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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Benjamin Rush
Benjamin Rush Painting by Peale.jpg
Portrait by Charles Willson Peale, circa 1818
Born(1745-12-24)December 24, 1745
DiedApril 19, 1813(1813-04-19) (aged 67)
Resting placeChrist Church Burial Ground, Philadelphia
Alma materPrinceton University
University of Edinburgh
OccupationPhysician, writer, educator
Known forSigner of the United States Declaration of Independence
Children13, including Richard
Signature
Benjamin Rush signature.png

Benjamin Rush (January 4, 1746 [O.S. December 24, 1745] – April 19, 1813) was a signer of the Declaration of Independence (U.S.) and a civic leader in Philadelphia, where he was a physician, politician, social reformer, humanitarian, and educator as well as the founder of Dickinson College. Rush attended the Continental Congress and signed the Declaration of Independence.[1] His later self-description there was: "He aimed right."[2][3] He served as Surgeon General of the Continental Army and became a professor of chemistry, medical theory, and clinical practice at the University of Pennsylvania.[4]

Rush was a leader of the American Enlightenment and an enthusiastic supporter of the American Revolution. He was a leader in Pennsylvania's ratification of the Constitution in 1788. He was prominent in many reforms, especially in the areas of medicine and education. He opposed slavery, advocated free public schools, and sought improved education for women and a more enlightened penal system. As a leading physician, Rush had a major impact on the emerging medical profession. As an Enlightenment intellectual, he was committed to organizing all medical knowledge around explanatory theories, rather than rely on empirical methods. Rush argued that illness was the result of imbalances in the body's physical system and was caused by malfunctions in the brain. His approach prepared the way for later medical research, but Rush himself undertook none of it. He promoted public health by advocating clean environment and stressing the importance of personal and military hygiene. His study of mental disorder made him one of the founders of American psychiatry.[5]

