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1914 Massachusetts gubernatorial election

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Massachusetts gubernatorial election, 1914

← 1913 November 3, 1914 (1914-11-03) 1915 →
Turnout13.61% Decrease 0.8
 
David Ignatius Walsh.jpg
Samuel Walker McCall circa 1920 (cropped).jpg
Joseph H. Walker (Massachusetts speaker).png
Nominee David I. Walsh Samuel W. McCall Joseph Walker
Party Democratic Republican Progressive
Popular vote 210,442 198,627 32,145
Percentage 45.93% 43.35% 7.02%

Governor before election

David I. Walsh
Democratic

Elected Governor

David I. Walsh
Democratic

The Massachusetts gubernatorial election of 1914 took place on November 3, 1914. Democratic Governor David I. Walsh defeated the Republican, Samuel W. McCall, and the Progressive, Joseph Walker, and won reelection with 45.93% of the vote.

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Transcription

During his youth, he fought in the Austro-German and Franco-German wars. After a succesful, but not exceptional military career, he returned from his retirement to lead the German army to victories at the Eastern front when World War One broke out, only to install a quasi-military dictatorship with Erich Ludendorff, as the war progressed. He died in harness, after serving as the president of the Weimar Republic for nine years but not before appointing Adolf Hitler as German Chancellor. This sure is going to be a complex story. Oh and an air-ship was named after him. That did not end well. -intro- On the 2nd of October 1847, Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg was born as the eldest son of the Prussian officer and landowner Robert von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg and Luise Schickwart. He was born in Posen, a province in Eastern Prussia.His parents, Robert and Luise married in eighteen-forty-five with Luise bearing four children. Paul being the eldest, Otto, Ida and Bernhard. The family had to move often as Robert was stationed throughout Germany. Three years after Paul’s birth, Robert was promoted to captain and led a company of men for the next couple of years. As you can see, militarism was a part of Paul von Hindenburg’s life from early on. From eighteen-fifty-nine, at the age of eleven, he went to the Wahlstatt Cadet Corps School Hindenburg reminisces in his memoirs: "Being a soldier was an inevitable for me (...). The service for the king and the land was tradition in my family." During his education at the military school, the general way of life was a Spartan one. There was barely any free time, or time to leave the school to return to family. Food was rationed and the physical exercise drained Hindenburg, though it also began molding him into a real Prussian soldier, known for their iron discipline. Two years after Paul arrived, his brother Otto was sent to the Cadet School as well. When his father was stationed near Berlin a few years later, Hindenburg was sixteen by now, he started attending the Military School in Berlin. It proved to be a new world for him, he was in awe of the military parades on the Opernplatz. At the age of eighteen, Hindenburg had the privilege of being appointed as the page of Queen Elisabeth of Bavaria, the window of King Frederick William the Fourth. A year later, Hindenburg graduated from the Berlin Military School and became a second lieutenant in the Prussian army. As for his personal life, in eighteen-seventy-nine he married Gertrud von Sperling. The couple had one son, Oskar, who would play an important role later in Hindenburg's life, furthermore, he had two daughters, Irmengard-Pauline and Annemarie. Hindenburgs political views were that of someone representative of the Prussian aristocracy. He was very conservative, a proponent of the monarchy (his last words are rumoured to be about the German Kaiser), more focused on Prussia than on Germany, and a strong nationalist conviction. Though, and this is interesting about Germany before the unification in eighteen-seventy-one, a sense of nationalism within the German Länder, provinces, tended to be stronger than an overarching German nationalism. At any rate, Hindenburg was a man of the army, indifferent what art and literature are concerned and convinced that solely the aristocracy could claim roles in the military and government. Military career Hindenburg had an honourable military career in the Prussian, and later the German, army. In 1866, when due to Bismarck’s foreign policy and attempt to unify Germany the German-Austrian war erupted, Hindenburg fought in the battle of Königgrätz. Four years later, in 1870, again as a result of Bismarck’s attempt to unify Germany, Hindenburg, under von Moltke, saw battle at Sedan against the French army. After these wars and the unification, Germany saw a period of relative peace. During this period, and this period was a good while - we’re talking over fourty years here (from eighteen seventy one to nineteen-fourteen), Hindenburg attempted to distinguish himself in the military. Eventually however, he went through the ranks at a normal pace and in 1911, as general and military governor of Hannover, he decided to retire. Decorated with the Order of the Black Eagle, the highest order of chivalry in the Kingdom of Prussia and after over 45 years of service, he left. Hindenburg reminisced: “War was not in flux, and I recognized it as a duty to open the way for the younger generation, and in 1911 I begged for my absence.” An interesting detail is that Hindenburg was mentored by Alfred Graf von Schlieffen whose name may sound familiar: he designed the Von-Schlieffenplan that was supposed to, in case of war with France, defeat the latter in record tempo. And.. this Von Schlieffen taught Hindenburg that “defending is feminine, attacking is manly”. Hindenburg would apply this strategy religiously and actually defeat the Russian army at the Eastern Front during the first world war… three years after his retirement. But we’ll get to that. On the 1st of January, eighteen-eighty-seven, as required by