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Library of Congress

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Library of Congress
blue logo of book open to blue stripe flag page
schematic round seal of eagle of the Library of Congress
Flag of the United States Library of Congress 2.svg
Flag of the Library of Congress
Established April 24, 1800; 217 years ago (1800-04-24)
Location Washington, D.C., U.S.
Coordinates 38°53′19″N 77°00′17″W / 38.88861°N 77.00472°W / 38.88861; -77.00472
Branches N/A
Size More than 38 million books and other printed materials, 3.6 million recordings, 14 million photographs, 5.5 million maps, 8.1 million pieces of sheet music and 70 million manuscripts, 5,711 incunabula, and 122,810,430 items in the nonclassified (special) collections:
more than 164,000,000 total items[1]
Access and use
Circulation Library does not publicly circulate
Population served 535 members of the United States Congress, their staff, and members of the public
Other information
Budget $598,402,000[2]
Director Carla Hayden (Librarian of Congress)
Staff 3,224[2]
 Main reading room at the Library of Congress
Main reading room at the Library of Congress

The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States. The Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C.; it also maintains the Packard Campus in Culpeper, Virginia, which houses the National Audio-Visual Conservation Center.[3]

The Library of Congress claims to be the largest library in the world.[4][5] Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, and include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages. Two-thirds of the books it acquires each year are in languages other than English."[3]

The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800, after sitting for eleven years in the temporary national capitals of New York and Philadelphia. John J. Beckley, who became the first Librarian of Congress, was paid two dollars per day and was required to also serve as the Clerk of the House of Representatives.[6]

The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s. Most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814, during the War of 1812. To restore its collection in 1815, the library bought from former president Thomas Jefferson his entire personal collection of 6,487 books.

After a period of slow growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection, including many of Jefferson's books. After the American Civil War, the Library of Congress grew rapidly in both size and importance, which sparked a campaign to purchase replacement copies for volumes that had been burned from other sources, collections and libraries (which had started to appear throughout the burgeoning United States).

The Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to have two copies deposited of books, maps, illustrations and diagrams printed in the United States. It also began to build its collections of British and other European works and then of works published throughout the English-speaking world.

This development culminated in the construction between 1888 and 1894 of a separate, extensive library building across the street from the Capitol, in the Beaux Arts style with fine decorations, murals, paintings, marble halls, columns and steps, carved hardwoods and a stained glass dome. It included several stories built underground of steel and cast iron stacks.

The Library's primary mission of researching inquiries made by members of Congress is carried out through the Congressional Research Service, traces its origin to 1914, and was first permanently authorized (as the Legislative Reference Service) with the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946.

Although the Library is open to the public, only high-ranking government officials and Library employees may check out books and materials (except through Interlibrary loan, which is available to the public (see below)). The Library promotes literacy and American literature through projects such as the American Folklife Center, American Memory, Center for the Book, and Poet Laureate.

