To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

List of federal political scandals in the United States

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article provides a list of political scandals that involve officials from the government of the United States, sorted from oldest to most recent.

Scope and organization of political scandals

This article is organized by presidential terms in order, older to recent, and then divided into scandals of the federal executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. Members of both parties are listed under the term of the president in office at the time the scandal took place, even though they may not be connected with the presiding president.

In this article, the term "politician" (a person who is professionally involved in politics) includes not only those elected, but also party officials, candidates for office, their staffs and appointees. Please note that every president directly selects, appoints or hires several thousand people. Each of them selects thousands more. Private citizens should only be mentioned when they are closely linked to the scandal or politician, such as Jack Abramoff. This list also does not include crimes that occur outside the politician's tenure (such as before or after his tenure) unless they specifically stem from acts made while in office and discovered later.

Scandal is defined as "loss of or damage to reputation caused by actual or apparent violation of morality or propriety". Scandals are separate from 'controversies', (which implies two differing points of view) and 'unpopularity'. Many decisions are controversial, many decisions are unpopular, that alone does not make them scandals. Breaking the law is a scandal. The finding of a court is the sole method used to determine a violation of law, but it is not the sole method of determining a scandal. Also included as scandals are politicians who resign, quit, run, or commit suicide while being investigated or threatened with investigation.

Notoriety is a major determinant of a scandal, that is, the amount of press dedicated to it. Misunderstandings, breaches of ethics, unproven crimes or cover-ups may or may not result in inclusion depending on the standing of the accused, the amount of publicity generated, and the seriousness of the crime, if any. Drunk driving may be a conviction, but is usually too minor and too common to mention unless there are multiple convictions and/or jail time.

Given the political nature of Congress in which the leading party has determining power, politicians who are rebuked, denounced, censured, admonished, condemned, suspended, reprimanded, found in contempt, found to have acted improperly, or used poor judgement are not included unless the scandal is exceptional or leads to expulsion or conviction.

Scandals during government under the Articles of Confederation (1777–1789)

Executive branch

Legislative branch

  • Silas Deane was accused of mismanagement and treason while ambassador to France. Intending to clear himself of the charges he died suddenly, and the charges were eventually reversed or dropped. (1777)[2]

Federal government scandals

18th century

George Washington administrations (1789–1797)

Legislative branch

John Adams administration (1797–1801)

Executive branch

  • The XYZ Affair was the French seizure of over 300 US ships and demands for bribes and apologies, led to a Quasi-War causing the US Congress to issue the famous phrase, "Millions for defense, sir, but not one cent for tribute!". Real war was averted by treaty. (1798–1800)[4]

Legislative branch

  • Matthew Lyon (Democratic-Republican KY) was the first Congressman recommended for censure for spitting on Ralph Griswold (Federalist-CT). The censure failed to pass.[5] Also found guilty of violating John Adams's Alien and Sedition Acts and sentenced to four months in jail, during which he was re-elected (1798)[6]

19th century

Thomas Jefferson administrations (1801–1809)

Executive branch

  • General James Wilkinson was appointed to be Governor of the upper Louisiana Purchase. He then conspired with Spain to get Kentucky to secede from the Union in order to allow shipping on the Mississippi to reach New Orleans. (1787–1811)[7]
  • Aaron Burr and the New Empire (Southwest) Burr conspiracy (1804–1807) – Burr allegedly tried to seize a large part of the Louisiana Purchase and establish his own country. He was arrested for treason, but was acquitted for lack of evidence. (1807)[8]
  • Aaron Burr dueled with Alexander Hamilton. Hamilton died of wounds received during the duel. (1804)[9]

Judicial branch

  • Samuel Chase, the Supreme Court Justice appointed by George Washington, was impeached for political favoritism and acquitted in 1805.[10]
  • John Pickering, a federal judge appointed by George Washington, was impeached and convicted in absentia by the US Senate for drunkenness and use of profanity on the bench in spite of the fact neither act was a high crime or misdemeanor. (1804)[11]

James Monroe administrations (1817–1825)

Legislative branch

Andrew Jackson administrations (1829–1837)

Executive branch

Legislative branch

  • Robert Potter North Carolina Congressman, resigned from Congress after castrating two men he believed were having an affair with his wife. (1831)[15] Later, in North Carolina, he was expelled from its legislature for cheating at cards or for pulling a gun and a knife during a card game. (1835)[15]

John Tyler administration (1841–1845)

Legislative branch

  • Charles F. Mitchell (R-NY) US Representative from the 33rd District, was convicted of forgery, sentenced to one year in prison and fined, though he was paroled early due to poor health.(1841)[16][17][18][19][20]

Zachary Taylor administration (1849–1850)

Executive branch

Franklin Pierce administration (1853-1857)

Legislative branch

  • US Representative and fervent advocate of slavery Preston Brooks (D-SC) beat abolitionist Senator Charles Sumner (R-MA), until his cane broke, leaving him bleeding and unconscious on the floor of the House of Representatives.(1856)[22][23][24]

James Buchanan administration (1857–1861)

Legislative branch

  • US Representative Orsamus B. Matteson (R-NY), faced an allegation of having defamed the character of the US House by declaring that a majority of its members were ‘purchasable’. He himself was then accused of accepting money in exchange for supporting a Minnesota land bill. The House recommendation that he be expelled was tabled and a recommendation of censure was brought up, but before it could be passed, Matteson resigned.(1857)[25][26]

Abraham Lincoln administration (1861–1865)

Executive branch

  • Simon Cameron (R), Lincoln's Secretary of War, resigned in 1862 due to corruption charges. His behavior was so notorious that Congressman Thaddeus Stevens, when discussing Cameron's honesty with Lincoln, told him that "I don't think that he would steal a red hot stove." When Cameron demanded Stevens retract this statement, Stevens told Lincoln "I believe I told you he would not steal a red-hot stove. I will now take that back." (1860–1862)[27]

Legislative branch

  • Senator James F. Simmons (R-RI) had confirmed corruption charges against him reported by the Senate Judiciary Committee and the charges were referred to the full Senate for action on July 14, 1862. The Senate adjourned three days later without acting. Before it could reconvene, Simmons resigned on September 5, 1862.[28][29][30]
  • US Representative Lovell Harrison Rousseau (R-KY) assaulted Iowa Representative Josiah Bushnell Grinnell on June 14, 1866, with his iron handled cane until it broke. He was reprimanded by the House of Representatives, and resigned, but was elected again to fill his own vacancy. (1866)[31][32][33][34]

Andrew Johnson administration (1865–1869)

Executive branch

Ulysses S. Grant administrations (1869–1877)

Executive branch

  1. Orville E. Babcock (R), a personal secretary to Grant, was indicted in the Whiskey Ring scandal and ten days later in the Safe Burglary Conspiracy. He was acquitted both times.[37]
  2. John J. McDonald (R), Supervisor of the Internal Revenue Service, was convicted and sentenced to three years.[37]
  3. W.O. Avery, Chief Clerk of the Treasury Department, was convicted.[37]
  4. Eastern Wisconsin Federal Attorney Levi Hubbell (R) was suspended from office for his involvement with the Whiskey Ring through contact with Milwaukee brewers. (1875)[38][39]

Legislative branch

  1. Oakes Ames (R-MA) bribed Congress with Union Pacific stock.[47]
  2. James Brooks (D-NY) also implicated; both were censured for their involvement. (1872)[48]
  3. James W. Patterson (R-NH) US Senator, was found to have given false testimony to both the House and Senate Ethics Committees, both of whom found him guilty of bribery in the Crédit Mobilier Scandal. They both recommended his expulsion from the Senate, but Patterson's term expired before such action could be taken. (1873)[49]
  • Alexander Caldwell (R-KS) US Senator, was elected to the US Senate. It was discovered that the rival candidate, Thomas Carney, dropped out of the race, admitting that he had accepted a bribe of $15,000 to leave the race allowing Caldwell to win. He was impeached and the US Senate declared that Caldwell had not been "duly and legally elected" and moved to expel him. Before a vote could be taken, Caldwell resigned (1873)[50][51]
  • John T. Deweese (R-NC) US Representative, was accused of accepting a $500 bribe for recommending a cadet be appointed to the US Naval Academy. On Feb. 28, 1870, he abruptly resigned. Two days later, the House of Representatives censured him, 170–0.(1870)[52][53][54]

Judicial branch

  • Mark Delahay (R) a U.S. District Judge of Kansas and cofounder of the Republican Party,[55] was impeached by the United States House of Representatives on February 28, 1873, for "intoxication off the bench as well as on the bench",[56] He resigned two months later. (1873)[57]
  • Richard Busteed (R) US Judge from the Northern District of Alabama, spent much of his time at home in New York though serving in Alabama. Southern sympathizers brought charges against him for non-residence, failure to hold court and improper use of his position. To avoid being removed from office, he resigned before impeachment.(1874)[58][59][60]
  • Levi Hubbell (R) US Attorney for the Eastern District of Wisconsin, accused of corruption for failing to prosecute whisky distributors who were bribing US Revenue agents. Forced to resign. (1875)[61][62][63]
  • William Story (R) Judge of the US District Court for the Western District of Arkansas appointed by Republican Ulysses S. Grant. Graft and corruption in the court became so bad that Story appeared before the House Judiciary Committee. He resigned soon after. (1874)[64][65][66]
  • Charles Taylor Sherman (R) Federal Judge of the Northern District of Ohio, was alleged to have demanded stocks in exchange for favorable rulings and threatened adverse rulings if they were not paid. He resigned before impeachment began. (1873)[66]

Rutherford B. Hayes administration (1877–1881)

Executive branch

Judicial branch

  • US District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana Judge Edward Henry Durell (R) was impeached for alleged drunkenness, corruption, and election-rigging. He resigned before trial. (1879)[69][70][71]

James A. Garfield administration (1881)

Legislative branch

Chester A. Arthur administration (1881–1885)

Executive branch

Grover Cleveland administration (1885–1889)

Legislative branch

Judicial branch

  • Edward Henry Durell (R) US Federal Judge for the Eastern District of Louisiana, was impeached for usurpation of power, drunkenness, corruption, and election-rigging. He resigned before trial. (1879)[78][79][57][66]

William McKinley administration (1897–1901)

Executive branch

  • Oregon US Federal District Attorney John Hicklin Hall (R) was appointed by Republican President William McKinley and ordered to investigate the Oregon land fraud scandal. He was accused of failing to prosecute land companies engaging in fraudulent activities, and blackmailing his political opponents. On February 8, 1908, a jury found Hall guilty. (1907)[80][81]
  • Alexander McKenzie (R) Republican National Committeeman, was appointed receiver of the Anvil Creek gold mines in Alaska. He took over production and kept the gold it produced. He was then ordered to return the gold he had collected, an order which he refused. He was found guilty of two counts of contempt of court and sentenced to one year in jail.(1901)[82][83][84][85]

Legislative branch

  • Charles Henry Dietrich (R-NE) US Senator, before he took office Dietrich was charged with bribery for accepting money to appoint Jacob Fisher to be a US Postmaster. He was charged with conspiracy to receive a bribe, accepting a bribe and profiting by the leaning of a building to the government. Before the trial could begin, the judge held that Dietrich could not be prosecuted because the alleged bribery occurred after he was elected, but before Dietrich was sworn in as a US Senator. All charges were then dropped. (1901)[86][87][88]

20th century

Theodore Roosevelt administrations (1901–1909)

Legislative branch

Judicial branch

William Howard Taft administration (1909–1913)

Legislative branch

  • William Lorimer (R-IL) US Senator, also known as the "blond boss of Chicago", was expelled from the U.S. Senate in 1912 for accepting bribes.[93]
  • Ralph Cameron (R-AZ) US Senator, attempted to control access to the Grand Canyon by buying mining rights to adjacent lands. (1912)[94]
  • William Forte Willett Jr. (D-NY), US Representative, was indicted on charges of bribery for paying State Democratic Party leaders for a seat on the NY State Supreme Court. He was convicted of conspiracy, corrupt practices and bribery and served 14 months in prison (1912)[95][96][97]

Judicial branch

  • Pennsylvania U.S. Commerce Court Judge Robert Archbald (R) was involved for corrupt alliances with coal mine workers and railroad officials. He was convicted and removed from office. (1912)[98]
  • Cornelius Hanford (R) US District Judge for the Western District of Washington, resigned under threat of impeachment for corruption. (1912)[99]

Woodrow Wilson administrations (1913–1921)

Executive branch

Judicial

Warren G. Harding administration (1921–1923)

Executive branch

  • President Warren G. Harding's (R-OH) administration was marred by scandals stemming from men in his administration who followed him from Ohio, who came to be known as the Ohio Gang.[103] They include;
  1. Albert Fall, Secretary of the Interior, was bribed by Harry F. Sinclair for control of the Teapot Dome federal oil reserves in Wyoming. He was the first U.S. cabinet member to ever be convicted; he served two years in prison. (1922)[104]
  2. Edwin C. Denby, Secretary of the Navy, resigned for his part in the Teapot Dome oil reserve scandal.[105]
  3. Attorney General Harry M. Daugherty resigned on March 28, 1924, because of an investigation about a bootlegging kickback scheme by his chief aide Jess Smith. Found not guilty. (1924)[106]
  4. Jess Smith, aide to Attorney General Daugherty, destroyed incriminating papers and then committed suicide.[106]
  5. Charles R. Forbes was appointed by Harding as the first director of the new Bureau of Veterans Affairs. After constructing and modernizing VA hospitals, he was convicted of bribery and corruption and sentenced to two years in jail.[107]
  6. Charles Cramer, Forbes's general counsel, committed suicide. (1923)[108]
  7. Thomas W. Miller, Head of the Office of Alien Property, was convicted of fraud by selling valuable German patents seized after World War I for far below market price as well as bribery. Served 18 months.[109]

Legislative branch

  • Thomas L. Blanton (D-TX) was censured for inserting obscene material into the congressional record. According to Franklin Wheeler Mondell (R-WY) the letter was said to contain language that was "unspeakable, vile, foul, filthy, profane, blasphemous and obscene". A motion to expel him failed by 8 votes. (1921)[110]
  • Truman Handy Newberry (R-MI) US Senator, was convicted of election irregularities, but the case was overturned by the US Supreme Court. However, due to continued opposition and a senate condemnation vote claiming that $3,750 was too much to spend on an election[111][112] against automaker Henry Ford, he resigned. (1921)[112]

Judicial

  • Francis Asbury Winslow (R) Judge of the US District Court for the Southern District of New York. appointed by Warren G. Harding (R). Following calls for an investigation by Fiorella H. La Guardia into recent bankruptcy decisions and his choice of court-appointed receivers, Winslow was found to have committed "serious indiscretions." He then resigned. (1929)[66][113][114]

Calvin Coolidge administrations (1923–1929)

Executive

  • US Alien Property Custodian Thomas B. Miller (R) was convicted of conspiring to defraud the US government and served 18 months in prison. (1927)[115][116]
  • Frederick A. Fenning (R), District of Columbia Commissioner appointed by Calvin Coolidge, was investigated and accused of practices illegal and contrary to law. He resigned before trial. (1927)[117][118]

Legislative

  • John W. Langley (R-KY) resigned from the US Congress in January 1926, after losing an appeal to set aside his conviction of violating the Volstead Act (Prohibition). He had also been caught trying to bribe a Prohibition officer. He was sentenced to two years after which, his wife ran for Congress in his place and won two full terms.[119][120]
  • William Scott Vare (R-PA) US Senator, was unseated on December 6, 1929, due to charges of corruption and fraud during his election.[121]
  • Frank L. Smith (R), Head of the Illinois Commerce Commission, was appointed to be US Senator by IL Governor Len Small (R), but was rejected by the US Senate for alleged "fraud and corruption". (1927)[122][123]

Judicial

  • George English (D) U.S. District Judge for Illinois was impeached for taking an interest-free loan from a bank of which he was director as well as misbehavior and manipulation. Resigned before his Senate trial. (1924)[124][125][126]

Herbert Hoover administration (1929–1933)

Legislative branch

  • Senator Hiram Bingham (R-CT) was censured for hiring a lobbyist employed by a manufacturing organization to work on his staff. (1929)[127]
  • Harry E. Rowbottom (R-IN) was convicted in federal court of accepting bribes from persons who sought post office appointments. He was given one year in Leavenworth.[128]
  • George E. Foulkes (D-MI) US Rep, was found guilty of conspiracy and bribery and sentenced to 18 months in prison and fined $1,000 (1934)[129]

Franklin Delano Roosevelt administrations (1933–1945)

Executive branch

Legislative branch

Judicial branch

  • Joseph Buffington (R) US Judge of the 3rd Circuit, appointed by Theodore Roosevelt (R). Investigation by the US House revealed that at the age of 92, Buffington was both deaf and blind and it was suspected that all of his decision were being written and sold by another judge. He resigned before impeachment.(1935)[66]
  • Halsted L. Ritter (R) Judge of the US District Court for the Southern District of Florida appointed by Calvin Coolidge (R). Was accused of taking kickbacks on bankruptcy cases and not reporting them on his taxes. Though he was found not guilty of six separate charges, he was found guilty on the seventh count charging ‘general misbehavior’ and bringing the judiciary into disrepute (accepting free meals and lodging during receivership proceedings). He was impeached and removed from office. (1936)[141][142][143][144][66][145]
  • Martin Thomas Manton (D) US District Court Judge for the Southern District of New York, was investigated for judicial corruption and bribery which resulted in prosecution and a two-year prison term. (1939)[146]
  • Edwin Stark Thomas (D) U.S. District Judge for Connecticut, during a grand jury investigation of official misconduct and his financial affairs, he resigned. (1939)[147][148][66]
  • John Warren Davis (D) Judge of the US Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, appointed by Woodrow Wilson, was investigated for accepting a bribe from film mogul William Fox. Further investigation revealed Davis was routinely accepting bribes for decisions signed by fellow Judge Joseph Buffington (R) who was senile. When Fox was found guilty, Davis resigned two weeks later. (1939)[149][66]
  • Albert Williams Johnson (R) US Judge of the Middle District of Pennsylvania, appointed by Calvin Coolidge (R), was under investigation by a US House Judiciary Committee. In unusual language, they found he was a "wicked, evil and mendacious judge." The report of the subcommittee also said that almost "every litigant who had the misfortune to appear before this wicked and malicious judge became the immediate object of a crooked conspiracy whose sole interest was the amount of money that could be extorted from him for justice or the evasion of justice." Johnson resigned before impeachment (1945)[66]

Harry S. Truman administrations (1945–1953)

Executive branch

Legislative branch

  • Walter E. Brehm (R-OH) was convicted of accepting contributions illegally from one of his employees. He received a 15-month suspended sentence and a $5,000 fine.[citation needed]
  • J. Parnell Thomas (R-NJ), a member of the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC), was convicted of salary fraud in a kickback scheme and given an 18-month sentence and fined $10,000, resigning from Congress in 1950. He was imprisoned in Danbury Prison with two of the Hollywood Ten he had helped put there. He was pardoned by President Harry Truman (D) in 1952.[152][153]
  • Andrew J. May (D-KY) was convicted of accepting bribes in 1947 from a war munitions manufacturer. He was sentenced to nine months in prison, after which he was pardoned by Truman (D) in 1952.[154]
  • James Michael Curley (D-MA) was sentenced to 6–18 months on mail fraud and spent five months in prison before his sentence was commuted by President Truman. (1947)[155]
  • H. Styles Bridges (R-NH) US Senator, during the Lavender Scare of the 1950s, Bridges threatened to expose the son of US Senator Lester Hunt’s (D-WY) as a homosexual unless Hunt immediately resigned from the Senate, thus giving Republicans the majority. Hunt refused, but did not seek re-election and then shot himself. (1954)[156][157][158]

Dwight D. Eisenhower administrations (1953–1961)

Executive branch

  • Vice presidential candidate Richard Nixon (R) delivered the "Checkers speech" to deflect scandal about $18,000 in gifts, maintaining the only personal gift he had received was a dog. (1952)[159]
  • Chief of Staff (Llewelyn) Sherman A. Adams (R) was cited for Contempt of Congress and forced to resign because he refused to answer questions about an oriental rug and vicuna coat given to his wife. (1958)[160]
  • John C. Doerfer (R), the appointed Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission by President Eisenhower, spent a week-long Florida vacation in 1960 on the yacht owned by his friend George B. Storer, president of Storer Broadcasting; as a result, he was accused of conflict of interest and forced to resign.[161][162]

Legislative branch

  • McCarthyism – A broad political and cultural purge was started against people suspected of sympathy with communism, starting near the end of World War II and reaching its climax in the investigations of Republican Sen. Joseph McCarthy. The Senate passed a resolution of condemnation against McCarthy in 1954 after an embarrassing investigation of the United States Army, ending his career, but anti-communist purges continued for several years.[163][164] (He died in 1957 before his Senate seat could come up for election.)
  • Thomas J. Lane (D-MA) was convicted for evading taxes on his congressional income. He served four months in prison, but was re-elected three more times[165] before his 1962 defeat due to re-districting. (1956)[166]
  • Ernest K. Bramblett (R-CA) received a suspended sentence and a $5,000 fine in 1955 for making false statements in connection with payroll padding and kickbacks from congressional employees.[167]
  • Douglas R. Stringfellow (R-UT) abandoned his 1954 re-election bid after admitting to embellishing his war record. Stringfellow falsely claimed to have been awarded a Silver Star and feigned paraplegia.[168]

John F. Kennedy administration (1961–1963)

Legislative branch

  • Thomas F. Johnson (D-MD) was indicted on charges of members of Maryland's S&L industry bribing him and lost his seat in 1962. Later was convicted of conspiracy and conflict of interest in 1968, served 3½ months of a 6-month sentence and was fined $5,000.[169]
  • Frank W. Boykin (D-AL) was placed on six months' probation in 1963 following conviction in a case involving a conflict of interest and conspiracy to defraud the government. His prison sentence was suspended on age and health grounds and was fined $40,000 total. He was pardoned by President Lyndon Johnson in 1965.[170][171]

Lyndon B. Johnson administrations (1963–1969)

Executive branch

  • Bobby Baker, (D) Secretary to the Majority Leader of the Senate Lyndon B. Johnson (the vice-president then serving), resigned after charges of corruption (1963) and convicted of tax evasion (1967)[172]

Legislative branch

Judicial branch

  • U.S. Supreme Court Justice Abe Fortas (D) resigned when he was discovered to be a paid consultant to a convicted criminal. No charges were ever filed. (1969)[179][66]

Richard M. Nixon administrations (1969–1974)