the German military tradition, his immediate superior, the head of the department of the General Staff, Colonel von Schlieffen wrote a report on Hindenburg: "The commander von Hindenburg is a magnificent major that stands out due to a keen interest in servitude, mobile activity and therefore he encourages young officers, who are serious and energetic with an accurate perspective." The German army had fond memories of Hindenburg as a capable military commander that always kept his head cool. This would come in very handy when the biggest war mankind had seen up to that date would break out. World War I (1914-1918) After the events in nineteen-fourteen resulted in First World War, Germany attempted to instigate the aforementioned von Schlieffenplan. This failed miserably, and in november that same year the war was reduced to stagnant trench warfare. On the eastern front, Maximilian von Prittwitz commanded the German Eighth Army. and this Eighth Army was supposed to defend East Prussia from Russian attacks, but abandoned said territory under Prittwitz’ command. Exactly the opposite of what they were supposed to do. The German general staff strongly disapproved and this led to Von Prittwitz being dismissed by von Moltke (the younger). Paul von Hindenburg was sixty-six years old, and had been retired for 3 years - but he was asked, by the German high command, to command the Eighth Army. On the twenty-third of August nineteen-fourteen, von Hindenburg became the commander of the German Eight Army on the eastern front. Erich Ludendorff became von Hindenburg’s chief of staff, the duo complimented each other very well and within a week they attained their first major victory. Ludendorff was an excellent organizer and planner, whereas Hindenburg was the almost… fatherly figure that kept his head cool in the face of battle. The battle of Tannenberg, one of the most famous battles of World War I on the Eastern front, waged from the twenty-sixth to the thirty-first of August. The German Eight Army annihilated the larger Russian army and pushed the Russians further back into Russia. Over seventy-five thousand Russians were killed or wounded and over ninety-thousand were taken as Prisoner of War, whereas the Germans lost under fifteen-thousand men. The Russian General, Alexander Samsonov, committed suicide as a result of this defeat. These events have been colorfully captured in the novel “august nineteen fourteen” by Alexandr Solzhenitsyn. Shortly after, from the 6th to the 15th of September, the First battle of the Masurian Lakes saw another colossal victory for the Germans and… these victories resulted in the myth of General Von Hindenburg being cemented in German propaganda, and a cult of personality developed around him and would last until the end of his life. Though Germany was in arms against foreign powers, at the home front, especially within the military high command, there were conflicts as well. From 1914 to 1916 there was an internal struggle among the German military high command. Erich von Falkenhayn, the commander in chief of the entire German army and commanding troops on the Western front, wanted to establish peace with Russia in order to concentrate German troops on the Western front whereas Hindenburg and Ludendorff were convinced they had to keep fighting against the Russians. They were convinced that the russians were beaten, but they were not defeated. Several well known German offensives that failed resulted in Falkenhayn losing prestige: he was responsible for the battle of Verdun in February 1916, which was disastrous for the Germans. In June at the Battle of the Somme over one-hundred-sixty-thousand Germans lost their lives. On August 27th 1916 Romania entered the war on the allied side, whereas Falkenhayn predicted Romania would remain neutral - all in all, the German front was in a dreadful state with over a million lives lost already. Von Falkenhayn was dismissed due to these losses and his faulty prediction that Romania would remain neutral, and.. Von Hindenburg and Ludendorff took over the German High Command, or Oberste Heeresleitung. The war, as a result, entered an even more radical phase due to these two men. One of the first things Hindenburg did was instigate the so-called Hindenburg-Programme. The entire German economy was to be mobilized for the war effort, a so-called ‘war-economy’. The aim was to double the output of the German industry in order to cover the lack of certain materials such as ammunition and guns. Germany became a quasi-military dictatorship where Von Hindenburg and Ludendorff could not push their military-oriented laws through parliament, but the opposition could not do anything without their consent either. Slowly Von Hindenburg and Ludendorff attained more political power and eventually they managed to ensure that Germany mobilized its entire economy for the war effort. In April nineteen-seventeen the United States joined the war on the allied side and shortly after, the Russian Tsar was overthrown by the Bolshevists. In nineteen-eighteen the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed between Germany and the Soviet-Union, ending the war on the Eastern Front. Emperor Wilhelm the second granted von Hindenburg the Hindenburg-star for his victory at Tannenberg, perhaps in an attempt to up the morale of the battered German army. The Russian defeat and the impulsive new decoration given by Wilhelm II did not force any miraculous breakthrough however. On the 29th of September nineteen-eighteen, Hindenburg and Ludendorff informed the Kaiser that the war was lost and one month later Ludendorff resigned, but von Hindenburg stayed on. Germany was defeated however, the losses had been tremendous and on a scale never seen before in the history of mankind. Eventually, in nineteen-nineteen, he too resigned as chief of staff of the army. Due to the domestic political opposition by ‘socialist’ politicians, Hindenburg, Ludendorff, and with them many military commanders, believed that Germany had lost the first world war not due to the military defeats, but