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  • Library of Congress African American Collections - Ahmed Johnson
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Ahmed Johnson: Well, thank you, William. I'm really happy to be here. My name is Ahmed Johnson. I'm a reference librarian, as William said, at the Local History and Genealogy Reading Room. Now, when I first got the call to do this presentation, I was really excited. Right? Come in, talk about your collections and resources relevant for African-American genealogical research, and then I was told I only had 15 minutes. [laughter] So. [laughs] I'm going to get started, right? Because I think I'm at almost 14 now. So, once again, that's my name and title. Now, I always like to start with a historical background about the Library of Congress and our African-American collection. So I'm going to read this really quickly. I hate to read, but -- for over 200 years, the Library of Congress has amassed resources bound about African-Americans as part of its mission to promote the comprehensive study of American history and culture. Right. Since 1870, because of copyright deposits, our collection has enhanced. We have books, microforms, maps, music, and so forth. Many of these deposits reflect the African-American experience in the context of slavery, reconstruction, and the civil rights movement, among others. So we're not just books; we're maps, we're newspapers, we're city directories, manuscripts, and so forth. But we don't have every book every published. I get that all the time. [laughter] Now, relating to our African-American collections, no count has ever been made of all the subject areas comprising African-American history and culture. Why? Because it's spread throughout the general collections, as I mentioned earlier: literature, slavery, the slave trade, Civil War, civil rights, and et cetera. Just some really basic genealogical research methods; these are really basic, once again, I want to emphasize that. Usually I tell people to begin with yourself. Don't start with great-grandma, great-grandpa. Start with yourself. Because we all have two parents, four grandparents, eight great-grandparents, right? And you may find a connection further up the tree. I always mention that. And then, of course, you want to document it with vital records. What are vital records? They're birth, death, marriage, sometimes even divorce records. Right? And you can trace your family history. That should say 1940 now, because recently, the 1940 census, and primarily for African-Americans, you can go back to 1870. You want to interview your oldest living relative and investigate things lying in the attic. The trunk, not the truck -- trunks, basement, and so forth. And, of course, after you exhaust all of your resources at home, you want to get out into the community, visit your local genealogical society, county courthouse, state archives, et cetera. Like I mentioned earlier, trace your family back to the 1870 census. Before that, in most cases, African-Americans are trying to identify the last slave owner. Okay. How can we, at the Library of Congress, help you with this research, right? Okay. The best place for information about our resources and collections is our website. Great information on here. I didn't put an arrow on this, but that "Ask a Librarian" link, that allows you to submit a question via email directly to the reference staff. And we will return your -- we will respond to your question within five days. Also, we have a link on our website titled "Bibliographies and Guides." These are guides created by reference librarians. And because we're here today to talk about African-Americans, I figured I should focus on the three African-American guides that we have: "African-American Family History," "Generations Past," and "Afro-American Genealogical Research." The first one, "African-American Family Histories," this allows -- this is a selected list. Not everything. It's not comprehensive. This is a selective list of family histories about African-Americans. So this is probably the first place you want to check to see if we have anything relating to your family history. Also, we have something called "Generations Past." Similar to the first one, but this includes your local histories: state histories, county histories, and so forth. Right? Then we go to our online catalog. What would we be without our catalog? If you don't find anything in the first two resources I mentioned, you want to come here to our online catalog. Really simple to do. I live in Prince George's County. Right? You just simply put in "Prince George's County," followed by the state; you do a subject browse. This will give you every book that we have relating to Prince George's County. So let's see. See all the different subject headings? We have 30 books relating to Prince George's County and genealogy. What type of records will you find in these books? Transcriptions of marriage records, tax records, land records, and so forth. So, just an example of a titles list: 1828 tax lists, records of the White Marsh Church, probate records, which is critical for African-Americans because usually slaves were willed down to descendants, so you may find something in those probate records as well. And here's an example of an actual record. Index of marriage licenses in Prince George's County from 1777 to 1886. And if you wanted to order that book, you just simply write down that call number, and the Library of Congress is a closed stack library. What that means is you don't get the material for yourself. We deliver the material for you. So you're a VIP when you come to the Library of Congress. [laughter] Right? Now, you can do the same thing for your family history, as I mentioned earlier. If you don't find your name in that selected bibliography, you can come to our online catalog. My family name is Peters, so I just simply type in "Peters family," do a subject browse, and see what I get. See that number there that says 33? We have 33 books relating to the Peters family. Now, I can't guarantee any of these books are related to your family. Right? That's your job. You're looking for names, dates, or locations relevant to what you already know about your family history. And here's an example. None of these books, by the way, were related to my family. Right? I went through them. Guaranteed, not a one. So now it's my job to do that family history and put it in the Library of Congress, donate the publication. Okay. Primarily, people come to the Library of Congress to use our subscription databases. Everyone here is familiar with, Heritagequest, Proquest, historical newspapers, Proquest black newspapers. You can use all of these databases for free at the Library of Congress. If you do it from home, they want to charge you money, right? You can print from the Library of Congress, you can save it to your flash drive, you can even email it to your email account. Okay? So come on down to the Library of Congress. [laughter] Okay. Now, all of you aren't from D.C., I'm assuming, some people are from out of town. Everybody can't get to the Library of Congress. So how can we help you off site? We have a huge collection called American Memory. Right? Over 20 million digitized collections. And for the purposes of this lecture, I focused on African-American. But as you can see, there are several other topics and subjects. Okay, if you go to African-American, you see about 17 collections. Right? I selected African-Americans in Ohio. The coolest thing about this database is it's all keyword searching. You can make it your own. You can put in a name, you can put in a location, you can put in an occupation, and see what you get. I think I put in -- oh, William P. Hold [spelled phonetically], this is a slave narrative. We have the slave narratives. They're on microfilm. They've been digitized, and they're also within this collection. Okay? So we have them in several formats. Really critical for people researching their slave ancestry. Okay. So this is Mr. William P. Hold. Let's see what information this has. Once again, this is from African-Americans in Ohio. Okay. Great genealogical information in the slave narrative, right? He says he was born a slave in Halifax County. Gives his birth date, he even gives his mother and father's name, as you can see there. And then he gives us a migration trail. He says from Halifax County, he moved to Paris, Kentucky, and he got married. Now, he didn't give his wife's name. I wonder why. I'm married, too. I would've given my wife's name. [laughter] But then he talks about how he moved to Springfield, Ohio 25 years ago, so we have a trail of Mr. Hold, right, from Halifax, to Kentucky, to Ohio. And then we even have his current residence. And then we have a physical description of Mr. Hold. It says, "He's tall, still straight, and slender of build, and wears a grey beard, just like his hair." Right? So if this was your ancestor, this would be great information because genealogy isn't just about names, dates, and locations. It's about what made people -- it's about physical description. We want to know how our ancestors looked, you know? We want to know what made them move from one place to another. This is the kind of stuff you can find on the American Memories site. So not just names, dates, and locations. We also have this great, great resource called Chronicling America. Right? Digital newspapers from across the country. And I'm not going to spend too much time with this, because I don't know how much time I have left. But, anyway, it's newspapers from across the country, your smaller newspapers, not your major cities. And not every state is represented yet, but it's an ongoing project. And, once again, it's all keyword searching. You can put in a name, you can put in a location; what can you find? Obituaries, right? Obituaries, marriage -- when people were married in the newspaper. You know, back during the 18th, 19th century, newspapers contained all kinds of information, right? Much more than they do now. And also, if we don't have the newspaper digitized, you can look at this directory, and we'll tell you where that newspaper is, what repository has that newspaper. I think it's an excellent site, and it's free. Okay. Next I want to talk about Built in America, right? This is the historic American building survey, digital photographs of historic buildings across the country. So what did I do? Remember that William Hold guy? He said he was born in Halifax County. He was born a slave, right? So I did a search, and I put in "Halifax County plantations," and I got this Berry Hill plantation which was in Halifax County. And look what I found. I found pictures of the plantation. Right? That's what they were calling the big house. [laughter] That's where the slave owner lived, right? Now, we're going to look at the slave cabin. I'm not sure if this is his plantation, but probably similar, based on the description that he gave in the slave narrative. It was a huge plantation. Okay. So then what did I do? I stayed on Built in America, and I went to Springfield, Ohio, right? And look what I found. African-American historic district, Springfield, Ohio. And this is an image of the homes around the time that Mr. William P. Hold would've lived in that community. So I'm going to go back. That's quite a progression, right? You go from that to that. All right? I think that's impressive. I don't know about you. Right? So then, we have another group of records. They're called the Antebellum Southern Plantation records. Gold mine for people researching their slave ancestry. Why? Slave owners took very meticulous records, and African-Americans, oftentimes, have the problem of making that connection from slavery to emancipation. These records -- it's microfilm -- it's over -- approximately 1,500 reels of microfilm. Okay? And what kind of stuff can you find in these records? First of all, it's such a huge collection that you have to look at the index. Right? Find out where the plantation was, the name of your family, and so forth, and look in the index. The index has it by name, name of plantation, name of slave owner. Right? Two minutes. Yes, sir. Okay. Here's an example of the finding aid for the Southern Antebellum Plantation records. And this is the Bruce family. They also had a plantation in Halifax County. And it gives you a reel-by-reel description of what's on each reel of microfilm, each frame of the reel of microfilm. And you can see there 76, 78, James Bruce business papers, and so forth, business papers, business papers. And here's an example of the "List of Negroes" with what, first names. We don't see that on the federal record. Right? "First names, Berry Hill Plantation List of Negroes." I see a William there, 1826. That's not my guy. That's not Mr. William P. Hold, but I thought I would highlight it anyway. Also, we see occupations of negroes. Carpenters, blacksmiths, so forth. Stuff you will not get before 1870 on the federal census. And you could look at some state census records. You may find some slaves and so forth. But on the federal record, you will not find names of slaves. So this is one of your best resources to do that research. Also, as I mentioned earlier, slaves were oftentimes handed down to relatives, right? And look at this. This guy gave away 402 slaves. Huge plantation, right? One of several plantations. This guy was one of the richest men in Virginia during his lifetime. Okay? So you get the picture of how much wealth came from the slave trade. And I always like to emphasize that. But I think that's all my time. I think I did it. Thank you. [laughter] [applause] Bill Pretzer: As promised, if there are any questions for Damani at this point, we'll also take questions at the very end of the presentation. Anyone want to run to a microphone at this point? Yes, sir. Male Speaker:Good morning. My name is Charles Holden [spelled phonetically], and I have a question for you. I have ancestors, great-great-grandparents who are escaped slaves that went to Canada, and one of their children supposedly wrote a manuscript about their escape. And the story I'm told is that decades before I was born, it was misplaced, and we don't know where it's at. I wonder if you have any ideas of resources at the Library of Congress or elsewhere that I might tap into that possibly could help me locate this if it's still in existence. Ahmed Johnson: Yes. Am I on? Male Speaker:Yes. Ahmed Johnson: Okay, good. You mentioned Canada? Male Speaker: Yes, yes. Ahmed Johnson: Okay, now, it depends on where the narrative was actually lost. So I'm not sure if -- like -- Male Speaker:Well, they lived in Windsor, Ontario, and North Buxton, Ontario, but came to Detroit. Ahmed Johnson: Right. Male Speaker:And apparently that's where he was living when he died. Ahmed Johnson: The short answer is probably not. But the hopeful answer is maybe at a local genealogical historical society. I'm just not sure. But if we can talk after the lecture today, I maybe can give you more suggestions. Male Speaker:Sure. All right. Thank you. Ahmed Johnson: But hopefully, we can come up with some type of plan for you to continue your research. Thank you. Bill Pretzer:Thank you all. Our second speaker is Damani Davis, an archivist in the Research Services Division of the National Archives, who has published and lectured widely on using government resources for African-American genealogical research. Damani?