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Transcription

This is the Technical Difficulties, we're playing Citation Needed. Joining me today, he reads books you know, it’s Chris Joel. “I am Kermit the Frog, and tonight, Matthew, “I’m going to be that little flat guy from 'Frogger'!” Everybody’s favourite Gary Brannan, Gary Brannan. “Covered in resin and brimming with juicy seeds!” And the bounciest man on the internet, Matt Gray. Hello YouTube Studio 1! In front of me I have an article from Wikipedia, and these folks can’t see it. Every fact they get right is a point and a ding. I was too quick on the ding there, sorry. Yep, so was I. You’re always too quick on the ding, Gary(!) And there’s a special prize for particularly good answers, which is: I just conducted that in Waltz time. Today, we are talking about Benjamin Rush. Huh. Is that what happens when the shop of Benjamins opened on Black Friday? Yes. There’s a Benjamin Rush. Straight in. Is it street slang for a drug? “I’ve got to get my Benjamin Rush on.” People going round licking wax mannequins of Ben Franklin. That's why I’m banned from Madame Tussauds now, obviously. “Oh, Maggie. Oh, Maggie!” You are surprisingly close with Benjamin Franklin, though. Was he a friend of his? I’ll give you a point, he was a founding father of the United States. Okay, that shows poor history on my part. Well, to be fair there were a lot of founding fathers. I thought you were going to say there was a lot of Benjamins. Both. Franklin... yeah. - No, that’s two, Tom. - That's two. Counting two and saying "yes" doesn’t really make my point. So this is America and it’s ancient history of America, so I’m going to go 19... 20s. And the wheel spins and lands on America. Take that, the colonies! Benjamin Rush, founding father of the United States. Yep, and if this isn’t the most interesting thing on that man’s bio... It is definitely not the most interesting thing on this man’s bio. Was he in the band ‘Rush’? A: no, they’re much later, and B: no, they’re Canadian. Benjamin Rush was a physician. Was he an utter quack and a charlatan? He was surprisingly forward thinking for his time. Amputations! Didn’t necessarily do them. That'd be forward thinking. He was Surgeon-General in the continental army. Oh, in an army, okay, fine. Yes, you went for the sarky salute there, but yes. You were right, you gave the man the due respect, yeah. 'Dew respect' is what you give wet grass on a morning. S***, I wondered where you were going with that. Oh, my God. First groan of the day! So surgeon general and innovative, in some... I can’t get away from operations, if it’s during the war. There were some interesting prescriptions given by this man. Okay, laudanum? Why? Painkiller. Really? Yes! I don’t f***ing know, but you believed it! He’s like, “Well I believe you!” Some kind of painkiller or something like that, or antiseptic. He gave supplies to a very famous expedition after the revolution. Now, I know your American history is not great. I know bugger-all about America. Do the words 'Lewis and Clark' mean anything to you? Yes, that's... Superman. That was 'Lois and Clark', and that’s actually why they called it that. - Really? - F***ing hell! 'Lois and Clark, the New Adventures of Superman' was a Lewis and Clark pun. So was this an expedition to Krypton? It was certainly an expedition to somewhere. Was it a westward one? Yes, it was. “Westwood!” Not Westwood! Two Americans set off and discover South London. It was a westward expedition. What were they hoping to find? The Pacific. Yes, absolutely right! Yes, the Lewis and Clark expedition was trying to find -- and successfully found -- a route through to the Pacific through American territories. Pimp My Horse And Cart. It’s not the Westwood expedition! And that’s just the horse. Yeah, if it does that, don’t get behind it. Wait until it stands up again! Wicked horse! Who here actually knows who Tim Westwood is? You underestimate them! For about half the audience, that’s just lost. That expedition obviously had a lot of supplies to get through all the way for months and months to the Pacific and their doctor was Benjamin Rush or at least their initial man who gave them the supplies. What sort of thing do you give for a months-long expedition through the wilderness in 1803? Opiates. Absolutely spot on. I was going to say imodium. Now, we’ll get back to you on there in a minute, Gary. But I just want to point out that, yes, Turkish opium, apparently. Turkish! Not opiates, it’s Turkish opium, what was that for? Making sure you have a lovely time, darling(!) You know what, I’m going to give you a point, nervousness. What, to incite it? “I don’t think we’re panicking enough “about when we’re going to get there, hand me the opium!” Why aren't all expeditions done on opiates? Strong opiates! Ranulph Fiennes, off his tits at the North Pole, I’d gladly watch that. Have you read any Hunter S Thompson? The International Space Station! “To Mars, on smack!” Do they rate their expedition by which drug they’re using? “This feels more like an LSD trip to me, but I don’t know.” Trip! Trip! Only manage one orbit, then lose interest. Turkish opium, absolutely right. You mentioned a fairly obvious joke here for something you’d give for it. - Imodium! - Yes. Did they have problems of the bum? "Their meat rich diet and lack of clean water gave them cause to use…" Cork and a rubber mallet! It’s the phrase 'rubber mallet' that got me. Well, you’ll not get it in far enough on your own. Can't reach round, you need the leverage. You’re not going to use wood, are you? You want that soft return on it. ...I would imagine. And you’re not going to use Timmy Mallett either, so... [Timmy Mallett noise] That’s one for the ’80s kids in the studio(!) I thought that was the noise if you forgot to put the cork in. They weren’t called 'Imodium', it was… 'Ye Imodium.' …fifty dozen of Dr Rush’s Bilious Pills. I’d still take those now, they sound reassuringly competent. "I’m off for a Bilious." They also had sort of a weather-ish name, something that might cause a rumbling. A 'Thunder Plunderer'. I’m going to give you the point, they were 'Thunder Clappers'. I’m going to call them all that now anyway! A brace of Thunder Clappers, no less. What did those contain? Because it won’t be senna, then, or anything like that. No, I mean, bear in mind… What bungs you up? There was a lady I used to know… It wasn’t necessarily designed to bung you up. Rush believed, as you would at the time, in certain theories of medicine. What might that… Purging and things like that. Oh, humours! No, not humours. Surely not humours? A little bit late for humours, but it was certainly bleeding or anything like that. So leeches? Stick a leech on your arse and you get a colostomy bag! Oh, the poor leech! Two leeches in a pond, one goes on the king’s wound, the other one is going to be stuck up your bum as a colostomy leech. We’ve started plumbing depths very quickly here, I’ll be honest. It’s like the Human Centipede! The Leech. Sorry. It does say here: "Even in Rush’s day and location, "many physicians had abandoned on scientific grounds that remedy." Rush just kinda kept going. He believed in something called Heroic Medicine. Does anyone want to… I know where this is going. Anyone tell me what that is? I don’t want any doctor with that kind of heroic mindset, thank you very much. Who might kick my door in and slam a leech down my throat and go, “You’re saved!” and then leave. Flashheart as your doctor. “I’ve got a syringe! And it's as hot as my pants!" Is it basically when the time comes, you say, “I’m going outside now, I may be some time,” and then just find a tree. Is this Greek influenced, as in hero in Greek mythology or something like that? Absolutely right. Essentially purging, vomiting, sweating and blistering. Saturday night out, really. Given all that, what would you put in Dr Rush’s Bilious Thunder Clappers? Anything to do all those at once, and by God would you thunder clap while that happened. This is not something that you even want to touch these days. Was it poison to force it out quicker? Yes, I’ll give you the point but it’s… Mercury. -- F*** me! -- Not only that. Absolutely spot on, they were 50% mercury pills. What was the other 50%? Er... pill. Are you okay there Gary? I am such a t***. Actually, the correct answer would probably have been - if we weren’t being nobs about this - chalk or something like that, wouldn’t it? - Yes. - Nothing that’s going to kill you, but chalk will bung you up more. Not if you combine it with mercury it won't. You’re right. Because chalk in flour was a thing and that would bung you up horribly. There was an interesting side effect for archaeologists. I mean other than… Shining bits? - I didn't... no...! - A shining trail of breadcrumbs! Behave(!) Ooh, no. Because mercury is silver and shiny, isn’t it? Is it horrifically dangerous to do archaeological excavations on burial sites from these people where they died along the way? 