Executive branch

  • Vice President Spiro Agnew (R-MD) was convicted of tax fraud stemming from bribery charges in Maryland and forced to resign.[180] Gerald R. Ford (R-MI) was nominated by Nixon to replace Agnew as vice president, becoming the first person appointed to the Vice Presidency under the terms of the 25th Amendment.
  • Bebe Rebozo (R) [181] was investigated for accepting large contributions to Nixon's campaign. No charges were filed. (1973)[182]
  • Watergate (1972–1974) – President Richard Nixon (R) ordered the cover up of the burglary and 'bugging' of the Democratic Party National Headquarters at the Watergate complex. The cover up by Nixon and his staff resulted in 69 government officials being charged and 48 being convicted or pleading guilty. Eventually, Nixon resigned his office rather than face impeachment.[183] Those involved include:
  1. John N. Mitchell (R) Attorney General of the United States, was convicted of perjury and served nineteen months of a one- to four-year sentence.[184]
  2. Richard Kleindienst (R) Attorney General that replaced Mitchell, was convicted of "refusing to answer questions" given one month in jail.[185]
  3. Jeb Stuart Magruder (R) Head of Committee to Re-elect the President, pleaded guilty to one count of conspiracy, August 1973[186]
  4. Frederick C. LaRue (R) Advisor to John Mitchell, was convicted of obstruction of justice.[186]
  5. H. R. Haldeman (R) CoS for Nixon, was convicted of conspiracy, obstruction of justice, and perjury.[187]
  6. John Ehrlichman (R) Counsel to Nixon, was convicted of conspiracy, obstruction of justice, and perjury.[188]
  7. Egil Krogh (R) aide to John Ehrlichman, was sentenced to six years.[186][189][190]
  8. John W. Dean III (R) counsel to Nixon, was convicted for obstruction of justice.[186]
  9. Dwight L. Chapin (R) deputy assistant to Nixon, was convicted of perjury.[186]
  10. Herbert W. Kalmbach (R) personal attorney to Nixon, was convicted of illegal campaigning.[186]
  11. Charles W. Colson (R) special counsel to Nixon, was convicted for obstruction of justice.[185]
  12. Herbert L. Porter (R) aide to the Committee to Re-elect the President, was convicted of perjury.[186]
  13. G. Gordon Liddy (R) Special Investigations Group, was convicted of burglary.[186]
  • Maurice Stans (R) Secretary of Commerce, pleaded guilty to 3 counts of violating the reporting sections of the Federal Election Campaign Act and 2 counts of accepting illegal campaign contributions and was fined $5,000. (1975)[191]
  • G. Bradford Cook (R) was appointed by President Nixon to be Chairman of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. He resigned his position during the investigation into the Robert Vesco/Watergate affair during which he allegedly lied to a grand jury and was disbarred by the US Supreme Court for three years. He had served as Chairman for just 74 days. (1973)[192][193] The Washington Star reported that Cook believed he was going to be impeached, and offered to resign. The White House allowed him to do so.[194]
  • H. R. Haldeman (R) Nixon's Chief of Staff, set up a secret fund-raising enterprise, the "Townhouse Operation", designed to bypass the Republican National Committee. (1970)[195][196]
  1. Harry Shuler Dent (R) Presidential Counsel and Strategist, pleaded guilty to violations of Federal election law for his part in the illegal fundraising operation.[197]
  2. Herbert W. Kalmbach (R) Nixon's Personal Attorney, raised $3.9 million for a secret Republican slush fund.[198] He also promised an ambassador a better post in exchange for $100,000, which led to conviction and imprisonment.[199] Kalmbach pleaded guilty to violation of the Federal Corrupt Practices Act and one count of promising federal employment.[200]
  3. Jack A. Gleason (R) White House Aide, pleaded guilty to violations of Federal election law concerning an illegal fund raising operation run by the White House.[201]
  • Richard Helms Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (1966–1973), was convicted of misleading Congress concerning assassination attempts in Cuba, anti-government activities in Chile and the illegal surveillance of journalists in the US. Mr. Helms pleaded no contest.[202][203]
  • Donald Segretti (R) ran a campaign of dirty tricks for Nixon which he dubbed "ratfucking", meaning forging and distributing false documents to embarrass Democrats. Segretti pled guilty to 3 counts of distributing illegal (forged) campaign literature and was sentenced to six months in prison. (1974)[204][205]

Legislative branch

  • Senator Ted Kennedy (D-MA) drove his car into a tidal channel on Chappaquiddick Island, a small island off of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. He swam free of the flipped car but the trapped passenger, Mary Jo Kopechne, drowned. Kennedy pleaded guilty to leaving the scene of an accident and received a suspended sentence of two months.[206] (1969)
  • Cornelius Gallagher (D-NJ) pleaded guilty to tax evasion, and served two years in prison.[207]
  • J. Irving Whalley (R-PA) received suspended three-year sentence and fined $11,000 in 1973 for using mails to deposit staff salary kickbacks and threatening an employee to prevent her from giving information to the FBI.[208]
  • Martin B. McKneally (R-NY) was placed on one year's probation and fined $5,000 in 1971 for failing to file income tax return. He had not paid taxes for many years prior.[209]
  • Richard T. Hanna (D-CA) was convicted in an influence-buying scandal. (1974)[210]
  • Edwin Reinecke (R-CA) was convicted of perjury and sentenced to 18 months in prison as part of the Watergate investigation. He resigned one day before his sentencing, which was overturned on appeal because "the Senate Judiciary Committee before which he was accused of perjuring himself had failed to publish its rule permitting a one-man quorum."[211][212]
  • US Representative William Oswald Mills (R-MD) had received an undisclosed $25,000 gift from the Finance Committee of President Richard Nixon's re-election campaign (CREEP), which was part of $900,000 in unaccounted donations made by that committee in May 1973. Five days later, he committed suicide. (1973)[213][214][215]
  • US Representative George V. Hansen (R-ID) was the first member of Congress to be convicted of violating a new 1971 campaign law requiring disclosure of financial contributions. (1974)[216][217]
  • James R. Jones (D-OK) US Representative, plead guilty to a federal misdemeanor charge that he had failed to report a $200 campaign contribution. He was fined $200. (1972)[218]

Judicial branch

"Even if he were mediocre, there are a lot of mediocre judges and people and lawyers. They are entitled to a little representation, aren't they, and a little chance? We can't have all Brandeises, Frankfurters and Cardozos."[220][221]

  • Herbert Allan Fogel (R) US Judge of Eastern District of PA (1973–1978) resigned after investigations of a government contract started, during which he was forced to invoke the 5th Amendment multiple times. (1978)[66][222]

Gerald Ford administration (1974–1977)

Executive branch

  • Secretary of Agriculture Earl Butz (R) was asked privately why the party of Lincoln was not able to attract more blacks. Butz replied: "I'll tell you what the coloreds want. It's three things: first, a tight pussy; second, loose shoes; and third, a warm place to shit." Butz resigned soon afterwards on October 4, 1976.[223]

Legislative branch

  • Congressman Andrew J. Hinshaw (R-CA) was convicted of accepting bribes while Assessor of Orange County. He served one year in prison. (1977)[224]
  • Wayne L. Hays (D-OH) resigned from Congress after hiring and promoting his mistress, Elizabeth Ray. (1976)[225]
  • Frank Horton (R-NY) pleaded guilty to a DWI (arrested at 105 mph with two women; neither were his wife) and was sentenced to 11 days in jail. (1976)[226][92]
  • James F. Hastings (R-NY) was convicted of taking kickbacks from his staff and mail fraud. He took the money from his employees and used it to buy cars, boats, school tuition and retirement. Served 14 months at Allenwood penitentiary. (1976)[178]
  • Richard Alvin Tonry (D-LA) US Representative from the 1st District, pled guilty to illegal contributions and ballot box stuffing. He served four months in Congress and six months in jail. (1976)[227][228][229]
  • James R. Jones (D-OK) US Rep, plead guilty to a federal misdemeanor charge that he had failed to report a 1972 campaign contribution from Gulf Oil. (1976)[218]
  • John V. Dowdy (D-TX) served 6 months in prison for perjury. (1973)[230]
  • Bertram L. Podell (D-NY) pleaded guilty to conspiracy and conflict of interest. He was fined $5,000 and served four months in prison. (1974)[231]
  • Frank Brasco (D-NY) was sentenced to three months in jail and fined $10,000 for conspiracy to accept bribes from a reputed Mafia figure who sought truck leasing contracts from the Post Office and loans to buy trucks.[208]
  • Frank Clark (D-PA) paid congressional salaries to 13 Pennsylvania residents who performed no official duties.[208]
  • Wilbur Mills (D-AR) stepped down as Chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee after his affair with Argentinian stripper Fanne Fox was made public in 1974.[232]

Judicial branch

  • Otto Kerner Jr. (D), US Judge of the 7th Circuit Court and former Illinois Governor, was indicted on charges of conspiracy, bribery, mail fraud, and income tax evasion related to accepting stock shares from a racing company and lying about it. He was convicted and resigned his position. (1974)[66][233]

James E. Carter administration (1977–1981)

Executive branch

Legislative branch

  • Daniel J. Flood (D-PA) was censured for bribery during the 96th United States Congress. The allegations led to his resignation on January 31, 1980.[235]
  • US Representative J. Herbert Burke (R-FL) pleaded guilty to disorderly intoxication and resisting arrest, and nolo contendere to an additional charge of witness tampering. He was sentenced to three months plus fines. (1978)[236]
  • US Representative Robert E. Bauman (R-MD) was charged with soliciting sex from a teenage boy in gay bar. After counseling, the charges were dropped, but he lost his next two elections. (1980)[237][238]
  • Fred Richmond (D-NY) received charges of soliciting sex from a 16-year-old boy were dropped after he submitted to counseling. (1978)[239]
  • Charles Diggs (D-MI) was convicted on 29 charges of mail fraud and filing false payroll forms which formed a kickback scheme with his staff. Sentenced to 3 years (1978)[240]
  • Senator Herman Talmadge (D-GA) was denounced by the Senate for "improper financial conduct" on October 11, 1979. He failed to be re-elected.[241]
  • Michael Myers (D-PA) received suspended six-month jail term after pleading no contest to disorderly conduct charged stemming from an incident at a Virginia bar in which he allegedly attacked a hotel security guard and a cashier.[242]
  • Charles H. Wilson (D-CA) was censured after he converted $25,000 in campaign funds to his own use and accepted $10,500 from a man with a direct interest in legislation before Congress. This was a later non-Park incident.[243]
  • John Connally (R-TX) was accused of accepting a $10,000 bribe (Milk Money scandal). He was acquitted. (1975)[244]
  • Richard Tonry (D-LA) pleaded guilty to receiving illegal campaign contributions.[245]
  • Koreagate scandal involving alleged bribery of more than 30 members of Congress by the South Korean government represented by Tongsun Park. Several other Koreans and Congressmen were allegedly involved, but not charged or reprimanded.[246] The most notable are:
  1. Richard T. Hanna (D-CA) pleaded guilty[247] and sentenced to 6–30 months in federal prison.[248] Wound up serving a year in prison.[249]
  2. John J. McFall, Edward Roybal, and Charles H. Wilson, all (D-CA), were involved. Roybal was censured and Wilson was reprimanded,[250] while McFall was reprimanded,[251]

Judicial

  • Herbert Allan Fogel (R) Federal Judge of the Eastern Federal District of Pennsylvania (1973–1978), and nominated by Richard M. Nixon, resigned after investigation of a government contract in which he was forced to invoke the 5th Amendment. (1978)[66][252]
  • Jack T. Camp (R) Federal Judge, Northern District of GA, appointed by Ronald Reagan, guilty of trying to purchase cocaine, firearms violations, aiding a felon. Resigned. Sentenced to 30 days. (2010)[253][254]

Ronald Reagan administrations (1981–1989)

Executive branch

  • Operation Ill Wind was a three-year investigation launched in 1986 by the FBI into corruption by U.S. government and military officials, as well as private defense contractors.
  1. Melvyn Paisley, appointed Assistant Secretary of the Navy in 1981 by Republican President Ronald Reagan,[255] was found to have accepted hundreds of thousands of dollars in bribes. He pleaded guilty to bribery, resigned his office and served four years in prison.[256][257]
  2. James E. Gaines Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Navy, took over when Paisley resigned his office.[258] He was convicted of accepting an illegal gratuity, and theft and conversion of government property. He was sentenced to six months in prison.[259]
  3. Victor D. Cohen, Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force, was the 50th conviction obtained under the Ill Wind probe when he pleaded guilty to accepting bribes and conspiring to defraud the government.[260]
  • The Housing and Urban Development scandal concerned bribery by selected contractors for low income housing projects.[261][262]
  1. Samuel Pierce, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, was not charged because he made "full and public written acceptance of responsibility".[263]
  2. James G. Watt, the Secretary of Interior from 1981–1983, was charged with 25 counts of perjury and obstruction of justice, sentenced to five years' probation, fined $5,000 and 500 hours of community service[264]
  3. Deborah Gore Dean (R), Executive Assistant to Samuel Pierce (Secretary of HUD from 1981–1987, and not charged), was convicted of 12 counts of perjury, conspiracy, bribery. Sentenced to 21 months in prison. (1987)[265]
  4. Phillip D. Winn, Assistant Secretary of HUD from 1981–1982, pleaded guilty to bribery in 1994.[265]
  5. Thomas Demery, Assistant Secretary of HUD, pleaded guilty to bribery and obstruction.[265]
  6. Joseph A. Strauss, Special Assistant to the Secretary of HUD, was convicted of accepting payments to favor Puerto Rican land developers in receiving HUD funding.[266][267]
  7. Silvio D. DeBartolomeis was convicted of perjury and bribery.[265]
  • Wedtech scandal – Wedtech Corporation was convicted of bribery for Defense Department contracts.
  1. Edwin Meese (R) Attorney General resigned, but was never convicted.[268]
  2. Lyn Nofziger (R) White House Press Secretary had a conviction of lobbying that was overturned.[269]
  3. Mario Biaggi (D-NY) was sentenced to 2½ years in prison.[270]
  • Savings and loan scandal – 747 institutions failed and had to be rescued with $160,000,000,000 of taxpayer monies in connection with the Keating Five. see Legislative scandals.[271]
  • John M. Fedders (R) SEC Dir of Enforcement, in divorce testimony he admitted beating his wife and then resigned. (1985)[272][273]
  • Emanuel S. Savas, appointed by Ronald Reagan to be Assistant Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, resigned on July 8, 1983, after an internal Justice Department investigation found he had abused his office by having his Government staff work on his private book on Government time.[274][275]
  • Iran-Contra Affair (1985–1986) – In violation of an arms embargo, administration officials arranged to sell armaments to Iran in an attempt to improve relations with Iran and obtain their influence in the release of hostages held in Lebanon. Oliver North of the National Security Council then diverted proceeds from the arms sale to fund Contra rebels attempting to overthrow the left-wing government of Nicaragua, which was in direct violation of Congress' Boland Amendment.[276] Ronald Reagan appeared on TV stating there was no "arms for hostages" deal, but was later forced to admit, also on TV, that yes, there indeed had been:
  1. Caspar Weinberger (R) Secretary of Defense, was indicted on two counts of perjury and one count of obstruction of justice on June 16, 1992.[277] Weinberger received a pardon from George H. W. Bush on December 24, 1992, before he was tried.[278]
  2. William Casey (R) Director of the CIA is thought to have conceived the plan, but was stricken ill hours before he would testify. Reporter Bob Woodward records that Casey knew of and approved the plan.[279]
  3. Robert C. McFarlane National Security Adviser was convicted of withholding evidence, but after a plea bargain was given only two years' probation. Later pardoned by President George H. W. Bush[280]
  4. Elliott Abrams (R) Assistant Secretary of State, was convicted of withholding evidence, but after a plea bargain was given only two years' probation. He was later pardoned by President George H. W. Bush[281][282]
  5. Alan D. Fiers Chief of the CIA's Central American Task Force, was convicted of withholding evidence and sentenced to one year's probation. Later pardoned by President George H. W. Bush[283]
  6. Clair George Chief of Covert Ops-CIA was convicted on two charges of perjury, but was pardoned by President George H. W. Bush before sentencing.[284]
  7. Oliver North (R) Deputy Director of the National Security Council, was convicted of accepting an illegal gratuity, obstruction of a congressional inquiry, and destruction of documents, but the convictions were vacated, after the appeals court found that witnesses in his trial might have been impermissibly affected by his immunized congressional testimony.[285]
  8. Fawn Hall, Oliver North's secretary, was given immunity from prosecution on charges of conspiracy and destroying documents in exchange for her testimony.[286]
  9. John Poindexter (R) National Security Advisor, was convicted of five counts of conspiracy, obstruction of justice, perjury, defrauding the government, and the alteration and destruction of evidence. The Supreme Court overturned this ruling.[287]
  10. Duane Clarridge Ex-CIA senior official, was indicted in November 1991 on seven counts of perjury and false statements relating to a November 1985 shipment to Iran. He was pardoned before trial by President George H. W. Bush.[288][289]
  11. Richard V. Secord an ex-major general in the Air Force, who organized the Iran arms sales and Contra aid, pleaded guilty in November 1989 to making false statements to Congress. He was sentenced to two years of probation.[290][291]
  12. Albert Hakim Businessman, pleaded guilty in November 1989 to supplementing the salary of Oliver North by buying him a $13,800 fence. Hakim was given two years of probation and a $5,000 fine, while his company, Lake Resources Inc. was ordered to dissolve.[290][292]
  13. Thomas G. Clines a former intelligence official, who became an arms dealer, was convicted in September 1990 on four income tax counts, including under-reporting of income to the IRS and lying about not having foreign accounts. He was sentenced to 16 months of prison and fined $40,000.[290][293]
  14. Carl R. Channell (R) a fund-raiser for conservative causes, pleaded guilty in April 1987 to defrauding the IRS via a tax-exempt organization to fund the Contras.[294] He was sentenced to two years' probation.[290][295]
  15. Richard R. Miller associate to Carl R. Channell, pleaded guilty in May 1987 to defrauding the IRS via a tax-exempt organization led by Channell. More precisely, he pleaded guilty to lying to the IRS about the deductibility of donations to the organization. Some of the donations were used to fund the Contras.[296] Sentenced to two years of probation and 120 hours of community service.[290]
  16. Joseph F. Fernandez CIA Station Chief of Costa Rica, was indicted on five counts in 1988.[297] The case was dismissed when Attorney General Dick Thornburgh refused to declassify information needed for his defense in 1990.[298]
  • Michael Deaver (R) Deputy Chief of Staff to Ronald Reagan from 1981–1985, pleaded guilty to perjury related to lobbying activities and was sentenced to three years' probation and fined $100,000.[299]
  • Sewergate was a scandal in which funds from the EPA were selectively used for projects which would aid politicians friendly to the Reagan administration.
  1. Anne Gorsuch, the Burford Head of the EPA, cut the EPA staff by 22% and refused to turn over documents to Congress citing "executive privilege",[300] whereupon she was found in Contempt and resigned with twenty of her top employees. (1980)[301]
  2. Rita Lavelle, a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Administrator, misused "superfund" monies and was convicted of perjury. She served six months in prison, was fined $10,000 and given five years' probation.[302]
  • Louis O. Giuffrida (R), director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, was appointed in April 1981 by Ronald Reagan and resigned his position on September 1, 1985. His announcement came a day before a Congressional subcommittee was to approve a report detailing waste, fraud, and abuse at his agency.[303]
  • Fred J. Villella, Deputy Director at Federal Emergency Management Agency, had more than $70,000 in renovations made to part of a dormitory at an agency training center in Maryland for use as a residence, including an $11,000 stove, wet bar, microwave oven, fireplace and cherrywood cabinets. Villella accepted free tickets to the same Republican fund-raisers as Giuffrida and also was accused of sexually harassing a FEMA security guard he also used for private errands. He resigned in 1984. (1984)[304][305][306]
  • J. Lynn Helms was appointed head of the Federal Aviation Administration by Ronald Reagan in April 1981. He was charged by the Securities and Exchange Commission with diverting $1.2 million from an issue of tax-exempt municipal bonds to his own personal use. Mr. Helms signed an order that settled the case before trial, though he resigned his FAA post.[307][308]
  • Veterans administration Chief Bob Nimmo was appointed by President Ronald Reagan in 1981. He resigned one year later just before a General Accounting Office report criticized him for improper such use of government funds. (1982)[304][309]
  • John Fedders was appointed chief of enforcement for the Securities and Exchange Commission by President Ronald Reagan.[310] He was asked to resign his position after divorce proceedings, during which he admitted beating his wife.[311][312]
  • Peter Voss (R) was appointed to the US Postal Service Board of Governors in 1982 by President Ronald Reagan. He was sentenced to four years in federal prison and fined $11,000 for theft and accepting payoffs. He resigned his office in 1986, when he pleaded guilty.[313][314]
  • Carlos Campbell (R) Asst Sec of Commerce to the EDA, he was accused of favoritism in awarding grants and being over zealous. Before an investigation could start he resigned. (1983)[315][316]
  • Jim Petro (R), U.S. Attorney appointed by President Ronald Reagan, was dismissed and fined for tipping off an acquaintance about an ongoing Secret Service investigation. (1984)[317][318]
  • William H. Kennedy, United States Attorney in San Diego, was dismissed by President Reagan after he mentioned that the CIA was involved in a smuggling case. (1982)[319][320][321]
  • Marjory Mecklenburg (R) Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Resources used travel funds to see her son's Denver Bronco games. She resigned(1985)[322][323]
  • Guy W. Fiske (R) Deputy Secretary of Commerce, after allegations of a conflict of interest in contract negotiations with satellite communications company Comsat, resigned. (1983)[324][325][326]