indigo progress construction photographs of the Library of Congress Jefferson Building
Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888, to May 15, 1894.

1800–51: Origins and Jefferson's contribution

James Madison is credited with the idea for creating a congressional library, first making such a proposition in 1783.[7] The Library of Congress was established April 24, 1800, when President John Adams signed an act of Congress providing for the transfer of the seat of government from Philadelphia to the new capital city of Washington. Part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 "for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress ..., and for fitting up a suitable apartment for containing them...."[8] Books were ordered from London and the collection, consisting of 740 books and 3 maps, was housed in the new Capitol.[9]

As president, Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. On January 26, 1802, he signed a bill that allowed the president to appoint an overseer of the Library of Congress (the Librarian of Congress) and for the establishment of a Joint Committee on the Library to regulate and oversee the Library. The new law also extended to the president and vice president the ability to borrow books.[10][11]

In the midst of the War of 1812, invading British Regulars led a Burning of Washington in August 1814, including the Capitol, and destroyed the Library of Congress and its collection of 3,000 volumes.[9] These volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol.[11] One of the few congressional volumes to survive was a government account book of receipts and expenditures for the year 1810.[12] It was taken as a souvenir by the British Commander, Admiral George Cockburn, whose family later returned it to the United States government in 1940.[13]

Within a month, former president Jefferson offered to sell his personal library[14][15] as a replacement. In January 1815, Congress accepted Jefferson's offer, appropriating $23,950 to purchase his 6,487 books.[9] Some members of the House of Representatives opposed the outright purchase, including Daniel Webster, a New Hampshire representative who wanted to return "all books of an atheistical, irreligious, and immoral tendency."[16] Jefferson had spent 50 years accumulating a wide variety of books in several languages and in many subjects, such as philosophy, history, law, religion, architecture, travel, natural sciences, mathematics, studies of classical Greece and Rome, modern inventions, hot air balloons, music, submarines, fossils, agriculture, and meteorology.[7] He had also collected books on topics not normally viewed as part of a legislative library, such as cookbooks. However, he believed all subjects had a place in the Library of Congress. He remarked:

"I do not know that it contains any branch of science which Congress would wish to exclude from their collection; there is, in fact, no subject to which a Member of Congress may not have occasion to refer."[16]

Jefferson's collection was unique in that it was a working collection of a scholar, not a gentleman's collection for display. Jefferson's original collection was organized into a scheme based on Francis Bacon's organization of knowledge. Specifically, he grouped his books into Memory, Reason, and Imagination, which broke down into 44 more subdivisions. The Library followed Jefferson's organization scheme until the late 19th century, when librarian Herbert Putnam began work on a more flexible Library of Congress Classification structure that now applies to more than 138 million items. In 1851, a fire destroyed two thirds of the Jefferson collection, with only 2,000 books remaining. In 2008, after working for ten years, the librarians at the Library of Congress had found replacements for all but 300 of the works that were in Jefferson's original collection.[17]

1851–65: Weakening

The antebellum period was difficult for the Library. During the 1850s the Smithsonian Institution's librarian Charles Coffin Jewett aggressively tried to move that organization towards becoming the United States' national library. His efforts were blocked by the Smithsonian secretary Joseph Henry, who advocated a focus on scientific research and publication and favored the Library of Congress' development into the national library. Henry's dismissal of Jewett in July 1854 ended the Smithsonian's attempts to become the national library, and in 1866 Henry transferred the Smithsonian Institution's library of forty thousand volumes to the Library of Congress.[9]

December 24, 1851, the largest fire in the Library's history destroyed 35,000 books, about two–thirds of the Library's 55,000 book collection, including two-thirds of Jefferson's original transfer. Congress in 1852 quickly appropriated $168,700 to replace the lost books, but not for the acquisition of new materials. This marked the start of a conservative period in the Library's administration by librarian John Silva Meehan and joint committee chairman James A. Pearce, who worked to restrict the Library's activities. In 1857, Congress transferred the Library's public document distribution activities to the Department of the Interior and its international book exchange program to the Department of State. Abraham Lincoln's political appointment of John G. Stephenson as librarian of Congress in 1861 further weakened the Library; Stephenson's focus was on non-library affairs, including service as a volunteer aide-de-camp at the battles of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg during the American Civil War. By the conclusion of the war, the Library of Congress had a staff of seven for a collection of 80,000 volumes.[9] The centralization of copyright offices into the United States Patent Office in 1859 ended the Library's thirteen-year role as a depository of all copyrighted books and pamphlets.