'Cos their bodies and skeletons are going to be full of quicksilver mercury. If you touch it with bare hands it will seep into your skin and also give you the heaving s***s? As we archaeologists call it. That’s a man who looks through archives for a living, there. It’s true, there’s certain things I have to be careful with, if it's been... Black Death, 'yersinia pestis', is very, very contagious. If you discover a black death burial site you have to immediately run away lest you get ill. Because a lot of people got buried in lead coffins. And of course lead, the body just corrodes in it and just turns into a bit of a sludge, but the disease persists within and it is very persistent hence why it kills a quarter of the population if it gets out. So, there are certain plague burials where you just run a mile if you think it’s black death. So that could happen with a quicksilver-imbued skeleton. Ha, not so stupid now! I like the idea you run a mile, thus spreading black death for a mile. That's... How do you think it worked in the first place? They were able to trace the expedition a century or more later by the trail of mercury they left behind. - By their middens. - Mercury breadcrumbs. What other reforms did he try and bring through? Mobile phone. Yes, it’s a telegraph that you have to wire up as you go behind you. That’s pretty much how they lay telegraphs, yes. ...fair. Did he introduce 'Hungry Hungry Hippos'? To medicine? What is the function of 'Hungry Hungry Hippos' in medicine? "He who winneth the most pills liveth the longest." Whoa, competitive. Wow. So what you’re saying is the modern American medical system is entirely based on 'Hungry Hungry Hippos'. Who has the most gets the best care. Yes. Satire. Was he against lobotomies? It’s not actually medical reform. So it could have been 'Hungry Hungry Hippos'. Bearing in mind he was a founding father, he was also a politician, and it says here, 'educator, social reformer and humanitarian'. Slavery. Yes, he was anti-slavery. But pro-mercury. Yes! Yes... I didn’t realise there was anyone anti-slavery that early. Yes, they fought a civil war over it. Did they? One of the arguments of the American Revolution was, "do we allow slavery?" It’s like having a major royal sat next to me! “Really?” “How very interesting!” There are actually some interesting headings here, because we have anti-slavery, and then capital punishment, which he was also against, they just haven’t put the word 'anti' in the title. That’s one hell of a relative. Auntie Capital Punishment...! Morning! Whoomph. Yeah, along with 'Uncle Pillory'... and 'Cousin Swift-Kick-in-the-Bollocks'. These things work on a kind of bilateral thing, so either massively for or massively against. Mmm. Place your bets now. - Okay. - Going full Banzai on us! He’s been anti-slavery, anti-capital punishment, got to be pro-purging so I’m going go… Not in like the movie of The Purge sense, just to be clear here, because you brought that in from nowhere. Pro-purgatives... I’m going to say he was pro-ladies. Correct. Flip a coin! One or the other! He was instrumental to the founding of the Young Ladies Academy of Philadelphia. Fillies in Philly? Yes, he proposed, er, a... You t***. I mean, don’t get me wrong, that’s genius. The first chartered women’s institution of higher education in Philadelphia. What did he think women should be trained in? Kung fu! Not exactly. Driving a steam engine. Building wardrobes. That thing where you balance a golf ball on the end of the golf club and then you hoy it up and then hit it. Scuba diving. We can go all day. Precision cake throwing. Slightly closer. Those John Virgo trick shots where you get a snooker ball to go into a little wine cooler thing. That bit from 'Full Metal Jacket', where he’s obsessively stripping the rifle and chanting to himself. Is it something like etiquette for the ladies? Not quite that far. Good housekeeping. No, it wasn’t quite that. Armed combat. I started there. Okay, here’s a line, here’s armed combat, here’s etiquette... About here. Oh! Oh! Nice combat. - Unarmed combat! - "I'm terribly sorry." Boompf! Witty repartee! Biting and scathing comebacks, but politely, so the fellow doesn’t notice it’s happened. He just, about two days later, wakes up in the middle of the night with a growing sense of ennui and realised he missed his chance forever. Sorry, got autobiographical there. Back in the room. Coquettish waving of fans to avoid embarrassment. Moral essays, poetry and religious writings and history, which you know presumably you didn’t, er… He’s not a lady! I don’t know if it's escaped your notice but… What did he think women shouldn’t be pushed towards? Kung Fu! Precision cake throwing! All the same jokes! - The Bessemer steel process! - Let's move on! Cliff edges! Who’s he? Rough, uncouth types. Hey up. Mathematics, logic, advanced science. So ladies of the room, how many of you would not qualify? Benjamin Rush is the father of… Of his children! …of American… something. Baseball. A discipline in... medicine, I guess. Anaesthesia. Bowel cleanage. It’s nothing really to do with the body, as such. So a medical process that’s not to do with the body? Is it like blind testing or something like that, actual research rather than just poking? I mean it is to do with a bit of the body, but you would say this was not a physical thing to fix these days. This would be something else. Psychiatry, mental health, something like that. Yes, absolutely right, spot on with the word, the father of American psychiatry. What did he think was a good way to cure "insanity"? That’s the phrasing they’ve used here. Electroshock treatment. No, too early for that, much too early for that. I don’t think at this point Benjamin Franklin had been shocked by his kite yet. “Look at the size of this kite!” “I’m going to go flying in the rain right now while holding a brass key.” A good hard slap to the face. “Sort yourself out, man!” Remember what he already believed in. Mercury? Point. It was called 'calomel', if anyone knows that that is. That’s dangerously close to 'caramel' in a hilarious mix up in a chocolate factory, isn’t it? Yes, it’s mercurous chloride. So, like, don’t eat Cadbury's Calomel. How did he convince his patients who were suffering from, and again I’m using the word here, "insanity", to eat mercury? Wrap it in ham. ♪ Wrap it in ham... ♪ You’re close. Wrap it in cheese. Yeah, I’m going to give you the point, "sprinkling a few grains of mercury daily on a piece of bread "and then spreading a thin covering of butter over it." He believed that mental illnesses were caused by disruptions of blood circulation. So how might you get some more blood to the brain? Did he throw people in cold water or something like that to increase circulation? That would be slightly more sensible than what we’ve got here. Hang them upside down. Yes, sleep them like a bat. A powered warming hat! "Sleep them like a bat..." I'm gonna let that go by. I’m going to give you a point, it was a sensory deprivation head enclosure. F*** off, no. So a tin hat with no eye holes? Are you saying he invented the bucket? And the process of placing it on someone? He also had a more physical way of getting blood to the brain. Is it like when you’ve got an ice pop and you’ve got the juice at the bottom and you want it to the top, so you have to go fneeeeer with the leg and it’s just forcing the blood up through the body? Okay, I’m not going to give you a point but you are right. Moving tourniquet is probably an easy way of describing that. Not quite, it was a way… Static tourniquet! …to force blood up to the head. Is it like that machine at the end of 'The Princess Bride', where you put suction cups on it and it’s water powered but instead of sucking life it just pulls the blood through you? I’m going to give you the point, it’s… A vacuum. It’s not a vacuum or it’s not anything like that, but it is a spinning machine… Human centrifuge! …that you strap someone to and spin them round like that and that was how he thought you cured mental illnesses. Oh, yes please! Did it work? No. This strikes me as medicine in the form of a Shooting Stars end game. He actually had a thing called the 'Moral Thermometer'. And he was way off it. The more blood you have in your brain, the better off you would be. Is this like one of those love testers you get in bars, you put your hand on it, if it's a warm hand, but a cold hand: "moral turpitude, he must be hung!" He was against the death penalty so there wasn’t... "He must be roundly shunned." "And put in a bucket." At the end of the show, congratulations Gary, you win this week. You win... Brace yourselves. You win an express trip to see the buttock cleavage of one of 'Tenacious D'. Yep. No! It’s 'Jack Black’s Fast Track Ass Crack'. Do enjoy that. With that, we say thank you to Chris Joel! Bye then! to Gary Brannan, to Matt Gray. I’ve been Tom Scott, we’ll see you next time. Thank you, folks! Ee, that were gradely.

