator] Rock Springs has been a coal town since the days of the Transcontinental Railroad. It's also the home of a Lincoln Highway Landmark, The Rock Springs Coal Archway was a errected over The Lincoln Highway in 1928. As automobilist passed under it they had to watch their progress. The speed limit through Rock Springs was eight miles per hour, one of the lowest along the entire road, yet another source of potential income provided by the Lincoln Highway for cities and towns along its route. - [Effie] The Butte scenery both approaching and leaving Green River was very fine. The coloring was extremely rich, soft reds, yellows, browns and clay colors. There were long lines of round buttresses and great concavities of rock more like the famous Cos of Southern France than anything I have ever seen, Effie Price Gladding. - [Narrator] In 1913 travelers on the Lincoln Highway cross the Green River over an Old Wagon Bridge. It was considered Wyoming's worst section of The Lincoln Highway. But in 1922 the state built a new highway bridge and shifted the route. What was once dreaded by Travelers now turned into a beautiful crossing. This second-generation highway past the foot of Tollgate Rock and along the base of the spectacular Green River Palisades. It then crossed the longest Lincoln Highway span in Wyoming, the 286 foot long Green River Bridge. Tourists driving to Yellowstone Park headed Northwest at Little America. Those staying on the Lincoln veered West, Southwest. On the way Lincoln Highway travelers marveled at the unusual rock formations of Church Butte. - [Effie] The Wyoming Butte are wonderfully carved by wind and sand and weather and many of them present a mysterious and imposing appearance. Often they are tablelands rising square and massive against the horizon like immense fortresses, Effie Price Gladding. - [Narrator] Further down the road they passed through (mumbles), originally a Mormon settlement founded in 1899. The town of Fort Bridger was originally a trading post built by famed trapper and mountain man, Jim Bridger. In 1843 it was a supply stop for travelers along the Oregon Trail and later the Overland Stage and Pony Express. Lincoln Highway Auto tourists also stopped here and stayed at the black and orange tourist cabins with attached garages. They've been recently restored by the state of Wyoming. This stretch of Lincoln Highway from Fort Bridger to Evanston even as late as 1919 was abysmal, but it had its scenic pleasures. - One of the famous landmarks that's just about 12 miles East of here is call Eagle Rock and it was a famous landmark on the road. If one is collecting Lincoln Highway trivia, memorabilia and you often come across a postcard with that image of the eagle on it. - [Narrator] After a long day's drive through Wyoming's arrid climate one of Evanston's roadside businesses road catered not only to the lodging needs of Lincoln Highway tourists, but to their thirst as well. - Pete's Rock and Rye Club which is just outside the city limits when Evanston was built probably in the 40s is a famous landmark in Evanston because it was the local watering hole. - Well it was a little roadhouse that was patronized by people in the 40s and 50s. My dad and his brother had milled some tourist cabins and I grew up in cabin number 6. Every morning I woke up with new neighbors and wonderful road stories and then years later the bulldozers buried our place to make a new highway and I relocated here to continue my romance with the road. Now I open on the weekends. (mumbles) ain't it tough. 12 hour week sitting over on that stool over there and shooting the breeze with my regulars, both of whom I love dearly. (laughs) - [Narrator] As the Lincoln Highway Association lobbied state and federal governments to support road construction, Washington begin to listen particularly the Department of Defense. 1919 Lincoln Highway Association Field Secretary, Harry Osterman persuaded the War Department to organize a motor convoy. It would navigate The Lincoln Highway from coast to coast. Comprised of nearly 300 soldiers and 80 vehicles, the convoy set out to demonstrate the practicality of cross-country motorized troop movement. A last-minute addition to that convoy was a young, Lieutenant Colonel whose experiences on this trip would years later ironically spell the end of the Lincoln Highway. His name was Dwight D Eisenhower. The trip required many repairs on military vehicles as well as rebuilding bridges that could not support the heavy loads. - [Male Speaker] Wyoming roads west of Cheyenne are poor dirt ones with weak culverts and bridges. In one day 14 of these were counted broken through by the train. The desert roads in the southwest portion of this state are very poor. Lieutenant Colonel Dwight D. Eisenhower. The convoy finally made it to San Francisco after 62 arduous days. In the end this military exercise was successful in convincing the government that paved roads were essential to the country's National Defense. it was a PR triumph for Osterman. All the efforts of the Lincoln Highway Association we're now aimed at getting local, state, and federal governments involved in the business of road building The Federal Highway Act of 1921 provided matching funds to States for road construction to the tune of 75 million dollars. Roads in America began to rapidly improve. With better roads the idea of a long road trip by auto was now really catching on. Women in particular boldly embraced the idea of the American road trip. Some in an attempt to promote women's rights, others simply exercising their new found independence. - They could get in the automobile and drive to town and got to a social circle or perhaps even engage in businesses as many women begin to do. It was a great freeing thing for all segments of society, but particularly for women because they had a mobility that they had not had before. - Doctor Grace Raymond Hebard was a Wyoming historian in the early part of the 20th century and she owned a car and traveled around Wyoming looking for historic sites and also she became very much involved in the the historical marking work that was more less a hallmark of the Progressive Era of marking places of historical importance. Many times she would be out driving around looking at these historic sites and something would go wrong with her car and you would have to climb underneath and figure out how to fix one part or another. One aspect that was very important for Wyoming was the historical landmarks that she set up because they were all predicated on the fact automobiles could stop there and could read about the historical event that had occurred. - [Narrator] With the Highway Act of 1921 the involvement of the federal government marked the beginning of the end for the Lincoln Highway. Now that matching dollars were available to state, new roads with a variety of names popped up around the country. There were hundreds of named roads by that time. It was a confusing spaghetti bowl of roads in many places. You'd have six or eight named highways coming together at one place and you were trying to read the signs of all of them. It was a very poor