1865–97: Spofford's expansion

color postcard of west front of Library of Congress Jefferson Builsing
The West façade of the Library of Congress in 1898
Library of Congress stacks in the Capitol building
The Library of Congress inside the U.S. Capitol Building c. 1890

The Library of Congress reasserted itself during the latter half of the 19th century under Librarian Ainsworth Rand Spofford, who directed the Library from 1865 to 1897. Aided by an overall expansion of the federal government and a favorable political climate, Spofford built broad bipartisan support for the Library as a national library and a legislative resource, began comprehensively collecting Americana and American literature, and led the construction of a new building to house the Library, and transformed the Librarian of Congress position into one of strength and independence. Between 1865 and 1870, Congress appropriated funds for the construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, placed all copyright registration and deposit activities under the Library's control, and restored the Library's international book exchange. The Library also acquired the vast libraries of both the Smithsonian and historian Peter Force, strengthening its scientific and Americana collections significantly. By 1876, the Library of Congress had 300,000 volumes and was tied with the Boston Public Library as the nation's largest library. When the Library moved from the Capitol building to its new headquarters in 1897, it had over 840,000 volumes, 40% of which had been acquired through copyright deposit.[9]

piles of books waiting to be shelved in Thomas Jefferson building
Some of the Library of Congress' holdings awaiting shelving inside the newly opened Thomas Jefferson Building in 1897

A year before the Library's move to its new location, the Joint Library Committee held a session of hearings to assess the condition of the Library and plan for its future growth and possible reorganization. Spofford and six experts sent by the American Library Association, including future Librarian of Congress Herbert Putnam and Melvil Dewey of the New York State Library, testified before the committee that the Library should continue its expansion towards becoming a true national library. Based on the hearings and with the assistance of Senators Justin Morrill of Vermont and Daniel Voorhees of Indiana, Congress more than doubled the Library's staff from 42 to 108 and established new administrative units for all aspects of the Library's collection. Congress also strengthened the office of Librarian of Congress to govern the Library and make staff appointments, as well as requiring Senate approval for presidential appointees to the position.[9]

1897–1939: Post-reorganization

bird's eye view color postcard of Library of Congress Jefferson building
The Library of Congress in 1898

The Library of Congress, spurred by the 1897 reorganization, began to grow and develop more rapidly. Spofford's successor John Russell Young, though only in office for two years, overhauled the Library's bureaucracy, used his connections as a former diplomat to acquire more materials from around the world, and established the Library's first assistance programs for the blind and physically disabled. Young's successor Herbert Putnam held the office for forty years from 1899 to 1939, entering into the position two years before the Library became the first in the United States to hold one million volumes.[9] Putnam focused his efforts on making the Library more accessible and useful for the public and for other libraries. He instituted the interlibrary loan service, transforming the Library of Congress into what he referred to as a "library of last resort".[18] Putnam also expanded Library access to "scientific investigators and duly qualified individuals" and began publishing primary sources for the benefit of scholars.[9]

Putnam's tenure also saw increasing diversity in the Library's acquisitions. In 1903, he persuaded President Theodore Roosevelt to transfer by executive order the papers of the Founding Fathers from the State Department to the Library of Congress. Putnam expanded foreign acquisitions as well, including the 1904 purchase of a four-thousand volume library of Indica, the 1906 purchase of G. V. Yudin's eighty-thousand volume Russian library, the 1908 Schatz collection of early opera librettos, and the early 1930s purchase of the Russian Imperial Collection, consisting of 2,600 volumes from the library of the Romanov family on a variety of topics. Collections of Hebraica and Chinese and Japanese works were also acquired. Congress even took the initiative to acquire materials for the Library in one occasion, when in 1929 Congressman Ross Collins of Mississippi successfully proposed the $1.5 million purchase of Otto Vollbehr's collection of incunabula, including one of three remaining perfect vellum copies of the Gutenberg Bible.[19][9]

Gutenberg bible open to page
A copy of the Gutenberg Bible on display at the Library of Congress

In 1914, Putnam established the Legislative Reference Service as a separative administrative unit of the Library. Based in the Progressive era's philosophy of science as a problem-solver, and modeled after successful research branches of state legislatures, the LRS would provide informed answers to Congressional research inquiries on almost any topic. In 1965, Congress passed an act allowing the Library of Congress to establish a trust fund board to accept donations and endowments, giving the Library a role as a patron of the arts. The Library received the donations and endowments of prominent individuals such as John D. Rockefeller, James B. Wilbur and Archer M. Huntington. Gertrude Clarke Whittall donated five Stradivarius violins to the Library and Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge's donations paid for a concert hall within the Library of Congress building and the establishment of an honorarium for the Music Division. A number of chairs and consultantships were established from the donations, the most well-known of which is the Poet Laureate Consultant.[9]

The Library's expansion eventually filled the Library's Main Building, despite shelving expansions in 1910 and 1927, forcing the Library to expand into a new structure. Congress acquired nearby land in 1928 and approved construction of the Annex Building (later the John Adams Building) in 1930. Although delayed during the Depression years, it was completed in 1938 and opened to the public in 1939.[9]

1939–present: Modern history

mural painting titled Erotica, by George Randolph Bars
Erotica, mural painting by George Randolph Barse (1861–1938) in the Library of Congress
mosaic wall decoration Minerva of Peace mosaic by Elihu Vedder
Elihu Vedder's Minerva of Peace mosaic

When Putnam retired in 1939, President Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed Archibald MacLeish as his successor. Occupying the post from 1939 to 1944 during the height of World War II, MacLeish became the most visible Librarian of Congress in the Library's history. MacLeish encouraged librarians to oppose totalitarianism on behalf of democracy; dedicated the South Reading Room of the Adams Building to Thomas Jefferson, commissioning artist Ezra Winter to paint four themed murals for the room; and established a "democracy alcove" in the Main Reading Room of the Jefferson Building for important documents such as the Declaration, Constitution and The Federalist Papers. The Library of Congress even assisted during the war effort, ranging from the storage of the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution in Fort Knox for safekeeping to researching weather data on the Himalayas for Air Force pilots. MacLeish resigned in 1944 to become Assistant Secretary of State, and President Harry Truman appointed Luther H. Evans as Librarian of Congress. Evans, who served until 1953, expanded the Library's acquisitions, cataloging and bibliographic services as much as the fiscal-minded Congress would allow, but his primary achievement was the creation of Library of Congress Missions around the world. Missions played a variety of roles in the postwar world: the mission in San Francisco assisted participants in the meeting that established the United Nations, the mission in Europe acquired European publications for the Library of Congress and other American libraries, and the mission in Japan aided in the creation of the National Diet Library.[9] Evans' successor L. Quincy Mumford took over in 1953. Mumford's tenure, lasting until 1974, saw the initiation of the construction of the James Madison Memorial Building, the third Library of Congress building. Mumford directed the Library during a period of increased educational spending, the windfall of which allowed the Library to devote energies towards establishing new acquisition centers abroad, including in Cairo and New Delhi. In 1967, the Library began experimenting with book preservation techniques through a Preservation Office, which grew to become the largest library research and conservation effort in the United States. Mumford's administration also saw the last major public debate about the Library of Congress' role as both a legislative library and a national library. A 1962 memorandum by Douglas Bryant of the Harvard University Library, compiled at the request of Joint Library Committee chairman Claiborne Pell, proposed a number of institutional reforms, including expansion of national activities and services and various organizational changes, all of which would shift the Library more towards its national role over its legislative role. Bryant even suggested possibly changing the name of the Library of Congress, which was rebuked by Mumford as "unspeakable violence to tradition". Debate continued within the library community until the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1970 shifted the Library back towards its legislative roles, placing greater focus on research for Congress and congressional committees and renaming the Legislative Reference Service to the Congressional Research Service.[9]