Legislative branch

  • Mark Hatfield (R-OR) US Senator and US Appropriations Chairman, revealed that his wife had been paid $55,000 by Greek arms dealer Basil Tsakos, who had been lobbying for a trans-African pipeline. (1984)[327][328][329][330]
  • David Durenberger (R-MN) Senator was denounced by the Senate for unethical financial transactions (1990) and then disbarred as an attorney.[331] In 1995, he pled guilty to 5 misdemeanor counts of misuse of public funds and was given one year's probation.[332]
  • Jesse Helms (R-NC) Senator and his campaign was found guilty of "voter caging" when 125,000 postcards were sent to mainly black neighborhoods and the results used to challenge their residency and therefore their right to vote. (1990)[333]
  • Barney Frank (D-MA) US Representative, lived with convicted felon Steve Gobie, who ran a gay prostitution operation from Frank's apartment without his knowledge. Frank was admonished by Congress for using his congressional privilege to eliminate 33 parking tickets attributed to Gobie. (1987)[334]
  • Donald E. "Buz" Lukens (R-OH) was convicted of two counts of bribery and conspiracy. (1996)[335] (See also sex scandal.)
  • Anthony Lee Coelho (D-CA) resigned rather than face inquiries from both the Justice Department and the House Ethics Committee about an allegedly unethical "junk bond" deal, which netted him $6,000. He was never charged with any crime. (1989)[336]
  • Jim Wright (D-TX) US Representative and house Speaker, resigned after an ethics investigation led by Newt Gingrich alleged improper receipt of $145,000 in gifts (1989)[337]
  • Keating Five (1980–1989) The failure of Lincoln Savings and Loan led to Charles Keating donating to the campaigns of five Senators for help. Keating served 42 months in prison.[338] The five were investigated by the Senate Ethics Committee which found that:
  1. Senator Alan Cranston (D-CA) was reprimanded.[339]
  2. Senator Dennis DeConcini (D-AZ) acted improperly.[340]
  3. Senator Don Riegle (D-MI) acted improperly.[340]
  4. Senator John Glenn (D-OH) used poor judgment.[340]
  5. Senator John McCain (R-AZ) used poor judgment.[340]
  • Abscam was an FBI sting involving fake "Arabs" trying to bribe 31 congressmen. (1980)[341] The following six Congressmen were convicted:
  1. Senator Harrison A. Williams (D-NJ) was convicted on nine counts of bribery and conspiracy, and was sentenced to three years in prison.[342]
  2. Representative John Jenrette (D-SC) was sentenced to two years in prison for bribery and conspiracy.[343]
  3. Richard Kelly (R-FL) accepted $25K and then claimed he was conducting his own investigation into corruption. Served 13 months.[344]
  4. Raymond Lederer (D-PA) said that "I can give you me" after accepting $50,000. He was sentenced to three years in prison.[345]
  5. Michael Myers (D-PA) accepted $50,000, saying "... money talks and bullshit walks." He was sentenced to three years in prison and was expelled from the House.[346]
  6. Frank Thompson (D-NJ) was sentenced to three years in prison.[347]
  7. John M. Murphy (D-NY) served 20 months of a three-year sentence.[348]
  8. Also arrested were NJ State Senator Angelo Errichetti (D)[349] and members of the Philadelphia City Council.
  • Mario Biaggi (D-NY) was part of the Wedtech scandal and was convicted of obstruction of justice accepting illegal gratuities, obstruction and bribery. He was Sentenced to eight years in prison and fined $500,000.(1988)[350][351]
  • Ernie L. Konnyu (R-CA) US Representative from the 12th District, was accused of sexual harassment by several female employees and retaliating against those who complained. He was ousted by fellow republicans and lost the next primary.(1987)[352][353][354]
  • Pat Swindall (R-GA) was convicted of six counts of perjury. (1989)[355][356]
  • George V. Hansen (R-ID) was censured for failing to file out disclosure forms. He spent fifteen months in prison.[357]
  • Frederick W. Richmond (D-NY) was convicted of tax evasion and possession of marijuana. He served nine months in prison. (1982)[358]
  • Joshua Eilberg (D-PA) pleaded guilty to conflict-of-interest charges. In addition, he convinced President Jimmy Carter (D) to fire the U.S. Attorney investigating his case.[208]
  • Robert E. Bauman (R-MD) was charged with soliciting sex from a teenage boy. Counseling was ordered, but he lost his next two elections. (1980)[237][238]

Judicial branch

  • Federal District Court Judge Alcee Hastings (D-FL) was impeached by the House and convicted by the Senate of soliciting a bribe. (1989)[359]
  • Federal District Court Judge Harry Claiborne (D-NV) was impeached by the House and convicted by the Senate on two counts of tax evasion. He served over one year in prison.[360]
  • J. William Petro (R) U.S. Attorney in Ohio, was found guilty of criminal contempt of court for leaking confidential information. He was removed from office. (1985)[361]
  • Walter Nixon (D) US Judge for the Southern District of Mississippi, was accused of asking a local DA to stop prosecuting the son of a donor to Richard Nixon. He was found guilty of perjury and sentenced to five years in prison. Still a US Judge while imprisoned, he was impeached by the House and convicted by the Senate of perjury and removed from office. (1983)[66][362][363][364]
  • Robert Frederick Collins (D) US District Judge for the Eastern District of Louisiana appointed by Jimmy Carter. Collins was accused of accepting bribes from a marijuana smuggler in exchange for a lighter sentence. He was found guilty of bribery, conspiracy and obstruction of justice and sentenced to five years in prison. (1991)[365][366]

George H. W. Bush administration (1989–1993)

Executive branch

  • President George H. W. Bush (R) denied any knowledge of the Iran–Contra affair during his election campaign by saying he was "out of the loop". His own diaries of that time, though, stated "I'm one of the few people that know fully the details ..." He repeatedly refused to disclose this to investigators during the investigation and thus won the election. (1988)[367]
  • Catalina Vasquez Villalpando (R), Treasurer of the United States, pleaded guilty to obstruction of justice and tax evasion, making her the only US Treasurer ever sent to prison. (1992)[368]
  • Iran-Contra Affair pardons – On December 24, 1992, George H. W. Bush (R) granted clemency to four convicted government officials as well as Caspar Weinberger and Duane Clarridge, whose trials had not yet begun. This action prevented any further investigation into the matter.[369]
  1. Caspar Weinberger, Secretary of Defense under Ronald Reagan, pardoned before trial[370]
  2. Robert C. McFarlane, National Security Advisor to Ronald Reagan, guilty of withholding information,[370]
  3. Elliott Abrams, Assistant Secretary of State to Ronald Reagan, guilty of withholding information,[370]
  4. Clair George, CIA Chief of Covert Ops, guilty of perjury[370]
  5. Alan D. Fiers, Chief of the CIA's Central American Task Force, guilty of withholding information[370]
  6. Duane Clarridge, CIA Operations Officer, pardoned before trial[370]

Legislative branch

  • Charles "Chig" Cagle (R) District Chairman for US Representative Charles H. Taylor (R-NC) was found guilty of conspiracy to commit bank fraud and one count of conspiracy to commit money laundering concerning Taylor's Blue Ridge Saving Bank. Martin was sentenced to two years probation. (1993)[371]
  • Albert Bustamante (D-TX) was convicted of accepting bribes.(1993)[372]
  • Lawrence J. Smith (D-FL) pleaded guilty to tax fraud and lying to federal election officials[373] and served three months in jail, fined $5,000, 2 years' probation and back taxes of $40,000.(1993)[374][375]
  • Senator David Durenberger (R-MN) was denounced by the Senate for unethical financial transactions and then disbarred in 1990. He pleaded guilty to misuse of public funds and was given one year's probation and fined. (1995)[376]
  • Donald E. "Buz" Lukens (R-OH) was convicted of contributing to the delinquency of a minor for having sex with a 16-year-old girl. He was sentenced to 30 days in jail and fined $500. (1989)[377]

Judicial branch

  • Clarence Thomas (R), Supreme Court nominee, was accused of sexual harassment by eight former employees including Anita Hill, but was approved anyway.[378]
  • Walter Nixon, US Judge, was impeached by the House and convicted by the Senate for perjury on November 3, 1989.[379]
  • Robert Frederick Collins (D) Judge of the US District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana appointed by Jimmy Carter. He was charged with obstruction and accepting bribe money from a drug dealer in exchange for a lighter sentence. $17,500 in marked bills were found in his chambers. He was found guilty and sentenced to five years in prison and disbarred. (1991)[380][381][382]

Bill Clinton administrations (1993–2001)

Executive branch

  • President Bill Clinton (D) was accused by the House of Representatives and impeached for perjury and obstruction of justice for lying under oath about consensual sexual relations with a member of his staff, Monica Lewinsky. Clinton was acquitted by the Senate and remained in office for the rest of his term. Clinton subsequently was cited for contempt of court by the Arkansas Law Association and agreed to a five-year suspension.(1998)[383][384][385]
  • Ronald Blackley (D) Chief of Staff to the Secretary of Agriculture Mike Espy, was sentenced to 27 months for perjury. Secretary Espy was found not guilty.[386]
  • David Watkins (D) Director of the Office of Administration used the White House helicopter, Marine One, to fly to a nearby golf course for an afternoon game. Ostensibly to check out security issues, Watkins later admitted it was just to play golf and resigned. (1994)[387]
  • Darleen A. Druyun (D), Principal Deputy United States Under Secretary of the Air Force.[388] She pleaded guilty to inflating the price of contracts to favor her future employer, Boeing. In October 2004, she was sentenced to nine months in jail for corruption, fined $5,000, given three years of supervised release and 150 hours of community service. (2005).[389] CBS News called it "the biggest Pentagon scandal in 20 years" and said that she pleaded guilty to a felony.[390]
  • Catalina Vasquez Villalpando (R) US Treasurer, convicted of obstruction and tax evasion. She was sentenced to 4 months and fined.(1994)[391][392][393]

Legislative branch

  • Newt Gingrich (R-GA), the Speaker of the US House of Representatives, was charged $300,000 in sanctions by the majority Republican House ethics committee for an unethical book deal[394] leading to his eventual resignation from office. (1997)[395]
  • Wes Cooley (R-OR) was convicted of having lied on the 1994 voter information pamphlet about his service in the Army. He was fined and sentenced to two years' probation. (1997)[396][397]
  • Dan Burton (R-IN) US Representative and a combative critic of the Clinton/Lewinsky affair, admitted that he had fathered a child out of wedlock. (1998)[398]
  • Austin Murphy (D-PA) was convicted of engaging in voter fraud for filling out absentee ballots for members of a nursing home.[399]
  • Nicholas Mavroules (D-MA) pleaded guilty to bribery charges.[400]
  • Bob Packwood (R-OR) was accused of sexual misconduct by nineteen women. He fought the allegations, but eventually, the US Senate Ethics Committee found him guilty of a "pattern of abuse of his position of power and authority" and recommended that he be expelled from the Senate. He resigned on September 7, 1995.[401]
  • House banking scandal[402] – The House of Representatives Bank found that 450 members had overdrawn their checking accounts, but had not been penalized. Six were convicted of charges, most only tangentially related to the House Bank itself. Twenty two more of the most prolific over-drafters were singled out by the House Ethics Committee. (1992)[403]
  1. Buzz Lukens (R-OH) was convicted of bribery and conspiracy.[404]
  2. Carl C. Perkins (D-KY) pleaded guilty to a check-kiting scheme involving several financial institutions (including the House Bank).[404]
  3. Carroll Hubbard (D-KY) was convicted of illegally funneling money to his wife's 1992 campaign to succeed him in congress.[405]
  4. Mary Rose Oakar (D-OH) was charged with seven felonies, but pleaded guilty only to a misdemeanor campaign finance charge not related to the House Bank.[404]
  5. Walter Fauntroy (D-DC) was convicted of filing false disclosure forms in order to hide unauthorized income.[404]
  6. Jack Russ, House Sergeant-at-Arms, was convicted of three counts.[404]
  1. Dan Rostenkowski (D-IL) was convicted and sentenced to 18 months in prison in 1995.[407]
  2. Joe Kolter (D-PA) was convicted of one count of conspiracy[408] and sentenced to 6 months in prison.[409]
  3. Postmaster Robert V. Rota was convicted of one count of conspiracy and two counts of embezzlement.[406]
  • Jay C. Kim (R-CA) plea guilty in 1997 to accepting $230,000 in illegal foreign and corporate campaign donations, including one-third of all donations to his initial 1992 campaign for Congress after a long term running FBI Investigation in Los Angeles, CA. At the time, it was a record for campaign violations. Kim was sentenced to House arrest and fined $20,000, and subsequently lost re-election in the 1998 Republican Primary Election for the 41st Congressional District in California. (1997)[410]
  • Dana Rohrabacher (R-CA) US Representative, was found guilty of failure to properly report campaign contributions and fined. (1996)[411]
  1. Rhonda Carmony (R) Campaign Manager and wife of State Representative Dana Rohrabacher (R) was the key instigator of a Republican effort to manipulate the 67th California State District election by fostering the candidacy of decoy candidate Laurie Campbell (D) to undermine the candidacy of popular Democrat Linda Moulton-Patterson. Carmony pled guilty and was sentenced to three years of probation and 300 hours of community service and was fined. (1996)[412][413]
  2. Jack Wenpo Wu (R) Campaign Treasurer for Dana Rohrabacher (R-CA) US Representative, embezzled over $300K. He was repaying the money when he was found guilty and sentenced to 1 year and 5 years probation (2015)[414][415]
  3. Enid Greene Mickelsen (Waldholtz) (R) U.S. Representative, was found guilty on four counts of violating FEC rules and paid $100,000 in fines for campaign violations. (1994)[416]
  4. Joe Waldholtz (R) Campaign Manager and husband of Enid Greene Waldholtz (R) pled guilty to federal charges of tax, bank, and campaign fraud, embezzling and forgery(1995)[417] and then, while out on parole, was subsequently convicted of forging insurance and Veterans Affairs checks from his stepmother and his late father.[418][419]
  • Hayes Martin (R) Campaign Treasurer to US Representative Charles H. Taylor (R-NC) was found guilty of one count of conspiracy to commit bank fraud and one count of conspiracy to commit money laundering concerning Taylor's Blue Ridge Saving Bank. Martin was found guilty and sentenced to two years probation. (1993)[420]
  • Charles "Chig" Cagle (R) District Republican Party Chairman for US Representative Charles H. Taylor (R-NC) was found guilty of one count of conspiracy to commit bank fraud and one count of conspiracy to commit money laundering concerning Taylor's Blue Ridge Saving Bank. Cagle was found guilty and sentenced to two years probation. (1993)[371]
  • Bob Livingston (R-LA) US Representative from the 1st District, was calling for the impeachment of Bill Clinton when pornographer Larry Flynt accused Livingston of multiple counts of adultery. He acknowledged he had "strayed from my marriage" and resigned. (1999)[421][422][423]
  • Mel Reynolds (D-IL) US Representative from the Illinois 2nd District, was accused of sexual misconduct and obstruction of justice including sex with a minor and was found guilty. He resigned his seat and was sentenced to five years. (1994)

[424][425][426]

21st century

George W. Bush administrations (2001–2009)

Executive branch

  1. Francis J. Harvey (R) Secretary of the Army, appointed by G. W. Bush, resigned[431][432][433]
  2. Maj. Gen. George Weightman ( ) was fired for failures linked to the scandal[434][435][436][437]
  3. Lt. Gen. Kevin C. Kiley (R) appointed by G. W. Bush, was relieved of command resigned for failures linked to the scandal.[438][439]
  1. Attorney General Alberto Gonzales[458]
  2. Karl Rove, Advisor to President Bush[459]
  3. Harriet Miers, Legal Counsel to President Bush, was found in Contempt of Congress[460]
  4. Michael A. Battle, Director of Executive Office of US Attorneys in the Justice Department[461]
  5. Bradley Schlozman, Director of Executive Office of US Attorneys who replaced Battle[462]
  6. Michael Elston, Chief of Staff to Deputy Attorney General Paul McNulty[463]
  7. Paul McNulty, Deputy Attorney General to William Mercer[464]
  8. William W. Mercer, Associate Attorney General to Alberto Gonzales[465]
  9. Kyle Sampson, Chief of Staff to Attorney General Alberto Gonzales[461]
  10. Monica Goodling, Liaison between President Bush and the Justice Department[466]
  11. Joshua Bolten, Deputy Chief of Staff to President Bush was found in Contempt of Congress[460]
  12. Sara M. Taylor, Aide to Presidential Advisor Karl Rove[467]
  1. David Safavian (R) CoS of the GSA (General Services Administration) was convicted of making false statements as part of the Jack Abramoff lobbying and corruption scandal and was sentenced to one year in prison. (2005)[485][486] found guilty of blocking justice and lying,[487] and sentenced to 18 months[488]
  2. Roger Stillwell (R) staff in the Department of the Interior, pleaded guilty and received two years suspended sentence.[489]
  3. Susan B. Ralston (R) Special Assistant to the President and Senior Advisor to Karl Rove, resigned on October 6, 2006, after it became known that she accepted gifts and passed information to her former boss Jack Abramoff.[490]
  4. J. Steven Griles (R) Deputy to the Secretary of the Interior pleaded guilty to obstruction of justice and was sentenced to 10 months[474]
  5. Italia Federici (R) staff to the Secretary of the Interior and President of the Council of Republicans for Environmental Advocacy, pled guilty to tax evasion and obstruction of justice. She was sentenced to four years' probation.[491][492][493]
  6. Jared Carpenter (R) Vice President of the Council of Republicans for Environmental Advocacy, was discovered during the Abramoff investigation and pled guilty to income tax evasion. He got 45 days, plus 4 years' probation.[494]
  7. Mark Zachares (R) staff in the Department of Labor, bribed by Abramoff, guilty of conspiracy to defraud.[484]
  8. Robert E. Coughlin (R) Deputy Chief of Staff of the Criminal Division of the Justice Department, pleaded guilty to conflict of interest after accepting bribes from Jack Abramoff. (2008)[495]
  1. suspend sections of the ABM Treaty without informing Congress[526]
  2. bypass the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act allowing warrantless wiretapping of US Citizens within the United States by the National Security Agency.[526]
  3. state that the First Amendment and Fourth Amendments and the Takings Clause do not apply to the president in time of war as defined in the USA Patriot Act[526]
  4. allow enhanced interrogation techniques (torture) because provisions of the War Crimes Act, the Third Geneva Convention, and the Torture convention do not apply.[526]
Many of his memos have since been repudiated and reversed.[526][527] Later review by the Justice Department reported that Yoo and Jay Bybee used "poor judgement" in the memos, but no charges were filed.[528]
  • Carl Truscott (R) Director of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, was appointed in 2004 but was soon under investigation for his management style and allegations of lavish spending and misuse of resources, including requiring a large number of agents as personal security, allocating hundreds of thousands of dollars of expensive upgrades to the ATF HQ building, adding a new garage to his house, detailing 20 agents to help with his nephew's high school project and other examples of poor financial judgment. Truscott resigned as the ATF Director on August 4, 2006.[529][530][531]
  • John David Roy Atchison (R), Assistant U.S. Attorney for the Northern District of Florida, was arrested for intentions of having sex with a five-year-old. Atchison committed suicide before trial while in custody (2007)[532][533][534]
  • Darleen A. Druyun was the Principal Deputy Undersecretary of the Air Force nominated by Bill Clinton in 1993.[535] She pleaded guilty to inflating the price of contracts to favor her future employer, Boeing. In October 2004, she was sentenced to nine months in jail for corruption, fined $5,000, given three years of supervised release and 150 hours of community service. She began her prison term on January 5, 2005.[536] CBS News called it "the biggest Pentagon scandal in 20 years" and said that she pleaded guilty to a felony.[537]

Legislative branch

  • US senatorial candidate James W. Treffinger (R-NJ) pleaded guilty in 2003 to corruption and fraud as Chief Executive of Essex County and ordered to pay $30,000 in restitution and serve 13 months in jail.[538]
  • Senator Ted Stevens (R-AK) was convicted of seven counts of bribery and tax evasion October 27, 2008. He then lost re-election. Newly appointed US Attorney General Eric Holder dismissed the charges "in the interest of justice" stating that the Justice Department had illegally withheld evidence from defense counsel.[539]
  • Charles Rangel (D-NY) failed to report $75,000 income from the rental of his villa in Punta Cana, Dominican Republic and was forced to pay $11,000 in back taxes. (September 2008)[540]
  • Rick Renzi (R-AZ) announced he would not seek another term.[541]* He was later sentenced to three years in prison after conviction on federal corruption charges of extortion, bribery, insurance fraud, money laundering and racketeering related to a 2005 money-laundering scheme that netted the Flagstaff Republican more than $700,000. (2005)[542]
  • Mark Foley (R-FL) resigned on September 29, 2006, after sending sexually explicit messages to former Congressional pages.[543]
  • Tom DeLay (R-TX) US Representative and House Majority Leader, served from 1985 to 2006 when he resigned his position to undergo trial for conspiring to launder corporate money into political donations and money laundering during the 2002 elections. On November 24, 2010, DeLay was found guilty[544] and was sentenced to three years in prison and 10 years' probation, respectively. The ruling was overturned on appeal.[545] On September 19, 2013, the conviction was overturned.[546]
  • Jack Abramoff Indian lobbying scandal (R) The lobbyist found guilty of conspiracy, tax evasion and corruption of public officials in three different courts in a wide-ranging investigation. He served 70 months and was fined $24.7 million.[547] See George W. Bush's executive branch for eight others caught in the investigation. Legislators and staff involved include;
  1. Tom DeLay (R-TX) US Representative and House Majority Leader was reprimanded twice by the House Ethics Committee and his aides indicted (2004–2005); eventually DeLay himself was investigated in October 2005 in connection with the Abramoff scandal, but not indicted. DeLay resigned from the House June 9, 2006.[548] DeLay was found to have illegally channeled funds from Americans for a Republican Majority to Republican state legislator campaigns. He was convicted of two counts of money laundering and conspiracy in 2010.[549] His conviction was oveturned on appeal.
  2. Michael Scanlon (R) Communications Director to Tom DeLay, worked for Abramoff and pled guilty to bribery.[483][484]
  3. Tony Rudy (R) Deputy CoS to Tom DeLay, pleaded guilty to conspiracy.[484]
  4. Jim Ellis (R) Executive Director of Tom DeLay's Political Action Committee Americans for a Republican Majority (ARMPAC), was found guilty of money laundering.[550][551]
  5. John Colyandro (R) Executive Director of Tom DeLay's political action committee, Texans for a Republican Majority (TRMPAC), was indicted by Texas for money laundering[550]
  6. Bob Ney (R-OH) US Representative pleaded guilty to conspiracy and making false statements as a result of his receiving trips from Abramoff in exchange for legislative favors. Ney received 30 months in prison.[484][552]
  7. William Heaton (R) CoS to Bob Ney, pleaded guilty to one count of conspiracy to commit fraud[553] admitting to conspiring with Ney, Jack Abramoff and others to accept vacations, meals, tickets, and contributions to Ney's campaign in exchange for Ney benefitting Abramoff's clients. (2006)[554]
  8. Neil Volz (R) former CoS to Bob Ney, pleaded guilty to one count of conspiracy in 2006 charges stemming from his work for Bob Ney. In 2007 he was sentenced to two years' probation, 100 hours' community service, and a fine of $2,000.[555]
  9. John Albaugh (R) former CoS to Ernest Istook (R-OK), pled guilty to accepting bribes connected to the Federal Highway Bill. Istook was not charged. (2008)[556]
  10. James Hirni (R) former staff to Tim Hutchinson (R-AR), was charged with wire fraud for giving a staffer for Don Young (R) of Alaska a bribe in exchange for amendments to the Federal Highway Bill. (2008)[557]
  11. Kevin A. Ring (R) former staff to John Doolittle (R-CA), was convicted of five charges of corruption and honest services fraud. sentenced to 20 months.[558][559]
  1. Mitchell Wade private contractor and "co-conspirator" with Cunningham
  2. Kyle Foggo Director of the CIA and friend to Wilkes, convicted of fraud
  3. Brent R. Wilkes private contractor
  • Tan Nguyen (R-CA) US Representative candidate for the 47th District, was convicted of voter intimidation. He lost the election and was sentenced to one year in prison and six months in a halfway house. (2006)[563]
  • William J. Jefferson (D-LA) US Representative had $90,000 in cash in his home freezer seized by the FBI in August 2005. He was re-elected anyway, but lost in 2008. Jefferson was convicted of 11 counts of bribery and sentenced to 13 years on November 13, 2009, and his chief of staff Brett Pfeffer was sentenced to 84 months in a related case.[564][565]
  • Bill Janklow (R-SD) was convicted of second-degree manslaughter for running a stop sign and killing a motorcyclist. He resigned from the House and was given 100 days in the county jail and three years' probation (2003)[566]
  • Jim Traficant (D-OH) was found guilty on ten felony counts of financial corruption and was sentenced to 8 years in prison and expelled from the House. (2002)[567]
  • John E. Sweeney (R-NY) US Representative from 20th US District, was arrested in 2007 and again in 2009 for DWI. He was sentenced to 23 days in jail with 3 years' probation. (2009)[568][569]
  • Vito Fossella (R-NY) US Representative, 13th District, was arrested for drunk driving. He was found guilty of driving with twice the legal limit and sentenced to 5 days in prison. This led to the revelation that the married congressman had a longtime affair with another woman which had produced a child. He did not run for re-election. (2008)[570][571]