Contents

Early life and career

Coat of Arms of Benjamin Rush
Coat of Arms of Benjamin Rush
The birthplace of Benjamin Rush, photographed in 1959.
The birthplace of Benjamin Rush, photographed in 1959.

Benjamin Rush was born to John Rush and Susanna Hall on January 4, 1746 (December 24, 1745 O.S.). The family, of English descent,[6] lived on a plantation in the Township of Byberry in Philadelphia County, about 14 miles outside of Philadelphia (the township was incorporated into Philadelphia in 1854). Benjamin was the fourth of seven children. John Rush died in July 1751 at age thirty-nine, leaving his mother, who ran a country store, to care for the family. At age eight, Benjamin was sent to live with an aunt and uncle to receive an education.[7] Benjamin and his older brother Jacob[8] attended a school run by Reverend Samuel Finley, which later became West Nottingham Academy.

In 1760, after further studies at the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University), Rush graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree at age fourteen. From 1761 to 1766, Rush apprenticed under Dr. John Redman in Philadelphia. Redman encouraged him to further his studies at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland, where Rush studied from 1766 to 1768 and earned an M. D. degree.[9][10][11]:60[12]:40 Rush became fluent in French, Italian, and Spanish as a result of his studies and European tour. While at Edinburgh, he became a friend of the Earl of Leven and his family, including William Leslie.[11]:51–52

Returning to the Colonies in 1769, Rush opened a medical practice in Philadelphia and became Professor of Chemistry at the College of Philadelphia.[13] Rush ultimately published the first American textbook on chemistry, several volumes on medical student education, and wrote influential patriotic essays.[12]

Revolutionary period

Rush was active in the Sons of Liberty and was elected to attend the provincial conference to send delegates to the Continental Congress. Thomas Paine consulted Rush when writing the profoundly influential pro-independence pamphlet Common Sense. Rush represented Pennsylvania and signed the Declaration of Independence.[1] He also represented Philadelphia at Pennsylvania's own Constitutional Convention.[1]

The Death of General Mercer at the Battle of Princeton, January 3, 1777 by John Trumbull, Dr. Benjamin Rush and General George Washington enter from the background, with Captain William Leslie, shown on the right, mortally wounded
The Death of General Mercer at the Battle of Princeton, January 3, 1777 by John Trumbull, Dr. Benjamin Rush and General George Washington enter from the background, with Captain William Leslie, shown on the right, mortally wounded

While Rush was representing Pennsylvania in the Continental Congress (and serving on its Medical Committee), he also used his medical skills in the field. Rush accompanied the Philadelphia militia during the battles after which the British occupied Philadelphia and most of New Jersey. He was depicted serving in the Battle of Princeton in the painting The Death of General Mercer at the Battle of Princeton, January 3, 1777 by the American artist John Trumbull.[14]

The Army Medical Service was in disarray, between the military casualties, extremely high losses due to typhoid, yellow fever and other camp illnesses, political conflicts between Dr. John Morgan and Dr. William Shippen, Jr., and inadequate supplies and guidance from the Medical Committee.[15]:29–43, 65–92 Nonetheless, Rush accepted an appointment as surgeon-general of the middle department of the Continental Army. Rush's order "Directions for preserving the health of soldiers" became one of the foundations of preventative military medicine and was repeatedly republished, including as late as 1908.[16][17]:36–41 However, Rush's reporting of Dr. Shippen's misappropriation of food and wine supplies intended to comfort hospitalized soldiers, under-reporting of patient deaths, and failure to visit the hospitals under his command, ultimately led to Rush's resignation in 1778.

