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Cabinet of the United States

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Cabinet of the United States is part of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States. The Cabinet's role, inferred from the language of the Opinion Clause (Article II, Section 2, Clause 1) of the Constitution is to serve as an advisory body to the President of the United States. Additionally, the Twenty-fifth Amendment authorizes the Vice President, together with a majority of certain members of the Cabinet, to declare the president "unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office". Among the senior officers of the Cabinet are the Vice President and the heads of the federal executive departments, all of whom—if eligible—are in the line of succession. Members of the Cabinet (except for the Vice President) serve at the pleasure of the President, who can dismiss them at will for no cause. All federal public officials, including Cabinet members, are also subject to impeachment by the House of Representatives and trial in the Senate for "treason, bribery, and other high crimes and misdemeanors".

The President can also unilaterally designate senior White House staffers, heads of other federal agencies and the Ambassador to the United Nations as members of the Cabinet, although this is a symbolic status marker and does not, apart from attending Cabinet meetings, confer any additional powers.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • The American President's Cabinet Explained
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  • The President's Cabinet
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  • Presidential Power: Crash Course Government and Politics #11

Transcription

I'm Mr. Beat I’m not the President of the United States. This dude is. He makes up the executive branch of the American government, the branch that carries out, or enforces laws made by the legislative branch and laws interpreted by the judicial branch. But it’s not just him, it’s his Vice President, who is currently this dude. But it’s just not these two dudes. In fact, there is a huge team working with them. It’s commonly referred to as “The Cabinet.” In this video, I will explain the history and purpose of the Cabinet. So let’s start with the Constitution. Article II, Section 2 says the President gets some help- he or she doesn’t have to do job alone. The Cabinet’s official role is to give the President advice based on their expertise. The Constitution actually doesn’t say anything explicitly about a Cabinet. The word “cabinet” comes from the Italian word “cabinetto,” which means a small, private room. You know, a place to talk about important stuff without interruptions. The first President to use the term was James Madison, who called his meetings “the President’s cabinet.” Over the years, as the country has grown, the Cabinet has grown. George Washington, the First President and still my favorite one by the way, held the first cabinet meeting on February 25, 1793. He had just four Department Heads there. His Secretary of State, Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of War, Henry Knox, and Attorney General Edmund Randolph. Yeah, Jefferson and Hamilton spent much of the meeting fighting over the creation of a national bank. Today the meetings are bigger. The Cabinet officially includes the heads of 15 executive departments. So what the heck are these Cabinet members in charge of? Well... a lot. The Secretary of State, who currently is Rex Tillerson, mostly deals with foreign policy. Tillerson presides over the State Department, which employs around 69,000 people and has a 2017 budget of over $50 billion. The Secretary of the Treasury, who is currently Steven Mnuchin, is the President’s chief economic advisor, although the position used to oversee federal law enforcement agencies until 2003. The Department of the Treasury employs over 86,000 people and has a 2017 budget of over $13.3 billion. The Secretary of War is now called the Secretary of Defense. I guess that sounds less aggressive and more like “we’re all about peace and love man!” Anyway, that changed in 1947. The Secretary of Defense, who is currently James Mattis, is in charge of...well, you know, defense. More specifically, command and control and the carrying out of missions. The Department of Defense is the largest department BY FAR. It employs over 4 million people and its 2017 budget is over $582.7 billion. The Attorney General, currently Jeff Sessions, is the chief law enforcement officer and highest lawyer of the federal government. Sessions heads the Department of Justice, which employs over 113,000 people and its 2017 budget is over $29 billion. The U.S. created the Department of the Interior on March 3, 1849. Today, the Secretary of the Interior is Ryan Zinke. He and his department are responsible for maintaining and conserving most federal land and natural resources, and currently employs over 70,000 people, with an annual budget in 2017 of $13.4 billion. On May 15, 1862, Abraham Lincoln created what is today called the Department of Agriculture. Today, the Secretary of Agriculture is Sonny Perdue, and he and his department are responsible for carrying out federal laws related to farming, agriculture, forestry, and food. Hey I like food. The department has around 106,000 employees and its 2017 budget is over $151 billion. On Valentine’s Day, 1903, the U.S. created what is today called the Department of Commerce, which is all about looking for ways to grow the American economy. Today, it’s led by the Secretary of Commerce, Wilbur Ross. His department employs around 44,000 people and has an its 2017 budget is $9.8 billion. On March 5, 1913, the last day of his Presidency, William Howard Taft created the Department of Labor, which is all about finding ways to help workers, those seeking work, and those seeking a way OUT of work. Headed by the Secretary of Labor, who today is Alex Acosta, the department employs more than 17,000 people and its 2017 budget is over $12.8 billion. In 1933, Frances Perkins became the Secretary of Labor and the first woman to ever serve in the Cabinet. The U.S. established the Federal Security Agency on July 1, 1939. That morphed into the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare on April 11, 1953. But