Barack Obama administrations (2009–2017)

Executive branch

  1. Lois Lerner, head of the IRS Office of Exempt Organizations, stated she had not done anything wrong and then took the Fifth before the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform.[583] She retired in 2013 after an internal IRS investigation found that she had neglected her duties and was going to call for her ouster.[584]
  2. Joseph H. Grant, Commissioner of the IRS Tax-exempt and Government Entities division, resigned on May 16, 2013.[585]

Legislative branch

  • Chaka Fattah (D-PA) from Pennsylvania's 2nd district was found guilty to 23 charges including racketeering, money laundering and fraud.[595][596] He was sentenced to 10 years and resigned from Congress on June 23, 2016.[597][598]
  • Anthony Weiner (D-NY) from New York's 9th congressional district resigned from Congress in June 2011 when the first of what would become multiple sexting scandals were made public.[599]
  • David Wu (D-OR) for Oregon's 1st congressional district announced he would resign from Congress, four days after a report that a young woman called his office complaining of an "unwanted sexual encounter" with the congressman.[600]
  • Chris Lee (R-NY) for New York's 26th congressional district resigned after he solicited a woman on Craigslist and emailed a shirtless photo of himself. (2011)[601]
  • Dennis Hastert (R-IL) pleaded guilty to charges that he violated banking rules and lied to the FBI in a scheme to pay $3.5 million in hush money to conceal sexual misconduct with an underage boy from his days as a high school wrestling coach, from 1965 to 1981. (2015)[602][603][604]
  • Aaron Schock (R-IL) resigned from office after evidence surfaced that he used campaign funds for travel, redecorated his office with taxpayer funds to resemble the sets of the Downton Abbey TV series, and otherwise spent campaign and/or taxpayer money on other questionable personal uses. (2015)[605]
  • Benjamin Cole (R) Aaron Schock's Senior Adviser, had resigned earlier after he allegedly condemned "hood rats" and "black miscreants" in internet posts. Schock's office stated, "I am extremely disappointed by the inexcusable and offensive online comments made by a member of my staff."[606][607][608]
  • Brett O'Donnell, Communications Director for Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R-WA), plead guilty to lying to investigators from the House Office of Congressional Ethics about working for Rodgers while being paid with campaign money, thus becoming the first person ever to be convicted of lying to the House OCE.[609]
  • Thaddeus McCotter (R-MI) resigned his Congressional seat. Four of his staff were convicted by the state of Michigan of falsifying signatures on McCotter's reelection petitions for the 2012 elections. Michigan Attorney General Bill Schuette (R) blamed McCotter for running a slipshod, leaderless operation. "The congressman has resigned in disgrace", Schuette said, though McCotter was not charged.[610]
  1. Paul Seewald worked for McCotter as his District Director of the Michigan's 11th congressional district. He pleaded guilty to nine counts of falsely signing a nominating petition as circulator. He was sentenced to two years' probation and 100 hours of community service, and ordered to pay court costs and fees.[611]
  2. Don Yowchuang worked for McCotter as Deputy District Director of the Michigan 11th Congressional District. He pleaded guilty to ten counts of forgery and six counts of falsely signing a nominating petition and was sentenced to three years of probation, 200 hours of community service, court costs and fees.[612]
  3. Mary M. Turnbull was McCotter's Representative to the Michigan 11th Congressional District. She was convicted of conspiring to commit a legal act in an illegal manner and falsely signing a nominating petition. She was sentenced to two years of probation, a day in jail, and 200 hours of community service. Turnbull was also ordered to pay a $1,440 fine. In addition, she is forbidden from any participation in elections or the political process.[613]
  4. Lorianne O'Brady worked as a scheduler for McCotter in the Michigan 11th Congressional District. She pleaded no contest to charges that she falsely claimed to have legally collected signatures to get McCotter on the ballot when she actually had not. She was sentenced to 20 days in jail and a work program plus $2,625 in fines and court costs.[614]
  • David Rivera (R-FL) was indicted as a co-conspirator with Campaign Manager Ana Alliegro, who pleaded guilty to violation of US campaign laws in an $81,000 campaign-finance scheme to prop up a little-known Democratic candidate who used the illegal cash to trash Rivera's rival in the 2012 Democratic primary. Rivera was not convicted.[615][616]
  1. Ana Alliegro (R), the Campaign Manager for David Rivera (R-FL), pleaded guilty to violation of US campaign laws. She was given six months in jail and six months of house arrest plus two years of probation. (2014)[617]
  • Rick Renzi (R-AZ) on June 12, 2013, was found guilty of 17 counts against him, which included wire fraud, conspiracy, extortion, racketeering, money laundering, and making false statements to insurance regulators.[618]
  • Senator Mike Crapo (R-ID) was arrested on December 23, 2012, and later pleaded guilty to drinking and driving in a Virginia court on January 4, 2012. The court fined him $250 and received a one-year suspension of his driver's license. He was also sentenced to 180 days in prison, but served no time.[619][620][621][622][623]
  • Trey Radel (R-FL) was arrested on October 29, 2013, in Washington, D.C. for possession of cocaine after purchasing the drug from an undercover law enforcement officer. As a first-time offender, he pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor in a Washington, D.C. court, and was sentenced to one year of probation and fined $250. Radel took a leave of absence from office to undergo substance abuse treatment following his conviction. Following treatment, he initially returned to office with the intent of finishing his term, but eventually resigned on January 27, 2014.[624][625][626]
  • Jesse Jackson Jr. (D-IL) pleaded guilty to one felony count of fraud for using $750,000 of campaign money to buy personal items such as stuffed animals, elk heads and fur capes.[627]
  • Laura Richardson (D-CA) was found guilty on seven counts of violating US House rules by improperly using her staff to campaign for her, destroying the evidence and tampering with witness testimony. The House Ethics Committee ordered Richardson to pay a fine of $10,000. (2012)[628][629]
  • John Ensign (R-NV) resigned his Senate seat on May 3, 2011, just before the Senate Ethics Committee could examine possible fiscal violations in connection with his extramarital affair with Cynthia Hampton. (2011)[630][631][632][633] (see Federal sex scandals) In May 2012, aide Doug Hampton (R) in what became the John Ensign scandal reached a plea deal with prosecutors, the details of which have not yet been released.[634]
  • Michael Grimm (R-NY) pleaded guilty to tax fraud on December 23, 2014, and was sentenced to eight months in federal prison.[635]
  • John Tate (R) Campaign Manager for Ron Paul (R-TX) was indicted for concealing over $73,000 in payments to Iowa State Senator Kent Sorenson to convince him to flip his presidential endorsement from Michele Bachmann to Paul. He was convicted of conspiracy, causing false records, causing false campaign expenditure reports, and making false statements. He was sentenced to 6 months' home confinement, 2 years' probation and fined $10,000 in 2016.[636]
  • Dimitri Kesari Deputy Campaign Manager for Ron Paul (R-TX) was convicted of causing false records concerning charges of buying an Iowa State Senator's endorsement during the 2012 presidential campaign. (2012)[637]
  • Fred Pagan (R) Office Administrator to US Senator Thad Cochran (R-MS) pled guilty to possession of methamphetamine with intent to distribute and was sentenced to 30 months in prison. (2016)[638][639]
  • Jesse Benton (R) Campaign Chairman for Ron Paul (R-TX) concealed over $73,000 in payments to Iowa State Senator Kent Sorenson to convince him to flip his presidential endorsement from Michele Bachmann to Ron Paul. He was convicted of conspiracy, causing false records, causing false campaign expenditure reports, and making false statements. He was sentenced to 6 months' home confinement, fined $10,000 and 2 years' probation(2016)[640][641][642]
  • Scott DesJarlais (R-TN) while running for re-election on a pro-life platform, it was discovered that he had made his wife have two abortions, and tried to persuade his mistress (who was also his patient), to have one as well. He also admitted under oath that while a married physician at Grandview Medical Center in Jasper, Tennessee, he had six affairs with three co-workers, two patients and a drug representative. He was investigated by the Tennessee Board of Health, pleaded guilty and was fined. (2012)[643][644]
  • Robert Decheine (D) CoS to U.S. Representative Steve Rothman (D-NJ), was sentenced to 18 months in prison for soliciting sex from a minor. (2011)[645][646]
  • Adam Kuhn (R) CoS to U.S. Representative Steve Stivers (R-OH), resigned abruptly after a former porn actress posted an explicit photo of his penis online. (2014)[647]
  • David Wihby (R) top aide to US Senator Kelly Ayotte (R-NH) resigned after he was arrested in a prostitution sting in Nashua. (2015)[648][649][650]
  • US Representative Corrine Brown (D-FL) was found guilty of fraud for using $800K from a fake charity for her own personal use. She was sentenced to 5 years. (2018)[651][652][653]
  1. Ronnie Simmons (D) CoS to U.S. Representative Corrine Brown (D-FL) pled guilty to fraud.(2017)[654][655]

Judicial branch

  • Mark E. Fuller (R) US Judge of the Middle District of Alabama, appointed by Republican George W. Bush was found guilty of domestic violence, sentenced to domestic training and forced to resign. (2015)[656][657][658]
  • G. Thomas Porteous US Judge of Eastern Louisiana appointed by Democrat Bill Clinton, was unanimously impeached by the US House of Representatives on charges of bribery and perjury in March 2010. He was convicted by the US Senate and removed from office. (2010)[659][660]
  • Samuel B. Kent (R) US Judge Federal District in Galveston, Texas was sentenced to 33 months in prison for lying about sexually harassing two female employees. He had been appointed to office by President George H. W. Bush in 1990. Resigned after being impeached on June 10, 2009.[661][662][663]
  • Jack T. Camp (R) Senior Federal U.S. Judge for the Northern District of Georgia, who was appointed by Republican George W. Bush, was arrested while trying to purchase cocaine from an FBI agent. Pled guilty to three criminal charges and was sentenced to 30 days in jail, 400 hours' community service and fined.[664][665][666][667][668]
  • Federal Judge Richard F. Cebull (R) for the District of Montana, was found to have sent hundreds of racist and sexist emails. After an investigation led to calls for his impeachment, Cebull took senior status and then resigned. (2013)[669][670][671][672][673]

Donald Trump administration (2017–present)

Executive branch

  • Scott Pruitt (R) Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, resigned citing increasing numbers of investigations into his administration. The EPA's own Chief Ethics Official had been pushing for independent studies into Pruitt's actions and 13 other separate investigations were under way, including alleged corruption for personal gain, salary increases without White House approval, use of government staff on personal projects and unnecessary spending on offices and security. He resigned July 5, 2018[677][678][679]
  1. Albert Kelly (R) EPA Superfund Task Force Director and top aide to EPA Chief Scott Pruitt (R), resigned amid scrutiny of his previous actions as leader of a bank in Oklahoma which led to $125,000 fine and lifetime ban from banking. (2018)[680][681][682]
  2. Pasquale "Nino" Perrotta, EPA Security Administrator, resigned after allegations of lavish spending and improper contracts (2018)[683]
  3. Samantha Dravis (R) EPA Associate Administrator and Senior Counsel in the Office of Policy resigned abruptly after allegations of being a no show employee. (2018)[684][685][686]
  • George Papadopoulos (R) Foreign policy advisor, pleaded guilty to making false statements to FBI agents relating to contacts he had with agents of the Russian government while working for the Trump campaign. He was sentenced to 14 days in prison, 12 months probation, and 200 hours community service.(2017)[687][688][689][690][691]
  • Michael Flynn (D) National Security Advisor, was forced to resign on February 13, 2017, over conversations he had with Russian envoys about sanctions during the transition. On December 1, 2017, Flynn pleaded guilty to charges of lying to the FBI as a plea bargain. (2017)[692][693]
  • William C. Bradford resigned from the United States Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy amid reports that he had made racial slurs directed at Barack Obama on Disqus and Twitter. Bradford had claimed that some of the comments were the result of identity theft and not his. (2017)[694]
  • Tom Price (R) Health and Human Services Secretary, was forced to resign on September 29, 2017, after it was discovered that he spent hundreds of thousands of taxpayer dollars on private flights.[695]
  • Brenda Fitzgerald (R) Director of the Centers for Disease Control, was forced to resign on January 31, 2018, after it was discovered that she bought stock in tobacco, the leading cause of preventable death in the US, creating a conflict of interest.[696]
  • Taylor Weyeneth (R) Deputy CoS at the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy, resigned when it was revealed the 24 year old had no qualifications for the position and no related work history other than working on President Trump's campaign (2018).[697][698]
  • David Sorensen (R) White House speechwriter, resigned after his ex-wife Jessica Corbett came forward with abuse allegations. (2018)[699][700]
  • Vivieca Wright Simpson, Chief of Staff to Secretary of Veterans Affairs David Shulkin (I) resigned after an inspector general report charged that she altered an email to make it appear Shulkin was getting an award during a trip to Europe in order to gain approval to use taxpayer dollars to pay for Shulkin's wife to accompany him.[701] Six weeks later, Trump fired Shulkin via Twitter.[702]
  • Rob Porter (R) White House Staff Secretary, resigned from the position on February 7, 2018, following public allegations of spousal abuse from his two ex-wives.[703][704] The allegations were supported by photographs of a black eye and a restraining order.[705][706]
  • Tony Tooke, Chief of the US Forest Service, resigned after a series of sexual harassment and retaliation accusations. (2018)[707]
  • Rick Gates (R) 2016 Deputy Campaign Chairman to President Donald Trump (R), pleaded guilty to conspiracy and lying to investigators concerning his work lobbying with Ukraine as well as tax and bank fraud. He was sentenced to 45 days in prison and three years probation. (2018)[708][709][710]
  • Michael Cohen (R) Personal Attorney to President Donald Trump (R) and vice – president to the Trump organization, pleaded guilty to tax evasion, bank fraud and illegal campaign contributions. He also helped arrange non-disclosure agreements to Stormy Daniels and Karen McDougal who allegedly had affairs with Trump. Cohen pleaded guilty to eight counts of tax evasion and making false statements.(2018)[711][712][713][714][715][716]
  • Paul Manafort (R) Campaign Manager for President Donald Trump (R), was charged with 18 counts of tax and bank fraud which involved keeping $65 million in foreign bank accounts and spending $15 million on himself. He was found guilty on 8 counts.,[717][718][719] March 18, 2019: Manafort was sentenced to 47 months in prison.[720] On March 13, 2019, Manafort was sentenced to another 43 months for charges of federal conspiracy and obstruction.[721]
  • Ryan Zinke (R) Secretary of the Interior, after the Interior Department inspector general referred one of several investigations about Zinke to the Justice Department. He was being investigated for his conduct in office and questionable real estate dealings in Montana when he resigned in December 2018.[722]
  • Roger Stone (R) Trump Campaign Adviser, was indicted in January 2019, on "one count of obstruction of an official proceeding, five counts of false statements, and one count of witness tampering" during the Special Counsel's investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 Trump election campaign.[723] Stone was found guilty by the jury of nine women and three men, who deliberated for seven hours over two days before convicting Mr. Stone on all seven counts.[724][725]
  • Alex Acosta (R) Secretary of Labor resigned on July 12, 2019, "after defending himself in a contentious news conference over his role as a U.S. attorney,"[726] in 2008, in dismissing federal charges against Jeffrey Epstein, "that allowed the financier to plead guilty to lesser offenses in a sex-crimes case involving underage girls."[726][727] Epstein allegedly committed suicide on August 10, 2019 out of view of any guards and cameras,[728] in the Metropolitan Correctional Center, New York City.[729] After Price, Pruitt, Shulkin and Zinke, Acosta became the fifth Trump Cabinet member to resign or be fired amid a scandal.[726]
  • Thomas Modly (R) acting Secretary of the Navy resigned after insulting the captain of the USS Roosevelt.
  • Donald John Trump, President, see: Impeachment of Donald Trump

Legislative branch

  • Katie Hill (D-CA) U.S. Representative, resigned following the start of a House Ethics Committee investigation involving Hill's alleged improper relationship with a subordinate. After the investigation's announcement, Hill also admitted to an inappropriate relationship with a separate campaign staffer.[730][731][732][733]
  • Duncan Hunter (R-CA) U.S. Representative, and his wife were indicted in federal court on dozens of charges, including wire fraud and using campaign funds for personal use. (2018)[734][735] He pleaded guilty on December 3, 2019.[736]
  1. Margaret Hunter (R) Campaign Manager and wife to US Representative Duncan D. Hunter (R) was indicted for misuse of $200,000 in campaign donations. She pled guilty to one count of conspiracy, but sentencing has been delayed due to Covid-19 restrictions. (2018)[737][738][739]
  • Chris Collins (R-NY) U.S. Representative, was arrested by the FBI and charged with wire fraud, conspiracy to commit securities fraud, seven counts of securities fraud, and lying to the FBI, for tipping off his son and his daughter-in-laws' father with insider trading information.(2018)[740][741] On October 1, 2019, he announced that he would resign his seat, just prior to an expected change of plea to guilty.[742]
  • Al Franken (D-MN) US Senator, resigned on January 2, 2018, after several accusations of sexual misconduct.[743]
  • Clint Reed (R) CoS for US Senator Marco Rubio (R-FL) was fired for allegations of "improper conduct" and threats to withhold employment benefits from an unnamed subordinate. (2018)[744][745]
  • Former U.S. Representative Steve Stockman (R-TX) orchestrated a scheme to steal money from charitable foundations and the individuals who ran them. The funds were used to finance Stockman's campaigns and personal expenses. He was convicted on 23 felony counts of perjury, fraud and money laundering and sentenced to 10 years. (2018)[746][747][748]
  1. Jason T. Posey (R) Director of Special Projects and Campaign Treasurer for Stephen E. Stockman at the personal direction and supervision of Stockman, Posey took almost one million dollars from various sources and illegally funneled it into Stockman's 2014 Senate campaign. He pled guilty to mail fraud, wire fraud, money laundering and conduit contributions. (2013)[749][750]
  2. Thomas Dodd (R) Special Assistant to Steve Stockman pled guilty to two conspiracy charges and agreed to cooperate with prosecutors. (2013)[749][750][751]
  • U.S. Representative Blake Farenthold (R-TX) resigned in the wake of reports he used public funds to settle a sexual harassment lawsuit and had created an intensely hostile work environment for women in his congressional office.[752][753][754]
  • Pat Meehan (R-PA) U.S. Representative, resigned following the revelation that he used taxpayers' money to settle a sexual harassment claim brought by a female staff member.[755]
  • Dana Rohrabacher (R-CA) US Representative, was charged with improper use of campaign contributions for his role in providing money to his Campaign Manager Rhonda Carmony’s scheme to promote a decoy Democratic candidate in the state assembly election of Republican Stott Baugh. Rohrabacher was found guilty and fined $50,000. (2012)[756][757][758]
  • Jack Wenpo Wu (R) Treasurer for the Re-election Campaign of Dana Rohrabacher (R-CA) US Representative, embezzled over $300,000. He was repaying the money when he was found guilty and sentenced to one year in prison plus five years probation. (2012)[759][760]
  • Trent Franks (R-AZ) US Representative, from the 8th District abruptly resigned when confronted about asking some of his staff to be sexual surrogates. (2017).[761]
  • Timothy F. Murphy (R-PA) US Representative, the married, anti-abortion congressman resigned just before an investigation could begin concerning his allegedly urging his mistress to seek an abortion. (2017)[762][763]
  • Greg Gianforte (R-MT) US Representative, body slammed reporter Ben Jacobs. Gianforte was then found guilty of assault and sentenced to 40 hours of community service, 20 hours of anger management, a 180-day deferred sentence, a $385 fine and court fee. As part of his settlement with Jacobs, Gianforte donated $50,000 to the Committee to Protect Journalists.[764] (2017)[765][766][767][768][769][770]
  • John Conyers (D-MI) US Representative, resigned on December 5, 2017, after sources revealed he had paid a $27,000 settlement to one of his staffers who had accused him of sexual assault. Conyers resigned after congressional investigations were initiated against Conyers.[771][772]
  • Fred W. Pagan (R) Staff to US Senator Thad Cochran (R-MS) pled guilty to possession of methamphetamine and GBL with intent to distribute and was sentenced to 30 months in prison. (2016)[638][639][773][774]

Judicial branch

  • Alex Kozinski (R) US Judge in the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals appointed by Ronald Reagan, retired following allegations of sexual misconduct from several women, including former clerks.(2018)[775]
  • Patricia Head Minaldi (R) Senior Judge of the US District Court for the Western District of Louisiana appointed by President George W. Bush. After DUI arrest and several incidents in her courtroom, Minaldi took medical leave for severe alcoholism and then resigned. (2017)[776][777][778][779]