due to internal opposition and sabotage. The so-called stab-in-the-back myth. Hindenburg and the Weimar Republic After World War I the Weimar Republic was established. It was an extremely turbulent time for Germany with the Spartakist Uprising, the Kapp Putsch and Hitler’s Bierkeller Putsch - the period nineteen-eighteen to nineteen-twenty-three is covered in my videos about the Weimar Republic. We’ll skip ahead to nineteen-twenty-five. The president of the Weimar Republic, Friedrich Ebert passed away. Elections were held, yet no potential successor gained an absolute majority during the first round of elections. Hesitant, Von Hindenburg put himself forward during the second round. He was elected, receiving a large majority of the votes. Wilhelm Marx, from the Zentrum party, received forty-five-point-three percent of the votes whereas Hindenburg received forty-eight-point-three percent. The Communists refused to vote on a candidate other than a Communist, but if they hadn’t, who knows what would have happened in Germany’s history. Hindenburg, as briefly mentioned earlier in this video, was an anti-democratic conservative monarchist. Still, he swore an oath to respect the democratic constitution of Weimar and, perhaps surprisingly, he adhered to this constitution. Biographies have described him as an excellent constitutional head of state. From this point onward I have to give a disclaimer: from here on out there is a lot of historiographic debate about Von Hindenburgs intentions, both with the Weimar republic and appointing Hitler as chancellor, we will get to that in a minute. At the end of his seven-year term, in nineteen-thirty-two, his physical and mental strengths rapidly diminished (he was eighty-five at this point) But, he once again put himself forward as a candidate to oppose another candidate: Adolf Hitler, who had risen in popularity in the years previously. He decided to stand candidate, but Hindenburg was re-elected with nearly twenty percent more votes than Hitler. However, the domestic political situation of the Weimar republic was torn between far-left and far-right, and Hindenburg had to re-appoint multiple Chancellors of cabinets. There were internal conflicts and struggles, with the communists and the Nazis not just fighting each other, but fighting the democratic institutions as well. In 1933, after his son Oskar, Franz von Papen, and his secretary Meisner, among others, insisted on appointing Hitler as chancellor, convinced they would be able to keep him under control. Hindenburg gave in and appointed the “loathed Bohemian corporal”, as he referred to Hitler. At another occasion, after a fight with Hitler, he is documented as saying: “That man for a Chancellor? I’ll make him a postmaster, and he can lick the stamps with my head on them”. Though, it is commonly acknowledged that Von Papen and others thought they would be able to control Hitler once he was appointed chancellor. A.. misjudgment to put it mildly. At the end of his life, von Hindenburg probably suffered from dementia, occasionally not being aware of what was happening around him, though some sources, such as Von Papen, contradict this. Confused as he was, he could not exercise real power and Hitler took this opportunity to consolidate his. On the 2nd of August nineteen-thirty-four, at the age of eighty-six, Hindenburg passed away, not recognizing anyone, not even his family. Historiographic debate after his death After Hindenburg passed away, Hitler appointed himself President, next to his post as chancellor, and became the dictator of Nazi-Germany. Eventually, due to his aggressive foreign policy, the Second World War would erupt. There is debate among historians whether Hindenburg consciously appointed Hitler as Chancellor, giving him a stepping stone to becoming a dictator. Some historians claim he wanted to reinstate the German monarchy which fell after the first world war when Wilhelm the second fled to the Netherlands. Hindenburg had a lot of contempt for Hitler, a corporal from Austria. He referred to the NSDAP and the SA as thugs that missed the discipline of the army. But: other renowned historians, among them Wolfram Pyta, point out that von Hindenburg approved of Hitler’s ideas of the volksgemeinschaft. While Hitler was a lower class corporal, Hindenburg was convinced of the superiority of the German nation and realized that Hitler could bring cohesion among not just the German far-right, but perhaps the German nation as well. At any rate, his imposing figure, his broad face and the recognizable mustache, his calmth in public, his reputation as an eager to learn family man, his military past as a patriot and soldier made Hindenburg a symbol of power and stability inviting Germans to trust him, despite the economic, social and political crises that shook the country. This image has been used and maintained with the aim of achieving political objectives, first by the Kaiser, then by Hitler and the Nazis, but also by industrialists with financial motives, supported by the emerging activity of advertising mass media (many trinkets and products carried the image, a drawing or the name of Hindenburg). After his death, streets, buildings and public places, boats, such as the SMS Hindenburg and a prestigious airship (the LZ 129 Hindenburg, the largest ever built) were named after him. This has contributed to the shaping of a "myth of Hindenburg" that seems to have permeated society in all its forms and in all its lessons and remained after his death in a part of the German spirit. I mentioned this beforehand, but there is a video available on my channel about the Weimar Republic from the weeks after the First World War until nineteen-twenty three. It covers the Spartakist Uprising and Kapp putsch, among other things. Thank you for watching this video! What is an event or a person with regard to German history that you would like to know more about, and perhaps see a video of? Let me know your thoughts in the comments. If you enjoyed the video, consider subscribing to this channel. See you next time!

