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Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States is the title of all members of the Supreme Court of the United States other than the Chief Justice of the United States. The number of associate justices is determined by statute. The Judiciary Act of 1869 set the number of associate justices at eight.[1]

Like the chief justice, associate justices are nominated by the President of the United States and are confirmed by the United States Senate by majority vote. This is provided for in Article II of the Constitution, which states that the president "shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint ... Judges of the Supreme Court." Although the Constitution refers to them as "Judges", the title now used is "Associate Justice", introduced in the Judiciary Act of 1789.[2]

Historically, associate justices were styled "Mr. Justice" in court opinions and other writings. The title was shortened to "Justice" in 1980, a year before Sandra Day O'Connor became the first female justice.[3]

Article III of the Constitution specifies that associate justices, and all other United States federal judges, "shall hold their Offices during good Behavior". This means that the appointments are effectively for life: a justice's tenure in office ends only when the justice dies, retires, resigns, or is removed from office by impeachment.

Each Supreme Court justice has a single vote in deciding the cases argued before it; the chief justice's vote counts no more than that of any other justice. However, the Chief Justice—when in the majority—decides who writes the court's opinion. Otherwise, the senior justice in the majority assigns the writing of a decision. Furthermore, the chief justice leads the discussion of the case among the justices. The chief justice has certain administrative responsibilities that the other justices do not and is paid slightly more ($267,000 per year as of 2018, as opposed to $255,300 per year for each associate justice).[4]

Associate justices have seniority by order of appointment, although the chief justice is always considered to be the most senior. If two justices are appointed on the same day, the older is designated the senior justice of the two. Currently, the senior associate justice is Clarence Thomas. By tradition, when the justices are in conference deliberating the outcome of cases before the Supreme Court, the justices state their views in order of seniority. The senior associate justice is also tasked with carrying out the chief justices's duties when he is unable to, or if that office is vacant.[5]

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Transcription

There's a job out there with a great deal of power, pay, prestige, and near-perfect job security. And there's only one way to be hired: get appointed to the US Supreme Court. If you want to become a justice on the Supreme Court, the highest federal court in the United States, three things have to happen. You have to be nominated by the president of the United States, your nomination needs to be approved by the Senate, and finally, the president must formally appoint you to the court. Because the Constitution doesn't specify any qualifications, in other words, that there's no age, education, profession, or even native-born citizenship requirement, a president can nominate any individual to serve. So far, six justices have been foreign-born, at least one never graduated from high school, and another was only 32 years old when he joined the bench. Most presidents nominate individuals who broadly share their ideological view, so a president with a liberal ideology will tend to appoint liberals to the court. Of course, a justice's leanings are not always so predictable. For example, when President Eisenhower, a Republican, nominated Earl Warren for Chief Justice, Eisenhower expected him to make conservative decisions. Instead, Warren's judgements have gone down as some of the most liberal in the Court's history. Eisenhower later remarked on that appointment as "the biggest damned-fool mistake" he ever made. Many other factors come up for consideration, as well, including experience, personal loyalties, ethnicity, and gender. The candidates are then thoroughly vetted down to their tax records and payments to domestic help. Once the president interviews the candidate and makes a formal nomination announcement, the Senate leadership traditionally turns the nomination over to hearings by the Senate Judiciary Committee. Depending on the contentiousness of the choice, that can stretch over many days. Since the Nixon administration, these hearings have averaged 60 days. The nominee is interviewed about their law record, if applicable, and where they stand on key issues to discern how they might vote. And especially in more recent history, the committee tries to unearth any dark secrets or past indiscretions. The Judiciary Committee votes to send the nomination to the full Senate with a positive or negative recommendation, often reflective of political leanings, or no recommendation at all. Most rejections have happened when the Senate majority has been a different political party than the president. When the Senate does approve, it's by a simple majority vote, with ties broken by the vice president. With the Senate's consent, the president issues a written appointment, allowing the nominee to complete the final steps to take the constitutional and judicial oaths. In doing so, they solemnly swear to administer justice without respect to persons and do equal right to the poor and the rich and faithfully and impartially discharge and perform all the duties incumbent upon a US Supreme Court justice. This job is for life, barring resignation, retirement, or removal from the court by impeachment. And of the 112 justices who have held the position, not one has yet been removed from office as a result of an impeachment. One of their roles is to protect the fundamental rights of all Americans, even as different parties take power. With the tremendous impact of this responsibility, it's no wonder that a US Supreme Court justice is expected to be, in the words of Irving R. Kaufman, "a paragon of virtue, an intellectual Titan, and an administrative wizard." Of course, not every member of the Court turns out to be an exemplar of justice. Each leaves behind a legacy of decisions and opinions to be debated and dissected by the ultimate judges, time and history.