See also

References

  1. ^ Ferling, John. The First of Men: A Life of George Washington, p. 225
  2. ^ "Silas Deane Online". Archived from the original on March 15, 2010.
  3. ^ Blount Mansion History "BLOUNT, William - Biographical Information". Archived from the original on July 8, 2008. Retrieved June 29, 2008.
  4. ^ T. M. Iiams, Peacemaking from Vergennes to Napoleon: French Foreign Relations in the Revolutionary Era, 1774–1814 (1979); A. Duff Cooper, Talleyrand (1932); E. Wilson Lyon, "The Directory and the United States", American Historical Review, Vol. 43, No. 3 (April 1938), pp. 514–532 in JSTOR
  5. ^ "Matthew Lyon, the Hampden of Congress by James Fairfax McLaughlin, p. 257".
  6. ^ "Matthew Lyons". Retrieved August 31, 2010.[dead link]
  7. ^ Linklater, Andro (September 29, 2009). An artist in treason: the extraordinary double life of General James Wilkinson. Walker & Company. ISBN 978-0-8027-1720-7.
  8. ^ "Aaron Burr and the Definition of Treason (1783–1815)". American Eras. 8 vols. Gale Research, 1997–1998. Student Resource Center. Thomson Gale. October 24, 2005
  9. ^ "Burr's Conspiracy, 1805–1807". DISCovering U.S. History. Online Edition. Gale, 2003. Student Resource Center. Thomson Gale. October 24, 2005.
  10. ^ Jerry W. Knudson, "The Jeffersonian Assault on the Federalist Judiciary, 1802–1805: Political Forces and Press Reaction", American Journal of Legal History 1970 14(1): 55–75; Richard Ellis, "The Impeachment of Samuel Chase", in American Political Trials, ed. by Michael R. Belknap (1994) pp. 57–76, quote on p. 64.
  11. ^ John Pickering at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center.
  12. ^ McNamara, Robert J (September 6, 2019). "The Election of 1824 Was Decided in the House of Representatives". ThoughtCo. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  13. ^ Robert Remini, Andrew Jackson and the course of American democracy, 1833–1845 (1984) p. 449
  14. ^ "Floride Bonneau Colhoun Calhoun". Clemson University. Archived from the original on March 8, 2016.
  15. ^ a b "Robert and Harriet Potter". texasescapes.com. Archived from the original on February 13, 2010.
  16. ^ Clay, Henry (1988). The Papers of Henry Clay: The Whig Leader, January 1, 1837-December 31,1843. University Press of Kentucky. p. 519. ISBN 0-8131-3051-4.
  17. ^ Baker, J. H.; Wilson, J. H. (December 24, 1873). "The Lockport Union Has a Bit of History to Tell". Houston Daily Mercury. 6 (92) (1st ed.). p. 1. Retrieved September 14, 2019 – via texashistory.unt.edu.
  18. ^ Gouge, William M. (1842). The Journal of Banking, from July 1841 to July 1842. p. 183.
  19. ^ Report of the Prison Association of New York. The Association. 1845. p. 51.
  20. ^ "General Sessions, July 15" (PDF). New York Spectator. July 15, 1842 – via fultonhistory.com.
  21. ^ p.573, Samuel Eliot Morison, The Oxford History of the American People (1965) p. 573
  22. ^ Hoffer, Williamjames Hull (2010). The Caning of Charles Sumner. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-8018-9469-5.
  23. ^ Puleo, Stephen (March 29, 2015). "The US Senate's Darkest Moment: An Excerpt from Stephen Puleo's Book, "The Caning", About an Infamous Fight Between Two Senators". Boston Globe. Boston, MA.
  24. ^ "Capitol Punishment". AMERICAN HERITAGE. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  25. ^ [GovTrack.us – Congressional Misconduct Database]
  26. ^ Matteson, Ken. "Matteson.us: Orsamus B. Matteson". Mattesons in the USA since 1666. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  27. ^ "Simon Cameron: Biography from". Answers.com. Archived from the original on March 1, 2011. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
  28. ^ "U.S. Senate: Expulsion and Censure". U.S. Senate. Archived from the original on May 30, 2010.
  29. ^ "Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress - Retro Member details".
  30. ^ The Expulsion Case of James F. Simmons of Rhode Island (1862)
  31. ^ "ROUSSEAU, Lovell Harrison – Biographical Information". bioguide.congress.gov. Archived from the original on September 8, 2016.
  32. ^ "Lovell Harrison Rousseau, Major General, United States Army & Member of Congress". www.arlingtoncemetery.net. Archived from the original on July 10, 2007.
  33. ^ Iowa Journal of History. State Historical Society of Iowa. 1912. p. 394.
  34. ^ Kestenbaum, Lawrence (December 29, 2013). "Politicians in Trouble or Disgrace: Kentucky". The Political Graveyard. Archived from the original on October 15, 2014.
  35. ^ "Andrew Johnson Trial: The Consciences of Seven Republicans Save Johnson".
  36. ^ Hinds' Precedents, Volume III, Chapter LXXVII, section 2444, pp. 903–904.
  37. ^ a b c d "Grant, Babcock, and the Whiskey Ring". Prologue. Vol. 32 no. 3. Fall 2000. Retrieved September 15, 2019 – via National Archives.
  38. ^ Stark, Jack (2011). The Wisconsin State Constitution. Oxford University Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-19-977918-5.
  39. ^ "Levi Hubbell". Madison Wisconsin State Journal. December 9, 1876. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  40. ^ Kestenbaum, Lawrence (August 19, 2019). "Politicians in Trouble or Disgrace: Massachusetts". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved April 12, 2020.
  41. ^ "William A. Richardson (1873–1874)". www.treasury.gov.
  42. ^ "1874 Ways and Means Report Urges Repeal of Private Tax Debt Collection Law (Copyright, 2004, Tax Analysts)". www.taxhistory.org. Archived from the original on July 19, 2011.
  43. ^ "On This Day: October 16, 1869". Archived from the original on April 27, 2010.
  44. ^ Leonard Alexander Swann (August 1, 1980). John Roach, Maritime Entrepreneur. Arno Press. p. 125. ISBN 978-0-405-13078-6.
  45. ^ Salinger, Lawrence M. (August 3, 2004). Encyclopedia of White-Collar & Corporate Crime. SAGE Publications. ISBN 978-0-7619-3004-4.
  46. ^ Ames brothers celebrate "Golden Spike"
  47. ^ "Ames Brothers Celebrate 'Golden Spike' May 10, 1869". Mass Moments. Archived from the original on November 26, 2010.
  48. ^ "James Brooks". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved May 12, 2009.
  49. ^ The Expulsion Case of James W. Patterson of New Hampshire (1873) (Crédit Mobilier Scandal) "U.S. Senate: James Patterson Explusion Case". Archived from the original on October 1, 2013. Retrieved September 30, 2013.
  50. ^ "U.S. Senate: The Election Case of Samuel C. Pomeroy and Alexander Caldwell of Kansas (1873)". www.senate.gov. Archived from the original on March 24, 2017.
  51. ^ Grossman, Mark (2003). Political Corruption in America: An Encyclopedia of Scandals, Power, and Greed. ABC-CLIO. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-57607-060-4.
  52. ^ "GovTrack.us – Congressional Misconduct Database". GovTrack.us.
  53. ^ "DEWEESE, John Thomas | US House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives". history.house.gov.
  54. ^ "Deweese, John Thomas". NCpedia. July 4, 1906. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  55. ^ Jesse William Weik, The real Lincoln: a portrait (1922).
  56. ^ Emily Field Van Tassel, Paul Finkelman, Impeachable offenses: a documentary history from 1787 to the present (1999), p. 120.
  57. ^ a b "Chapter LXXIX. IMPEACHMENT PROCEEDINGS NOT RESULTING IN TRIAL" (PDF). Precedents of the House of Representatives. Asher Hinds. 1907. pp. 1011–1016.
  58. ^ "Richard Busteed, 1822–1898" (PDF). uscourts.gov. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  59. ^ Hinds, Asher Crosby; Cannon, Clarence (1907). Hinds' precedents of the House of Representatives of the United States: including references to provisions of the Constitution, the laws, and decisions of the United States Senate. U.S. G.P.O. p. 1020.
  60. ^ "Busteed, Richard". Federal Judicial Center.
  61. ^ "Retired Supreme Court Justices". Wisconsin Court System. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  62. ^ "Federal Attorneys Protecting Civil Rights: The Road Since the Civil War". WisBar. September 14, 2019. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  63. ^ Grant, Marilyn (1980). "Judge Levi Hubbell: A Man Impeached". The Wisconsin Magazine of History. 64 (1): 28–39. JSTOR 4635473.
  64. ^ Smith, Mailing Address: 301 Parker Ave Fort; Us, AR 72901 Phone:783-3961 Contact. "I.C. Parker, U.S. District Judge – Fort Smith National Historic Site (U.S. National Park Service)". www.nps.gov.
  65. ^ "United States District Court for the Western District of Arkansas – Encyclopedia of Arkansas".
  66. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Van Tassel, Emily Field; Wirtz, Beverly Hudson; Wonders, Peter A. (January 1, 1993), Why Judges Resign: Influences on Federal Judicial Service, 1789 to 1992, Federal Judicial History Office, Federal Judicial Center, retrieved April 11, 2020
  67. ^ Trefousse, Hans L., Carl Schurz: A Biography, (U. of Tenn. Press, 1982)
  68. ^ Grossman, Mark (2003). "Hayt, Ezra Ayres (1823–1902)" (PDF). Political Corruption in America: An Encyclopedia of Scandals, Power and Greed. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. pp. 158–159. ISBN 978-1-57607-060-4.
  69. ^ "District Judge Edward Henry Durell". LAED US Courts. United States District Court, Eastern District of Louisiana, n.d. April 4, 2013.
  70. ^ "Edward Henry Durell". OpenJurist.
  71. ^ Lane, Charles. "Edward Henry Durell: A Study in Reputation" (PDF). Green Bag. 13 (2).
  72. ^ "Exhibits – North Dakota Governors – Nehemiah G. Ordway". State Historical Society of North Dakota. North Dakota State Government. Retrieved April 11, 2020.
  73. ^ Journal of the Executive Proceedings of the Senate of the United States of America. Order of the Senate of the United States. 1901. p. 149.
  74. ^ "Collector Jarrard Sentenced". The New York Times. April 30, 1884. p. 5.
  75. ^ Cannon, Joseph A.; Fish, Rick (1994). Allan Kent Powell (ed.). Cannon, George Q. Utah History Encyclopedia. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press. ISBN 978-0-87480-425-6. OCLC 30473917. Archived from the original on January 13, 2017.
  76. ^ "Trailblazers of the Reconstruction Era". Coastal Heritage Magazine. Vol. 30 no. 1. 2017. Retrieved September 14, 2019 – via S.C. Sea Grant Consortium.
  77. ^ "Robert Smalls". Biography.
  78. ^ "Judge Edward Henry Durell". OpenJurist. Retrieved April 11, 2020.
  79. ^ Lane, Charles (Winter 2010). "Edward Henry Durell: A Study in Reputation" (PDF). The Green Bag. 13 (2D): 153–168. Retrieved April 11, 2020.
  80. ^ a b Greenberg, Gerald S. (2000). Historical Encyclopedia of U.S. Independent Counsel Investigations. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 164–166. ISBN 978-0-313-30735-5.
  81. ^ Kestenbaum, Lawrence (March 10, 2005). "List of Politicians Who Were Pardoned". The Political Graveyard. Archived from the original on July 20, 2007. Retrieved June 27, 2007.
  82. ^ "Section 2: Alexander McKenzie". North Dakota Studies. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  83. ^ "From magnate to first pardon". Bismarck Tribune. August 20, 2005. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  84. ^ "Manuscripts by Subject – Family / Local History - #11100". State Historical Society of North Dakota. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  85. ^ "San Francisco Call 31 August 1900 — California Digital Newspaper Collection". cdnc.ucr.edu.
  86. ^ "Senator Detrich's Trial Comes to Sudden Ending". San Francisco Call. 95 (40). January 9, 1904. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  87. ^ "Dietrich Wins in First Fight". Chicago Tribune. January 5, 1904. p. 14. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  88. ^ Byrd, Robert C. (1993). Wolff, Wendy (ed.). Senate, 1789–1989, V. 4: Historical Statistics, 1789–1992. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 667. ISBN 978-0-16-063256-3.
  89. ^ "4 Briefing on Expulsion and Censure". senate.gov. May 30, 2014. Archived from the original on May 30, 2010.
  90. ^ Frank W. Blackmar, ed. (1912). "Burton, Joseph Ralph". Kansas: a cyclopedia of state history, embracing events, institutions, industries, counties, cities, towns, prominent persons, etc ... I. Chicago: Standard Pub Co. pp. 259–260. Archived from the original on May 4, 2011.
  91. ^ "reachinformation.com". reachinformation.com. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved May 6, 2014.
  92. ^ a b "Indictments-A Grand Congressional Tradition Since 1798". Los Angeles Times. June 5, 1994. Archived from the original on December 2, 2016.
  93. ^ Chicago Tribune, December 26, 2008, Section 1, page 43, "An Illinois civics lesson from an early scandal' by Nina Owen
  94. ^ Strong, Douglas H. (January 1, 1978). "Ralph H. Cameron and the Grand Canyon (Part I)". Arizona and the West. 20 (1): 41–64. JSTOR 40168675.
  95. ^ "Willett, William Forte Jr.." Political Corruption in America: An Encyclopedia of Scandals, Power & Greed. Amenia: Grey House Publishing, 2008. Credo Reference. Web. 15 August 2012.
  96. ^ Suz (March 17, 2011). "Father calls me William, sister calls me Will, Mother calls me Willie, but the fellers call me Bill". The Hunt for Henrietta.
  97. ^ Kestenbaum, Lawrence (August 19, 2019). "Politicians in Trouble or Disgrace: Bribery". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved April 12, 2020.
  98. ^ Robert Wodrow Archbald at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center.
  99. ^ "Hanford Resigns; No Impeachment; By Agreement with Congressional Committee Federal Judge Withdraws Under Fire" (PDF). The New York Times. July 23, 1912. Retrieved March 22, 2016.
  100. ^ The Providence Journal: Mark Arsenault, "1919 Newport sting targeted gay sailors, ended in scandal" April 13, 2009, accessed December 6, 2009
  101. ^ "JUSTICE WRIGHT RESIGNS. Accused Jurist Prevents Impeachment by Giving Up Office". The New York Times. October 7, 1914. p. 8. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  102. ^ "Justice Wright Resigns Office". The Journeyman Barber. Journeymen Barbers' International Union of America. 10 (3): 581. April 1914.
  103. ^ "Ohio History Central". Ohio History Central. April 28, 2013. Archived from the original on January 20, 2013. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
  104. ^ "Senate Investigates the "Teapot Dome" Scandal". Historical Minutes: 1921–1940. Art & History, United States Senate. "U.S. Senate: Senate Investigates the "Teapot Dome" Scandal". Archived from the original on May 1, 2012. Retrieved April 11, 2012..
  105. ^ Edwin Denby at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress Retrieved on February 24, 2008.
  106. ^ a b "Harry M. Daugherty". Ohio History Central. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
  107. ^ "Charles Forbes – Ohio History Central". ohiohistorycentral.org. Archived from the original on June 22, 2011.
  108. ^ Joplin News Herald (March 20, 1926), p. 1; The Charleston Gazette (February 13, 1924), pp. 1, 9; Time (April 21, 1952), Milestones; administration of Veterans' Affairs (excluding Health and Insurance), (2010); Dean (2004), Warren G Harding, pp. 140, 141
  109. ^ Time, March 31, 1930, "National Affairs: Ohio Gangster"
  110. ^ "Blanton Censured, Falls Later in Faint; House Is Unanimous for Formal Rebuke after Expulsion Proposal Fails". The New York Times. October 28, 1921. p. 1. Archived from the original on January 17, 2013. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
  111. ^ "Truman Handy Newberry". US House of Representatives, Office of History and Preservation. Archived from the original on February 18, 2008. Retrieved February 11, 2008.
  112. ^ a b "January 12, 1922 Senator "Condemned" for Excessive Campaign Expenditures". U.S. Senate: Art & History; Historical Minute Essays. Archived from the original on November 3, 2010. Retrieved November 18, 2010.
  113. ^ "The Pittsburgh Press – Google News Archive Search". news.google.com.
  114. ^ "Judge Winslow Resigns". Poughkeepsie Eagle-News. April 4, 1929. p. 6. Retrieved September 14, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
  115. ^ [Miller v. United States, 24 F.2d 353 (2nd Cir. 1928)]
  116. ^ Carman, Harry J.; Graper, Elmer D. (1921). "Record of Political Events From July 1, 1920 to June 30, 1921". Political Science Quarterly. 36: 21.
  117. ^ "Commissioner Frederick A. Fenning". Public Service Commission of the District of Columbia. p. 16.
  118. ^ "CCII. Impeachment Proceedings Not Resulting in Trial" (PDF). Precedents of the House of Representatives. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 786.
  119. ^ "LANGLEY, Katherine Gudger". house.gov. Archived from the original on June 25, 2016.
  120. ^ "He wears the breeches but the lady has the brains". Appalachian History. Archived from the original on June 30, 2016.
  121. ^ "VARE, William Scott – Biographical Information". congress.gov. Archived from the original on June 14, 2012.
  122. ^ "SMITH, Frank Leslie – Biographical Information". bioguide.congress.gov. Archived from the original on October 26, 2012.
  123. ^ "Frank Lloyd Wright". www.steinerag.com. Archived from the original on February 23, 2017.
  124. ^ George W. English at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center.
  125. ^ "Impeachment of Judge George W English Dismissed After Resignation". Constitutional Law Reporter. May 17, 2017.
  126. ^ "Impeachment Trials by the Senate". CQ Researcher by CQ Press.
  127. ^ "U.S. Senate: Art & History Home > The Censure Case of Hiram Bingham of Connecticut (1929)". U.S. Senate. Archived from the original on August 24, 2010. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
  128. ^ "Rowbottom Guilty in Postal Job Sales; Ex-Indiana Representative Gets Year in Leavenworth on BribeTaking Charges". The New York Times. April 16, 1931. p. Business & Opportunity 52.
  129. ^ Long, Kim (2008). The Almanac of Political Corruption, Scandals, and Dirty Politics. Random House Publishing Group. p. 319. ISBN 978-0-307-48134-4.
  130. ^ "Hogan Convicted of Taking Bribes; Ex-Representative Gets Year and a Day in Prison in Naturalization Fraud Case". The New York Times. October 16, 1935. p. 19.
  131. ^ "Syracuse Herald Newspaper Archives, Apr 10, 1935, p. 38". April 10, 1935.
  132. ^ "Wilson Daily Times Newspaper Archives, Apr 10, 1935". April 10, 1935.
  133. ^ Lee, David D. (1991). "Senator Black's Investigation of the Airmail, 1933–1934". The Historian. 53 (3): 423–442. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6563.1991.tb00815.x.
  134. ^ "Jurney v. MacCracken, 294 U.S. 125 (1935)".
  135. ^ Johnson, Frederick L. (Spring 1989). "From Leavenworth to Congress: The Improbable Journey of Francis H. Shoemaker" (PDF). Minnesota History. Minnesota Historical Society: 167–177. Retrieved April 12, 2020.
  136. ^ "Tucker Is Fourth California Congressman to Be Convicted Since 1936". Los Angeles Times. December 9, 1995. Archived from the original on May 18, 2015.
  137. ^ "SNOW, Donald Francis – Biographical Information". bioguide.congress.gov. Archived from the original on August 12, 2016.
  138. ^ "Donald F. Snow". U.S. Congress. Archived from the original on August 19, 2016.
  139. ^ "Snow, Donald F." Maine Encyclopedia. March 25, 2012. Archived from the original on June 1, 2016.
  140. ^ "Donald F. Snow". Maine Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on September 19, 2016.
  141. ^ "Impeachment of District Court Judge Halsted L Ritter". Constitutional Law Reporter. May 31, 2017. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  142. ^ "14.18 Impeachment of Judge Ritter" (PDF). Deschler's Precedents. Precedents of the United States House of Representatives. p. 2205. ISBN 978-0-16-051043-4.
  143. ^ "Strange Impeachment of Halsted L. Ritter". DePauw University – Archives. April 16, 1936. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  144. ^ "Halsted Lockwood Ritter". OpenJurist.
  145. ^ Halsted L. Ritter at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center
  146. ^ "Ex-Judge Manton Of U.S. Bench Here. Head of the Appeals Court Who Served Time for Accepting $186,000 Dies Up-State". The New York Times. Associated Press. November 18, 1946. Retrieved December 24, 2010. Martin T. Manton, former United States Circuit Court of Appeals Judge and central figure in a scandal unique in the history of the Federal bench, died today at the home of a son here. He was 66 years old.
  147. ^ Kestenbaum, Lawrence (August 19, 2019). "Politicians in Trouble or Disgrace: Connecticut". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved April 12, 2020.
  148. ^ "Thomas, Edwin Stark". Federal Judicial Center.
  149. ^ "History of Century City". Century City Chamber of Commerce. November 5, 2016. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  150. ^ Smaltz, Donald C. (July 1998). "Independent Counsel: A View from Inside". The Georgetown Law Journal, Vol. 86, No. 6.
  151. ^ Eleonora W. Schoenebaum, ed. Political Profiles: The Truman Years (1978) pp 48–49
  152. ^ J. Parnell Thomas at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
  153. ^ "J. Parnell Thomas".
  154. ^ Time magazine, "Artful Dodger", December 5, 1949.
  155. ^ Beatty, Jack (August 23, 2000). The Rascal King: The Life and Times of James Michael Curley, 1874–1958. Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-81704-5.
  156. ^ "NH Senator Convicted of Blackmailing Lester Hunt". September 17, 2013.
  157. ^ Storrow, Benjamin. "A Death Untold: The Suicide of Wyoming Sen. Lester Hunt". Casper Star-Tribune Online. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  158. ^ "Uniquely Nasty: The blockbuster novel that haunted gay Washington". Yahoo. June 16, 2015. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  159. ^ Primary Sources: Checkers speech, pbs.org, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 17, 2009. Retrieved June 1, 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link). Retrieved June 1, 2009.
  160. ^ Time, September 29, 1958, The administration: Exit Adams
  161. ^ Kang, Cecilia (October 31, 2011). "Obama names FCC commissioners, both agency, Hill veterans". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 28, 2014. Retrieved November 1, 2011.
  162. ^ Kestenbaum, Lawrence (December 29, 2013). "Politicians in Trouble or Disgrace: Florida". The Political Graveyard. Archived from the original on October 15, 2014.
  163. ^ "The Censure Case of Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin (1954)". United States Senate Historical Office. Archived from the original on January 7, 2010. Retrieved January 4, 2010.
  164. ^ Caute, David (1978). The great fear: the anti-Communist purge under Truman and Eisenhower. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-22682-4.
  165. ^ Viser, Matt (November 4, 2009). "Embattled Turner calls easy reelection victory 'significant'". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on February 11, 2010.
  166. ^ "TRIALS: Congressman Convicted". Time. January 10, 1972. Archived from the original on August 8, 2013.
  167. ^ Rosenzweig, David (December 9, 1995). "Tucker Is Fourth California Congressman to Be Convicted Since 1936". Los Angeles Times.
  168. ^ "Historical Highlights | US House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives". Artandhistory.house.gov. Archived from the original on December 13, 2012. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
  169. ^ "Thomas Johnson, 78; Lost Post in Congress". The New York Times. Associated Press. February 3, 1988. p. B6. Archived from the original on June 4, 2011.
  170. ^ "BOYKIN, Frank William – Biographical Information". Bioguide.congress.gov. Archived from the original on July 9, 2010. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
  171. ^ "Two Former Congressmen Are Sentenced". Beaver County Times. Beaver, Pennsylvania. United Press International. October 8, 1963. p. 4. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
  172. ^ Genzlinger, Neil (November 18, 2017). "Bobby Baker, String-Puller Snared in Senate Scandal, Dies at 89". The New York Times. p. D6.
  173. ^ Grossman, Mark (2003). Political corruption in America: an encyclopedia of scandals, power, and greed. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-060-4 – via Google Books.
  174. ^ "Former Senator Fined in Lengthy Bribe Case". The Victoria Advocate. Victoria, TX. Associated Press. June 26, 1975. p. 10A. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