After Mumford retired in 1974, Gerald Ford appointed Daniel J. Boorstin as Librarian. Boorstin's first challenge was the move to the new Madison Building, which took place between 1980 and 1982. The move released pressures on staff and shelf space, allowing Boorstin to focus on other areas of Library administration such as acquisitions and collections. Taking advantage of steady budgetary growth, from $116 million in 1975 to over $250 million by 1987, Boorstin actively participated in enhancing ties with scholars, authors, publishers, cultural leaders, and the business community. His active and prolific role changed the post of Librarian of Congress so that by the time he retired in 1987, The New York Times called it "perhaps the leading intellectual public position in the nation".

President Ronald Reagan nominated James H. Billington as the 13th Librarian of Congress in 1987, and the U.S. Senate unanimously confirmed the appointment.[20] Under Billington's leadership, the Library doubled the size of its analog collections from 85.5 million items in 1987 to more than 160 million items in 2014. At the same time, it established new programs and employed new technologies to, "get the champagne out of the bottle." These included:

  • American Memory created in 1990, which became The National Digital Library in 1994, providing free access online to digitized American history and culture resources with curatorial explanations for K-12 education.[21]
  • website launched in 1994 to provide free public access to U.S. federal legislative information with ongoing updates; and website to provide a state-of-the-art framework for both Congress and the public in 2012;[22]
  • The National Book Festival, founded in 2000 with Laura Bush, has brought over 1000 authors and a million guests to the National Mall and the Washington Convention Center to celebrate reading. With a major gift from David Rubenstein in 2013, the Library also established the Library of Congress Literacy Awards to recognize and support achievements in improving literacy in the U.S. and abroad;[23]
  • The Kluge Center, started with a grant of $60 million from John W. Kluge in 2000 to bring scholars and researchers from around the world to use Library resources and to interact with policymakers and the public. It hosts public lectures and scholarly events, provides endowed Kluge fellowships, and awards The Kluge Prize for the Study of Humanity (now worth $1.5 million), the first Nobel-level international prize for lifetime achievement in the humanities and social sciences (subjects not included in the Nobel awards);[24]
  • Open World Leadership Center, established in 2000, administered 23,000 professional exchanges for emerging post-Soviet leaders in Russia, Ukraine and the other successor states of the former USSR by 2015. Open World began as a Library of Congress project, and later became an independent agency in the legislative branch.[25]
  • The Veterans History Project, congressionally mandated in 2000 to collect, preserve, and make accessible the personal accounts of American war veterans from WWI to the present day;[26]
  • The National Audio-Visual Conservation Center, which opened in 2007 at a 45-acre site in Culpeper, Virginia with the largest private gift ever made to the Library (more than $150 million by the Packard Humanities Institute) and $82.1 million additional support from Congress. In 1988, The Library also established the National Film Preservation Board, a congressionally mandated National Film Preservation Board to select American films annually for preservation and inclusion in the new National Registry. The Librarian named 650 films to the Registry by 2015;[27]
  • The Gershwin Prize for Popular Song,[28] launched in 2007 to honor the work of an artist whose career reflects lifetime achievement in song composition. Winners have included Paul Simon, Stevie Wonder, Paul McCartney, Burt Bacharach and Hal David, Carole King, Billy Joel, and just-named Willie Nelson for November 2015. The Library also launched the Living Legend Awards in 2000 to honor artists, activists, filmmakers, and others who have contributed to America's diverse cultural, scientific, and social heritage;
  • The Fiction Prize (now the Library of Congress Prize for American Fiction) started in 2008 to recognize distinguished lifetime achievement in the writing of fiction.[29]
  • The World Digital Library, established in association with UNESCO and 181 partners in 81 countries in 2009, to make online copies of professionally curated primary materials of the world's varied cultures freely available in multiple languages.[30][30]
  • National Jukebox launched in 2011 to provide streaming free online access to more than 10,000 out-of-print music and spoken word recordings.[31]
  • BARD in 2013, digital talking books mobile app for Braille and Audio Reading Downloads in partnership with the Library's National Library Service for the blind and physically handicapped, that enables free downloads of audio and Braille books to mobile devices via the Apple App Store.[32]

During Billington's tenure as the 13th Librarian of Congress, the Library acquired Lafayette's previously inaccessible papers in 1996 from a castle at La Grange, France; and the only copy of the 1507 Waldseemüller world map ("America's birth certificate") in 2003 for permanent display in the Library's Thomas Jefferson Building. Using privately raised funds, the Library of Congress reconstructed Thomas Jefferson's original library, which was placed on permanent display in the Jefferson building in 2008.[33] Billington also enlarged and technologically enhanced public spaces of the Jefferson Building into a national exhibition venue, and hosted over 100 exhibitions.[34] These included exhibits on the Vatican Library and the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, several on the Civil War and Lincoln, on African-American culture, on Religion and the founding of the American Republic, the Early Americas (the Kislak Collection became a permanent display), on the global celebration commemorating the 800th anniversary of Magna Carta, and on early American printing featuring the Rubenstein Bay Psalm Book. Onsite access to the Library of Congress was also increased when Billington advocated successfully for an underground connection between the U.S. Capitol Visitors Center and the Library in 2008 to increase congressional usage and public tours of the Library's Thomas Jefferson Building.[20]