Contents

Current associate justices

There are eight associate justices on the Supreme Court following the confirmation and swearing in of Justice Brett M. Kavanaugh on October 6, 2018. The justices, ordered by seniority, are:

Retired associate justices

An associate justice who leaves the Supreme Court after attaining the age and meeting the service requirements prescribed by federal statute (28 U.S.C. § 371) may retire rather than resign. After retirement, they keep their title, and by custom may also keep a set of chambers in the Supreme Court building, and employ law clerks. The names of retired associate justices continue to appear alongside those of the active justices in the bound volumes of Supreme Court decisions. Federal statute (28 U.S.C. § 294) provides that retired Supreme Court justices may serve—if designated and assigned by the chief justice—on panels of the U.S. courts of appeals, or on the U.S. district courts. Retired justices are not, however, authorized to take part in the consideration or decision of any cases before the Supreme Court (unlike other retired federal judges who may be permitted do so in their former courts); neither are they known or designated as a "senior judge". When, after his retirement, William O. Douglas attempted to take a more active role than was customary, maintaining that it was his prerogative to do so because of his senior status, he was rebuffed by Chief Justice Warren Burger and admonished by the whole Court.[14]

There are four living retired associate justices at the present time: Sandra Day O'Connor, retired January 31, 2006; David Souter, retired June 29, 2009; John Paul Stevens, retired June 29, 2010; and Anthony Kennedy, retired July 31, 2018. Both O'Connor and Souter occasionally serve on panels of the Courts of Appeals of various circuits. Stevens and Kennedy have not performed any judicial duties.

List of Associate Justices

Since the Supreme Court was established in 1789, the following 102 persons have served as an associate justice:[15][16]

Associate Justice Replacing Date confirmed
(Vote)
Tenure[a] Appointed by Prior position[b]
1
John Rutledge.jpg
John Rutledge (new seat) September 26, 1789
(Acclamation)
February 15, 1790

March 4, 1791
(Resigned)[c]
George Washington 31st
Governor of South Carolina
(1779–1782)
2
WilliamCushing.jpg
William Cushing[d] (new seat) September 26, 1789
(Acclamation)
February 2, 1790

September 13, 1810
(Died)
Chief Justice of the
Massachusetts Superior Court
(1777–1789)
3
JusticeJamesWilson.jpg
James Wilson (new seat) September 26, 1789
(Acclamation)
October 5, 1789

August 21, 1798
(Died)
Delegate to the
Constitutional Convention
(1787)
4
JohnBlair.jpg
John Blair (new seat) September 26, 1789
(Acclamation)
February 2, 1790

October 25, 1795
(Resigned)
Member of the
Virginia House of Burgesses
(1766–1770)
5
JamesIredell.jpg
James Iredell (new seat) February 10, 1790
(Acclamation)
May 12, 1790

October 20, 1799
(Died)
2nd
Attorney General of North Carolina
(1779–1782)
6
Thomas Johnson (governor).jpeg
Thomas Johnson J. Rutledge November 7, 1791
(Acclamation)
August 6, 1792[e]

January 16, 1793
(Resigned)
1st
Governor of Maryland
(1777–1779)
7
William Paterson copy.jpg
William Paterson T. Johnson March 4, 1793
(Acclamation)
March 11, 1793

September 8, 1806
(Died)
2nd
Governor of New Jersey
(1790–1793)
8
Samuel Chase.jpg
Samuel Chase[f] Blair January 27, 1796
(Acclamation)
February 4, 1796

June 19, 1811
(Died)
Chief Justice of the
Maryland General Court
(1791–1796)
9
BushrodWashington.jpg
Bushrod Washington Wilson December 20, 1798
(Acclamation)
November 9, 1798[e]