Controversy surrounding Benjamin Rush

Rush criticized General George Washington in two handwritten but unsigned letters while still serving under the Surgeon General. One, to Virginia Governor Patrick Henry dated October 12, 1778, quoted General Thomas Conway saying that if not for God's grace the ongoing war would have been lost by Washington and his weak counselors. Henry forwarded the letter to Washington, despite Rush's request that the criticism be conveyed orally, and Washington recognized the handwriting. At the time, the supposed Conway Cabal was reportedly trying to replace Washington with Horatio Gates as commander-in-chief.[12]:133–34 Rush's letter relayed General John Sullivan's criticism that forces directly under Washington were undisciplined and mob-like, and contrasted Gates' army as "a well-regulated family".[18]:212–215 Ten days later, Rush wrote to John Adams relaying complaints inside Washington's army, including about "bad bread, no order, universal disgust" and praising Conway, who had been appointed to Inspector General.[12]:136–37

Dr. Shippen sought Rush's resignation and received it by the end of the month after Continental Congress delegate John Witherspoon, chairman of a committee to investigate Morgan's and Rush's charges of misappropriation and mismanagement against Shippen, told Rush his complaints would not produce reform.[11]:219–20 Rush later expressed regret for his gossip against Washington. In a letter to John Adams in 1812, Rush wrote, "He [Washington] was the highly favored instrument whose patriotism and name contributed greatly to the establishment of the independence of the United States." Rush also successfully pleaded with Washington's biographers Justice Bushrod Washington and Chief Justice John Marshall to delete his association with those stinging words.[12]:137

In his book 1776, David McCullough quotes Rush, referring to George Washington:

The Philadelphia physician and patriot Benjamin Rush, a staunch admirer, observed that Washington “has so much martial dignity in his deportment that you would distinguish him to be a general and a soldier from among 10,000 people. There is not a king in Europe that would not look like a valet de chambre by his side."[19]

Post-Revolution

In 1783, he was appointed to the staff of Pennsylvania Hospital, and he remained a member until his death. He was elected to the Pennsylvania convention which adopted the Federal constitution and was appointed treasurer of the United States Mint, serving from 1797–1813.[1] He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1788.[20]

He became a professor of medical theory and clinical practice at the University of Pennsylvania in 1791, though the quality of his medicine was quite primitive even for the time: he advocated bloodletting for almost any illness, long after its practice had declined. He became a social activist, an abolitionist, and was the most well-known physician in America at the time of his death.

While teaching at the University of Pennsylvania, one of his students was future president William Henry Harrison, who took a chemistry class from Rush.[21]

He was also founder of Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. In 1794, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

In the Yellow Fever epidemic of 1793 in Philadelphia, Rush treated patients with bleeding, calomel, and other early medicinal techniques that often were ineffective and actually brought many patients closer to their deathbeds. Rush's ideas on Yellow Fever treatments differed from those of many experienced French doctors, who came from the West Indies where they had Yellow Fever outbreaks every year.

Rush was a founding member of the Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons (known today as the Pennsylvania Prison Society[22]), which greatly influenced the construction of Eastern State Penitentiary in Philadelphia.[23] He supported Thomas Jefferson for president in 1796 over the eventual winner, John Adams.[24]

Corps of discovery

In 1803, Thomas Jefferson sent Meriwether Lewis to Philadelphia to prepare for the Lewis and Clark Expedition under the tutelage of Rush, who taught Lewis about frontier illnesses and the performance of bloodletting. Rush provided the corps with a medical kit that included:

  • Turkish opium for nervousness
  • emetics to induce vomiting
  • medicinal wine
  • fifty dozen of Dr. Rush's Bilious Pills, laxatives containing more than 50% mercury, which have since colloquially been referred to as "thunderclappers." Their meat-rich diet and lack of clean water during the expedition gave the men cause to use them frequently. Although their efficacy is questionable, their high mercury content provided an excellent tracer by which archaeologists have been able to track the corps' actual route to the Pacific.[25]

Reforms

Anti-slavery

In 1766, when Rush set out for his studies in Edinburgh, he was outraged by the sight of 100 slave ships in Liverpool harbor. As a prominent Presbyterian doctor and professor of chemistry in Philadelphia, he provided a bold and respected voice against the slave trade.[26]

He warmly praised the ministry of "Black Harry" Hosier, the freedman circuit rider who accompanied Bishop Francis Asbury during the establishment of the Methodist Church in America,[27] but the highlight of his involvement was the pamphlet he wrote in 1773 entitled "An Address to the Inhabitants of the British Settlements in America, upon Slave-Keeping." In this first of his many attacks on the social evils of his day, he assailed the slave trade as well as the entire institution of slavery. Rush argued scientifically that Negroes were not by nature intellectually or morally inferior. Any apparent evidence to the contrary was only the perverted expression of slavery, which "is so foreign to the human mind, that the moral faculties, as well as those of the understanding are debased, and rendered torpid by it."[28]

In 1792, Rush read a paper before the American Philosophical Society which argued that the "color" and "figure" of blacks were derived from a form of leprosy. He argued that with proper treatment, blacks could be cured and become white.[29]