Under Billington, the Library launched a mass deacidification program in 2001, which has extended the lifespan of almost 4 million volumes and 12 million manuscript sheets; and new collection storage modules at Fort Meade, the first opening in 2002, to preserve and make accessible more than 4 million items from the Library's analog collections. Billington established the Library Collections Security Oversight Committee in 1992 to improve protection of collections, and also the Library of Congress Congressional Caucus in 2008 to draw attention to the Library's curators and collections. He created the Library's first Young Readers Center in the Jefferson Building in 2009, and the first large-scale summer intern (Junior Fellows) program for university students in 1991.[35] Under Billington, the Library also sponsored the Gateway to Knowledge in 2010-2011, a mobile exhibition to 90 sites covering all states east of the Mississippi in a specially designed 18-wheel truck, increasing public access to Library collections off-site, particularly for rural populations.[36]

Billington raised more than half a billion dollars of private support to supplement Congressional appropriations for Library collections, programs, and digital outreach. These private funds helped the Library to continue its growth and outreach in the face of a 30% decrease in staffing caused mainly by legislative appropriations cutbacks. He created the Library's first development office for private fundraising in 1987, and, in 1990, established the James Madison Council, the Library's first national private sector donor-support group. In 1987, Billington also asked the GAO to conduct the first Library-wide audit, and he created the first Office of the Inspector General at the Library to provide regular independent review of library operations. This precedent led to regular annual financial audits, leading to unmodified ("clean") opinions from 1995 onwards.[20]

In April 2010, it announced plans to archive all public communication on Twitter, including all communication since Twitter's launch in March 2006.[37] As of 2015, the Twitter archive remains unfinished.[38]

Before retiring in 2015, after 28 years of service, Billington had come "under pressure" as Librarian of Congress.[39] This followed a Government Accountability Office report which revealed a "work environment lacking central oversight" and faulted Billington for "ignoring repeated calls to hire a chief information officer, as required by law."[40]

When Billington announced his plans to retire in 2015, commentator George Weigel described the Library of Congress as "one of the last refuges in Washington of serious bipartisanship and calm, considered conversation," and "one of the world's greatest cultural centers."[41]

Carla Hayden was sworn in as the 14th Librarian of Congress on September 14, 2016, to become the first woman and first African-American to hold the position.[42][43]

In 2017, the library announced the Librarian-in-Residence program which aims to support the future generation of librarians by giving them opportunity to gain work experience in five different areas of librarianship including: Acquisitions/Collection Development, Cataloging/Metadata, and Collection Preservation.[44]


photograph of west colonnade by Carol M. Highsmith
Library of Congress, Thomas Jefferson Building
photograph of the Great Hall in the Thomas Jefferson building by Carol M. Highsmith
The Great Hall interior

The collections of the Library of Congress include more than 32 million cataloged books and other print materials in 470 languages; more than 61 million manuscripts; the largest rare book collection[45] in North America, including the rough draft of the Declaration of Independence, a Gutenberg Bible (originating from the St. Blaise Abbey, Black Forest) (one of only three perfect vellum copies known to exist);[46][47][48] over 1 million U.S. government publications; 1 million issues of world newspapers spanning the past three centuries; 33,000 bound newspaper volumes; 500,000 microfilm reels; over 6,000 titles in all, totaling more than 120,000 issues comic book[49] titles; films; 5.3 million maps; 6 million works of sheet music; 3 million sound recordings; more than 14.7 million prints and photographic images including fine and popular art pieces and architectural drawings;[50] the Betts Stradivarius; and the Cassavetti Stradivarius.

The Library developed a system of book classification called Library of Congress Classification (LCC), which is used by most US research and university libraries.

The Library serves as a legal repository for copyright protection and copyright registration, and as the base for the United States Copyright Office. Regardless of whether they register their copyright, all publishers are required to submit two complete copies of their published works to the Library—this requirement is known as mandatory deposit.[51] Nearly 15,000 new items published in the U.S. arrive every business day at the Library. Contrary to popular belief, however, the Library does not retain all of these works in its permanent collection, although it does add an average of 12,000 items per day.[52] Rejected items are used in trades with other libraries around the world, distributed to federal agencies, or donated to schools, communities, and other organizations within the United States.[53] As is true of many similar libraries, the Library of Congress retains copies of every publication in the English language that is deemed significant.

The Library of Congress states that its collection fills about 838 miles (1,349 km) of bookshelves, while the British Library reports about 388 miles (624 km) of shelves.[54][55] The Library of Congress holds more than 155.3 million items with more than 35 million books and other print materials, against approximately 150 million items with 25 million books for the British Library.[54][55] A 2000 study by information scientists Peter Lyman and Hal Varian suggested that the amount of uncompressed textual data represented by the 26 million books then in the collection was 10 terabytes.[56]

The Library also administers the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, an audio book and braille library program provided to more than 766,000 Americans.


The Library's first digitization project was called "American Memory." Launched in 1990, it initially planned to choose 160 million objects from its collection to make digitally available on laserdiscs and CDs that would be distributed to schools and libraries. After realizing that this plan would be too expensive and inefficient, and with the rise of the Internet, the Library decided to instead make digitized material available over the Internet. This project was made official in the National Digital Library Program (NDLP), created in October 1994. By 1999, the NDLP had succeeded in digitizing over 5 million objects and had a budget of $12 million. The Library has kept the "American Memory" name for its public domain website, which today contains 15 million digital objects, comprising over 7 petabytes.[57]

American Memory is a source for public domain image resources, as well as audio, video, and archived Web content. Nearly all of the lists of holdings, the catalogs of the library, can be consulted directly on its web site. Librarians all over the world consult these catalogs, through the Web or through other media better suited to their needs, when they need to catalog for their collection a book published in the United States. They use the Library of Congress Control Number to make sure of the exact identity of the book. Digital images are also available at Snapshots of the Past, which provides archival prints.[58]

The Library has a budget of between $6–8 million each year for digitization, meaning that not all works can be digitized. It makes determinations about what objects to prioritize based on what is especially important to Congress or potentially interesting for the public. The 15 million digitized items represent less than 10% of the Library's total 160-million item collection.

The Library has chosen not to participate in other digital library projects such as Google Books and the Digital Public Library of America, although it has supported the Internet Archive project.[57]

The Library of Congress also provides an online archive of the proceedings of the U.S. Congress at THOMAS, including bill text, Congressional Record text, bill summary and status, the Congressional Record Index, and the United States Constitution.

Buildings of the Library

Aerial photograph of the Thomas Jefferson Building by Carol M. Highsmith
Thomas Jefferson Building and part of the John Adams Building (upper-right)
 The John Adams Building of the Library of Congress
The John Adams Building of the Library of Congress

The Library of Congress is physically housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill and a conservation center in rural Virginia. The Library's Capitol Hill buildings are all connected by underground passageways, so that a library user need pass through security only once in a single visit. The library also has off-site storage facilities for less commonly requested materials.