November 26, 1829
(Died)
John Adams Delegate to the
Virginia Ratifying Convention
(1788)
10
AlfredMoore.jpg
Alfred Moore Iredell December 9, 1799
(Acclamation)
April 21, 1800

January 26, 1804
(Resigned)
3rd
Attorney General of North Carolina
(1782–1791)
11
WilliamJohnson.jpg
William Johnson Moore March 24, 1804
(Acclamation)
May 7, 1804

August 4, 1834
(Died)
Thomas Jefferson Speaker of the
South Carolina House of Representatives
(1798–1800)
12
Henry Brockholst Livingston.jpg
Henry Brockholst Livingston Paterson December 17, 1806
(Acclamation)
January 20, 1807

March 18, 1823
(Died)
Justice of the
New York Supreme Court
(1802–1807)
13
Thomas Todd SCOTUS.jpg
Thomas Todd (new seat) March 2, 1807
(Acclamation)
March 4, 1807

February 7, 1826
(Died)
Chief Justice of the
Kentucky Court of Appeals
(1806–1807)
14
GabrielDuvall.jpg
Gabriel Duvall Chase November 18, 1811
(Acclamation)
November 23, 1811

January 12, 1835
(Resigned)
James Madison U.S. Representative for
Maryland's 2nd district
(1794–1796)
15
Daguerreotype of Joseph Story, 1844 (edit).jpg
Joseph Story Cushing November 18, 1811
(Acclamation)
February 3, 1812

September 10, 1845
(Died)
U.S. Representative for
Massachusetts's 2nd district
(1808–1809)
16
SmithThompson.jpg
Smith Thompson Livingston December 9, 1823
(Acclamation)
September 1, 1823[e]

December 18, 1843
(Died)
James Monroe 6th
United States Secretary of the Navy
(1819–1823)
17
RobertTrimble.jpg
Robert Trimble Todd May 9, 1826
(25–5)
June 16, 1826

August 25, 1828
(Died)
John Quincy Adams Judge of the
United States District Court
for the District of Kentucky

(1817–1826)
18
Justice John McLean daguerreotype by Mathew Brady 1849.jpg
John McLean Trimble March 7, 1829
(Acclamation)
January 11, 1830

April 4, 1861
(Died)
Andrew Jackson 6th
United States Postmaster General
(1823–1829)
19
Henry baldwin (justice).jpg
Henry Baldwin Washington January 6, 1830
(41–2)
January 18, 1830

April 21, 1844
(Died)
U.S. Representative for
Pennsylvania's 14th district
(1817–1822)
20
James Moore Wayne - Brady-Handy.jpg
James Moore Wayne W. Johnson January 9, 1835
(Acclamation)
January 14, 1835

July 5, 1867
(Died)
U.S. Representative for
Georgia's at-large district
(1829–1835)
21
PPBarbour.jpg
Philip Pendleton Barbour Duvall March 15, 1836
(30–11)
May 12, 1836

February 25, 1841
(Died)
Judge of the
United States District Court
for the Eastern District of Virginia

(1830–1836)
22
John Catron - Brady-Handy.jpg
John Catron (new seat) March 8, 1837
(28–15)
May 1, 1837

May 30, 1865
(Died)
Judge of the
Tennessee Supreme Court
of Errors and Appeals

(1824–1834)
23
John McKinley.jpg
John McKinley (new seat) September 25, 1837
(Acclamation)
January 9, 1838

July 19, 1852
(Died)
Martin Van Buren United States Senator
from Alabama
(1826–1831, 1837)
24
PVDaniel.jpg
Peter Vivian Daniel Barbour March 2, 1841
(25–5)
January 10, 1842

May 31, 1860
(Died)
Judge of the
United States District Court
for the Eastern District of Virginia

(1836–1841)
25
Samuel Nelson - Brady-Handy.jpg
Samuel Nelson Thompson February 14, 1845
(Acclamation)
February 27, 1845

November 28, 1872
(Retired)
John Tyler Chief Justice of the New York Supreme Court
(1831–1845)
26
LeviWoodbury.png
Levi Woodbury Story January 31, 1846
(Acclamation)
September 23, 1845[e]