today? It’s called the Department of Health and Human Services, currently headed by Eric Hargan. The department promotes policy that focuses on the health of Americans, and recently gained a lot of power after Obamacare went into effect. It currently employs around 80,000 people and its 2017 budget is $1.2 billion. On September 9, 1965, President Lyndon Johnson created the Department of Housing and Urban Development as part of his Great Society initiative. It’s mission is to help Americans get quality, affordable housing, but it also used to coordinate disaster response across the country. Currently headed by Ben Carson, the department employs over 8,400 people and its 2017 budget is over $60 billion. Congress created the Department of Transportation on October 15, 1966 to help provide the country with a safe and efficient transportation network. Currently headed by Elaine Chao, the department employs over 58,000 people and its 2017 budget is over $98.1 billion. (Rick Perry clip) Well, he couldn’t remember the department, but I bet he remembers it now. He’s currently in charge of it. This dude is Rick Perry, the Secretary of Energy and head of the Department of Energy, which is in charge of the country’s nuclear weapons program and nuclear reaction production for the Navy. It also aids the country’s energy needs, whether it be through energy conservation or research or waste disposal. The U.S. founded the department on August 4, 1977. Its 2017 budget was over $32 billion and it employees more than 106,000 people. The U.S. created the Department of Education on October 17, 1979. Currently headed by Betsy DeVos, its main purpose manage and coordinate federal assistance to education, but it also collects data on the country’s schools and enforces federal educational laws. It employs more than 4400 people and its 2017 budget is more than $209 billion. Yeah, that’s a lot of student loans and grants. While the U.S. has provided benefits to its veterans dating back to the Revolutionary War, it didn’t create what’s now called the Department of Veterans Affairs until 1930, and didn’t become Cabinet level until 1989. The current Secretary of Veterans Affairs is David Shulkin, and the department’s main job is to provide essential services to American veterans. Its 2017 budget is more than $182 billion and it employs more than 377,000 people. And last but certainly not least is the Department of Homeland Security, created in the aftermath of 9/11 on November 25th, 2002. Sure, it’s all about keeping America safe, but more specifically their focus is anti-terrorism, border security, immigration and customs, cyber security, and disaster prevention and response after taking on FEMA. The newest Cabinet department, it is also the third largest, with a 2017 budget of more than $40.6 billion and over 240,000 employees. The current Secretary of Homeland Security is Kirstjen Nielsen, pending Senate approval, that is. All 15 Department Heads are in the line of succession, meaning that if the President, Vice President, Speaker of the House, and the President por tempore of the U.S. Senate all died, these folks would be next up to take the President’s spot. That’s why Kiefer Sutherland became President that one time, even though he was just the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. Wait a second, was that real life? Nooo, yeah I’m pretty sure that’s just a TV show, come to think of it. The President nominates the department heads and presents them to the Senate to be approved by a simple majority, aka 51 of the 100 Senators approve. The Vice President doesn’t need Senate approval, as he or she is elected, but neither does the White House Chief of Staff, who is basically the President’s personal assistant. Because the Chief of Staff manages the President’s schedule and manages the White House staff, her or she is often seen as a gatekeeper of sorts. The Chief of Staff actually isn’t technically a part of the Cabinet, though. He or she is what we call a Cabinet-level official. Cabinet-level officials attend Cabinet meetings but are not official Cabinet members. It includes the Trade Representative, Director of National Intelligence, Ambassador to the United Nations, the OMB Director, the CIA Director, the EPA Administrator, and SBA Administrator. ("The Apprentice" clip) Cabinet members, except the Vice President, can be fired by the President fairly easily. Yeah, the current President probably has made that quite evident. All Cabinet members are subject to impeachment by the House of Representatives if they act up. Now here’s the thing. I haven’t even got to the individual federal agencies that both fall under the umbrella of the departments or are independent agencies. You know, like the FBI, CIA, Federal Trade Commission, Social Security Administration, National Park Service, Corporation for Public Broadcasting, NASA, and many others I am sure you have heard of. For the most part, they all are part of the executive branch as well. How many federal agencies are there? Well, I had a really hard time figuring this out. I honestly don’t think anyone really knows. There might be 430, according to one source I found, or there might just be 115, according to the Administrative Conference of the United States, which recently printed “There is no authoritative list of government agencies.” We do know that there are approximately 4 million people who work for the federal government. Probably...maybe? That number is not for sure either. There’s also all the state and local workers who get federal aid, not to mention the millions of contractors who work for the federal government. The bottom line is, the executive branch is HUGE. When I see diagrams in government textbooks like this one, I sort of chuckle. That's ridiculous. It's not just the President and his Cabinet. We're talking about a huge team of people working underneath them Millions of employees Hundreds of billions of dollars The Cabinet has a lot of power and they do a lot to help run this country. They are a force to be reckoned with. Thanks to Ian for suggesting that I make a video about the President’s Cabinet. He is a long-time and loyal supporter of my channel on Patreon and he’s also just a really smart young man who gives me hope for the future. So thanks to him and thanks to you for watching. I’ll see you next Friday.