Thomas Jefferson Building

The Thomas Jefferson Building is located between Independence Avenue and East Capitol Street on First Street SE. It first opened in 1897 as the main building of the Library and is the oldest of the three buildings. Known originally as the Library of Congress Building or Main Building, it took its present name on June 13, 1980.

John Adams Building

The John Adams Building is located between Independence Avenue and East Capitol Street on 2nd Street SE, the block adjacent to the Jefferson Building. The building was originally built simply as an annex to the Jefferson Building. It opened its doors to the public January 3, 1939.

James Madison Memorial Building

The James Madison Memorial Building is located between First and Second Streets on Independence Avenue SE. The building was constructed from 1971 to 1976, and serves as the official memorial to President James Madison.

The Madison Building is also home to the Mary Pickford Theater, the "motion picture and television reading room" of the Library of Congress. The theater hosts regular free screenings of classic and contemporary movies and television shows.

Packard Campus for Audio-Visual Conservation

The Packard Campus for Audio-Visual Conservation is the Library of Congress's newest building, opened in 2007 and located in Culpeper, Virginia.[59] It was constructed out of a former Federal Reserve storage center and Cold War bunker. The campus is designed to act as a single site to store all of the library's movie, television, and sound collections. It is named to honor David Woodley Packard, whose Packard Humanities Institute oversaw design and construction of the facility. The centerpiece of the complex is a reproduction Art Deco movie theater that presents free movie screenings to the public on a semi-weekly basis.[60]

Digital Millennium Copyright Act

The Library of Congress, through both the Librarian of Congress and the Register of Copyrights, is responsible for authorizing exceptions to Section 1201 of Title 17 of the United States Code as part of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. This process is done every three years, with the Register receiving proposals from the public and acting as an advisor to the Librarian, who issues a ruling on what is exempt. After three years have passed, the ruling is no longer valid and a new ruling on exemptions must be made.[61][62]


The library is open for academic research to anyone with a Reader Identification Card. One may not remove library items from the reading rooms or the library buildings. Most of the Library's general collection of books and journals is in the closed stacks of the Jefferson and Adams Buildings; specialized collections of books and other materials are in closed stacks in all three main Library buildings, or are stored off-site. Access to the closed stacks is not permitted under any circumstances, except to authorized Library staff. Only the reading room reference collections are on open shelves.

Since 1902, American libraries have been able to request books and other items through interlibrary loan from the Library of Congress if these items are not readily available elsewhere. Through this system, the Library of Congress has served as a "library of last resort", according to former Librarian of Congress Herbert Putnam.[18] The Library of Congress lends books to other libraries with the stipulation that they be used only inside the borrowing library.[63]


In addition to its library services, the Library of Congress is also actively involved in various standard activities in areas related to bibliographical and search and retrieve standards. Areas of work include MARC standards, Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS), Metadata Object Description Schema (MODS), Z39.50 and Search/Retrieve Web Service (SRW), and Search/Retrieve via URL (SRU).[64]

The Law Library of Congress seeks to further legal scholarship by providing opportunities for scholars and practitioners to conduct significant legal research. Individuals are invited to apply for projects which would further the multi-faceted mission of the Law Library in serving the U.S. Congress, other governmental agencies, and the public.[65]

Annual events

Notable personnel

  • Cecil Hobbs (1943–1971) – American scholar of Southeast Asian history, head of the Southern Asia Section of the Orientalia (now Asian) Division of the Library of Congress, a major contributor to scholarship on Asia and the development of South East Asian coverage in American library collections[66]