September 4, 1851
(Died)
James K. Polk 13th
United States Secretary of the Treasury
(1834–1841)
27
Robert Cooper Grier - Brady-Handy.jpg
Robert Cooper Grier Baldwin August 4, 1846
(Acclamation)
August 10, 1846

January 31, 1870
(Retired)
Judge for the
Pennsylvania state District Court
for Allegheny County
(1833–1846)
28
BRCurtis.jpg
Benjamin Robbins Curtis Woodbury December 20, 1851
(Acclamation)
October 10, 1851[e]

September 30, 1857
(Resigned)
Millard Fillmore Massachusetts State Representative
29
John Archibald Campbell - Brady-Handy.jpg
John Archibald Campbell McKinley March 22, 1853
(Acclamation)
April 11, 1853

April 30, 1861
(Resigned)
Franklin Pierce Alabama State Representative
30
NClifford.jpg
Nathan Clifford Curtis January 12, 1858
(26–23)
January 21, 1858

July 25, 1881
(Died)
James Buchanan 19th
United States Attorney General
(1846–1848)
31
Noah Haynes Swayne, photo, head and shoulders, seated.jpg
Noah Haynes Swayne McLean January 24, 1862
(38–1)
January 27, 1862

January 24, 1881
(Retired)
Abraham Lincoln U.S. Attorney for the
District of Ohio
(1830–1834)
32
Samuel Freeman Miller - Brady-Handy.jpg
Samuel Freeman Miller Daniel July 16, 1862
(Acclamation)
July 21, 1862

October 13, 1890
(Died)
Lawyer,
Private practice
33
DDavis.jpg
David Davis Campbell December 8, 1862
(Acclamation)
December 10, 1862[e]

March 3, 1877
(Resigned)
Judge of the
Illinois 3rd Circuit Court
(1848–1862)
34
Stephen Johnson Field, photo half length seated, 1875.jpg
Stephen Johnson Field (new seat) March 10, 1863
(Acclamation)
March 20, 1863

December 1, 1897
(Retired)
5th
Chief Justice of California
(1859–1863)
35
William Strong judge - Brady-Handy.jpg
William Strong Grier February 18, 1870
(Acclamation)
March 14, 1870

December 14, 1880
(Retired)
Ulysses S. Grant U.S. Representative for
Pennsylvania's 9th district
(1847–1851)
36
Joseph Philo Bradley - Brady-Handy.jpg
Joseph Philo Bradley (new seat) March 21, 1870
(46–9)
March 23, 1870

January 22, 1892
(Died)
Lawyer,
Private practice
37
Ward Hunt - Brady-Handy.jpg
Ward Hunt Nelson December 11, 1872
(Acclamation)
January 9, 1873

January 27, 1882
(Retired)
Chief Judge of the
New York Court of Appeals
(1868–1872)
38
JudgeJMHarlan.jpg
John Marshall Harlan Davis December 10, 1877
(Acclamation)
November 29, 1877

October 14, 1911
(Died)
Rutherford B. Hayes 14th
Attorney General of Kentucky
(1863–1867)
39
William Burnham Woods.jpg
William Burnham Woods Strong December 21, 1880
(39–8)
January 5, 1881

May 14, 1887
(Died)
Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Fifth Circuit

(1869–1880)
40
Thomas Stanley Matthews - Brady-Handy.jpg
Stanley Matthews Swayne May 12, 1881
(24–23)
May 17, 1881

March 22, 1889
(Died)
James Garfield United States Senator
from Ohio
(1877–1879)
41
Horacegrayphoto.jpg
Horace Gray Clifford December 20, 1881
(51–5)
January 9, 1882

September 15, 1902
(Died)
Chester A. Arthur Chief Justice of the
Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court
(1873–1881)
42
Samuel Blatchford.jpg
Samuel Blatchford Hunt March 22, 1882
(Acclamation)
April 3, 1882

July 7, 1893
(Died)
Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Second Circuit

(1878–1882)
43
Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar II - Brady-Handy.jpg
Lucius Quintus
Cincinnatus Lamar II
Woods January 16, 1888
(32–28)
January 18, 1888

January 23, 1893
(Died)
Grover Cleveland 16th
United States Secretary of the Interior
(1885–1888)
44
DavidBrewer.jpg
David Josiah Brewer Matthews December 18, 1889
(53–11)
January 6, 1890