Arrangement. It was very difficult for the motorist to get anywhere by following these signs. - [Narrator] Washington stepped in once again then proposed a numbering convention, all national highways would now be identified by a Federal Shield including the highway number. Route markers and signs for named highways were removed. The Lincoln Highway was designated as US Route 30 for much of it's length, but it also became US one, US 530, US 40 and US 50 in other areas. In the fall of 1926 the Board of Directors of the Lincoln Highway Association voted to cease operations at the end of 1927. They realized that their goal of an inter-continental network of highways was coming to fruition, but there was one final publicity attempt in September 1928. Thousands of Boy Scouts across the country placed cast concrete Lincoln Highway markers at sites along the Route. These red, white, and blue markers held a brass medallion of Lincoln's head and directional arrows to mark the way. In all, nearly 3000 of these now iconic posts. were positioned. By the 25th anniversary of the Lincoln Highway in 1938 nearly the entire route has been paved. On that anniversary NBC broadcast a radio program that featured interviews with former Lincoln Highway Association officials and a message from Carl Fischer. The Lincoln Highway Association has accomplished its primary purpose that of providing an object lesson to show the possibility in highway transportion. Now I believe the country is at the beginning of another new era in highway building that will create a system of roads far beyond the dreams of The Lincoln Highway founder, Carl G. Fisher. - [Narrator] Fisher died the following year. He had lost most of his fortune to the Wall Street crash of 1929. Henry Joy died on November 6, 1936. As a general route The Lincoln Highway in its new number persona was now being used more than ever, but it soon gave way to and even bigger idea. Dwight Eisenhower after his experiences with the Army convoy of 1919 and his admiration of the Autobahn during World War II had a vision for something similar in America, a nationwide network of limited access highways. When he became president in 1953, he held true to his dream signing the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1954 and 1956. Construction on the interstate highway system soon began. It took 30 years to fully complete. Now the Lincoln Highway was truly gone. In it's place in covering much of its course from New Jersey to California was I 80. Many portions of the Lincoln Highway lay vacant and in ruins today. Other sections are still used as local routes through many states. In Wyoming some areas of the old abandoned highway can be seen running alongside the current I-80. In the 1980s a new interest in the Lincoln Highway began to develop, much of it due to a book, a photographic essay by Drake Hokanson. - He talked about the emotion of the road, getting off the interstate, rediscovering America again and the fascination of this road and it kind of faded out of the public consciousness. And that book influenced a lot of people. We owe a lot to Drake Hokanson for writing that book. - I've long been very compelled by history by a sense of the hard work that people have done for many generations to create what we have today. How we travel, how we understand the land, how we know who we are, it's very powerful. - [Narrator] A new Lincoln Highway Association was formed in 1992 with the mission to identify, preserve, and improve access to the remaining portions of the Lincoln Highway and its associated historic sites. In the summer of 2013 270 members from around the world traveled by car from both Coasts to Kearney Nebraska, for a Centennial celebration, 100 years on the Lincoln Highway. - (mumbles) when the desert was inside the laptop on the keyboard. - He and I became known around town as the (mumbles). - Torbioern Lorensen, from Norway. (mumbles), Norway, North of the Arctic Circle. - [Male Speaker] It's cold up there. - No not so cold compared to (mumbles) cold. Yeah, I travel a lot in my old car, convertible, black Mustang. I've been traveling all over America, traveling and driving, feeling free when I'm driving alone. - You want to pass the freeway and going into (mumbles). - We are temporary custodians of these vehicles. In 20 or 30 or 40 years somebody else needs to be custodians so these cars don't wind up in museums. We want them on the road, on tours like this so people can see them, know what Packard is, know what Packard is all about and get interested in owning one of these Packards one day. That goal was accomplished today in one small way. - [Narrator] Today we zip across the country on divided, limited access interstates. Lincoln Highway for the most part has been eliminated. The routing of Interstate 80 has taken it's toll on once thriving towns including those in Wyoming. I 80 now bypasses such places as Vosler and Medicine Bow, (mumbles) and Fort Bridger. - Today, what's the goal? Get there as fast as we can. We don't stop in places like Rock River and Medicine Bow to get fuel. We pull off at the big truck stops. We top off our tanks. We get back on the Interstates and drive as fast as we can. - We've become such a fast society because so much of travel today is simply the destination. The act of the actual travel itself has gone by the wayside. The Lincoln Highway offers the opportunity, you don't have to have a destination. You can just get in the car and go as far as you want and sometimes it'd just take four hours, take four days, take four weeks. - Well, it's sad because too many people think that the only way to get some place is the fastest speed on the road. That's boring. Get on I 80 and you miss the fun of the old route of the Lincoln Highway and the Mom and Pop restaurant and the tourist's cabins. - There's a great opportunity for us out there today, to find these old pieces of The Lincoln Highway and just slow down. The term that gets used a lot is slow travel. How can I slow down and explore some of my own country in ways that are similar to the ways that the earlier automobile travelers did in the early part of the 20th Century. - [Effie] We have a new conception of our great country, her vastness, her varied scenery, her prosperity, her happiness, her boundless resources, her immense possibilities, her kindness and hopefulness. We are bound to her by by a 1000 new ties of acquaintance of association and of pride. Effie Price Gladding. (horn honking) - [Narrator] For those who truly want to experience America and relive what those early auto pioneers on the Lincoln Highway experienced, get off the Interstate and seek out those portions of the old road. Slow down and savor the joy of auto travel. Discover the fascinating history not only of the Lincoln Highway, but of America itself. Get away from the mundane and ordidnary and understand what those who pioneered the way knew. That getting there is half the fun. After 100 years on the Lincoln Highway, it's still the journey that counts. ♪ Down the road how far you going man ♪ We're looking for the Lincoln Highway ♪ Down the road (harmonica music)