Contents

History

The tradition of the Cabinet arose out of the debates at the 1787 Constitutional Convention regarding whether the president would exercise executive authority singly or collaboratively with a cabinet of ministers or a privy council. As a result of the debates, the Constitution (Article II, Section 1, Clause 1) vests "all executive power" in the president singly, and authorizes—but does not compel—the president (Article II, Section 2, Clause 1) to "require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices".[1][2] The Constitution does not specify what the executive departments will be, how many there will be, or what their duties should be.

George Washington, the first U.S. President, organized his principal officers into a Cabinet, and it has been part of the executive branch structure ever since. Washington's Cabinet consisted of five members: himself, Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of War Henry Knox and Attorney General Edmund Randolph. Vice President John Adams was not included in Washington's Cabinet because the position was initially regarded as a legislative officer (President of the Senate).[3] It was not until the 20th century that Vice Presidents were regularly included as members of the Cabinet and came to be regarded primarily as a member of the executive branch.

Presidents have used Cabinet meetings of selected principal officers but to widely differing extents and for different purposes. Secretary of State William H. Seward and then Professor Woodrow Wilson advocated use of a parliamentary-style Cabinet government. But President Abraham Lincoln rebuffed Seward, and Woodrow Wilson would have none of it in his administration. In recent administrations, Cabinets have grown to include key White House staff in addition to department and various agency heads. President Ronald Reagan formed seven subcabinet councils to review many policy issues, and subsequent Presidents have followed that practice.[2]

Federal law

In 3 U.S.C. § 302 with regard to delegation of authority by the President, it is provided that "nothing herein shall be deemed to require express authorization in any case in which such an official would be presumed in law to have acted by authority or direction of the President." This pertains directly to the heads of the executive departments as each of their offices is created and specified by statutory law (hence the presumption) and thus gives them the authority to act for the President within their areas of responsibility without any specific delegation.

Under the 1967 Federal Anti-Nepotism statute, federal officials are prohibited from appointing their immediate family members to certain governmental positions, including those in the Cabinet.[4]

Under the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, an incoming administration may appoint acting heads of department from employees of the relevant department. These may be existing high-level career employees, from political appointees of the outgoing administration, or sometimes lower-level appointees of the incoming administration.[5]

Confirmation process

The heads of the executive departments and all other federal agency heads are nominated by the President and then presented to the Senate for confirmation or rejection by a simple majority (although before the use of the "nuclear option" during the 113th US Congress, they could have been blocked by filibuster, requiring cloture to be invoked by ​35 supermajority to further consideration). If approved, they receive their commission scroll, are sworn in and then begin their duties.

An elected Vice President does not require Senate confirmation, nor does the White House Chief of Staff, which is an appointed staff position of the Executive Office of the President.

Office Senate Confirmation Review Committee
Secretary of State Foreign Relations Committee
Secretary of the Treasury Finance Committee
Secretary of Defense Armed Services Committee
Attorney General Judiciary Committee
Secretary of the Interior Energy and Natural Resources Committee
Secretary of Agriculture Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Committee
Secretary of Commerce Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee
Secretary of Labor Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee
Secretary of Health and Human Services Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee (consult)
Finance Committee (official)
Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Committee
Secretary of Transportation Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee
Secretary of Energy Energy and Natural Resources Committee
Secretary of Education Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee
Secretary of Veterans Affairs Veterans Affairs Committee
Secretary of Homeland Security Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee
Trade Representative Finance Committee
Director of National Intelligence Select Committee on Intelligence
Ambassador to the United Nations Foreign Relations Committee
Office of Management and Budget Budget Committee
Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee
Director of the Central Intelligence Agency Select Committee on Intelligence
Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency Environment and Public Works Committee
Administrator of the Small Business Administration Small Business and Entrepreneurship Committee

