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Cabinet of the United States

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Cabinet of the United States is part of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States. The Cabinet's role, inferred from the language of the Opinion Clause (Article II, Section 2, Clause 1) of the Constitution is to serve as an advisory body to the President of the United States. Additionally, the Twenty-fifth Amendment authorizes the Vice President, together with a majority of certain members of the Cabinet, to declare the president "unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office". Among the senior officers of the Cabinet are the Vice President and the heads of the federal executive departments, all of whom—if eligible—are in the line of succession. Members of the Cabinet (except for the Vice President) serve at the pleasure of the President, who can dismiss them at will for no cause. All federal public officials, including Cabinet members, are also subject to impeachment by the House of Representatives and trial in the Senate for "treason, bribery, and other high crimes and misdemeanors".

The President can also unilaterally designate senior White House staffers, heads of other federal agencies and the Ambassador to the United Nations as members of the Cabinet, although this is a symbolic status marker and does not, apart from attending Cabinet meetings, confer any additional powers.

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Transcription

Hi, I'm Craig, and this is Crash Course Government and Politics and today we're gonna talk about government. I know what you're thinking, 'Craig we're been talking about government for thirteen weeks'. To that I say, you got me, but let's talk about actual governing, in particular the executive branch tools and strategies that the president uses to try to get things done. I mean, the president's just one person, for now - who knows what sort of animal-human hybrid will be president in the future - but there's a lot of presidenting to be done in the United States So we usually just talk about the president as if he's the entire executive branch, but obviously there's more to it than that, Technically, the entire federal bureaucracy is part of the executive branch, but it's really big and complicated. For today, let's just look at the top-levels. The big-wigs. The Hank Greens. The head honchos. The ones that deal most directly with the president. Hank Green doesn't work for the Government. At the top of the organizational pyramid is the president, of course, and I suppose just below him is the vice president, ready to break a tie in the Senate, or step in if the president dies, or go to a shopping mall opening on behalf of the president. To paraphrase Truman's desk, the buck stops with the president, meaning he has the ultimate decision in important matters and therefore takes the blame when they go wrong. George W. Bush once called himself the decider, and there's a lot of truth to that description, but many, probably most, policy decisions are made at lower levels, because there are just too many of them for the president to make them all. The president is served directly by the White House Staff, which is made up mostly of trusted policy and political advisors called "special assistants" Special assistant, I need more coffee! Other than television versions, we don't see much of the White House staff, except for the press secretary, who's the public spokesperson for the president, and maybe the Chief of Staff can be a public figure as well. Next in terms of proximity to the president and influence on his decisions is the Executive Office of the President. It's staffed by various advisers and policy experts. They're selected by the president and his office rather than by rising through the ranks of government employment, or they're chosen for political reasons like many cabinet secretaries. The officials in the EOP give important advice to the president on specified topics. Although there are a lot of different departments in the EOP, probably the most important are the National Security Council, the Council of Economic Advisors, and the Office of Management and Budget, the OMB. The Cabinet used to be very important in advising the president, and still can be, but that depends on the president. Some presidents rely a lot on the heads of Cabinet departments, and usually the Secretary of State and the Secratary of Defence play a significant role in the administration, especially if there's a lot of foreign policy issues to deal with The Cabinet secretaries tend to become prominent when bad things happen. For example in the wake of the 2008 financial crisis, the Treasury Secretary was in the news a lot. You sometimes hear a lot about the Attorney General, who heads the Justice Department when civil rights issues crop up, like same-sex marriage or affirmative action. And if there's a terrorist threat, you might be seeing a lot more of the Secretary of Homeland Security There are also independent agencies and government corporations, which, historically speaking are relatively new, with the exception of the postal service. The postal service is one of the oldest functioning government agencies, although it's now a government corporation, which means it's supposed to earn money and be self-funding. My fiancee's dad worked for the postal service so...postal workers are awesome, sir. Sadly, the postal office isn't doing that great financially, so buy a stamp once in a while! Send a letter to an old friend or something. How else are you going to send it without the post office? The Eagle? No. Amtrak is the other well-known government corporation and it isn't profitable either. How else are you gonna get around? The eagle isn't big enough to take you. Unless you're Gandalf. Independent agencies and regulatory commissions appear in the news a lot, usually in stories buried in the back pages, or whatever the digital equivalent of the back pages are. Your uncle's blog? But they're rarely called independent agencies. NASA's probably the best known independent agency, because everyone knows space travel is awesome. Watch Crash Course Astronomy as well as Sci Show Space. But for now keep watching Government and Politics, thanks. But other more down-to-earth agencies include the Federal Trade Commission, the Securities and Exchange Commission, and the Federal Communications Commission. It's easy to remember those three are regulatory commissions, because they have the word 'commission' built right in, so that's helpful. And for most of us, even if we don't realize it, the most important independent federal agency is the Federal Reserve System, which manages banking and monetary policy, and which will get its own episode later, because it's really important and kind of mysterious. Will I get my own episode later? How Craig relates to the government? I'm kind of mysterious. So that's the structure of the executive branch, more or less. These agencies are the tools that the government has to make policy and to implement it. They are the