Candidates General Election[8][9]
Votes %
R Thomas N. Hart 40,838 50.2%
D Patrick Collins 38,557 47.4%
SLP James F. Stevens 978 1.2%
S John Weaver Sherman 976 1.2%
all others 1 0.0%

See also


  1. ^ "The Week's News - Tuesday, July 11". North Adams Transcript. North Adams, Massachusetts. July 13, 1899. p. 2. Retrieved March 24, 2018 – via
  2. ^ "Democrats at Odds". The Washington Times. December 4, 1899. p. 2. Retrieved March 21, 2018 – via
  3. ^ "Murphy will Vote for Hart". The Portsmouth Herald. Portsmouth, New Hampshire. December 6, 1899. p. 4. Retrieved March 21, 2018 – via
  4. ^ "Hart wins in Boston". Hartford Courant. Hartford, Connecticut. December 13, 1899. p. 1. Retrieved March 21, 2018 – via
  5. ^ "Mayor Hart's Inaugural". Hartford Courant. Hartford, Connecticut. January 4, 1900. p. 8. Retrieved March 21, 2018 – via
  6. ^ "Debs Will Speak for Sherman". The Boston Globe. November 20, 1899. p. 6. Retrieved March 21, 2018 – via
  7. ^ "THREE NOMINEES". The Boston Globe. November 23, 1899. p. 2. Retrieved March 21, 2018 – via
  8. ^ "Boston Mayor Race - Dec 12, 1899". Retrieved March 21, 2018.
  9. ^ "Annual Report of the Board of Election Commissioners". City of Boston. 1899. p. 69. Retrieved March 21, 2018 – via totals columns are obscured

Further reading

External links

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