Salary

The heads of the executive departments and most other senior federal officers at cabinet or sub-cabinet level receive their salary under a fixed five level pay plan known as the Executive Schedule, which is codified in Title 5 of the United States Code. 21 positions, including the heads of the executive departments and others, receiving Level I pay are listed in 5 U.S.C. § 5312, and those 46 positions on Level II pay (including the number two positions of the executive departments) are listed in 5 U.S.C. § 5313. As of January 2016, the Level I annual pay was set at $205,700.[6]

The annual salary of the Vice President is $235,300.[6] The salary level was set by the Government Salary Reform Act of 1989, which also provides an automatic cost of living adjustment for federal employees. The Vice President does not automatically receive a pension based on that office, but instead receives the same pension as other members of Congress based on his ex officio position as President of the Senate.[7]

Current Cabinet and Cabinet-rank officials

The individuals listed below were nominated by President Donald Trump to form his Cabinet and were confirmed by the United States Senate on the date noted, or are serving as acting department heads by his request pending the confirmation of his nominees. For a full list of people nominated for Cabinet positions, see Formation of Donald Trump's Cabinet.

Vice President and the Heads of the Executive Departments

The Cabinet includes the Vice President and the heads of 15 executive departments, listed here according to their order of succession to the Presidency. These 15 positions are the core "cabinet member" seats, as distinct from other Cabinet-level seats for other various top level White House staffers and heads of other government agencies, none of whom are in the presidential line of succession and not all of whom are Officers of the United States.[8] Note that the Speaker of the House and the President pro tempore of the Senate follow the Vice President and precede the Secretary of State in the order of succession, but both are in the legislative branch and are not part of the Cabinet.

Cabinet
Office
(Constituting instrument)
Incumbent Took office

Vice President
(Constitution, Art. II, Sec. I)

Mike Pence
January 20, 2017

Secretary of State
(22 U.S.C. § 2651a)

Mike Pompeo
April 26, 2018

Secretary of the Treasury
(31 U.S.C. § 301)

Steven Mnuchin
February 13, 2017

Secretary of Defense
(10 U.S.C. § 113)

James Mattis
January 20, 2017

Attorney General
(28 U.S.C. § 503)

Matthew Whitaker
November 7, 2018
Acting

Secretary of the Interior
(43 U.S.C. § 1451)

Ryan Zinke
March 1, 2017

Secretary of Agriculture
(7 U.S.C. § 2202)

Sonny Perdue
April 25, 2017

Secretary of Commerce
(15 U.S.C. § 1501)

Wilbur Ross
February 28, 2017

Secretary of Labor
(29 U.S.C. § 551)

Alex Acosta
April 28, 2017

Secretary of Health and Human Services
(Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1953,
67 Stat. 631 and 42 U.S.C. § 3501)

Alex Azar
January 29, 2018

Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
(42 U.S.C. § 3532)

Ben Carson
March 2, 2017

Secretary of Transportation
(49 U.S.C. § 102)

Elaine Chao
January 31, 2017

Secretary of Energy
(42 U.S.C. § 7131)

Rick Perry
March 2, 2017

Secretary of Education
(20 U.S.C. § 3411)

Betsy DeVos
February 7, 2017

Secretary of Veterans Affairs
(38 U.S.C. § 303)

Robert Wilkie
July 30, 2018

Secretary of Homeland Security
(6 U.S.C. § 112)

Kirstjen Nielsen
December 6, 2017

Cabinet-level officials

The following officials hold positions that are considered to be Cabinet-level positions. Cabinet-level officials attend Cabinet meetings, but are not official Cabinet Members:

Cabinet-level Officials
Office Incumbent Term began

White House Chief of Staff
(Pub.L. 76–19, 53 Stat. 561, enacted April 3, 1939,
Executive Order 8248, Executive Order 10452,
Executive Order 12608)

John F. Kelly
July 31, 2017

Trade Representative
(19 U.S.C. § 2171)

Robert Lighthizer
May 15, 2017

Director of National Intelligence[9][10]
(50 U.S.C. § 3023)

Dan Coats
March 16, 2017

Ambassador to the United Nations
(22 U.S.C. § 287, Executive Order 9844, Executive Order 10108)