heart and soul of actual governing but they aren't all that fun, especially when you look at what strategies the president uses to actually govern. Political scientists will tell you, and I'm not gonna argue with them, they're scientists, they went to college, that the president has three main strategies at his disposal: Party leadership, mobilizing public opinion, and administrative strategies. One of these is much more important than the other two. Which one is it, can you guess? Which one? It's not party leadership, but the president is the leader of his political party and can use it to create and manage policy, especially in Congress, where party matters a lot. The president usually appoints members of his own party to head agencies. And once appointed, party affiliation doesn't matter much to an agency head, because he's not running for office. Control of the party makes it easier for the president to get choices through congress though. This strategy doesn't work when there's divided government, but when one party controls both chambers of Congress and the White House, it's easier for the president to use his position as party leader as leverage to accomplish his policy goals When they're in different parties? Not so much. Hoo, it's more like this. That was my third eagle punch of the video. Mobilizing public opinion is also not the most important tool in the president's toolbox, but going public is what I'm going to talk about right now. The president's access to the media is almost limitless. Now that doesn't mean he gets free Netflix, although he might, especially if he just shares a log-in with the vice president or something. But, if he wants a press conference, or a speech on national TV, he gets it. This use of the media is sometimes called the bully pulpit, and it sounds like a big policy stick, but it has a downside. Basically, it's not really gonna work if the president isn't popular, and his approval rating almost always declines the longer he is in office This leaves us the third tool that the president can use to get things done, administrative strategy. Yes, that's the most important one, using administrative agencies to make and carry out policies. Hoo-hah, yeah! Let's go to the Thought Bubble. There are a number of ways that the president can use his administrative offices to bring about the objectives he wants. Over time the president has expanded the size and capacities of the executive office of the president, especially since the New Deal. This enlarged EOP gathers information about policies, plans programs, communicates with constituents, including Congress and interest groups and it can supervise other agencies and check up on how they're working. One of the most important examples of this is the expanded reach of the office of management and budget, or OMB, to plan the budget and exercise huge influence over how government money is spent. Another administrative strategy that the president can use is regulatory review. Federal agencies are usually required to make rules for how they operate. The president's office can review these rules, make suggestions, or even order agencies to adopt certain rules. This can have enormous direct and indirect influence over how the rule is implemented. To give an example, president Bill Clinton ordered the FDA to make rules so that tobacco companies couldn't advertise to children, so you don't see cigarette ads on kids' TV, or any TV actually, and that's why teenagers never smoke, ever. They just ride their heelies around and play Pokenan. The president can also try to influence the way a law is implemented by issuing a signing statement when he signs a bill into law. This is the White House's interpretation of what the law means and they become a part of the legislative history that courts can use if the laws are challenged, although it's not clear that they have any real legal weight, and they might violate separation of powers because courts are supposed to decide what a law means, not the president. The most important administrative strategy that the president has at his disposal is the executive order. These are presidential directives that have the force of law and presidents have used them for major policies that would have been difficult to get through Congress. Thanks, Thought Bubble. When I say that executive action has been used to push through major policies, I mean MAJOR policies, like purchasing Louisiana, annexing Texas, emancipating the slaves, interning Japanese Americans during WWII, desegregating the army, creating the peace corps, and implementing affirmative action. Presidents increasingly rely on administrative strategies for a number of reasons, but especially because they work. Administrative strategies usually happen outside of the public eye, which makes it easier for the president to act Courts usually defer to administrative actions, especially in the area of national defense. And administrative action can be much more efficient than having to wait for a majority of 535 members of Congress to agree on something, especially if it's something important. But the increasingly large and powerful executive branch is controversial, and critics have worried about the growing power of the president since FDR, or maybe even since Jackson. There's an argument that the founders of the country preferred a weak executive branch, and not because all that administration is expensive, but there are also a few arguments in favor of an expanded presidency that you should know about. The first is that in emergencies the nation needs a leader who can act fast, and the president is the best suited to be that leader. Maybe Captain America as well, but he's fictional. Of course this could potentially give him an incentive to create emergencies and further increase his power, but how about let's not get cynical, ok? The second argument holds that the president is more able to act in the public interest because he's the center of public attention and thus easily held accountable, and because he only has to run for re-election once. The third argument in favor of a powerful president is that he is the only nationally elected official and thus the most democratic one. The only nationally elected official? Really? What about errrr....oh yeah, you're right. The idea is that since most people pay attention to the presidential elections by choosing one person over another, the majority of the public is implicitly endorsing his policies. I mean, everyone loves the president's policies. Everyone. Do you buy it? I'm not sure that I do. Maybe you do. But, increasing the complexity of our understanding is kind of what we do here at Crash Course. Thanks for watching, I'll see you next time. Crash Course Government and Politics is produced in association with PBS Digital Studios. Support for Crash Course US Government comes from Voqal. Voqal supports non-profits that use technology and media to advance social equity. Learn more about their mission and initiatives at voqal.org Crash Course was made with the help of these presidents of the United States. Thanks for watching.

