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Matthew M. Neely

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Matthew M. Neely
Matthew M. Neely cph.3a45169.jpg
United States Senator
from West Virginia
In office
January 3, 1949 – January 18, 1958
Preceded byChapman Revercomb
Succeeded byJohn D. Hoblitzell Jr.
In office
March 4, 1931 – January 12, 1941
Preceded byGuy D. Goff
Succeeded byJoseph Rosier
In office
March 4, 1923 – March 3, 1929
Preceded byHoward Sutherland
Succeeded byHenry D. Hatfield
21st Governor of West Virginia
In office
January 13, 1941 – January 15, 1945
Preceded byHomer A. Holt
Succeeded byClarence W. Meadows
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from West Virginia's 1st district
In office
January 3, 1945 – January 3, 1947
Preceded byA. C. Schiffler
Succeeded byFrancis J. Love
In office
October 14, 1913 – March 3, 1921
Preceded byJohn W. Davis
Succeeded byBenjamin L. Rosenbloom
Personal details
Born(1874-11-09)November 9, 1874
Grove, West Virginia
DiedJanuary 18, 1958(1958-01-18) (aged 83)
Washington, D.C.
Resting placeWoodlawn Cemetery
Fairmont, West Virginia
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)Alberta Ramage Neely
ProfessionPolitician
Military service
Allegiance United States
Branch/service United States Army
RankPrivate

Matthew Mansfield Neely (November 9, 1874 – January 18, 1958) was an American Democratic politician from West Virginia. He is the only West Virginian to serve in both houses of the United States Congress and as the Governor of West Virginia. He is also the only person to have held a full term in both Senate seats from the state.