  175. ^ "Ex-Senator Convicted on Lesser Count". The Portsmouth Times. Portsmouth, Ohio. Associated Press. November 18, 1972. p. 7. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
  176. ^ "Brewster Gets Six-Year Term". Lewiston Morning Tribune. Lewiston, Idaho. Associated Press. February 3, 1973. p. 20. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
  177. ^ "Brewster Conviction Overturned". Tri City Herald. Kennewick, Washington. Associated Press. August 2, 1974. p. Second Page One. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
  178. ^ a b "U.S. Is Suing Legislator to Get $50,000 Returned". The New York Times. Associated Press. March 27, 1977. p. 39. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
  179. ^ Kalman, Laura (1990). Abe Fortas: a Biography. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-17369-7.
  180. ^ Time, October 22, 1973, "The Nation: The Fall of Spiro Agnew"
  181. ^ Binder, David (May 9, 1998). "Charles (Bebe) Rebozo, 85; Longtime Nixon Confidant". The New York Times. p. A12. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016.
  182. ^ "Charles G. Rebozo". Federal Bureau of Investigation. Archived from the original on February 5, 2011. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
  183. ^ Marsh, Bill (October 30, 2005). "Ideas and Trends: When Criminal Charges Hit the White House". The New York Times. p. 4.4.
  184. ^ [1] Archived February 8, 2001, at the Wayback Machine, November 10, 1988, "John N. Mitchell, Principal in Watergate, Dies at 75" by Lawrence Meyer
  185. ^ a b "The Law: Watergate Bargains: Were They Necessary?". Time. June 24, 1974. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
  186. ^ a b c d e f g h "The Nation: The Other Nixon Watergate Men". Time. March 11, 1974. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
  187. ^ "washingtonpost.com – watergate scandal and deep throat update, h.r. haldeman". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 14, 2014.
  188. ^ Stout, David (February 16, 1999). "John D. Ehrlichman, Nixon Aide Jailed for Watergate, Dies at 73". The New York Times. p. A1. Archived from the original on May 17, 2013.
  189. ^ Krogh, Egil (June 30, 2007). "Op-Ed: The Break-In That History Forgot". The New York Times.
  190. ^ "Egil Krogh". Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum. Archived from the original on August 3, 2017. Retrieved July 16, 2017.
  191. ^ Rohde, David (April 15, 1998). "Maurice Stans Dies at 90; Led Nixon Commerce Dept". The New York Times. p. D23. Archived from the original on June 8, 2013. Retrieved March 24, 2013.
  192. ^ "Cook Quoted as Saying He Quit S.E.C. in Fear of Impeachment". The New York Times. Washington. Associated Press. May 26, 1973. p. 10.
  193. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved November 22, 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  194. ^ "Cook, Former S.E.C. Chief, Cited in Bar Complaint". The New York Times. September 28, 1974. p. 40.
  195. ^ "The Nixon administration and Watergate: 'Townhouse Operation'". History Commons. Archived from the original on August 13, 2016.
  196. ^ Gerth, Jeff; Pear, Robert (June 11, 1992). "Files Detail Aid to Bush By Nixon White House". The New York Times. Washington. p. B9. Archived from the original on October 8, 2016.
  197. ^ Sullivan, Patricia (October 3, 2007). "Harry Dent; Advised Key Republicans". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 8, 2016.
  198. ^ James R. Polk. "Top money manager: unpublicized fund-raiser may hold key for Nixon", originally in The Washington Star, reprinted in The Dallas Morning News, February 3, 1972, page 2A.
  199. ^ Miller and Morris, "Donations flood a loophole", Los Angeles Times, October 11, 1992.
  200. ^ Stanley Kutler (ed.), Watergate: the fall of Richard Nixon, (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2010), pp. 215–216
  201. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on February 9, 2016. Retrieved February 4, 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  202. ^ "Remembering the Criminal Conviction of the Director of the CIA". The Future of Freedom Foundation. September 12, 2014. Archived from the original on November 1, 2016.
  203. ^ Marquis, Christopher (October 24, 2002). "Richard Helms, Ex-C.I.A. Chief, Dies at 89". The New York Times. p. B9. Archived from the original on April 23, 2016.
  204. ^ Swint, Kerwin C. (2006). Mudslingers: the top 25 negative political campaigns of all time: countdown from no. 25 to no. 1. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-275-98510-3.
  205. ^ [2] Archived February 8, 2001, at the Wayback Machine | FBI Finds Nixon Aides Sabotaged Democrats By Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward, The Washington Post October 10, 1972 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 25, 2010. Retrieved September 27, 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  206. ^ Russell, Jenna (February 17, 2009). "Chapter 3: Chappaquiddick: Conflicted ambitions, then, Chappaquiddick". The Boston Globe. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 21, 2010. Retrieved August 26, 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link). Retrieved February 24, 2009.
  207. ^ Grossman, Mark (2003). Political Corruption in America: An Encyclopedia of Scandals, Power, and Greed. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-060-4. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
  208. ^ a b c d Beers, Paul B. (1980). Pennsylvania Politics Today and Yesterday: The Tolerable Accommodation. Pennsylvania State University Press. p. 403. ISBN 978-0-271-00238-5.
  209. ^ Grossman, Mark (2003). Political Corruption in America: An Encyclopedia of Scandals, Power, and Greed. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-060-4. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
  210. ^ Haldane, David (June 13, 2001). "Richard Hanna: Congressman Sent to Prison in Bribery Scandal". Archived from the original on October 13, 2012. Retrieved May 22, 2013.
  211. ^ "Log In – ProQuest". search.proquest.com.
  212. ^ "United States of America v. Howard Edwin Reinecke, Appellant, 524 F.2d 435 (D.C. Cir. 1975)". law.justia.com. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016.
  213. ^ "Death of a Jovial Guy". Time. June 4, 1973. Archived from the original on March 11, 2016.
  214. ^ "MILLS, William Oswald – Biographical Information". bioguide.congress.gov. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017.
  215. ^ Franklin, Ben A. (May 25, 1973). "A House Member Apparent Suicide". The New York Times. p. 1.
  216. ^ Vitello, Paul (August 20, 2014). "George Hansen, Idaho Congressman and Convicted Swindler, Dies at 83". The New York Times. p. B9.
  217. ^ George V. Hansen, Idaho congressman sentenced to federal prison, dies at 83 By Matt Schudel August 17, 2014 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 15, 2017. Retrieved May 31, 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  218. ^ a b "James Jones: a power in D.C." Oklahoman.com. May 2, 1982. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  219. ^ Friedan, Betty. "Judge Carswell And The "Sex Plus" Doctrine". Gifts of Speech. Retrieved May 14, 2013. Testimony Before The Senate Judicial Committee – 1970., cited from Friedan, Betty (1976). It Changed My Life. New York: Random House. pp. 132–136.
  220. ^ "The Supreme Court: A Seat for Mediocrity?". Time. March 30, 1970. Archived from the original on August 5, 2011.
  221. ^ "Crony cachet". The Washingtion Times. Archived from the original on June 14, 2006.
  222. ^ "Herbert Allan Fogel". OpenJurist.
  223. ^ "The Nation: EXIT EARL, NOT LAUGHING". Time. October 18, 1976. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  224. ^ [3] Archived October 24, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, March 4, 2006, "Sentences of other congressmen convicted of crimes" by the AP,
  225. ^ "CONGRESS: Indecent Exposure on Capitol Hill". Time. June 7, 1976. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  226. ^ "Frank J. Horton". www.nndb.com. Archived from the original on June 3, 2016.
  227. ^ Cahn, Emily (July 6, 2012). "Former Rep. Richard Tonry of Louisiana Dead at 77". Roll Call.
  228. ^ "8 Louisiana Officials Plead Guilty To Vote Fraud in Congress Race". nytimes.com. February 12, 1977.
  229. ^ Alexander-Bloch, Benjamin (July 6, 2012). "Former U.S. Rep. Richard "Rick" A. Tonry dies at 77 years old". nola.com.
  230. ^ St. Petersburg Times, January 23, 1974, "Ex-Congressman Ordered to Prison" by UPI
  231. ^ [4] Archived February 8, 2001, at the Wayback Machine, August 22, 2005, Obituary, "Convicted Politician Bertram Podell, 79"
  232. ^ "Congressman Wilbur Mills and Stripper Fanne Foxe – 1974". The Washington Post. July 21, 1998. Archived from the original on May 10, 2015. Retrieved February 21, 2015.
  233. ^ King, Seth S. (July 29, 1974). "Otto Kerner Goes to Jail Today, His Once‐Shining Career at End". The New York Times. Chicago. p. 47. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  234. ^ "Reagan Assures Casey He Can Stay as CIA Chief in New Term?", The Washington Post, September 11, 1984.
  235. ^ Rudin, Ken (June 6, 2007). "The Equal-Opportunity Culture of Corruption". NPR. Archived from the original on February 13, 2008. Retrieved July 29, 2007.
  236. ^ Green, Mark (February 18, 1980). "Congress after the Sting". New York. p. 60. ISSN 0028-7369.
  237. ^ a b Bauman, Robert E. (September 19, 1983). "A Former Congressman, Once a Staunch Foe of Gay Rights, Confronts His Own Homosexuality". People. Archived from the original on February 8, 2017.
  238. ^ a b Saperstein, Saundra; Baker, Donald P. (October 26, 1980). "Bauman in the Balance". Washington Post. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
  239. ^ "Heading South", Page Six, New York Post, February 24, 2009
  240. ^ [5] Archived January 8, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, August 26, 1998, "Charles Diggs, 75, Congressman Censured Over Kickbacks" by Byron Molotsky
  241. ^ [6][permanent dead link]
  242. ^ Binda, Lawrance (July 1, 2003). The Big, Bad Book of Mike: Rogues, Rascals and Rapscallions Named Michael, Mike and Mickey. iUniverse. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-595-28772-7.
  243. ^ "CQ-Roll Call | Congress 101 – Disciplining Members". Corporate.cqrollcall.com. May 29, 2008. Archived from the original on September 23, 2010. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
  244. ^ Time, April 28, 1975, "Trials: Big John Connolly Acquitted"
  245. ^ "United States of America, Plaintiff-appellee, v. Richard A. Tonry, Defendant-appellant – 605 F.2d 144 – Justia US Court of Appeals Cases and Opinions". Cases.justia.com. October 9, 1979. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
  246. ^ Time, February 18, 1980, "Nation: Rogues Gallery"
  247. ^ "Hanna Says He Accepted Park Bribes". Lakeland Ledger. Lakeland, FL. Associated Press. March 17, 1978. pp. 1A and 7A. Retrieved November 19, 2010.
  248. ^ "Ex-Rep. Hanna handed term in Korean influence scandal". The Bulletin. Bend, OR. Associated Press. April 24, 1978. p. 1. Retrieved November 19, 2010.
  249. ^ Grossman, Mark (2003). Political corruption in America: an encyclopedia of scandals, power, and greed. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-060-4.
  250. ^ "House panel censures one congressman, reprimands another". Gadsden Times. Gadsden, AL. Associated Press. September 28, 1978. p. 5. Retrieved November 19, 2010.
  251. ^ "John McFall, 88, Representative Tied to Bribery Scandal in 1970's". The New York Times. Associated Press. March 18, 2006. Archived from the original on October 19, 2015. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
  252. ^ "Biographical Directory of Article III Federal Judges, 1789-present | Federal Judicial Center". Archived from the original on February 2, 2013.
  253. ^ "Federal judge pleads guilty to 2 drug charges". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Associated Press. November 19, 2010. Retrieved November 19, 2010.
  254. ^ "Jack Tarpley Camp Jr. | OpenJurist".
  255. ^ "Dealmaker Melvyn Paisley's True Colors Are Questioned in a Defense Corruption Probe". PEOPLE.com. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  256. ^ Critelli, Anthony (June 14, 2011). "This Day in GovCon History, June 14, 1988: "Operation Ill Wind" Raids". GovWin Network. Archived from the original on November 9, 2013. Retrieved January 4, 2016.
  257. ^ Frantz, Douglas (October 19, 1991). "Paisley Gets 4-Year Term in Ill Wind Case : Pentagon: He is the highest-ranking target and his sentence is the stiffest yet in the defense procurement scandal". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on September 21, 2015.
  258. ^ "Regular Navy Appointments". Archived from the original on January 6, 2016. Retrieved August 1, 2015.
  259. ^ "Ex-Official Sentenced". The New York Times. Alexandria, Virginia. Associated Press. June 1, 1992. Archived from the original on November 1, 2016.
  260. ^ Jackson, Robert L. (August 23, 1991). "Ex-Official Enters 'Ill Wind' Guilty Plea : Defense: It marks the 50th conviction obtained under the probe of Pentagon procurement fraud. He faces 20 years in jail at sentencing December 6". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on November 8, 2015. Retrieved August 10, 2015.
  261. ^ Shenon, Philip (November 3, 2000). "Samuel R. Pierce Jr., Ex-Housing Secretary, Dies at 78". The New York Times. p. B13.
  262. ^ "HUD FERTILE GROUND FOR WRONGDOING". Washington Post. June 18, 1989. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  263. ^ Janofsky, Michael (October 29, 1998). "Long Inquiry on Abuse in the Housing Department Is Completed". The New York Times. p. A18.
  264. ^ RollingStone.com, November 18, 2003, "Crimes Against Nature" by Robert F. Kennedy Jr.
  265. ^ a b c d Labaton, Stephen (October 27, 1993). "Ex-Official Is Convicted In HUD Scandal of 80's". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
  266. ^ The Washington Post, October 15, 1999, "Strauss Convicted" by Toni Locy
  267. ^ "In The Matter Of: Joseph A. Strauss, The Phoenix Associates, Ltd" (PDF). HUD.gov. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  268. ^ Jeff Gerth (July 8, 1988), "Prosecutor Shines New Light on Meese", The New York Times.
  269. ^ Marcus, Ruth (December 12, 1989). "Court Refuses to Review Nofziger Case". The Washington Post.
  270. ^ George Lardner Jr. (August 5, 1988). "Rep. Biaggi, 4 Others Guilty in Wedtech Case". The Washington Post.
  271. ^ Timothy Curry and Lynn Shibut, The Cost of the Savings and Loan Crisis: Truth and Consequences FDIC, December 2000.
  272. ^ "Fedders Resigns as SEC Chief of Enforcement, Apologizes to Agency". Los Angeles Times. February 27, 1985. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  273. ^ Durr, Kenneth (August 9, 2006). "Securities and Exchange Commission Historical Society Interview with John Fedders" (PDF). rackcdn.com. SEC. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  274. ^ "Federal Housing Official Quits after Inquiry Cites Abuses of Office". The New York Times. UPI. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016.
  275. ^ Ronald Reagan: "Nomination of Emanuel S. Savas To Be Assistant Secretary of Housing and Urban Development", February 23, 1981. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 20, 2015. Retrieved January 19, 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  276. ^ "The Iran-Contra Affair". American Experience. The Presidents. PBS. Retrieved July 18, 2017.
  277. ^ "Weinberger charged in Iran-Contra matter". Federation of American Scientists. June 16, 1992. Archived from the original on February 5, 2015. Retrieved August 18, 2014.
  278. ^ "Bush Pardons Weinberger, Five Others Tied to Iran-Contra". Federation of American Scientists. Archived from the original on April 21, 2008.
  279. ^ Zoglin, Richard (October 12, 1987). "Did A Dead Man Tell No Tales?". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  280. ^ Pichirallo, Joe (March 12, 1988). "McFarlane Enters Guilty Plea Arising From Iran-Contra Affair; Former Reagan Adviser Withheld Information From Congress". The Washington Post.
  281. ^ Walsh, Lawrence E. (August 4, 1993). "Final Report of the Independent Counsel For Iran/Contra Matters Vol. I: Investigations and Prosecutions". Summary of Prosecutions. U. S. Court of Appeal for the District of Columbia.
  282. ^ "Walsh Iran / Contra Report: Summary of Prosecutions". Federation of American Scientists. Archived from the original on February 25, 2017. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
  283. ^ "Walsh Iran / Contra Report – Obtaining Copies". Federation of American Scientists. Archived from the original on March 21, 2015.
  284. ^ "Walsh Iran / Contra Report – Chapter 17 United States v. Clair E. George". Federation of American Scientists. Archived from the original on May 14, 2011. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
  285. ^ "Walsh Iran/Contra Report – Chapter 2 United States v. Oliver L. North". Federation of American Scientists. Archived from the original on May 19, 2017. Retrieved June 15, 2017.
  286. ^ Hall, North Trial Testimony, 3/22/89, pp. 5311–16, and 3/23/89, pp. 5373–80, 5385–87; Chapter 5 Fawn Hall 147
  287. ^ Greenhouse, Linda (December 8, 1992). "Supreme Court Roundup; Iran-Contra Appeal Refused by Court". The New York Times. p. A22.
  288. ^ Johnston, David (November 27, 1991). "Ex-C.I.A. Official Charged on Iran Arms". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 9, 2012. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
  289. ^ "Iran-Contra Pardons". Bangor Daily News. Associated Press. December 24, 1992. p. 2. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
  290. ^ a b c d e "The Iran-Contra Defendants". The Milwaukee Journal. Journal wire services. September 17, 1991. p. A6. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
  291. ^ Johnston, David (November 9, 1989). "Secord is Guilty Of One Charge in Contra Affair". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 20, 2012. Retrieved February 3, 2011.
  292. ^ Martin, Douglas (May 1, 2003). "Albert Hakim, Figure in Iran-Contra Affair, Dies at 66". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 22, 2015. Retrieved February 21, 2015.
  293. ^ Johnston, David (September 19, 1990). "Ex-C.I.A. Agent Is Convicted in Iran-Contra Affair". The New York Times.
  294. ^ Johnston, David (March 9, 1989). "Fund-Raising Trip by North Detailed". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 9, 2012. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
  295. ^ Wines, Michael (May 9, 1990). "Carl Channell, 44, Fund-Raiser for Conservatives, Dies of Injuries". The New York Times.
  296. ^ Ostrow, Ronald J. (May 7, 1987). "Channell Associate Pleads Guilty in Iran-Contra Case". Los Angeles Times. p. 1. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
  297. ^ Engelberg, Stephen (June 21, 1988). "Ex-C.I.A. Officer Is Indicted In Iran-Contra Investigation". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 9, 2012. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
  298. ^ "Iran Contra secrets blocked". The Tuscaloosa News. October 13, 1990. p. 2A. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
  299. ^ Deaver, Michael. "Guide to Federal Records". National Archives. Archived July 5, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  300. ^ Sullivan, Patricia. Anne Gorsuch Burford, 62, Dies; Reagan EPA Director, The Washington Post, July 22, 2004; Page B06.
  301. ^ "Burford Resigns As Administrator of Embattled EPA", Toledo Blade, March 10, 1983, p. 1
  302. ^ "Conviction of Ex-Official Of E.P.A. Is Upheld". The New York Times. UPI. January 19, 1985. Archived from the original on November 7, 2012. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
  303. ^ "FEMA Chief Resigns Before House Panel Vote". Ocala Star-Banner. 41 (328). July 25, 1985. p. 2A. ISSN 0163-3201. Retrieved September 14, 2019 – via news.google.com.
  304. ^ a b "Travel, Reimbursements and Perquisites". The Washington Post. April 27, 1986. Archived from the original on September 29, 2015.
  305. ^ Miller, Wilbur R. (June 29, 2012). "White House Press Briefing on the Reagan Assassination Attempt". The Social History of Crime and Punishment in America: A-De. SAGE. p. 2427. ISBN 978-1-4129-8876-6 – via Google Books.
  306. ^ "Key FEMA Official Accused Of Sexually Harassing Aide". Washington Post. August 2, 1984. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  307. ^ Weber, Bruce (December 14, 2011). "J. Lynn Helms, Who Led the F.A.A., Dies at 86". The New York Times. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  308. ^ Woo, Elaine (December 20, 2011). "J. Lynn Helms dies at 86; FAA chief fired striking air controllers". Archived from the original on January 19, 2015. Retrieved January 19, 2015.
  309. ^ "Unpopular chief of Veterans administration resigns". The Bulletin. Bend, Oregon. UPI. October 6, 1982. p. D4 – via Google News.
  310. ^ [7] Archived February 8, 2001, at the Wayback Machine, emotional-fedders-describes-bid-to-reconcile-with-wife, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 13, 2016. Retrieved October 19, 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  311. ^ [8] Archived January 8, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, September 25, 1985, sec-enforcement-chief-quits-citing-publicity-on-divorce-trial by Keith F. Girard,"Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved February 10, 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  312. ^ [9] 27, 1985, Fedders Resigns as SEC Chief of Enforcement, Apologizes to Agency by Robert L. Jackson and Zack Nauth, Jackson, Robert L.; Nauth, Zack (February 27, 1985). "Fedders Resigns as SEC Chief of Enforcement, Apologizes to Agency". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 16, 2015. Retrieved October 19, 2015.
  313. ^ philly.com, Ex-postal Service Official Sentenced To 4 Years On Theft And Payoff Counts By William Hershey, October 25, 1986 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 18, 2015. Retrieved October 19, 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  314. ^ "Ex-Postal Officer Gets Prison Term". The New York Times. October 25, 1986. Archived from the original on November 1, 2016.
  315. ^ "Hired to Eliminate Agency, Carlos Campbell Ended Up a Casualty". Washington Post. July 4, 1986. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  316. ^ "Nomination of Carlos C. Campbell to be an Assistant Secretary of Commerce | the American Presidency Project".
  317. ^ Leslie Maitland Werner (October 3, 1984). "U.S. Attorney in Cleveland Is Discharged by President". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017.
  318. ^ "PN900 – Nomination of J. William Petro for Department of Justice, 97th Congress (1981–1982)". U.S. Congress. March 4, 1982. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016.
  319. ^ Pound, Edward T. (April 6, 1982). "U.S. Attorney in San Diego Dismissed". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 8, 2016.
  320. ^ Pound, Edward T. (April 6, 1982). "U.S. Attorney in San Diego Dismissed". The New York Times.
  321. ^ "Retired judge, former U.S. Attorney dies". May 30, 2014.
  322. ^ Anderson, Jack; Spear, Joseph (August 26, 1987). "U.S. paid for mom's trips". Ellensburg Daily Record. 86 (202). p. 4. ISSN 0163-3201. Retrieved September 14, 2019 – via news.google.com.
  323. ^ "Resignation of Population Official Ends Expense Account Probe".
  324. ^ "Deputy Resigns At Commerce in Sale of Satellite". Washington Post. May 11, 1983. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  325. ^ "Ex-Commerce Deputy's Claim Questioned – The Washington Post".
  326. ^ New York Media, LLC (February 4, 1980). "New York Magazine".
  327. ^ "An Inquiry Clears Hatfield". Time. October 1, 1984. Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 12, 2007.
  328. ^ Killen, John (February 12, 2015). "Throwback Thursday: Oregon has had its share of political scandals, large and small". oregonlive. Archived from the original on April 17, 2016.
  329. ^ [10] Archived October 16, 2008, at the Wayback Machine | Mark Hatfield was named as bribe target in secret 1985 indictment of Greek arms dealer, newly released FBI documents show | Jeff Mapes | June 2, 2012 | "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 1, 2016. Retrieved December 28, 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  330. ^ Lamar Jr., Jacob V. (August 24, 1984). "Oil Slick". Time. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007.