Despite his public condemnations of slavery, Rush purchased a slave named William Grubber in 1776. To the consternation of many, Rush still owned Grubber when he joined the Pennsylvania Abolition Society in 1784.[30]

Anti-capital punishment

Rush deemed public punishments such as putting a person on display in stocks, common at the time, to be counterproductive. Instead, he proposed private confinement, labor, solitude, religious instruction for criminals, and he opposed the death penalty.[31] His outspoken opposition to capital punishment pushed the Pennsylvania legislature to abolish the death penalty for all crimes other than first-degree murder.[4] He authored a 1792 treatise on punishing murder by death in which he made three principal arguments:[32]

I. Every man possesses an absolute power over his own liberty and property, but not over his own life...
II. The punishment of murder by death, is contrary to reason, and to the order and happiness of society...
III. The punishment of murder by death, is contrary to divine revelation.

Rush led the state of Pennsylvania to establish the first state penitentiary, the Walnut Street Prison, in 1790. Rush campaigned for long-term imprisonment, the denial of liberty, as both the most humane but severe punishment.[33]

This 1792 treatise was preceded by comments on the efficacy of the death penalty that he self-references and which, evidently, appeared in the second volume of the American Museum.[32]

Status of women

After the Revolution, Rush proposed a new model of education for elite women that included English language, vocal music, dancing, sciences, bookkeeping, history, and moral philosophy. He was instrumental to the founding of the Young Ladies' Academy of Philadelphia, the first chartered women's institution of higher education in Philadelphia.[34] Rush saw little need for training women in metaphysics, logic, mathematics, or advanced science; rather he wanted the emphasis on guiding women toward moral essays, poetry, history, and religious writings. This type of education for elite women grew dramatically during the post-revolutionary period, as women claimed a role in creating the Republic. And so, the ideal of Republican motherhood emerged, lauding women's responsibility of instructing the young in the obligations of patriotism, the blessings of liberty and the true meaning of Republicanism. He opposed coeducational classrooms and insisted on the need to instruct all youth in the Christian religion.[35]

Medical contributions

Physical medicine

Dr. Benjamin Rush painted by Charles Willson Peale, 1783
Dr. Benjamin Rush painted by Charles Willson Peale, 1783

Rush was a leading proponent of heroic medicine. He firmly believed in such practices as bloodletting patients[36] (a practice now known to be generally harmful, but at the time was common practice), as well as purges using calomel and other toxic substances. In his report on the Philadelphia Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1793, Rush wrote: "I have found bleeding to be useful, not only in cases where the pulse was full and quick but where it was slow and tense. I have bled twice in many and in one acute case four times, with the happiest effect. I consider intrepidity in the use of the lancet, at present, to be necessary, as it is in the use of mercury and jalap, in this insidious and ferocious disease." During that epidemic, Rush gained acclaim for remaining in town and treating sometimes 100 patients per day (some through free black volunteers coordinated by Richard Allen), but many died. Even Rush acknowledged the failure of two treatments, sweats in vinegar-wrapped blankets accompanied by mercury rubs, and cold baths.[18]:329

William Cobbett vociferously objected to Rush's extreme use of bloodletting, and even in Rush's day and location, many physicians had abandoned on scientific grounds this favorite remedy of Rush's former teachers Thomas Sydenham and Hermann Boerhaave.[12]:223–31 Cobbett accused Rush of killing more patients than he had saved. Rush ultimately sued Cobbett for libel, winning a judgment of $5,000 and $3,000 in court costs, which was only partially paid before Cobbett returned to England.[12]:239–47 Nonetheless, Rush's practice waned as he continued to advocate bloodletting and purges, much to the chagrin of his friend Thomas Jefferson.[37][38][12]:296 Some even blamed Rush's bleeding for hastening the death of Benjamin Franklin, as well as George Washington (although the only one of Washington's medics who opposed the bleeding was Rush's former student), and Rush insisted upon being bled himself shortly before his death (as he had during the yellow fever epidemic two decades earlier).[18]:331, 363[12]:220, 295

Rush also wrote the first case report on dengue fever (published in 1789 on a case from 1780).[39] Perhaps his greatest contributions to physical medicine were his establishment of a public dispensary for low income patients, and public works associated with draining and rerouting Dock Creek (eliminating mosquito breeding grounds, which greatly decreased typhus, typhoid and cholera outbreaks).

Rush concocted a mixture of calomel, chlorine, jalap and mercury to create a proprietary purgative which he named "Dr Rush's Thunderbolts"; it was used by Captain Meriwether Lewis and Second Lieutenant William Clark during their expedition to the Pacific coast.[40]

Another of Rush's medical views that now draws criticism is his analysis of race. In reviewing the case of Henry Moss, a slave who lost his dark skin color (probably through vitiligo), Rush characterized being black as a hereditary and curable skin disease. Rush wrote that "Whites should not tyrannize over [blacks], for their disease should entitle them to a double portion of humanity. However, by the same token, whites should not intermarry with them, for this would tend to infect posterity with the 'disorder'... attempts must be made to cure the disease."[41]