Contents

History

The tradition of the Cabinet arose out of the debates at the 1787 Constitutional Convention regarding whether the president would exercise executive authority singly or collaboratively with a cabinet of ministers or a privy council. As a result of the debates, the Constitution (Article II, Section 1, Clause 1) vests "all executive power" in the president singly, and authorizes—but does not compel—the president (Article II, Section 2, Clause 1) to "require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices".[1][2] The Constitution does not specify what the executive departments will be, how many there will be, or what their duties should be.

George Washington, the first U.S. President, organized his principal officers into a Cabinet, and it has been part of the executive branch structure ever since. Washington's Cabinet consisted of five members: himself, Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of War Henry Knox and Attorney General Edmund Randolph. Vice President John Adams was not included in Washington's Cabinet because the position was initially regarded as a legislative officer (President of the Senate).[3] It was not until the 20th century that Vice Presidents were regularly included as members of the Cabinet and came to be regarded primarily as a member of the executive branch.

Presidents have used Cabinet meetings of selected principal officers but to widely differing extents and for different purposes. Secretary of State William H. Seward and then Professor Woodrow Wilson advocated use of a parliamentary-style Cabinet government. But President Abraham Lincoln rebuffed Seward, and Woodrow Wilson would have none of it in his administration. In recent administrations, Cabinets have grown to include key White House staff in addition to department and various agency heads. President Ronald Reagan formed seven subcabinet councils to review many policy issues, and subsequent Presidents have followed that practice.[2]

Federal law

In 3 U.S.C. § 302 with regard to delegation of authority by the President, it is provided that "nothing herein shall be deemed to require express authorization in any case in which such an official would be presumed in law to have acted by authority or direction of the President." This pertains directly to the heads of the executive departments as each of their offices is created and specified by statutory law (hence the presumption) and thus gives them the authority to act for the President within their areas of responsibility without any specific delegation.

Under the 1967 Federal Anti-Nepotism statute, federal officials are prohibited from appointing their immediate family members to certain governmental positions, including those in the Cabinet.[4]

Under the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, an incoming administration may appoint acting heads of department from employees of the relevant department. These may be existing high-level career employees, from political appointees of the outgoing administration, or sometimes lower-level appointees of the incoming administration.[5]

Confirmation process

The heads of the executive departments and all other federal agency heads are nominated by the President and then presented to the Senate for confirmation or rejection by a simple majority (although before the use of the "nuclear option" during the 113th US Congress, they could have been blocked by filibuster, requiring cloture to be invoked by ​35 supermajority to further consideration). If approved, they receive their commission scroll, are sworn in and then begin their duties.

An elected Vice President does not require Senate confirmation, nor does the White House Chief of Staff, which is an appointed staff position of the Executive Office of the President.