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Transcription

this video is sponsored by CuriosityStream. hey, welcome to 12tone! it's almost Halloween, the only holiday I actually bother to celebrate on this channel. In the past we've talked about how horror movies use sudden, high notes to startle you and long, low notes to create a sense of unease, but this year I want to do something a little different and take a look at what they do to those notes. specifically, I want to look at every metalhead's favorite effect: distortion. I suspect you know what it sounds like, but how does it actually work? well, in order to understand that, we first have to talk about one of my favorite topics, sound waves. these come up a lot on this channel 'cause I'm a huge tuning nerd, but most of the time I'm just talking about the frequency of the wave. this is a measure of how many times per second it hits your ear, and it's what determines the note's pitch. today, though, we're gonna have to look at another feature of sound waves: shape. basically, while frequency tells you how long the pattern takes to repeat, shape tells you what it's doing in that time. technically speaking, sound is a pressure wave moving through air, and the way that pressure changes over time can have a profound impact on what we hear. probably the simplest shape is the square wave (bang) which just switches on and off. here's a slowed-down approximation: (bang) this is fairly common in older electronic music because it's really easy for a simple computer to generate, but it doesn't actually sound particularly pleasant. the sudden shifts from low to high and back again feel unnatural and more than a little uncomfortable. remember that, it'll be important later. a nicer-sounding shape is the triangle wave (bang) where instead of just jumping back and forth, we increase or decrease the pressure at a constant rate, like this: (bang) this prevents those sudden jumps that made the square wave feel so harsh, but these sharp changes in direction still make it a little bit rough. we can also combine the two, using a sudden jump up and then a slow slide down (bang) to make what's called a sawtooth wave (bang) which earns its name by feeling even more jagged than the square wave, for when you want something that sounds really nasty. oh, and also it's shaped like a saw. these are all electronic signals, though: natural waves tend to take on a much smoother shape, called a circle wave, or sine wave. (bang) here, we've rounded out all the sudden shifts, creating a mathematically smooth curve that takes us from our peaks to our valleys with as little harshness as possible. when you sing, or play a note on an acoustic instrument, you're generating these sine waves. or, rather, you're generating a complex pattern based on sine waves, but we'll get to that in a bit. first, what does this have to do with distortion? well, the first uses of distortion came from blues guitarists in the 40s and 50s, when pioneers like Muddy Waters began to adopt the recently invented electric guitar in order to be heard over the rest of their band. these guitarists quickly realized that, if they turned their amps up loud enough, they could distort the sound, getting a cool, gritty tone that added a bit of extra bite to their playing. this created what we now call overdrive distortion, or just overdrive, and it works based on an effect called clipping. you see, early guitar amps were pretty limited: they could only generate so much pressure, and if you pushed them past that point they just sort of gave up. say you put in a sine wave with a volume of 8 decibels. oh, yeah, decibels is a unit of volume, basically how high and low your peaks and valleys are. anyway, let's say you try to play an 8 decibel wave, but your amp can only produce up to 6 decibels. it does its best, playing as loud as it can whenever your sine wave goes over the limit, but you still lose this nice, beautiful curve 'cause the amp just can't handle the nuance. instead, you get this plateau, which makes the whole thing start to look like our old friend, the square wave. while the wave is within our 6-decibel limit it gives us that nice, sine wave-y quality we're looking for, but as soon as we step outside, the best we can do is flatline. compare this sine wave from earlier (bang) to this version, which I intentionally clipped: (bang) overdrive still leaves most of the sound intact, though, which gives it a warmer tone than other, more destructive kinds of distortion like, say, distortion. ok, the names can get a little confusing 'cause we didn't plan them out in advance, but distortion is the term we use to describe a medium level of distortion. does that make sense? I think it does. anyway, basically, if overdrive represents pushing your amp a couple decibels past where it wants to go, distortion just means pushing it even further. well, sort of: in practice, modern distortion pedals usually just directly alter the sound wave instead of messing around with forced clipping and whatnot, but the principle is the same. as you might imagine, this starts to do some serious damage to your sound wave. compare this (bang) to this. (bang) so we've seen overdrive, which is light distortion, and distortion, which is medium distortion, but what if we go even further? well, the realm of truly heavy distortion is usually called fuzz, for obvious reasons. here, we abandon all pretense of sounding like an actual amp and instead just start smashing the sound wave with a wrench. (bang) fuzz pedals can be dangerous because you risk covering up all the dynamics and tone in your playing, but if you use it carefully it can be a really powerful tool. so why does messing with the sound wave like this make it sound so rough, anyway? well, I could get into science and math of it all, with fancy words like "fourier analysis" and "inharmonicity", but… yeah, ok, that's exactly what I'm gonna do. buckle up, kids. we're going in. up to now, we've been assuming that your sound is basically a sine wave, but that's very rarely the case. you see, when you play a note on, say, a guitar (bang) you get that fundamental frequency, which is a sine wave, but you also get what're called harmonics, or overtones. these are additional frequencies created by the resonance of your instrument, and they're generally multiples of your fundamental, so if you played this A (bang) which has a frequency of 110 hertz, or cycles per second, you'll also wind up with shades of 220 hertz, 330, 440, and so on. these are natural acoustic phenomena, and different instruments will emphasize different overtones, but more or less any frequency that's a multiple of your starting note is probably gonna sound fine over it. but you can also add notes that aren't multiples. like, if we take that guitar A again and add a tone at 196 hertz (bang) it doesn't fit. these frequencies, called inharmonic overtones, disrupt the well-ordered harmonic series we're looking for, and the more of them we add the less structured the note sounds. at the extreme end of this are things like snare drums, whose overtones are so messy and inharmonic that they don't really have any identifiable pitch at all. they just sound like noise. so what does this have to do with distortion? well, remember how we said that waves come in different shapes? that's… only sort of true. mathematically speaking, any wave can be constructed by adding sine waves together. when two or more of those sine waves are played simultaneously they interfere with each other. when both waves are high at the same time, the constructively interfere, combining to make that segment even higher pressure, and the opposite happens when both waves are low. if one is low while the other's high, though, they destructively interfere, effectively cancelling each other out. so if we take a wave at 110 hertz and one at 220, we can see that these peaks line up with each other, creating even higher peaks, while these ones line up with the valleys here, cancelling out. if we put them together we get something kind of like this, which looks like our 110 wave but the peaks are narrower and the valleys have this sort of W-like shape. I drew that freehand, though, so please don't judge it too harshly. anyway, we can keep adding frequencies, creating more and more complex waves that I'm not even gonna try to draw. this process creates what's called a Fourier Series, and literally any wave can be made, or at least almost perfectly approximated, by this approach. even the square and sawtooth waves from earlier are actually just the product of lots of sine waves stacked on top of each other. when those waves hit our ear, though, they get deconstructed again, breaking up into their constituent parts for processing, and this is where those inharmonicities come back into play: if you start with one note, you'll just get back multiples of that fundamental, but if you go around chopping bits off of more complex waves? you can introduce whole new frequencies, and since most real sounds are already fairly messy, it can get pretty out of hand. basically, your notes are still there, but distortion adds a bunch of extra noise on top of it. and that's pretty much it. distortion is, more or less, the result of imposing artificial caps on the volumes of sound waves. these caps don't really happen in nature, though, at least not like this, so the resulting noise feels, well, unnatural, and it puts us on edge because deep down in our subconscious, we know the things we're hearing shouldn't actually exist. distortion is a triumph of modern technology, and we're mostly using it to write songs about monsters. aren't humans amazing? and speaking of modern technology, let's talk about this video's sponsor, CuriosityStream! CuriosityStream is a streaming platform from the founder of the Discovery Channel that delivers all sorts of great documentaries right to whatever device you watch stuff on. one title I'd recommend is Inside A Virtuoso's Brain, which… you know what? why don't I just show you. *snaps fingers* this documentary explores the world of incredibly skilled musicians, examining what makes them so good and asking whether they're actually so different from the rest of us. it includes discussions of neuroscience, genetics, and, of course, practice, training, and environment, and it's just one of thousands of documentaries available to CuriosityStream members. beyond music and the arts, they also have features about history, nature, science, and technology, all of which you can stream whenever and wherever you want. they even have a whole collection just for David Attenborough documentaries. anyway, back to the paper. *snaps fingers* if that looks interesting, they're offering 12tone viewers a free 30-day membership: just click the link in the description, then use the promo code "12tone" when signing up. and hey, thanks for watching, and thanks to our Patreon patrons for supporting us and making these videos possible. if you want to help out, and get some sweet perks like sneak peeks of upcoming episodes, there's a link to our Patreon on screen now. you can also join our mailing list to find out about new episodes, like, share, comment, subscribe, and above all, keep on rockin'.