March 28, 1910
(Died)
Benjamin Harrison Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Eighth Circuit

(1884–1889)
45
Henry Billings Brown 2.jpg
Henry Billings Brown Miller December 29, 1890
(Acclamation)
January 5, 1891

May 28, 1906
(Retired)
Judge of the
United States District Court
for the Eastern District of Michigan

(1875–1890)
46
George Shiras Jr.jpg
George Shiras Jr. Bradley July 26, 1892
(Acclamation)
October 10, 1892

February 23, 1903
(Retired)
Lawyer,
Private practice
47
Justice Howell Jackson2.jpg
Howell Edmunds Jackson L. Lamar February 18, 1893
(Acclamation)
March 4, 1893

August 8, 1895
(Died)
Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Sixth Circuit

(1891–1893)
48
Edward White, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing slightly left, 1905.jpg
Edward Douglass White Blatchford February 19, 1894
(Acclamation)
March 12, 1894

December 18, 1910
(Continued as chief justice)[g]
Grover Cleveland United States Senator
from Louisiana
(1891–1894)
49
Rufus Wheeler Peckham cph.3b30513.jpg
Rufus Wheeler Peckham H. Jackson December 9, 1895
(Acclamation)
January 6, 1896

October 24, 1909
(Died)
Associate Judge of the
New York Court of Appeals
50
Joseph McKenna (assoc justice).jpg
Joseph McKenna Field January 21, 1898
(Acclamation)
January 26, 1898

January 5, 1925
(Retired)
William McKinley 42nd
United States Attorney General
(1897–1898)
51
Oliver Wendell Holmes, 1902.jpg
Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. Gray December 4, 1902
(Acclamation)
December 8, 1902

January 12, 1932
(Retired)
Theodore Roosevelt Chief Justice of the
Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court
(1899–1902)
52
William Rufus Day cph.3b31004.jpg
William R. Day Shiras February 23, 1903
(Acclamation)
March 2, 1903

November 13, 1922
(Retired)
Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Sixth Circuit

(1899–1903)
53
WHMoody.jpg
William Henry Moody Brown December 12, 1906
(Acclamation)
December 17, 1906

November 20, 1910
(Retired)
45th
United States Attorney General
(1904–1906)
54
HoraceHarmonLurton.jpg
Horace Harmon Lurton Peckham December 20, 1909
(Acclamation)
January 3, 1910

July 12, 1914
(Died)
William Howard Taft Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Sixth Circuit

(1893–1909)
55
Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes.jpg
Charles Evans Hughes Brewer May 2, 1910
(Acclamation)
October 10, 1910

June 10, 1916
(Resigned)[h]
36th
Governor of New York
(1907–1910)
56
Willis Van Devanter.jpg
Willis Van Devanter E. White December 15, 1910
(Acclamation)
January 3, 1911

June 2, 1937
(Retired)
Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Eighth Circuit

(1903–`1910)
57
Joseph Lamar.jpg
Joseph Rucker Lamar Moody December 15, 1910
(Acclamation)
January 3, 1911

January 2, 1916
(Died)
Associate Justice of the
Supreme Court of Georgia
(1901–1905)
58
Mahlon Pitney cph.3b30300.jpg
Mahlon Pitney J. Harlan March 13, 1912
(50–26)
March 18, 1912

December 31, 1922
(Resigned)
U.S. Representative for
New Jersey's 4th district
(1895–1899)
59
Jamescmcreynolds.jpg
James Clark McReynolds Lurton August 29, 1914
(44–6)
October 12, 1914

January 31, 1941
(Retired)
Woodrow Wilson 48th
United States Attorney General
(1913–1914)
60
Brandeisl.jpg
Louis Brandeis J. Lamar June 1, 1916
(47–22)
June 5, 1916

February 13, 1939
(Retired)
Lawyer,
Private practice:
Brandeis Dunbar & Nutter[17]
61
JohnHessinClarke.jpg
John Hessin Clarke Hughes July 24, 1916
(Acclamation)
October 9, 1916

September 5, 1922
(Retired)
Judge of the
United States District Court
for the Northern District of Ohio

(1914–1916)
62
Justice George Sutherland 5.jpg
George Sutherland Clarke September 5, 1922
(Acclamation)
October 2, 1922