Nikki Haley
January 27, 2017

Director of the Office of Management and Budget
(31 U.S.C. § 502, Executive Order 11541,
Executive Order 11609, Executive Order 11717)

Mick Mulvaney
February 16, 2017

Director of the Central Intelligence Agency[9]
(50 U.S.C. § 3036)

Gina Haspel
April 26, 2018

Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency
(5 U.S.C. § 906, Executive Order 11735)

Andrew Wheeler (acting)
July 9, 2018

Administrator of the Small Business Administration
(15 U.S.C. § 633)

Linda McMahon
February 14, 2017

Former executive and Cabinet-level departments

Renamed heads of the executive departments

Other positions no longer of Cabinet rank

Proposed Cabinet departments

  • "Department of Industry and Commerce", proposed by Secretary of the Treasury William Windom in a speech given at a Chamber of Commerce dinner in May 1881.[21]
  • "Department of Natural Resources", proposed by the Eisenhower administration,[22] President Richard Nixon,[23] the 1976 GOP national platform,[24] and by Bill Daley (as a consolidation of the Departments of the Interior and Energy, and the Environmental Protection Agency).[25]
  • "Department of Peace", proposed by Senator Matthew Neely in the 1930s, Congressman Dennis Kucinich, and other members of the U.S. Congress.[26][27]
  • "Department of Social Welfare", proposed by President Franklin Roosevelt in January 1937.[28]
  • "Department of Public Works", proposed by President Franklin Roosevelt in January 1937.[28]
  • "Department of Conservation" (renamed Department of Interior) proposed by President Franklin Roosevelt in January 1937.[28]
  • "Department of Urban Affairs and Housing", proposed by President John F. Kennedy.[29]
  • "Department of Business and Labor", proposed by President Lyndon Johnson.[30]
  • "Department of Community Development", proposed by President Richard Nixon; to be chiefly concerned with rural infrastructure development.[23][31]
  • "Department of Human Resources" proposed by President Richard Nixon; essentially a revised Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.[23]
  • "Department of Economic Affairs" proposed by President Richard Nixon; essentially a consolidation of the Departments of Commerce, Labor, and Agriculture.[32]
  • "Department of Environmental Protection", proposed by Senator Arlen Specter and others.[33]
  • "Department of Intelligence", proposed by former Director of National Intelligence Mike McConnell.[34]
  • "Department of Global Development", proposed by the Center for Global Development.[35]
  • "Department of Arts", proposed by Quincy Jones.[36]
  • "Department of Business", proposed by President Barack Obama as a consolidation of the U.S. Department of Commerce's core business and trade functions, the Small Business Administration, the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, the Export-Import Bank, the Overseas Private Investment Corporation, and the U.S. Trade and Development Agency.[37][38]
  • "Department of Education and the Workforce" proposed by President Donald Trump as a consolidation of the Departments of Education and Labor.[39]