Office Senate Confirmation Review Committee
Secretary of State Foreign Relations Committee
Secretary of the Treasury Finance Committee
Secretary of Defense Armed Services Committee
Attorney General Judiciary Committee
Secretary of the Interior Energy and Natural Resources Committee
Secretary of Agriculture Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Committee
Secretary of Commerce Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee
Secretary of Labor Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee
Secretary of Health and Human Services Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee (consult)
Finance Committee (official)
Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Committee
Secretary of Transportation Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee
Secretary of Energy Energy and Natural Resources Committee
Secretary of Education Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee
Secretary of Veterans Affairs Veterans Affairs Committee
Secretary of Homeland Security Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee
Trade Representative Finance Committee
Director of National Intelligence Select Committee on Intelligence
Ambassador to the United Nations Foreign Relations Committee
Office of Management and Budget Budget Committee
Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee
Director of the Central Intelligence Agency Select Committee on Intelligence
Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency Environment and Public Works Committee
Administrator of the Small Business Administration Small Business and Entrepreneurship Committee

Salary

The heads of the executive departments and most other senior federal officers at cabinet or sub-cabinet level receive their salary under a fixed five level pay plan known as the Executive Schedule, which is codified in Title 5 of the United States Code. 21 positions, including the heads of the executive departments and others, receiving Level I pay are listed in 5 U.S.C. § 5312, and those 46 positions on Level II pay (including the number two positions of the executive departments) are listed in 5 U.S.C. § 5313. As of January 2016, the Level I annual pay was set at $205,700.[6]

The annual salary of the Vice President is $235,300.[6] The salary level was set by the Government Salary Reform Act of 1989, which also provides an automatic cost of living adjustment for federal employees. The Vice President does not automatically receive a pension based on that office, but instead receives the same pension as other members of Congress based on his ex officio position as President of the Senate.[7]

Current Cabinet and Cabinet-rank officials

The individuals listed below were nominated by President Donald Trump to form his Cabinet and were confirmed by the United States Senate on the date noted, or are serving as acting department heads by his request pending the confirmation of his nominees. For a full list of people nominated for Cabinet positions, see Formation of Donald Trump's Cabinet.

Vice President and the Heads of the Executive Departments

The Cabinet includes the Vice President and the heads of 15 executive departments, listed here according to their order of succession to the Presidency. These 15 positions are the core "cabinet member" seats, as distinct from other Cabinet-level seats for other various top level White House staffers and heads of other government agencies, none of whom are in the presidential line of succession and not all of whom are Officers of the United States.[8] Note that the Speaker of the House and the President pro tempore of the Senate follow the Vice President and precede the Secretary of State in the order of succession, but both are in the legislative branch and are not part of the Cabinet.

Cabinet
Office
(Constituting instrument)
Incumbent Took office

Vice President
(Constitution, Art. II, Sec. I)

Mike Pence
January 20, 2017

Secretary of State
(22 U.S.C. § 2651a)

Mike Pompeo
April 26, 2018

Secretary of the Treasury
(31 U.S.C. § 301)

Steven Mnuchin
February 13, 2017

Secretary of Defense
(10 U.S.C. § 113)

James Mattis
January 20, 2017

Attorney General
(28 U.S.C. § 503)

Jeff Sessions
February 9, 2017

Secretary of the Interior
(43 U.S.C. § 1451)

Ryan Zinke
March 1, 2017

Secretary of Agriculture
(7 U.S.C. § 2202)

Sonny Perdue
April 25, 2017

Secretary of Commerce
(15 U.S.C. § 1501)

Wilbur Ross
February 28, 2017

Secretary of Labor
(29 U.S.C. § 551)

Alex Acosta
April 28, 2017

Secretary of Health and Human Services
(Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1953,
67 Stat. 631 and 42 U.S.C. § 3501)

Alex Azar
January 29, 2018

Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
(42 U.S.C. § 3532)

Ben Carson
March 2, 2017

Secretary of Transportation
(49 U.S.C. § 102)

Elaine Chao
January 31, 2017

Secretary of Energy
(42 U.S.C. § 7131)

Rick Perry
March 2, 2017

Secretary of Education
(20 U.S.C. § 3411)

Betsy DeVos
February 7, 2017

Secretary of Veterans Affairs
(38 U.S.C. § 303)

Robert Wilkie
July 30, 2018

Secretary of Homeland Security
(6 U.S.C. § 112)