January 17, 1938
(Retired)
Warren G. Harding United States Senator
from Utah
(1905–1917)
63
Pierce Butler.jpg
Pierce Butler Day December 21, 1922
(61–8)
January 2, 1923

November 16, 1939
(Died)
President of the
Minnesota State Bar Association
64
Justice Edward Terry Sanford.jpg
Edward Terry Sanford Pitney January 29, 1923
(Acclamation)
February 19, 1923

March 8, 1930
(Died)
Judge of the
United States District Court
for the Middle District of Tennessee

(1908–1923)
65
Chief Justice Harlan Fiske Stone photograph circa 1927-1932.jpg
Harlan F. Stone McKenna February 5, 1925
(71–6)
March 2, 1925

July 3, 1941
(Continued as chief justice)[i]
Calvin Coolidge 52nd
United States Attorney General
(1924–1925)
66
Owen J. Roberts cph.3b11988.jpg
Owen Josephus Roberts Sanford May 20, 1930
(Acclamation)
June 2, 1930

July 31, 1945
(Resigned)
Herbert Hoover Assistant District Attorney for Philadelphia
67
Justice Benjamin N Cardozo 2.jpg
Benjamin N. Cardozo Holmes February 24, 1932
(Acclamation)
March 14, 1932

July 9, 1938
(Died)
Chief Judge of the
New York Court of Appeals
(1927–1932)
68
HugoLaFayetteBlack.jpg
Hugo Black Van Devanter August 17, 1937
(63–16)
August 19, 1937

September 17, 1971
(Retired)
Franklin D. Roosevelt United States Senator
from Alabama
(1927–1937)
69
Stanley Forman Reed.jpg
Stanley Forman Reed Sutherland January 25, 1938
(Acclamation)
January 31, 1938

February 25, 1957
(Retired)
22nd
United States Solicitor General
(1935–1938)
70
Frankfurter-Felix-LOC.jpg
Felix Frankfurter Cardozo January 17, 1939
(Acclamation)
January 30, 1939

August 28, 1962
(Retired)
Chairman of Harvard Law School
71
Justice William O Douglas.jpg
William O. Douglas Brandeis April 4, 1939
(62–4)
April 17, 1939

November 12, 1975
(Retired)
3rd
Chairman of the
Securities and Exchange Commission
(1937–1939)
72
Justice Frank Murphy.jpg
Frank Murphy Butler January 16, 1940
(Acclamation)
February 5, 1940

July 19, 1949
(Died)
56th
United States Attorney General
(1939–1940)
73
James F. Byrnes cph.3c32232.jpg
James F. Byrnes McReynolds June 12, 1941
(Acclamation)
July 8, 1941

October 3, 1942
(Resigned)
United States Senator
from South Carolina
(1931–1941)
74
Roberthjackson.jpg
Robert H. Jackson Stone July 7, 1941
(Acclamation)
July 11, 1941

October 9, 1954
(Died)
57th
United States Attorney General
(1940–1941)
75
Wiley Rutledge.jpg
Wiley Blount Rutledge Byrnes February 8, 1943
(Acclamation)
February 15, 1943

September 10, 1949
(Died)
Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the District of Columbia Circuit

(1939–1943)
76
Harold Burton.jpg
Harold Hitz Burton Roberts September 19, 1945
(Acclamation)
October 1, 1945

October 13, 1958
(Retired)
Harry S. Truman United States Senator
from Ohio
(1944–1945)
77
Tom C. Clark.gif
Tom C. Clark Murphy August 18, 1949
(73–8)
August 24, 1949

June 12, 1967
(Retired)
59th
United States Attorney General
(1945–1949)
78
Sherman Minton's official United States Supreme Court photograph.jpg
Sherman Minton W. Rutledge October 12, 1949
(48–16)
October 12, 1949

October 15, 1956
(Retired)
Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Seventh Circuit

(1941–1949)
79
John Marshall Harlan II official.jpg
John Marshall Harlan II R. Jackson March 16, 1955
(71–11)
March 28, 1955

September 23, 1971
(Retired)
Dwight D. Eisenhower Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Second Circuit

(1954–1955)
80
US Supreme Court Justice William Brennan - 1976 official portrait.jpg
William J. Brennan Minton March 19, 1957
(Acclamation)
October 15, 1956[e]