Rush was interested in Native American health. He wanted to find out why Native Americans were susceptible to certain illnesses and whether they suffered from higher mortality rates as compared to other people. Other questions that he raised was whether or not they dreamed more or if their hair turned gray as they got older. His fascination with these people came from his interest in the theory that social scientists can better study the history of their own civilization by studying cultures in earlier stages of development, "primitive men". In his autobiography, he writes "From a review of the three different species of settlers, it appears that there are certain regular stages which mark the progress from the savage to civilized life. The first settler is nearly related to an Indian in his manners. In the second, the Indian manners are more diluted. It is in the third species only that we behold civilization completed. It is to the third species of settlers only that it is proper to apply the term of farmers. While we record the voices of the first and second settlers, it is but just to mention their virtues likewise. Their mutual wants to produce mutual dependence; hence they are kind and friendly to each other. Their solitary situation makes visitors agreeable to them; hence they are hospitable to a stranger."[42]

Mental health

"The Moral Thermometer." from Benjamin Rush's An Inquiry into the Effects of Spirituous Liquors on the Human Body and the Mind. Boston: Thomas and Andrews, 1790 (Library Company of Philadelphia)
"The Moral Thermometer." from Benjamin Rush's An Inquiry into the Effects of Spirituous Liquors on the Human Body and the Mind. Boston: Thomas and Andrews, 1790 (Library Company of Philadelphia)

Rush published one of the first descriptions and treatments for psychiatric disorders in American medicine, Medical Inquiries and Observations, Upon the Diseases of the Mind (1812).[43][44] He undertook to classify different forms of mental illness and to theorize as to their causes and possible cures. Rush believed (incorrectly) that many mental illnesses were caused by disruptions of blood circulation, or by sensory overload, and treated them with devices meant to improve circulation to the brain such as a centrifugal spinning board, and inactivity/sensory deprivation via a restraining chair with a sensory-deprivation head enclosure ("Tranquilizer Chair").[45] After seeing mental patients in appalling conditions in Pennsylvania Hospital, Rush led a successful campaign in 1792 for the state to build a separate mental ward where the patients could be kept in more humane conditions.[46]

Rush believed, as did so many physicians of the time, that bleeding and active purging with mercury(I) chloride (calomel) were the preferable medical treatments for insanity, a fact evidenced by his statement that, "It is sometimes difficult to prevail upon patients in this state of madness, or even to compel them, to take mercury in any of the ways in which it is usually administered. In these cases I have succeeded, by sprinkling a few grains of calomel daily upon a piece of bread, and afterwards spreading over it, a thin covering of butter."[47] Rush followed the standard procedures of bleeding and treatment with mercury, he did believe that "coercion" and "restraint", the physical punishment, chains and dungeons, which were the practice of the time, were the answer as proven by his invention of the restraint chair and other devices. For this reason, some aspects of his approach could be seen as similar to Moral Therapy, which would soon rise to prominence in at least the wealthier institutions of Europe and the United States.[48]

Rush is sometimes considered a pioneer of occupational therapy particularly as it pertains to the institutionalized.[18] In Diseases of the Mind (1812), Rush wrote:

It has been remarked that the maniacs of the male sex in all hospitals, who assist in cutting wood, making fires, and digging in a garden, and the females who are employed in washing, ironing, and scrubbing floors, often recover, while persons, whose rank exempts them from performing such services, languish away their lives within the walls of the hospital.

Furthermore, Rush was one of the first people to describe Savant Syndrome. In 1789, he described the abilities of Thomas Fuller, an enslaved African who was a lightning calculator. His observation would later be described in other individuals by notable scientists like John Langdon Down.[49]

Rush pioneered the therapeutic approach to addiction.[50][51] Prior to his work, drunkenness was viewed as being sinful and a matter of choice. Rush believed that the alcoholic loses control over himself and identified the properties of alcohol, rather than the alcoholic's choice, as the causal agent. He developed the conception of alcoholism as a form of medical disease and proposed that alcoholics should be weaned from their addiction via less potent substances.[52]

Rush advocated for more humane mental institutions and perpetuated the idea that people with mental illness are people who have an illness, rather than inhuman animals. He is quoted to have said, "Terror acts powerfully upon the body, through the medium of the mind, and should be employed in the cure of madness."[53] He also championed the idea of "partial madness," or that people could have varying degrees of mental illness.[54]

The American Psychiatric Association's seal bears an image of Rush's purported profile at its center.[55][56][57] The outer ring of the seal contains the words "American Psychiatric Association 1844".[57] The Association's history of the seal states:

The choice of Rush (1746–1813) for the seal reflects his place in history. .... Rush's practice of psychiatry was based on bleeding, purging, and the use of the tranquilizer chair and gyrator. By 1844 these practices were considered erroneous and abandoned. Rush, however, was the first American to study mental disorder in a systematic manner, and he is considered the father of American Psychiatry.[57]

Educational legacy

During his career, he educated over 3,000 medical students, and several of these established Rush Medical College (Chicago) in his honor after his death. His students included Valentine Seaman, who mapped yellow fever mortality patterns in New York and introduced the smallpox vaccine to the United States in 1799.[58] One of his last apprentices was Samuel A. Cartwright, later a Confederate States of America surgeon charged with improving sanitary conditions in the camps around Vicksburg, Mississippi, and Port Hudson, Louisiana. Rush University Medical Center in Chicago, formerly Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center, was named in his honor.[59]