Kirstjen Nielsen
December 6, 2017

Cabinet-level officials

The following officials hold positions that are considered to be Cabinet-level positions. Cabinet-level officials attend Cabinet meetings, but are not official Cabinet Members:

Cabinet-level Officials
Office Incumbent Term began

White House Chief of Staff
(Pub.L. 76–19, 53 Stat. 561, enacted April 3, 1939,
Executive Order 8248, Executive Order 10452,
Executive Order 12608)

John F. Kelly
July 31, 2017

Trade Representative
(19 U.S.C. § 2171)

Robert Lighthizer
May 15, 2017

Director of National Intelligence[9][10]
(50 U.S.C. § 3023)

Dan Coats
March 16, 2017

Ambassador to the United Nations
(22 U.S.C. § 287, Executive Order 9844, Executive Order 10108)

Nikki Haley
January 27, 2017

Director of the Office of Management and Budget
(31 U.S.C. § 502, Executive Order 11541,
Executive Order 11609, Executive Order 11717)

Mick Mulvaney
February 16, 2017

Director of the Central Intelligence Agency[9]
(50 U.S.C. § 3036)

Gina Haspel
April 26, 2018

Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency
(5 U.S.C. § 906, Executive Order 11735)

Andrew Wheeler (acting)
July 9, 2018

Administrator of the Small Business Administration
(15 U.S.C. § 633)

Linda McMahon
February 14, 2017

Former executive and Cabinet-level departments

Renamed heads of the executive departments

Other positions no longer of Cabinet rank

Proposed Cabinet departments

  • "Department of Industry and Commerce", proposed by Secretary of the Treasury William Windom in a speech given at a Chamber of Commerce dinner in May 1881.[21]
  • "Department of Natural Resources", proposed by the Eisenhower administration,[22] President Richard Nixon,[23] the 1976 GOP national platform,[24] and by Bill Daley (as a consolidation of the Departments of the Interior and Energy, and the Environmental Protection Agency).[25]
  • "Department of Peace", proposed by Senator Matthew Neely in the 1930s, Congressman Dennis Kucinich, and other members of the U.S. Congress.[26][27]
  • "Department of Social Welfare", proposed by President Franklin Roosevelt in January 1937.[28]
  • "Department of Public Works", proposed by President Franklin Roosevelt in January 1937.[28]
  • "Department of Conservation" (renamed Department of Interior) proposed by President Franklin Roosevelt in January 1937.[28]
  • "Department of Urban Affairs and Housing", proposed by President John F. Kennedy.[29]
  • "Department of Business and Labor", proposed by President Lyndon Johnson.[30]
  • "Department of Community Development", proposed by President Richard Nixon; to be chiefly concerned with rural infrastructure development.[23][31]
  • "Department of Human Resources" proposed by President Richard Nixon; essentially a revised Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.[23]
  • "Department of Economic Affairs" proposed by President Richard Nixon; essentially a consolidation of the Departments of Commerce, Labor, and Agriculture.[32]
  • "Department of Environmental Protection", proposed by Senator Arlen Specter and others.[33]
  • "Department of Intelligence", proposed by former Director of National Intelligence Mike McConnell.[34]
  • "Department of Global Development", proposed by the Center for Global Development.[35]
  • "Department of Arts", proposed by Quincy Jones.[36]
  • "Department of Business", proposed by President Barack Obama as a consolidation of the U.S. Department of Commerce’s core business and trade functions, the Small Business Administration, the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, the Export-Import Bank, the Overseas Private Investment Corporation, and the U.S. Trade and Development Agency.[37][38]
  • "Department of Education and the Workforce" proposed by President Donald Trump as a consolidation of the Departments of Education and Labor. [39]