July 20, 1990
(Retired)
Associate Justice of the
Supreme Court of New Jersey
(1951–1956)
81
Charles Whittaker.jpg
Charles Evans Whittaker Reed March 19, 1957
(Acclamation)
March 25, 1957

March 31, 1962
(Resigned)
Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Eighth Circuit

(1956–1957)
82
US Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart - 1976 official portrait.jpg
Potter Stewart Burton May 5, 1959
(70–17)
October 14, 1958[e]

July 3, 1981
(Retired)
Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Sixth Circuit

(1954–1958)
83
Justice White Official.jpg
Byron White Whittaker April 11, 1962
(Acclamation)
April 16, 1962

June 28, 1993
(Retired)
John F. Kennedy 4th
United States Deputy Attorney General
(1961–1962)
84
Arthur Goldberg (1971).jpg
Arthur Goldberg Frankfurter September 25, 1962
(Acclamation)
October 1, 1962

July 26, 1965
(Resigned)
9th
United States Secretary of Labor
(1961–1962)
85
SCOTUS Justice Abe Fortas.jpeg
Abe Fortas Goldberg August 11, 1965
(Acclamation)
October 4, 1965

May 14, 1969
(Resigned)
Lyndon B. Johnson United States Under Secretary of the Interior
86
Thurgood-marshall-2.jpg
Thurgood Marshall Clark August 30, 1967
(69–11)
October 2, 1967

October 1, 1991
(Retired)
32nd
Solicitor General of the United States
(1965–1967)
87
Justice Blackmun Official.jpg
Harry Blackmun Fortas May 12, 1970
(94–0)
June 9, 1970

August 3, 1994
(Retired)
Richard Nixon Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Eighth Circuit

(1959–1970)
88
US Supreme Court Justice Lewis Powell - 1976 official portrait.jpg
Lewis F. Powell Jr. Black December 6, 1971
(89–1)
January 7, 1972

June 26, 1987
(Retired)
President of the
American Bar Association
(1964–1965)
89
William Rehnquist.jpg
William Rehnquist J. Harlan II December 10, 1971
(68–26)
January 7, 1972

September 26, 1986
(Continued as chief justice)[j]
United States Assistant Attorney General
for the Office of Legal Counsel
(1969–1971)
90
John Paul Stevens, SCOTUS photo portrait.jpg
John Paul Stevens Douglas December 17, 1975
(98–0)
December 19, 1975

June 29, 2010
(Retired)
Gerald Ford Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Seventh Circuit

(1970–1975)
91
Sandra Day O'Connor.jpg
Sandra Day O'Connor Stewart September 21, 1981
(99–0)
September 25, 1981

January 31, 2006
(Retired)
Ronald Reagan Judge of the
Arizona Court of Appeals
(1979–1981)
92
Antonin Scalia Official SCOTUS Portrait crop.jpg
Antonin Scalia Rehnquist September 17, 1986
(98–0)
September 26, 1986

February 13, 2016
(Died)
Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the District of Columbia Circuit

(1982–1986)
93
Anthony Kennedy official SCOTUS portrait.jpg
Anthony Kennedy Powell February 3, 1988
(97–0)
February 18, 1988

July 31, 2018
(Retired)
Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Ninth Circuit

(1975–1988)
94
DavidSouter.jpg
David Souter Brennan October 2, 1990
(90–9)
October 9, 1990

June 29, 2009
(Retired)
George H. W. Bush Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the First Circuit

(1990)
95
Clarence Thomas official SCOTUS portrait.jpg
Clarence Thomas Marshall October 15, 1991
(52–48)
October 23, 1991

Incumbent
Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the District of Columbia Circuit

(1990–1991)
96
Ruth Bader Ginsburg official SCOTUS portrait.jpg
Ruth Bader Ginsburg B. White August 3, 1993
(96–3)
August 10, 1993

Incumbent
Bill Clinton Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the District of Columbia Circuit

(1980–1993)
97
Stephen Breyer, SCOTUS photo portrait.jpg
Stephen Breyer Blackmun July 29, 1994
(87–9)
August 3, 1994

Incumbent
Chief Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the First Circuit

(1990–1994)
98
Samuel Alito official photo.jpg
Samuel Alito O'Connor January 31, 2006
(58–42)
January 31, 2006