Contents

Biography

He was born in Grove, West Virginia on November 9, 1874.[1] He attended Salem College of West Virginia (now Salem International University), but did not earn a degree. At the outbreak of the Spanish–American War he entered the United States Army as a private. Following the war, he earned a law degree from West Virginia University. In 1903, he married Alberta Ramage.[2]

He entered the practice of law in Fairmont, West Virginia and was elected its mayor in 1908. He was elected as a Congressman to an unexpired term in 1913 and was re-elected through 1918. In the 1920 election, he was defeated, due to his association with the policies of Woodrow Wilson.

He then ran for, and was elected to, the United States Senate in 1922 as a Democrat. He was defeated for re-election in 1928. He then ran for the state's other Senate seat in 1930 and was elected. He was re-elected in 1936. In 1940 he ran for governor and resigned the remaining two years of his Senate term.

He soon regretted his decision and strongly considered resigning to run for his old Senate seat in 1942. In later life he expressed strong regret for his term as governor. Upon the expiration of his term as governor in 1944, he ran for and was elected to his old House seat. He was, however, defeated for re-election in 1946.

Neely during his later career
Neely during his later career

In 1948, he was again elected to the Senate, beginning his third non-consecutive term there. He continued to serve until his death in 1958, after which he was interred in Fairmont's Woodlawn Cemetery.