  331. ^ David Durenberger at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
  332. ^ [11] Archived January 8, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, August 23, 1995, "Ex-Senator is Guilty of Expenses Abuses
  333. ^ [12] Archived March 9, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, June 26, 2007, "Reported Instances of Voter Caging" by Justin Levitt and Andrea Allison
  334. ^ Media Matters for America article, October 5, 2006, which cites the 'Boston Globe, July 27, 1990, as well as the Ethics Committee's report, July 20, 1990.
  335. ^ The Washington Post, March 16, 1996, "Lukens Convicted of Taking Bribes"
  336. ^ [13] Archived January 8, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, May 27, 1989, "Coelhoto REsign His Seat in the House in the Face of Inquiry" by Michael Oreskes
  337. ^ "James C. Wright, Jr. (United States politician) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on September 29, 2009. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
  338. ^ ChicagoTribune.com, October 7, 2008, "Q and A: The Keating Scandal"
  339. ^ "CRANSTON, Alan – Biographical Information". Bioguide.congress.gov. Archived from the original on July 7, 2010. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
  340. ^ a b c d Times, Special to The New York (February 28, 1991). "Excerpts of Statement By Senate Ethics Panel". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
  341. ^ "Abscam Scandal". Nndb.com. Archived from the original on August 26, 2010. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
  342. ^ [14] Archived January 8, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, November 11, 2001, "Ex-Senator Harrison Williams Jr. Dies" by Douglas Martin,
  343. ^ [15] Archived January 8, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, April 6, 1985, "Around the Nation" by the AP.
  344. ^ [16] Archived January 8, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, August 26, 2005, "Richard Kelly, 81, Congressman Who Went to Prison in Scandal, Dies" by Wolfgang Saxon,
  345. ^ [17] Archived July 11, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, December 3, 2008, "Raymond Lederer, Abscam Figure, Is Dead at 70" by the Associated Press
  346. ^ [18] Archived January 8, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, June 23, 1983, "Around the Nation" by UPI
  347. ^ [19] Archived January 8, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, July 24, 1989, "Frank thompson, 70 Career in Congress Ended with Abscam" by Joseph Fried
  348. ^ ""Abscam conspirator begins prison term", The New York Times, July 16, 1983". Archived from the original on May 18, 2013.
  349. ^ Jury convicts Camden mayor of corruption, by Brendan Schurr, AP, December 22, 2001.
  350. ^ The New York Times (August 6, 1988) "Biaggi Quits, Will Not Seek an 11th Term"
  351. ^ "Mario Biaggi, 97, Popular Bronx Congressman Who Went to Prison, Dies". The New York Times. June 26, 2015. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  352. ^ [20] | October 01, 1987 | Konnyu at Center of Political Storm Over Harassment | KAREN TUMULTY | Times Staff Writer October 01, 1987 [21]
  353. ^ CASEY TOLAN (October 26, 2017). "Internal Affairs: Former Rep. Ernie Konnyu says he won't run for Senate". mercurynews.com.
  354. ^ [22]
  355. ^ The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, November 22, 2009, "Pat Swindall fights in court on multiple fronts" by Steve Visser
  356. ^ "Patrick Lynn Swindall". Congressional Bad Boys. Archived from the original on February 14, 2015.
  357. ^ "United States of America, Plaintiff-appellee, v. George v. Hansen, Defendant-appellant.united States of America, Plaintiff-appellee, v. John F. Scoresby, Defendant-appellant – 19 F.3d 30 – Justia US Court of Appeals Cases and Opinions". Cases.justia.com. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
  358. ^ [23] Archived July 11, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, October 23, 1987, "Life After Jail; Politicians Get Help From Their Friends" by Frank Lynn
  359. ^ Johnston, David (October 21, 1989). "Hastings Ousted As Senate Vote Convicts Judge". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 11, 2011. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
  360. ^ "News: Ex-federal judge Claiborne kills self". Las Vegas Review-Journal. January 21, 2004. Archived from the original on January 17, 2013. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
  361. ^ Werner, Leslie Maitland (October 3, 1984). "U.S. Attorney in Cleveland Is Discharged by President". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  362. ^ "Judge Walter L. Nixon Impeached After Perjury Conviction". Constitutional Law Reporter. June 21, 2017. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  363. ^ Lewis, Neil A. (November 4, 1989). "Senate Convicts U.S. Judge, Removing Him From Bench". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  364. ^ Nixon v. United States,  506  U.S. 506 / 224 /  224  ( 1993).
  365. ^ "Jury convicts federal judge of bribery". United Press International. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
  366. ^ Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit (September 10, 1992). "United States v. Robert F. Collins and John H. Ross, 972 F.2d 1385 (5th Cir. 1992)". courtlistener.com.
  367. ^ "The Iran-Contra Affair 20 Years On". George Washington University. Archived from the original on May 2, 2013. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
  368. ^ Office of Public Affairs, U.S. Department of Justice, "Former U.S. Treasurer Sentenced", (press release) DOJ.gov (September 1994).
  369. ^ Johnston, David (December 25, 1992). "Bush Pardons 6 in Iran Affair, Aborting a Weinberger Trial; Prosecutor Assails 'Cover-Up'". The New York Times. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 10, 2009. Retrieved June 6, 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link).
  370. ^ a b c d e f Bush, George H. W. (December 24, 1992). "Proclamation 6518 – Grant of Executive Clemency". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on May 14, 2008. Retrieved April 23, 2008.
  371. ^ a b Burgess, Joel. "Taylor associates sentenced in case". Hendersonville Times-News. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  372. ^ "A Guide to the Albert Bustamante Papers, 1980–1992". University of Texas Libraries. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  373. ^ "2 'guilties' result of plea deal". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. Associated Press. May 22, 1993. p. 5B. Retrieved November 19, 2010.
  374. ^ "Former U.S. Rep Smith sentenced to 3 months jail, fined $5,000". The News. Florida. Associated Press. August 3, 1993. p. 2B. Retrieved November 19, 2010.
  375. ^ "Ex-congressman to go to prison". The New York Times. August 3, 1993.
  376. ^ ^ David Durenberger at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
  377. ^ "Breaking News, World News & Multimedia". www.nytimes.com.
  378. ^ "The Thomas Nomination; On the Hearing Schedule: Eight Further Witnesses", The New York Times (October 13, 1991)
  379. ^ [24][permanent dead link] Walter Nixon at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center.
  380. ^ "Jury convicts federal judge of bribery". UPI. June 29, 1991. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  381. ^ "Habeas Corpus Denied". Cornell Legal Information Institute. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  382. ^ "U.S. JUDGE IS GIVEN PRISON SENTENCE". The New York Times. September 7, 1991. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  383. ^ WashingtonPost.com, February 13, 1999, p. A1, "Senate Acquits President Clinton" by Peter Baker and Helen Dewar,
  384. ^ "Supreme Court term packed with meaty cases". CNN. October 3, 2005. Archived from the original on January 28, 2011.
  385. ^ "Bill Clinton was Fined, Disbarred over the Monica Lewinsky Scandal".
  386. ^ "OIC Smaltz: Press Releases". Govinfo.library.unt.edu. Archived from the original on January 17, 2013. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
  387. ^ "White House Aide Resigns After Golf Trip by Helocopter". The Tech. May 27, 1994. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  388. ^ "The Rise And Fall of A Maverick". Government Executive. February 1, 2004. Retrieved March 31, 2013.
  389. ^ "Ex-Official Goes to Prison". January 5, 2005. Retrieved June 22, 2017 – via NYTimes.com.
  390. ^ "Cashing In For Profit?". Retrieved June 22, 2017.
  391. ^ "U.S. Treasurer Under Bush Pleads Guilty to 3 Felonies". The New York Times. February 18, 1994. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  392. ^ "Former Treasurer Guilty of Tax Evasion : Corruption: Bush Administration official also admits obstructing federal probe and concealing business links". Los Angeles Times. February 18, 1994. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  393. ^ "Ex-U.S. Treasurer Given Prison Term". Los Angeles Times. September 14, 1994. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  394. ^ "House Reprimands, Penalizes Speaker". The Washington Post. August 5, 1998. Archived from the original on May 25, 2010. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
  395. ^ The Speaker Steps Down, The New York Times, 11/8/98.
  396. ^ Broderick, Chris (January 29, 2009). "Wes Cooley indicted on federal fraud charges". The Oregonian. Archived from the original on December 23, 2014. Retrieved December 22, 2014..
  397. ^ "Conduct Cases in the House of Representatives" (PDF). House Committee on Ethics. 2004.
  398. ^ Walsh, Edward (September 8, 1998). "Burton Fathered Child in Extramarital Affair". The Washington Post.
  399. ^ "Murphy Arraigned on Vote-fraud Charges". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. May 25, 1999. p. B-1. Retrieved February 21, 2015 – via Newsbank.
  400. ^ "Mavroules moves to halfway house Former congressman will finish his sentence in Boston". The Boston Globe. July 6, 1994. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved August 31, 2010 – via HighBeam Research.
  401. ^ Chen, Edwin (September 8, 1995). "Senator Packwood Resigns". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on April 11, 2016. Retrieved April 21, 2016.
  402. ^ "The 22 Worst". USA Today. April 17, 1992.
  403. ^ Yost, Pete (December 21, 2005). "Abramoff Case Has Lawmakers Scared". Associated Press. Archived from the original on October 10, 2008.
  404. ^ a b c d e "Former delegate Fauntroy is charged, agrees to plead guilty". Department of Justice. March 22, 1995. Archived from the original on May 30, 2009.
  405. ^ "Carroll Hubbard announces for Representative's seat". Kentucky New Era. Associated Press. January 2, 1974. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
  406. ^ Borger, Gloria (May 5, 1994). "Rostenkowski's Last Stand". U.S. News & World Report.
  407. ^ Locy, Toni (May 8, 1996). "Kolter Guilty in Post Office Scandal". The Washington Post.
  408. ^ "Ex-congressman Gets 6 Months in Prison". The New York Times. August 1, 1996.
  409. ^ "Kim Pleads Guilty to Illegal Donations". Asian Week. August 1998.
  410. ^ Martinez, GEBE (October 26, 1996). "Rohrabacher Pays Fines for Not Filing Report". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on September 27, 2016. Retrieved September 24, 2016.
  411. ^ "O.C. Grand Jury Indicts Baugh : Campaign Fraud Indictments". Los Angeles Times. March 23, 1996.
  412. ^ Warren, Peter M. (December 5, 1997). "Carmony Pleads Guilty in Baugh Campaign Case". Los Angeles Times.
  413. ^ "Rohrabacher's ex-treasurer sentenced to 1 year, but won't have to go to prison, judge says". Orange County Register. April 25, 2017. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  414. ^ "Rohrabacher's ex-treasurer pleads guilty to embezzling from campaign fund". Daily Pilot. January 17, 2017. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  415. ^ Bernick Jr., Bob (July 30, 2003). "Enid Greene back in the public eye". Deseret News.
  416. ^ "Waldholtz enters guilty pleas". CNN. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
  417. ^ McKinnon, Jim (May 14, 2004). "Ex-GOP strategist headed back to jail". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
  418. ^ "Joe Waldholtz Sentenced to Prison".
  419. ^ Writer, Joel BurgessTimes-News Staff. "Taylor associates sentenced in case". Hendersonville Times-News.
  420. ^ William Neikirk and Mike Dorning, Washington Bureau (December 18, 1998). "SPEAKER-ELECT ADMITS ILLICIT SEXUAL AFFAIRS". chicagotribune.com.
  421. ^ "The History Place, The Great Speeches Collection". historyplace.com.
  422. ^ "Rep. Livingston Resignation". c-span.org. December 19, 1998.
  423. ^ "Congressman Convicted of Sexual Assault". .nytimes.com. The Associated Press. August 23, 1995.
  424. ^ History, Art and Archives. "REYNOLDS, Mel". history.house.gov.
  425. ^ Ben Grove and Paul de la Garza (August 23, 1995). "August 1995: Reynolds guilty of child pornography, obstruction, sexual abuse, sexual assault". chicagotribune.com.
  426. ^ "The Scrutinizer Finds Himself Under Scrutiny". Los Angeles Times. September 25, 2005. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  427. ^ T. Christian Miller (September 3, 2005). "Pentagon Investigator Resigning". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 19, 2015. Retrieved August 1, 2015.
  428. ^ a b "Pentagon Ousts Official Under FBI Investigation". Los Angeles Times. December 11, 2004. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  429. ^ "Senate" (PDF). Congressional Record. Vol. 151 no. 122. September 27, 2005. p. 35. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved August 1, 2015.
  430. ^ Thompson, Mark (March 2, 2007). "Firing the Wrong General". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  431. ^ "Personnel Announcement". georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov.
  432. ^ "Francis Harvey". Forbes. Archived from the original on May 31, 2014. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
  433. ^ "Defense.gov News Article: Walter Reed Chief Relieved of Command". archive.defense.gov.
  434. ^ Vogel, Steve; Branigin, William (March 2, 2007). "Army Fires Commander of Walter Reed". Washington Post. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  435. ^ "Defense.gov News Article: Army Secretary Resigns in Wake of Walter Reed Outpatient-Care Shortfalls". archive.defense.gov.
  436. ^ "Top Army General Relieved of Command at Walter Reed Army Medical Center". Fox News. March 25, 2015. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  437. ^ "A Profile of Lieutenant General Kevin C. Kiley, MD: U.S. Army Surgeon General". EMS World.
  438. ^ White, Josh (March 13, 2007). "Surgeon General of the Army Steps Down". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 7, 2014. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
  439. ^ [25] Archived December 29, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, January 7, 2012, "Q & A; Timothy Goeglein on Redemption After plagiarism" by Sarah Pulliam Bailey, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 10, 2011. Retrieved January 8, 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  440. ^ Elliott, Justin (April 27, 2010). "Ex-Bush Official Pleads Guilty To Contempt In Geeks On Call Case". Talking Points Memo. Archived from the original on April 30, 2010. Retrieved April 27, 2010.
  441. ^ Hsu, Spencer S. (February 3, 2011). "Bush whistle-blower protector faces jail". Washington Post. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  442. ^ Marimow, Ann E. (June 24, 2013). "Former federal official sentenced to probation with a day in jail". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 25, 2014. Retrieved November 10, 2013.
  443. ^ Michael J. Sniffen and Matt Apuzzo (Associated Press), "Libby Found Guilty in CIA Leak Trial: Ex-Cheney Aide Libby Found Guilty of Obstruction, Perjury, Lying to the FBI in CIA Leak Case", ABC News, March 6, 2007
  444. ^ Sniffen, Michael J.; Apuzzo, Matt (March 6, 2007). "Libby found guilty in CIA leak trial". The Boston Globe. Associated Press. Archived from the original on December 1, 2011. Retrieved August 31, 2011.
  445. ^ Karl de Vries (April 13, 2018). "Trump pardons ex-Cheney aide Scooter Libby". CNN. Retrieved April 13, 2018.
  446. ^ Knowles, Michael. "Trump Rightly Pardons Scooter Libby a Decade After Bush Refused". Retrieved April 14, 2018.
  447. ^ Perez, Christine (May 7, 2006). "HUD secretary's blunt warning Alphonso Jackson says deal was scuttled after contractor admits not liking Bush". Dallas Business Journal. Archived from the original on December 13, 2011. Retrieved August 31, 2011.
  448. ^ Hamburger, Tom (April 24, 2007). "Inquiry of Rove brings unit out of obscurity". The Seattle Times. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  449. ^ DeYoung, Karen (October 24, 2007). "State Dept. Ousts Its Chief of Security (archived copy)". Washington Post. Archived from the original on February 23, 2013. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
  450. ^ "NEWSMEAT ▷ Howard Krongard's Federal Campaign Contribution Report". Newsmeat.com. Archived from the original on January 18, 2013. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
  451. ^ Hess, Amanda. "Slate Magazine". Slate. Archived from the original on November 8, 2012. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
  452. ^ Richter, Paul (December 8, 2007). "State Dept.'s chief watchdog resigns". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 23, 2012. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
  453. ^ Kessler, Glenn; DeYoung, Karen (September 19, 2007). "State IG Accused of Averting Probes". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 3, 2012. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
  454. ^ "Gonzalez Admits 'Mistakes'". NewsHour with Jim Lehrer. PBS. March 13, 2007. Archived from the original on September 2, 2010. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
  455. ^ Bowermaster, David (May 9, 2007). "Charges may result from firings, say two former U.S. attorneys". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on May 13, 2007. Retrieved May 16, 2007.
  456. ^ Eggen, Dan; Goldstein, Amy (May 14, 2007). "Voter-Fraud Complaints by GOP Drove Dismissals". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on March 19, 2009. Retrieved May 18, 2007.
  457. ^ Jordan, Lara Jakes; (Associated Press) (September 15, 2007). "Attorney general bids farewell to Justice: Praises work of department". The Boston Globe. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on June 20, 2010. Retrieved September 19, 2007.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link). Retrieved September 19, 2007.
  458. ^ Rutenberg, Jim; Myers, Steven Lee (August 14, 2007). "Karl Rove, Top Strategist, Is Leaving the White House". The New York Times. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  459. ^ a b Shapiro, Ari (July 25, 2007). "Bush Aides in Contempt; Will They Be Prosecuted?". NPR.org. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
  460. ^ a b Hartley, Allegra (March 21, 2007). "Timeline: How the U.S. Attorneys Were Fired". US News & World Report. Archived from the original on May 28, 2007. Retrieved May 28, 2007.
  461. ^ Totenberg, Nina (August 24, 2007). "Schlozman Leaves Justice Dept. Amid Questions". NPR  Retrieved January 14, 2009
  462. ^ Johnston, David (June 16, 2007). "Another Justice Department Official Resigns". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 24, 2013. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
  463. ^ Dan Eggen (May 15, 2007). "Justice Dept.'s No. 2 to Resign: McNulty Is 4th to Quit Since Disputed Firings". The Washington Post. p. A01. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 1, 2008. Retrieved May 15, 2007.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link).
  464. ^ Eggen, Dan (June 23, 2007). "Third-in-Command at Justice Dept. Resigns: Mercer to Leave Washington Job but Keep U.S. Attorney's Position in Montana". The Washington Post. p. A04. Archived November 6, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved June 25, 2007.
  465. ^ Jordan, Lara Jakes (April 6, 2007). "Gonzales aide Goodling resigns". Associated Press.
  466. ^ Michael A. Fletcher (May 28, 2007). "Another Top Bush Aide Makes an Exit". The Washington Post. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 26, 2012. Retrieved June 11, 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link).
  467. ^ "Advisers' E-Mail Accounts May Have Mixed Politics and Business, White House Says" by Sheryl Gay Stolberg, The New York Times, April 12, 2007
  468. ^ CREW Releases New Report – "Without A Trace: The Missing White House Emails and The Violations of The Presidential Records Act" by Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington, April 13, 2006
  469. ^ Harrow, Robert (May 1, 2008). "Doan Ends Her Stormy Tenure as GSA Chief". washingtonpost.com. Retrieved May 1, 2008.
  470. ^ Weisman, Jonathan (October 25, 2007). "White House Feels Waxman's Oversight Gaze". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 11, 2010.
  471. ^ Stout, David "Federal Contracting Chief Is Forced Out". The New York Times. (April 3, 2008)
  472. ^ Report: Contracting head illegally political – USATODAY.com
  473. ^ a b Andrews, Edmund L. (March 24, 2007). "Former Interior Aide Pleads Guilty to Lying". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
  474. ^ Andy Sullivan and James Vicini (March 23, 2007). "Interior Department's No. 2 Resigns After Controversial Tenure". Reuters.
  475. ^ Schmitt, Richard B. (March 24, 2007). "Griles guilty in Abramoff case". Los Angeles Times.
  476. ^ "Former Housing Board Chairman Agrees to Plead Guilty". The Bismarck Tribune. Associated Press. March 23, 2005. Archived from the original on December 24, 2010.
  477. ^ "Korsmo, John T." Our Campaigns. May 22, 2003.
  478. ^ Piltz, Rick S. (June 1, 2005). "On Issues of Concern about the Governance of the Climate Change Science Program" (PDF). pp. 10–11. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 28, 2007. Retrieved June 8, 2007.
  479. ^ Revkin, Andrew (June 10, 2005). "Editor of Climate Report Resigns". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 14, 2013. Retrieved April 23, 2008.
  480. ^ Lusetich, Robert (March 21, 2007). "Climate science was doctored". The Australian. Archived from the original on July 24, 2009. Retrieved June 9, 2012.
  481. ^ "House Probe Turns to Role of Cheney's Office". March 20, 2007. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved June 8, 2007.
  482. ^ a b "US lobbyist jailed for corruption". BBC News. September 4, 2008. Archived from the original on October 19, 2015.
  483. ^ a b c d e Wilber, Del Quentin; Johnson, Carrie (September 4, 2008). "Abramoff Sentenced to 4 Years in Prison for Corruption". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 9, 2010. Retrieved September 4, 2008.
  484. ^ "Former GSA Chief of Staff David Safavian Sentenced for Obstruction of Justice and Making False Statements" (Press release). U.S. Department of Justice Office of Public Affairs. October 16, 2009.
  485. ^ "#08-1138: Former GSA Chief of Staff David Safavian Convicted of Obstruction, Making False Statements (2008-12-19)". Justice.gov. December 19, 2008. Archived from the original on August 26, 2013. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
  486. ^ Birnbaum, Jeffrey H. (June 21, 2006). "Ex-Aide To Bush Found Guilty". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 30, 2010.
  487. ^ Seidman, Joel (October 27, 2006). "Safavian sentenced to 18 months in jail". NBC News. NBCUniversal. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
  488. ^ Seidman, Joel (January 9, 2007). "Abramoff's Interior link gets 2 years probation". MSNBC. Retrieved June 24, 2017.
  489. ^ Baker, Peter; Grimaldi, James V. (October 7, 2006). "Rove Aid Linked to Abramoff Resigns". The Washington Post.
  490. ^ Apuzzo, Matt (June 6, 2007). "New Charges Filed in Abramoff Probe". San Francisco Chronicle. Associated Press.
  491. ^ Heilprin, Mark (June 8, 2007). "GOP fundraiser pleads guilty in probe". USA Today. Associated Press. Archived from the original on October 6, 2008.