Contents

Democratic primary

Governor

Candidates

Declared

Results

Governor Walsh was unopposed for re-nomination.

1914 Democratic gubernatorial primary[1]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic David Walsh 76,834 99.98%
Write-in All others 19 0.02%
Total votes 76,853 100.00%

Lt. Governor

Candidates

Declared
1914 Democratic lieutenant gubernatorial primary[1]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Edward P. Barry 74,748 99.98%
Write-in All others 13 0.02%
Total votes 74,761 100.00%

Republican primary

Governor

Candidates

Declared

Results

McCall was unopposed for the Republican nomination.

1914 Republican gubernatorial primary[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Samuel W. McCall 69,274 99.95%
Write-in All others 41 0.05%
Total votes 69,315 100.00%

Lt. Governor

Candidates

Declared

Results

1914 Republican lieutenant gubernatorial primary[3]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Grafton D. Cushing 40,634 53.67%
Republican August H. Goetting 22,541 29.77%
Republican Elmer A. Stevens 12,526 16.54%
Write-in All others 9 0.12%
Total votes 75,710 100.00%

Progressive primary

Governor

Candidates

Declared

Results

Walker was unopposed for the nomination.

1914 Progressive gubernatorial primary[4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Progressive Joseph H. Walker 5,237 99.99%
Write-in All others 7 0.01%
Total votes 5,244 100.00%

Lt. Governor

Candidates

Results

Magenis was unopposed for the Progressive nomination.

1914 Progressive gubernatorial primary[5]
Party Candidate Votes %
Progressive James P. Magenis 4,896 99.61%
Write-in All others 19 0.39%
Total votes 4,915 100.00%

Independents and other parties

Prohibition Party

  • Alfred H. Evans, nominee for Governor in 1913

Socialist Party

  • Samuel C. Roberts

Socialist Labour Party

  • Arthur Reimer, candidate for President of the United States in 1912 and Governor in 1913

General election

Results

Massachusetts gubernatorial election, 1914[6][7]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic David I. Walsh 210,442 45.93%
Republican Samuel W. McCall 198,627 43.35%
Progressive Joseph Walker 32,145 7.02%
Socialist Samuel C. Roberts 9,520 2.08%
Prohibition Alfred H. Evans 5,264 1.15%
Socialist Labor Arthur Elmer Reimer 2,205 0.48%
Total votes 458,203 100%


References

  1. ^ a b Election Statistics 1914, p. 8.
  2. ^ Election Statistics 1914, p. 130.
  3. ^ Election Statistics 1914, p. 136.
  4. ^ Election Statistics 1914, p. 252.
  5. ^ Election Statistics 1914, p. 258.
  6. ^ "Massachusetts gubernatorial election, 1914".
  7. ^ Election Statistics 1914, p. 368.

Bibliography

Office of the Secretary of the Commonwealth (1914). Election Statistics, 1914. Boston, MA.

This page was last edited on 28 September 2019, at 16:00
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