He was a New Deal Democrat and advocate for organized labor and civil rights. During his terms in the Senate in the 1930s he sponsored "anti-lynching" legislation, but such legislation never passed. When he returned to the Senate after a term as governor and another term in the House of representatives, he had lost his seniority, although he had many friends among the senior senators. He was assigned the Chairmanship of the U.S. Senate Committee on the District of Columbia, where he became the preeminent proponent of "home rule" for the District, effectively urging that the government of the District of Columbia be turned over to its majority of African-American citizens. He died in 1958, several years before the home rule he had sponsored finally passed both houses of Congress.

Neely was also a mentor of then West Virginia attorney George W. Crockett, Jr., and later Member of Congress, who credited Neely with converting him from a Lincoln Republican to a New Deal Democrat.[3]

Neely was known through his political career as a master orator. In his honor, Fairmont State University sponsors an oratory contest in his name every year.

His grandson is Richard Neely, an author and politician who served as the chief justice of the West Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals.

Legislation

Senator Neely introduced the first Department of Peace bill in 1935.[4] Neely reintroduced the bill in 1937 and 1939.[4] In 1937, along with senator Homer Bone and representative Warren Magnuson, Neely introduced the National Cancer Institute Act, which was signed into law by Franklin Roosevelt on August 5 of that year.[5] The Neely Anti-Block Booking Act gradually broke the control of the movie theaters by the studios.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-02-23.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ "West Virginia's First Ladies," West Virginia Division of Culture and History, June 2007.
  3. ^ Thomas Jr., Robert (15 September 1997). "George W. Crockett Dies at 88; Was a Civil Rights Crusader". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
  4. ^ a b Schuman, Frederick L. (1969). Why a Department of Peace. Beverly Hills: Another Mother for Peace. p. 56. OCLC 339785.
  5. ^ Mukherjee, Siddhartha (16 November 2010). The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer. Simon and Schuster. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-4391-0795-9. Retrieved 6 September 2011.

External links

U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
John W. Davis
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from West Virginia's 1st congressional district

October 14, 1913 – March 3, 1921
Succeeded by
Benjamin L. Rosenbloom
Preceded by
A. C. Schiffler
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from West Virginia's 1st congressional district

January 3, 1945 – January 3, 1947
Succeeded by
Francis J. Love
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
Howard Sutherland
 U.S. Senator (Class 1) from West Virginia
March 4, 1923 – March 3, 1929
Served alongside: Davis Elkins, Guy D. Goff
Succeeded by
Henry D. Hatfield
Preceded by
Guy D. Goff
 U.S. Senator (Class 2) from West Virginia
March 4, 1931 – January 12, 1941
Served alongside: Henry D. Hatfield, Rush D. Holt
Succeeded by
Joseph Rosier
Preceded by
W. Chapman Revercomb
 U.S. Senator (Class 2) from West Virginia
January 3, 1949 – January 18, 1958
Served alongside: Harley M. Kilgore, William R. Laird, W. Chapman Revercomb
Succeeded by
John D. Hoblitzell
Political offices
Preceded by
Homer A. Holt
Governor of West Virginia
January 13, 1941 – January 15, 1945
Succeeded by
Clarence W. Meadows
Party political offices
Preceded by
John W. Davis
Democratic nominee for
U.S. Representative
from West Virginia's 1st district

1913, 1914, 1916, 1918, 1920
Succeeded by
Raymond Kenny
Preceded by
William E. Chilton
Democratic nominee for
U.S. Senator from West Virginia (Class 1)

1922, 1928
Succeeded by
Rush D. Holt
Preceded by
William E. Chilton
Democratic nominee for
U.S. Senator from West Virginia (Class 2)

1930, 1936
Succeeded by
Joseph Rosier
Preceded by
Homer A. Holt
Democratic nominee for
Governor of West Virginia

1940
Succeeded by
Clarence W. Meadows
Preceded by
Robert L. Ramsay
Democratic nominee for
U.S. Representative
from West Virginia's 1st district

1944, 1946
Succeeded by
Robert L. Ramsay
Preceded by
Joseph Rosier
Democratic nominee for
U.S. Senator from West Virginia (Class 2)

1942, 1948, 1954
Succeeded by
Jennings Randolph
This page was last edited on 22 September 2019, at 18:39
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