  492. ^ Schmidt, Susan (December 15, 2007). "Republican With Links to Abramoff Is Sentenced". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 3, 2012.
  493. ^ Soraghan, Mike (July 14, 2007). "Abramoff investigation leads to another guilty plea". The Hill. Archived from the original on November 12, 2008.
  494. ^ Grimaldi, James (April 23, 2008). "Ex-Official Linked to Abramoff Pleads Guilty". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 7, 2012. Retrieved December 4, 2008.
  495. ^ Baker, Debbi (September 29, 2008). "Randy 'Duke' Cunningham – Foggo pleads guilty to fraud". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Archived from the original on January 20, 2013.
  496. ^ Williamson, Elizabeth (May 2, 2007). "Interior Dept. Official Facing Scrutiny Resigns". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 1, 2012. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
  497. ^ Londoño, Ernesto; Fletcher, Michael A. (March 11, 2006). "Former Top Bush Aide Accused of Md. Thefts: Refund Scam Netted $5,000, Police Say". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 19, 2012.
  498. ^ "Ex-FDA Chief Gets Probation, Fine for Lying About Stocks". The Associated Press. February 28, 2007.
  499. ^ Manning, David; Rycroft, Matthew (July 23, 2002). "Iraq: Prime Minister's Meeting, 23 July" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 23, 2017. reprinted as "The secret Downing Street memo". The Sunday Times. May 1, 2005. Archived from the original on November 2, 2010.
  500. ^ Ensor, David (March 14, 2003). "Fake Iraq documents 'embarrassing' for U.S". CNN.
  501. ^ After the war, more than 550 short tons (500 t) of yellowcake, which was cataloged pre-war by the IAEA and not conveniently suitable for atomic weapons was removed from Iraq and eventually shipped to Canada. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 31, 2015. Retrieved August 13, 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  502. ^ "U.S. Mismanaged Iraqi Funds". United States House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform. Archived from the original on December 27, 2006. Retrieved February 8, 2007.
  503. ^ Pallister, David (February 8, 2007). "How the US sent $12bn in cash to Iraq. And watched it vanish". The Guardian. London. Retrieved February 8, 2007.
  504. ^ Asthana, Anushka (January 26, 2006). "How US lost billions in Wild West gamble to rebuild Iraq". The Times. London. Archived from the original on February 18, 2008. Retrieved April 16, 2011.
  505. ^ "How the US sent $12bn in cash to Iraq. And watched it vanish". The Guardian. London. February 8, 2007. Retrieved December 16, 2018.
  506. ^ Pelofsky, Jeremy (February 7, 2007). "U.S. sent pallets of cash to Baghdad". Reuters.
  507. ^ Kurtz, Howard (January 26, 2005). "Writer Backing Bush Plan Had Gotten Federal Contract". The Washington Post. p. C01.
  508. ^ "BUSINESS PEOPLE; Appointment At Commerce". The New York Times. September 13, 1991. p. D3. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
  509. ^ "No FBI Charges for Defense Official in Iraq Case". Los Angeles Times. October 15, 2005. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  510. ^ "Pentagon ousts official who tied Russia, Iraq arms". The Washington Times.
  511. ^ Sevastopulo, Demetri; Dinmore, Guy; Harding, James (October 28, 2004). "Russians 'may have taken Iraq explosives'". Financial Times. Archived from the original on August 5, 2007.
  512. ^ Dolnick, sam, "Kerik Pleads Guilty in Corruption Case", The New York Times, November 5, 2009.
  513. ^ Michael J. Sniffen and Matt Apuzzo, "Libby Found Guilty in CIA Leak Trial", Associated Press, March 6, 2007
  514. ^ Smith, R. Jeffrey (September 8, 2006). "Armitage Says He Was Source of CIA Leak". The Washington Post. p. A03. Archived from the original on October 6, 2008. Retrieved January 27, 2007.
  515. ^ Boehlert, Eric (April 5, 2004). "Lies, bribes and hidden costs". Salon.
  516. ^ Pear, Robert (July 7, 2004). "Inquiry Confirms Top Medicare Official Threatened Actuary Over Cost of Drug Benefits". The New York Times.
  517. ^ Risen, James & Lichtblau, Eric (December 16, 2005). "Bush Lets U.S. Spy on Callers Without Courts". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 3, 2013. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
  518. ^ [26] Archived March 15, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, March 31, 2010, "Bush wiretapping program takes a hit in Calif ruling" by Paul Elias
  519. ^ "Phillyburbs.com". Archived from the original on December 4, 2008.
  520. ^ "Office of Inspector General – U.S. Department of Health and Human Services". Archived from the original on April 6, 2011.
  521. ^ a b "Janet Rehnquist Under The Microscope". CBS News. January 22, 2003. Archived from the original on May 24, 2011.
  522. ^ "Janet Rehnquist Resigns". CBS News. March 4, 2003. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  523. ^ "Politics – News about Politics in America & the World". Rolling Stone.
  524. ^ Golden, Tim (December 23, 2005). "A Junior Aide had a big role in Terror Policy". The New York Times. Retrieved April 21, 2009.
  525. ^ a b c d e "Memorandum regarding status of Certain OLC Opinions Issued in the Aftermath of the Terrorist Acts of September 11, 2001" (PDF). US Department of Justice, Office of Legal Counsel. January 15, 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 8, 2009. Retrieved May 12, 2009.. Retrieved March 2, 2009.
  526. ^ Eggen, Dan (June 27, 2008). "Bush Policy Authors Defend Their Actions: House Panel Hearing Veers From Key Issue of Detainee Mistreatment". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 7, 2012. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
  527. ^ Serrano, Richard A. (February 20, 2010). "Waterboard memo 'poor judgement'". Chicago Tribune. p. 1/7.
  528. ^ Eggen, Dan (August 5, 2006). "ATF Director Resigns Amid Spending Probe". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 13, 2014. Retrieved May 6, 2014.
  529. ^ U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General, Report of Investigation Concerning Alleged Mismanagement and Misconduct by Carl J. Truscott, Former Director of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, Office of the Inspector General Oversight and Review Division October 2006 "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on August 31, 2013. Retrieved May 6, 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  530. ^ "Our Campaigns – Candidate – Carl J. Truscott". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  531. ^ "Fed Caught In Sex Sting Found Dead In Cell". CBS News. October 5, 2007.
  532. ^ Goodnough, Abby (October 6, 2007). "U.S. Prosecutor Held in a Child Sex Sting Kills Himself". The New York Times. Retrieved September 13, 2015.
  533. ^ "J. D. Roy Atchison". NNDB.
  534. ^ "The Rise And Fall of A Maverick". Government Executive. February 1, 2004. Archived from the original on August 25, 2012. Retrieved March 31, 2013.
  535. ^ "Ex-Official Goes to Prison". The New York Times. January 5, 2005. Archived from the original on February 9, 2010.
  536. ^ "Cashing In For Profit?". CBS News. January 4, 2005. Archived from the original on September 19, 2012.
  537. ^ "Treffinger Pleads Guilty To Corruption". The New York Times. May 31, 2003. Archived from the original on October 31, 2014.
  538. ^ Chicago Tribune, section 1, p. 14, 'US to shelve Holder case' by Josh Meyer, April 2, 2009
  539. ^ Kocieniewski, David, "House Ethics Panel Expands Rangel Inquiry", The New York Times, December 10, 2008
  540. ^ "Republican Arizona Congressman Rick Renzi indicted on multiple federal charges", AP, February 22, 2008
  541. ^ [27] Archived September 11, 2001, at the Wayback Machine, October 28, 2013, Ex-U.S. Rep. Rick Renzi of Arizona sentenced to three years for corruption by Kevin Conlon and Bill Mears, CNN "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 9, 2013. Retrieved November 9, 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  542. ^ Zeleny, Jeff; Johnston, David (October 11, 2006). "Hastert Vows to Fire Aides if a Cover-Up Is Discovered". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 18, 2006. Retrieved October 11, 2006.
  543. ^ McKinley, James C. Jr. (November 24, 2010). "Tom DeLay Found Guilty of Money Laundering". The New York Times. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  544. ^ Copelin, Laylan. "DeLay sentenced to 3 years in prison, freed on appeal bond". Austin American-Statesman. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  545. ^ Camia, Catalina; Davis, Susan (September 19, 2013). "Texas court overturns Tom DeLay conviction". USA Today. Retrieved September 19, 2013.
  546. ^ Schmidt, Susan; Grimaldi, James V. (November 26, 2005). "Lawmakers Under Scrutiny in Probe of Lobbyist". The Washington Post. p. A01.
  547. ^ "DeLay trial to be held in Austin, judge rules". Chicago Tribune. August 26, 2010. p. 19.
  548. ^ Lozano, Juan A. (November 25, 2010). "Jury convicts Tom DeLay in money-laundering trial". Salon. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
  549. ^ a b Moreno, Sylvia (September 22, 2004). "3 DeLay Workers Indicted in Texas". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  550. ^ Copelin, Laylan. "DeLay co-defendant Colyandro pleads guilty". Austin American-Statesman. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  551. ^ Schmidt, Susan; Grimaldi, James V. (January 20, 2007). "Ney Sentenced to 30 Months In Prison for Abramoff Deals". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 23, 2014.
  552. ^ Kucinich, Jackie; Crabtree, Susan (February 27, 2007). "Ney's former chief of staff agrees to plead guilty".[permanent dead link]
  553. ^ Grimaldi, James V.; Leonnig, Carol D. (February 27, 2007). "Former Aide to Ex-Congressman Ney Pleads Guilty in Abramoff Case". The Washington Post. p. A06. Archived from the original on April 30, 2016.
  554. ^ Yost, Pete (May 8, 2006). "Former Aide to Rep. Ney Pleads Guilty". The Washington Post. Associated Press.
  555. ^ "Former Istook aide pleads guilty in lobbying scandal". Oklahoman.com. June 2, 2008. Archived from the original on May 30, 2016.
  556. ^ Roth, Zachary (November 24, 2008). "Abramoff Lobbyists Wanted Measure Attached To Young's Transportation Bill". TPM Muckraker. Archived from the original on May 20, 2011.
  557. ^ Johnson, Carrie; Wilber, Del Quentin (September 9, 2008). "Former Abramoff Associate Is Arrested: Indictment Charges Fraud, Conspiracy". The Washington Post. p. A02. Archived from the original on November 9, 2010. Retrieved March 11, 2009.
  558. ^ "Topic - Kevin A. Ring". The Washington Times. Archived from the original on January 27, 2011.
  559. ^ Murray, Shailagh (July 10, 2007). "Senator's Number on 'Madam' Phone List". The Washington Post.
  560. ^ "Senator Caught In "D.C. Madam" Scandal". CBS News. CBS Interactive Inc. July 9, 2007.
  561. ^ "Rep. Cunningham won't seek re-election amid contractor probe". CNN. July 14, 2005. Archived from the original on November 29, 2010.
  562. ^ "Former candidate Tan Nguyen: 'It's been hell'". Orange County Register. Archived from the original on June 12, 2013. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
  563. ^ Christian Science Monitor[permanent dead link], November 13, 2009, "Former Representative William Jefferson Sentenced to 13 years in Prison" by Dave Cook
  564. ^ AnaGannett News Service, November 1, 2006, "Former congressional aide pleads guilty to bribery" by Ana Radelat
  565. ^ "MPR: Diabetes expert: Janklow had symptoms of low blood sugar before accident that killed motorcyclist". news.minnesota.publicradio.org.
  566. ^ [28] Archived September 11, 2001, at the Wayback Machine, LawCenter, April 12, 2002
  567. ^ Gardiner, Bob. "Sweeney to cops: 'I'm in... trouble': Ex-Congressman faces felony DWI; told troopers he'd flunk sobriety test". Albany Times Union. Archived from the original on April 9, 2009.
  568. ^ Donohue, Emily (April 23, 2010). "Former Rep. John Sweeney officially sentenced for second DWI". The Saratogian. Retrieved April 16, 2015.
  569. ^ "Staten Island's Fossella admits child from affair". May 8, 2008.
  570. ^ Davenport, Christian (December 9, 2008). "N.Y. Congressman Gets Five Days in Jail for DUI". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  571. ^ Julie Hirschfeld Davis (July 10, 2015). "Katherine Archuleta, Director of Personnel Agency, Resigns". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 16, 2016.
  572. ^ "Veterans Secretary Eric Shinseki resigns after report". BBC News. Archived from the original on May 31, 2014. Retrieved May 31, 2014.
  573. ^ "VA chief: 18 vets left off waiting list have died". Tampa Bay Times. Associated Press. June 5, 2014. Retrieved April 12, 2020.
  574. ^ Bronstein, Scott & Griffin, Drew (n.d.). "A fatal wait: Veterans languish and die on a VA hospital's secret list". CNN. Cable News Network. Archived from the original on May 31, 2014. Retrieved May 31, 2014.
  575. ^ "Obama vows action on any VA 'misconduct'". BBC News. May 21, 2014. Archived from the original on May 31, 2014. Retrieved May 31, 2014.
  576. ^ "White House calls for IRS investigation | The Ticket – Yahoo! News". Yahoo! News. June 21, 2011. Archived from the original on June 8, 2013. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
  577. ^ "IG: Audit of IRS actions limited to Tea Party groups at GOP request". The Hill. Archived from the original on January 17, 2016.
  578. ^ Bash, Dana; Walsh, Deirdre; Cohen, Tom (June 24, 2013). "IRS targeting included liberal groups". CNN. Archived from the original on February 5, 2016.
  579. ^ "IRS Systematically Targeted 'Progressive' Groups Too". NPR. June 25, 2013. Archived from the original on February 21, 2016.
  580. ^ Goldfarb, Zachary A.; Eilperin, Juliet (May 15, 2013). "Acting director of IRS forced to resign amid furor over targeting of conservative groups". The Washington Post.
  581. ^ Kelly Phillips Erb (January 14, 2014). "No Criminal Charges Expected In FBI Investigation Into IRS Scandal". Forbes. Archived from the original on January 16, 2014.
  582. ^ Weisman, Jonathan (May 23, 2013). "I.R.S. Suspends Official at Center of Storm". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 5, 2015.
  583. ^ Dinan, Stephen (September 23, 2013). "Lois Lerner, IRS official in tea party scandal, forced out for 'neglect of duties'". The Washington Times. Archived from the original on November 13, 2013.
  584. ^ Madhani, Aamer; Korte, Gregory (May 16, 2013). "Second IRS official resigns after scandal". USA Today.
  585. ^ Parkinson, John & Good, Chris (June 28, 2012). "House Holds Eric Holder in Contempt". ABC News. Archived from the original on March 6, 2013. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
  586. ^ Greenhouse, Steven (May 27, 2012). "Labor Board Member Resigns Over Leak to G.O.P. Allies". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 8, 2017.
  587. ^ "GSA Statement on Resignation of Martha Johnson, Ouster of Bob Peck". Washington: Citybizlist.com. April 2, 2012. Archived from the original on April 5, 2012. Retrieved April 4, 2012.
  588. ^ Courson, Paul (April 3, 2012). "GSA chief gone, but fallout continues in wake of lavish convention expense". Archived from the original on January 17, 2013.
  589. ^ Elliott, Philip (April 2, 2012). "GSA head resigns amid reports of lavish spending". WBOY-TV. Associated Press. Archived from the original on April 12, 2012.
  590. ^ "Former GSA head faults regional commissioners in spending scandal". Federal News Radio. April 4, 2012. Archived from the original on January 17, 2013. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
  591. ^ Goldman, Adam (April 23, 2015). "Petraeus pleads guilty to mishandling classified material, will face probation". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
  592. ^ E, Jim (February 12, 2018). "Obama Senior Policy Advisor William Mendoza Pleads Guilty to Sex Crimes". The Political Insider.
  593. ^ Korte, Gregory (August 10, 2015). "White House aide arrested for assault". USA Today.
  594. ^ Bradner, Eric. "Fattah convicted in corruption case". CNN. Archived from the original on December 28, 2016. Retrieved January 3, 2017.
  595. ^ "Judge Upholds Chaka Fattah Conviction". Roll Call. October 21, 2016. Archived from the original on January 4, 2017. Retrieved January 3, 2017.
  596. ^ Zapotosky, Matt (December 12, 2016). "Onetime congressional rising star Chaka Fattah sentenced to 10 years". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 3, 2017. Retrieved January 3, 2017.
  597. ^ "Rep. Chaka Fattah resigns from Congress, effective immediately". USA Today. Archived from the original on June 26, 2016. Retrieved January 3, 2017.
  598. ^ Hernandez, Raymond (June 16, 2011). "Anthony D. Weiner Announces His Resignation". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 8, 2017.
  599. ^ Blake, Aaron (July 26, 2011). "Rep. David Wu (D-Ore.) says he will resign after report of sexual 'encounter'". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 4, 2017. Retrieved January 3, 2017.
  600. ^ Stern, Remy (February 25, 2011). "The Craigslist Congressman and the Crossdressing Prostitute". Gawker. Archived from the original on October 12, 2012. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
  601. ^ "Ex-House Speaker Dennis Hastert pleads not guilty in hush money case". Politics. Fox News. Associated Press. June 9, 2015. Archived from the original on October 19, 2015. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
  602. ^ "Exclusive: Alleged Hastert Sex Abuse Victim Is Named By Family". ABC News. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  603. ^ Davey, Monica; Smith, Mitch (October 28, 2015). "Dennis Hastert, Ex-Speaker of House, Pleads Guilty". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 13, 2016.
  604. ^ Bash, Dana; Zeleny, Jeff; Jaffe, Alexandra (March 18, 2015). "Aaron Schock resigns amid scandal". CNN. Archived from the original on April 28, 2017. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
  605. ^ Skiba, Katherine (February 5, 2015). "Schock's spokesman resigns over questionable Facebook posts". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on April 6, 2015.
  606. ^ Sherman, Jake (February 5, 2015). "'Downton Abbey' congressman's aide resigns over Facebook posts". Politico.
  607. ^ Zeleny, Jeff; Parkinson, John (February 5, 2015). "Senior Aide to Rep. Aaron Schock Resigns After Offensive Facebook Posts Come to Light". ABC News.
  608. ^ "GOP consultant admits lying to ethics investigators". Retrieved September 13, 2015.
  609. ^ "4 aides to former Michigan Rep. Thaddeus McCotter are charged with felonies". NorthIowaToday.com. August 11, 2012. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  610. ^ "2 Ex-McCotter Aides Sentenced In Election Scandal". WWJ-TV. Associated Press. January 18, 2013. Archived from the original on October 26, 2014.
  611. ^ "Former staffers for Thaddeus McCotter sentenced in false signatures case". WXYZ. January 18, 2013. Archived from the original on January 20, 2015. Retrieved March 27, 2018.
  612. ^ Burns, Gus (July 13, 2013). "Ex-Thad McCotter aide receives no jail time for role in petition fraud scandal". www.mlive.com/news/detroit. Archived from the original on May 14, 2016. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
  613. ^ "McCotter staffer Lorianne O'Brady sentenced". Detroit Free Press. Associated Press. October 25, 2012. Archived from the original on January 19, 2015.
  614. ^ Caputo, Marc; Weaver, Jay; Mazzei, Patricia (August 19, 2014). "David Rivera named co-conspirator as friend pleads guilty in campaign-finance case". Miami Herald. Archived from the original on September 4, 2014. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
  615. ^ "11 ethics counts filed against U.S. Rep. David Rivera". Tampa Bay Times. Archived from the original on September 3, 2014.
  616. ^ Caputo, Marc; Mazzei, Patricia (October 9, 2014). "Federal judge calls out David Rivera, sentences Ana Alliegro to six months of house arrest". The Miami Herald. Archived from the original on September 20, 2014. Retrieved September 10, 2014.
  617. ^ "Former GOP Rep Convicted On Corruption Charges". The Huffington Post. Tucson, Arizona. June 11, 2013. Archived from the original on December 23, 2014.
  618. ^ "U.S. senator Mike Crapo pleads guilty to DWI charge". KLEW-TV. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
  619. ^ Ackerman, McCarton (June 20, 2013). "9 Politicians Busted for Drugs (Even Staunch Drug War Supporters)". AlterNet.
  620. ^ "Idaho Sen. Mike Crapo pleads guilty to drunken driving". McClatchy DC. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved November 21, 2013.
  621. ^ "Idaho Senator Joe Crapo Convicted in a Virginia Court". Guardian Liberty Voice. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013.
  622. ^ Horowitz, Jason (January 5, 2013). "Sen. Mike Crapo pleads guilty to drunken driving". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013.
  623. ^ Neuman, Scott (November 19, 2013). "Florida Rep. Trey Radel Charged With Cocaine Possession". NPR. Archived from the original on May 1, 2015. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
  624. ^ "Florida Congressman Radel gets probation on cocaine charge". Yahoo! News. November 20, 2013. Archived from the original on December 23, 2014.
  625. ^ Levine, Mike; Parks, Maryalice (November 21, 2013). "Florida Rep. Trey Radel to Take Leave of Absence After Cocaine Charge". ABC News. Archived from the original on December 23, 2014. Retrieved February 21, 2015.
  626. ^ Schmidt, Michael S. (February 20, 2013). "Jesse Jackson Jr. Pleads Guilty: 'I Lived Off My Campaign'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 29, 2015. Retrieved February 21, 2015.
  627. ^ Yager, Jordy. "Ethics Committee finds Rep. Laura Richardson guilty on seven counts". The Hill. Archived from the original on August 3, 2012. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
  628. ^ Pershing, Ben (August 1, 2012). "Ethics panel says Rep. Laura Richardson broke federal law, obstructed probe". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 23, 2015. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
  629. ^ "Senator Ensign to Resign Amid Inquiry". The New York Times Caucus blog. April 21, 2011. Archived from the original on April 24, 2011. Retrieved April 21, 2011.
  630. ^ "Nevada senator, facing ethics probe, says he'll resign". NBC News. April 21, 2011. Retrieved April 21, 2011.
  631. ^ Espo, David (June 17, 2009). "Ensign Quits Senate GOP Leadership Post After Admitting Affair". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on August 22, 2009. Retrieved June 9, 2011.
  632. ^ Goodridge, Elisabeth; Lipton/, Eric (October 1, 2009). "Timeline: An Affair and Its Aftermath". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 17, 2011. Retrieved June 9, 2011.
  633. ^ Tetreault, Steve (May 15, 2012). "Doug Hampton reaches plea deal in illegal lobbying charges". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Archived from the original on January 17, 2013.
  634. ^ LoBianco, Tom (July 17, 2015). "Former Rep. Michael Grimm sentenced to 8 months for tax evasion". Politics. CNN. Archived from the original on November 5, 2016. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
  635. ^ Noble, Andrea (May 5, 2016). "Three former Ron Paul staffers guilty in campaign-bribery case". The Washington Times. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  636. ^ Rodgers, Grant grodgers@dmreg.com (November 2, 2015). "One Ron Paul staffer convicted, another acquitted". The Des Moines Register. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
  637. ^ a b "Ex-aide to Sen. Thad Cochran receives 30-month sentence in D.C. drug case". Washington Post. January 20, 2016. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  638. ^ a b "Staffer for Senator Thad Cochran Arrested on Drug Charges". NBC News. April 25, 2015. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  639. ^ Weigel, David (May 5, 2016). "Trump super PAC strategist found guilty of 2012 campaign-finance violations". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 5, 2016.
  640. ^ Rodgers, Grant (September 20, 2016). "Top Ron Paul aide Jesse Benton avoids prison". courier-journal. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  641. ^