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Prakash, Sai. "Essays on Article II:Executive Vesting Clause". The Heritage Guide to The Constitution. The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved July 3, 2018.
  2. ^ a b Gaziano, Todd. "Essays on Article II: Opinion Clause". The Heritage Guide to The Constitution. The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved July 3, 2018.
  3. ^ http://www.mountvernon.org/library/digitalhistory/digital-encyclopedia/article/john-adams/
  4. ^ Wulwick, Richard P.; Macchiarola, Frank J. (1995). "Congressional Interference With The President's Power To Appoint" (PDF). Stetson Law Review. XXIV: 625–652.
  5. ^ Pierce, Olga (2009-01-22). "Who Runs Departments Before Heads Are Confirmed?". ProPublica. Retrieved 2017-01-20.
  6. ^ a b Obama, Barack (2014-12-19). "ADJUSTMENTS OF CERTAIN RATES OF PAY" (PDF). EXECUTIVE ORDER 13686. The White House. Retrieved 2015-09-18.
  7. ^ Purcell, Patrick J. (2005-01-21). "Retirement Benefits for Members of Congress" (PDF). CRS Report for Congress. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 2017-02-19.
  8. ^ The White House. "The Cabinet". Retrieved June 20, 2015.
  9. ^ a b "President Donald J. Trump Announces His Cabinet". White House. February 8, 2017. Retrieved February 20, 2017.
  10. ^ Demirjian, Karoun (March 15, 2017). "Coats confirmed as nation's new spy chief". Washington Post. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
  11. ^ The office of Secretary of Foreign Affairs existed under the Articles of Confederation from October 20, 1781 to March 3, 1789, the day before the Constitution came into force.
  12. ^ "President Clinton Raises FEMA Director to Cabinet Status" (Press release). Federal Emergency Management Agency. February 26, 1996. Archived from the original on January 16, 1997. Retrieved May 22, 2009.
  13. ^ Fowler, Daniel (November 19, 2008). "Emergency Managers Make It Official: They Want FEMA Out of DHS". CQ Politics. Archived from the original on March 4, 2010. Retrieved March 3, 2010. During the Clinton administration, FEMA Administrator James Lee Witt met with the Cabinet. His successor in the Bush administration, Joe M. Allbaugh, did not.(Archived March 3, 2010, by WebCite at
  14. ^ Tenet, George (2007). At the Center of the Storm. London: HarperCollins. p. 136. ISBN 0-06-114778-8. Under President Clinton, I was a Cabinet member—a legacy of John Deutch's requirement when he took the job as DCI—but my contacts with the president, while always interesting, were sporadic. I could see him as often as I wanted but was not on a regular schedule. Under President Bush, the DCI lost its Cabinet-level status.
  15. ^ Schoenfeld, Gabriel (July–August 2007). "The CIA Follies (Cont'd.)". Commentary. Retrieved May 22, 2009. Though he was to lose the Cabinet rank he had enjoyed under Clinton, he came to enjoy "extraordinary access" to the new President, who made it plain that he wanted to be briefed every day.
  16. ^ Sciolino, Elaine (September 29, 1996). "C.I.A. Chief Charts His Own Course". New York Times. Retrieved May 22, 2009. It is no secret that Mr. Deutch initially turned down the intelligence position, and was rewarded for taking it by getting Cabinet rank.
  17. ^ Clinton, Bill (July 1, 1993). "Remarks by the President and Lee Brown, Director of Office of National Drug Control Policy". White House. Retrieved May 22, 2009. We are here today to install a uniquely qualified person to lead our nation's effort in the fight against illegal drugs and what they do to our children, to our streets, and to our communities. And to do it for the first time from a position sitting in the President's Cabinet.
  18. ^ Cook, Dave (March 11, 2009). "New drug czar gets lower rank, promise of higher visibility". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved March 16, 2009. For one thing, in the Obama administration the Drug Czar will not have Cabinet status, as the job did during George W. Bush's administration.
  19. ^ "President Donald J. Trump Announces His Cabinet". whitehouse.gov. 2017-02-08. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
  20. ^ "President Trump announces his full Cabinet roster". Retrieved 2017-02-09.
  21. ^ "A Department of Commerce" (PDF). The New York Times. 1881-05-13.
  22. ^ Company, DIANE Publishing (April 1, 1998). "Improving Management and Organization in Federal Natural Resources and Environmental Functions: Hearing Before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, U. S. Senate". DIANE Publishing. Retrieved February 20, 2017 – via Google Books. Chairman STEVENS. Thank you very much. I think both of you are really pointing in the same direction as this Committee. I do hope we can keep it on a bipartisan basis. Mr. Dean, when I was at the Interior Department, I drafted Eisenhower's Department of Natural Resources proposal, and we have had a series of them that have been presented.
  23. ^ a b c "116 - Special Message to the Congress on Executive Branch Reorganization". The University of California, Santa Barbara - The American Presidency Project. The administration is today transmitting to the Congress four bills which, if enacted, would replace seven of the present executive departments and several other agencies with four new departments: the Department of Natural Resources, the Department of Community Development, the Department of Human Resources and the Department of Economic Affairs.
  24. ^ "Republican Party Platform of 1976". The University of California, Santa Barbara - The American Presidency Project. August 18, 1976.
  25. ^ Thrush, Glenn (November 8, 2013). "Locked in the Cabinet". Politico. Retrieved November 18, 2013.
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Further reading

  • Bennett, Anthony. The American President's Cabinet. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan, 1996. ISBN 0-333-60691-4. A study of the U.S. Cabinet from Kennedy to Clinton.
  • Grossman, Mark. Encyclopedia of the United States Cabinet (Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO; three volumes, 2000; reprint, New York: Greyhouse Publishing; two volumes, 2010). A history of the United States and Confederate States Cabinets, their secretaries, and their departments.
  • Rudalevige, Andrew. "The President and the Cabinet", in Michael Nelson, ed., The Presidency and the Political System, 8th ed. (Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2006).

External links

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