See also


  1. ^ "Fascinating Facts". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  2. ^ a b "General information". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2015-01-04. 
  3. ^ a b "Fascinating Facts". The Library of Congress. Retrieved 2016-02-21. 
  4. ^ "Library of Congress". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 3 September 2017. 
  5. ^ "Fascinating Facts - Statistics". The Library of Congress. Retrieved 16 February 2017. 
  6. ^ "John James Beckley - Previous Librarians of Congress". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2015-01-04. 
  7. ^ a b Murray, Stuart. The Library: An Illustrated History (New York, Skyhouse Publishing, 2012): 155.
  8. ^ Stat. 55
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Jefferson's Legacy • A Brief History of the Library of Congress". Library of Congress. March 6, 2006. Retrieved January 14, 2008. 
  10. ^ Stat. 128
  11. ^ a b Murray, Stuart P. (2009). The library : an illustrated history. New York, NY: Skyhorse Pub. p. 158. ISBN 9781602397064. 
  12. ^ Murray, Stuart (2009). The Library An Illustrated History. Chicago, Illinois: Skyhorse Publishing. p. 159. 
  13. ^ Murray, Stuart (2009). The library : an illustrated history. New York, NY: Skyhorse Pub. ISBN 978-1-60239-706-4. 
  14. ^ "Thomas Jefferson's personal library, at LibraryThing, based on scholarship". LibraryThing. Retrieved 2012-11-04. 
  15. ^ LibraryThing profile page for Thomas Jefferson's library, summarizing contents and indicating sources
  16. ^ a b Murray, Stuart P. (2009). The library : an illustrated history. Chicago: Skyhorse Pub. p. 162. ISBN 9781602397064. 
  17. ^ Fineberg, Gail (June 2007). "Thomas Jefferson's Library". The Gazette. Library of Congress. 67 (6). Retrieved 2015-01-04. 
  18. ^ a b "Interlibrary Loan (Collections Access, Management and Loan Division, Library of Congress)". Library of Congress website. October 25, 2007. Retrieved December 4, 2007. 
  19. ^ Snapp, Elizabeth (April 1975). "The Acquisition of the Vollbehr Collection of Incunabula for the Library of Congress". The Journal of Library History (1974-1987). University of Texas Press. 10 (2): 152–161. JSTOR 25540624.  (restricted access)
  20. ^ a b c "Key Milestones of James H. Billington's Tenure | News Releases - Library of Congress". Retrieved 2015-09-22. 
  21. ^ "American Memory from the Library of Congress - Home Page". Retrieved 2015-09-22. 
  22. ^ " | Library of Congress". Retrieved 2015-09-22. 
  23. ^ "2015 Book Festival | National Book Festival - Library of Congress". Retrieved 2015-09-22. 
  24. ^ "The John W. Kluge Center - Library of Congress". Retrieved 2015-09-22. 
  25. ^ "Founding Chairman | OpenWorld". Retrieved 2015-09-22. 
  26. ^ "Veterans History Project (Library of Congress)". Retrieved 2015-09-22. 
  27. ^ "Inside the Nuclear Bunker Where America Preserves Its Movie History". Retrieved 2015-09-22. 
  28. ^ "Gershwin Prize". Retrieved 2015-09-22. 
  29. ^ "Fiction Prize". Retrieved 2015-09-22. 
  30. ^ a b "Background - World Digital Library". Retrieved 2015-09-22. 
  31. ^ "National Jukebox". Retrieved 2015-09-22. 
  32. ^ "NLS Home". Retrieved 2015-09-22. 
  33. ^ "Thomas Jefferson's Library | Exhibitions - Library of Congress". Retrieved 2015-09-22. 
  34. ^ "All Exhibitions - Exhibitions (Library of Congress)". Retrieved 2015-09-22. 
  35. ^ "2015 Junior Fellows Summer Intern Program Home (Library of Congress)". Retrieved 2015-09-22. 
  36. ^ "Gateway to Knowledge - Educational Resources - Library of Congress". Retrieved 2015-09-22. 
  37. ^ Grier, Peter (16 April 2010). "Twitter hits Library of Congress: Would Founding Fathers tweet?". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2015-01-04. 
  38. ^ Zimmer, Michael. "The Twitter Archive at the Library of Congress: Challenges for information practice and information policy". First Monday. 
  39. ^ "Librarian of Congress gets a Due Date" by Maria Recio, McClatchy DC, Oct. 30. 2015
  40. ^ "America’s 'national library' is lacking in leadership, yet another report finds" by Peggy McGlone, The Washington Post, March 31, 2015.
  41. ^ "America's Next 'Minister of Culture': Don't Politicize the Appointment". Retrieved 2015-09-22. 
  42. ^ McGlone, Peggy; McGlone, Peggy (July 13, 2016). "Carla Hayden confirmed as 14th librarian of Congress". Retrieved May 5, 2017. 
  43. ^ "Carla Hayden to be sworn in on September 14 - American Libraries Magazine". Retrieved May 5, 2017. 
  44. ^ "Librarians-in-Residence -". The Library of Congress. Retrieved 2017-11-07. 
  45. ^ "Rare Book and Special Collections Reading Room (Library of Congress)". Retrieved 2017-05-05. 
  46. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 6, 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-01. 
  47. ^ "Octavo Editions: Gutenberg Bible". Archived from the original on 2004-11-27. 
  48. ^ "Europe (Library of Congress Rare Books and Special Collections: An Illustrated Guide)". Retrieved 2017-05-05. 
  49. ^ "Comic Book Collection". The Library of Congress. April 7, 2006. Retrieved August 8, 2006. 
  50. ^ Annual Report of the Librarian of Congress (PDF), Library of Congress, 2009 
  51. ^ "Mandatory Deposit". Retrieved August 8, 2006. 
  52. ^ "Fascinating Facts | Library of Congress". The Library of Congress. Retrieved 2017-10-19. 
  53. ^ "Fascinating Facts". Library of Congress. Retrieved August 8, 2006. 
  54. ^ a b "Fascinating Facts – About the Library". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2013-10-14. 
  55. ^ a b "Facts and figures". British Library. Archived from the original on February 7, 2010. Retrieved June 30, 2011. 
  56. ^ Lyman, Peter; Varian, Hal R. (18 October 2000). "How Much Information?" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-10-14. 
  57. ^ a b Chayka, Kyle (2016-07-14). "The Library of Last Resort". n+1 Magazine. Retrieved 2016-07-19. 
  58. ^ "About Us". Snapshots of the Past. Retrieved 2016-04-26. 
  59. ^ "The Packard Campus - A/V Conservation (Library of Congress)". Retrieved 2017-05-05. 
  60. ^ "Library of Congress events listing". Retrieved 2012-11-04. 
  61. ^ "Section 1201: Exemptions to Prohibition Against Circumvention of Technological Measures Protecting Copyrighted Works". United States Copyright Office. 2013. Retrieved July 26, 2014. 
  62. ^ "Statement Regarding White House Response to 1201 Rulemaking | News Releases - Library of Congress". Library of Congress. 2013. Retrieved July 26, 2014. 
  63. ^ "Subpage Title (Interlibrary Loan, Library of Congress)". 2010-07-14. Retrieved 2012-11-04. 
  64. ^ "Standards at the Library of Congress". Retrieved 2017-05-05. 
  65. ^ "Research & Educational Opportunities - Law Library of Congress". Retrieved May 5, 2017. 
  66. ^ Tsuneishi, Warren (May 1992). "Obituary: Cecil Hobbs (1907-1991)". Journal of Asian Studies. 51 (2): 472–473. doi:10.1017/s0021911800041607. 

Further reading

  • Aikin, Jane (2010). "Histories of the Library of Congress". Libraries & the Cultural Record. 45 (1): 5–24. doi:10.1353/lac.0.0113. 
  • Anderson, Gillian B. (1989), "Putting the Experience of the World at the Nation's Command: Music at the Library of Congress, 1800-1917", Journal of the American Musicological Society, 42 (1): 108–49, doi:10.2307/831419 
  • Bisbort, Alan, and Linda Barrett Osborne. The Nation's Library: The Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. (Library of Congress, 2000)
  • Cole, John Young. Jefferson's legacy: a brief history of the Library of Congress (Library of Congress, 1993)
  • Cole, John Young. "The library of congress becomes a world library, 1815-2005." Libraries & culture (2005) 40#3: 385-398. in Project MUSE
  • Cope, R. L. "Management Review of the Library of Congress: The 1996 Booz Allen & Hamilton Report," Australian Academic & Research Libraries (1997) 28#1 online
  • Mearns, David Chambers. The Story Up To Now: The Library Of Congress, 1800-1946 (1947), detailed narrative
  • Ostrowski, Carl. Books, Maps, and Politics: A Cultural History of the Library of Congress, 1783-1861 (2004) online
  • Rosenberg, Jane Aiken. The Nation's Great Library: Herbert Putnam and the Library of Congress, 1899–1939 (University of Illinois Press, 1993)
  • Shevlin, Eleanor F.; Lindquist, Eric N. (2010). "The Center for the Book and the History of the Book". Libraries & the Cultural Record. 45 (1): 56–69. doi:10.1353/lac.0.0112. 
  • Tabb, Winston; et al. (2003). "Library of Congress". Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science. 3: 1593–1612. 


  • Cole, John Y. and Henry Hope Reed. The Library of Congress: The Art and Architecture of the Thomas Jefferson Building (1998) excerpt and text search
  • Small, Herbert, and Henry Hope Reed. The Library of Congress: Its Architecture and Decoration (1983)

External links

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