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Prakash, Sai. "Essays on Article II:Executive Vesting Clause". The Heritage Guide to The Constitution. The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved July 3, 2018.
  2. ^ a b Gaziano, Todd. "Essays on Article II: Opinion Clause". The Heritage Guide to The Constitution. The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved July 3, 2018.
  3. ^ http://www.mountvernon.org/library/digitalhistory/digital-encyclopedia/article/john-adams/
  4. ^ Wulwick, Richard P.; Macchiarola, Frank J. (1995). "Congressional Interference With The President's Power To Appoint" (PDF). Stetson Law Review. XXIV: 625–652.
  5. ^ Pierce, Olga (2009-01-22). "Who Runs Departments Before Heads Are Confirmed?". ProPublica. Retrieved 2017-01-20.
  6. ^ a b Obama, Barack (2014-12-19). "ADJUSTMENTS OF CERTAIN RATES OF PAY" (PDF). EXECUTIVE ORDER 13686. The White House. Retrieved 2015-09-18.
  7. ^ Purcell, Patrick J. (2005-01-21). "Retirement Benefits for Members of Congress" (PDF). CRS Report for Congress. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 2017-02-19.
  8. ^ The White House. "The Cabinet". Retrieved June 20, 2015.
  9. ^ a b "President Donald J. Trump Announces His Cabinet". White House. February 8, 2017. Retrieved February 20, 2017.
  10. ^ Demirjian, Karoun (March 15, 2017). "Coats confirmed as nation's new spy chief". Washington Post. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
  11. ^ The office of Secretary of Foreign Affairs existed under the Articles of Confederation from October 20, 1781 to March 3, 1789, the day before the Constitution came into force.
  12. ^ "President Clinton Raises FEMA Director to Cabinet Status" (Press release). Federal Emergency Management Agency. February 26, 1996. Archived from the original on January 16, 1997. Retrieved May 22, 2009.
  13. ^ Fowler, Daniel (November 19, 2008). "Emergency Managers Make It Official: They Want FEMA Out of DHS". CQ Politics. Archived from the original on November 29, 2008. Retrieved March 3, 2010. During the Clinton administration, FEMA Administrator James Lee Witt met with the Cabinet. His successor in the Bush administration, Joe M. Allbaugh, did not. (Archived March 3, 2010, by WebCite at https://www.webcitation.org/5ny13zsIv?url=http://www.cqpolitics.com/wmspage.cfm?docID%3Dhsnews-000002988269%26cpage%3D1
  14. ^ Tenet, George (2007). At the Center of the Storm. London: HarperCollins. p. 136. ISBN 0-06-114778-8. Under President Clinton, I was a Cabinet member—a legacy of John Deutch's requirement when he took the job as DCI—but my contacts with the president, while always interesting, were sporadic. I could see him as often as I wanted but was not on a regular schedule. Under President Bush, the DCI lost its Cabinet-level status.
  15. ^ Schoenfeld, Gabriel (July–August 2007). "The CIA Follies (Cont'd.)". Commentary. Retrieved May 22, 2009. Though he was to lose the Cabinet rank he had enjoyed under Clinton, he came to enjoy "extraordinary access" to the new President, who made it plain that he wanted to be briefed every day.
  16. ^ Sciolino, Elaine (September 29, 1996). "C.I.A. Chief Charts His Own Course". New York Times. Retrieved May 22, 2009. It is no secret that Mr. Deutch initially turned down the intelligence position, and was rewarded for taking it by getting Cabinet rank.
  17. ^ Clinton, Bill (July 1, 1993). "Remarks by the President and Lee Brown, Director of Office of National Drug Control Policy". White House. Retrieved May 22, 2009. We are here today to install a uniquely qualified person to lead our nation's effort in the fight against illegal drugs and what they do to our children, to our streets, and to our communities. And to do it for the first time from a position sitting in the President's Cabinet.
  18. ^ Cook, Dave (March 11, 2009). "New drug czar gets lower rank, promise of higher visibility". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved March 16, 2009. For one thing, in the Obama administration the Drug Czar will not have Cabinet status, as the job did during George W. Bush's administration.
  19. ^ "President Donald J. Trump Announces His Cabinet". whitehouse.gov. 2017-02-08. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
  20. ^ "President Trump announces his full Cabinet roster". Retrieved 2017-02-09.
  21. ^ "A Department of Commerce" (PDF). The New York Times. 1881-05-13.
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Further reading

  • Bennett, Anthony. The American President's Cabinet. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan, 1996. ISBN 0-333-60691-4. A study of the U.S. Cabinet from Kennedy to Clinton.
  • Grossman, Mark. Encyclopedia of the United States Cabinet (Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO; three volumes, 2000; reprint, New York: Greyhouse Publishing; two volumes, 2010). A history of the United States and Confederate States Cabinets, their secretaries, and their departments.
  • Rudalevige, Andrew. "The President and the Cabinet", in Michael Nelson, ed., The Presidency and the Political System, 8th ed. (Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2006).

External links

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