Incumbent
George W. Bush Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Third Circuit

(1990–2006)
99
Sonia Sotomayor in SCOTUS robe.jpg
Sonia Sotomayor Souter August 6, 2009
(68–31)
August 8, 2009

Incumbent
Barack Obama Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Second Circuit

(1998–2009)
100
Elena Kagan Official SCOTUS Portrait (2013).jpg
Elena Kagan Stevens August 5, 2010
(63–37)
August 7, 2010

Incumbent
45th
Solicitor General of the United States
(2009–2010)
101
Associate Justice Neil Gorsuch Official Portrait.jpg
Neil Gorsuch Scalia April 7, 2017
(54–45)
April 10, 2017

Incumbent
Donald Trump Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Tenth Circuit

(2006–2017)
102
Judge Brett Kavanaugh.jpg
Brett Kavanaugh Kennedy October 6, 2018
(50–48)
October 6, 2018

Incumbent
Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the District of Columbia Circuit

(2006–2018)

Notes

  1. ^ The start date given here for each associate justice is the day they took the oath of office, and the end date is the day of the justice's death, resignation, or retirement.
  2. ^ Listed here (unless otherwise noted) is the position—either with a U.S. state or the federal government, or with a private corporation—held by the individual immediately prior to becoming an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court.
  3. ^ Later served as chief justice, June 30, 1795 – December 28, 1795.
  4. ^ Was confirmed as chief justice on January 26, 1796, but declined and continued to serve as an associate justice.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Recess appointment.
  6. ^ Was impeached, but not convicted, and remained in office.
  7. ^ Served as chief justice, December 19, 1910 – May 19, 1921.
  8. ^ Later served as chief justice, February 24, 1930 – June 30, 1941.
  9. ^ Served as chief justice, July 3, 1941 – April 22, 1946.
  10. ^ Served as chief justice, September 26, 1986 – September 3, 2005.

See also

References

  1. ^ An Act to Amend the Judicial System of the United States, 41st Congress, Session I, Chapter XXII, § 1, 16 Stat. 44, codified as amended in 28 U.S.C. § 1.
  2. ^ An Act to establish the Judicial Courts of the United States, 1st Congress, Session I, chapter XX, §  1, 1 Stat. 73, codified as amended in 28 U.S.C. § 1.
  3. ^ Biskupic, Joan (2005). Sandra Day O'Connor: How the First Woman on the Supreme Court Became Its Most Influential Justice. New York: HarperCollins. p. 101.
  4. ^ "Judicial Compensation". United States Courts. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  5. ^ 28 U.S.C. § 3
  6. ^ "Justice Clarence Thomas". Washington, D.C.: The Supreme Court Historical Society. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
  7. ^ "Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg". Washington, D.C.: The Supreme Court Historical Society. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
  8. ^ "Justice Stephen G. Breyer". Washington, D.C.: The Supreme Court Historical Society. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
  9. ^ "Justice Samuel Anthony Alito, Jr". Washington, D.C.: The Supreme Court Historical Society. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
  10. ^ "Justice Sonia Sotomayor". Washington, D.C.: The Supreme Court Historical Society. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
  11. ^ "Justice Elena Kagan". Washington, D.C.: The Supreme Court Historical Society. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
  12. ^ "Justice Neil M. Gorsuch". Washington, D.C.: The Supreme Court Historical Society. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
  13. ^ Fram, Alan; Mascaro, Lisa; Daly, Matthew (October 6, 2018). "Kavanaugh sworn to high court after rancorous confirmation". ap.org. New York, New York. Retrieved October 6, 2018.
  14. ^ Woodward, Robert; Armstrong, Scott (1979). The Brethren: Inside the Supreme Court. New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. 480–488, 526. ISBN 978-0-7432-7402-9.
  15. ^ "U.S. Senate: Supreme Court Nominations: 1789–Present". United States Senate. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
  16. ^ "Justices 1789 to Present". www.supremecourt.gov. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  17. ^ Klebanow, Diana & Jonas, Franklin L. (2003). People's Lawyers: Crusaders for Justice in American History. M. E. Sharpe. p. 61. ISBN 978-0765606730 – via Google Books.

Further reading

External links

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