Religious views and vision

Rush advocated Christianity in public life and in education and sometimes compared himself to the prophet Jeremiah.[60] Rush regularly attended Christ Church in Philadelphia and counted William White among his closest friends (and neighbors). Ever the controversialist, Rush became involved in internal disputes over the revised Book of Common Prayer and the splitting of the Episcopal Church from the Church of England, as well as dabbled with Presbyterianism, Methodism (which split from Anglicanism in those years), and Unitarianism.[11]:312[18]:11–12, 16–17, 269–70, 322, 346 In a letter to John Adams, Rush described his religious views as "a compound of the orthodoxy and heterodoxy of most of our Christian churches."[61] Christian Universalists consider him one of their founders, although Rush stopped attending that church after the death of his friend, former Baptist pastor Elhanan Winchester in 1797.[62]

Rush fought for temperance,[11]:379–380 and both public and Sunday schools. He helped found the Bible Society at Philadelphia (now known as the Pennsylvania Bible Society),[63] and promoted the American Sunday School Union.[64] When many public schools stopped using the Bible as a textbook, Rush proposed that the U.S. government require such use, as well as furnish an American Bible to every family at public expense. In 1806, Rush proposed inscribing "The Son of Man Came into the World, Not To Destroy Men's Lives, But To Save Them."[65] above the doors of courthouses and other public buildings. Earlier, on July 16, 1776, Rush had complained to Virginia's Patrick Henry about a provision in that state's constitution of 1776 which forbade clergymen from serving in the legislature.[66]

Rush felt that the United States was the work of God: "I do not believe that the Constitution was the offspring of inspiration, but I am as perfectly satisfied that the Union of the United States in its form and adoption is as much the work of a Divine Providence as any of the miracles recorded in the Old and New Testament".[67] In 1798, after the Constitution's adoption, Rush declared: "The only foundation for a useful education in a republic is to be laid in Religion. Without this there can be no virtue, and without virtue there can be no liberty, and liberty is the object and life of all republican governments."[64] There is no evidence that he ever claimed, "Unless we put medical freedom into the constitution the time will come when medicine will organize into an undercover dictatorship and force people who wish doctors and treatment of their own choice to submit to only what the dictating outfit offers." This bogus quote has terms like "undercover," "outfit" and "dictatorship" that according to the Oxford English Dictionary were not used this way during his lifetime.[68]

Before 1779, Rush's religious views were influenced by what he described as "Fletcher's controversy with the Calvinists in favor of the Universality of the atonement." After hearing Elhanan Winchester preach, Rush indicated that this theology "embraced and reconciled my ancient calvinistical, and my newly adopted (Arminian) principles. From that time on I have never doubted upon the subject of the salvation of all men." To simplify, both believed in punishment after death for the wicked. His wife, Julia Rush, thought her husband like Martin Luther for his ardent passions, fearless attacks on old prejudices, and quick tongue against perceived enemies.[12]:297–298

Rush helped Richard Allen found the African Methodist Episcopal Church. In his autobiography, Allen wrote:

...By this time we had waited on Dr. Rush and Mr. Robert Ralston, and told them of our distressing situation. We considered it a blessing that the Lord had put it into our hearts to wait upon... those gentle-men. They pitied our situation, and subscribed largely towards the church, and were very friendly towards us and advised us how to go on.

We appointed Mr. Ralston our treasurer. Dr. Rush did much for us in public by his influence. I hope the name of Dr. Benjamin Rush and Mr. Robert Ralston will never be forgotten among us. They were the two first gentlemen who espoused the cause of the oppressed and aided us in building the house of the Lord for the poor Africans to worship in. Here was the beginning and rise of the first African church in America."[69]

Personal life

Statue of Benjamin Rush on "Navy Hill" which is, due to security, in a section of Washington, DC inaccessible to tourists and foot traffic
Statue of Benjamin Rush on "Navy Hill" which is, due to security, in a section of Washington, DC inaccessible to tourists and foot traffic

Before the Revolutionary War, Rush was engaged to Sarah Eve, daughter of prominent Philadelphian, Captain Oswell Eve, Sr. She died before their scheduled wedding.[70]

On January 11, 1776, Rush married Julia Stockton (1759–1848), daughter of Richard Stockton, another signer of the Declaration of Independence, and his wife Annis Boudinot Stockton. They had 13 children, 9 of whom survived their first year: John, Ann Emily, Richard, Susannah (died as an infant), Elizabeth Graeme (died as an infant), Mary B, James, William (died as an infant), Benjamin (died as an infant), Richard, Julia, Samuel, and William. Richard later became a member of the cabinets of James Madison and James Monroe.[71][72]

In 1812, Rush helped reconcile the friendship of Jefferson and Adams by encouraging the two former presidents to resume writing to each other.[73]

Death

After dying of typhus fever, he was buried (in Section N67) along with his wife Julia in the Christ Church Burial Ground in Philadelphia, not far from where Benjamin Franklin is buried.[74] At the site, a small plaque honoring Benjamin Rush has been placed. However, the box marker is next to the plaque on the right, with inscriptions on the top. The inscription reads,[75]

"In memory of
Benjamin Rush MD
he died on the 19th of April
in the year of our Lord 1813
Aged 68 years
Well done good and faithful servant
enter thou into the joy of the Lord"

"Mrs Julia Rush
consort of
Benjamin Rush MD
Born March 2, 1759
Died July 7, 1848
For as in Adam, all die, even so in Christ
Shall all be made alive"

Legacy

Benjamin Rush Elementary School in Redmond, Washington was named by its students for him.[76]

The Arts Academy at Benjamin Rush magnet high school in Philadelphia was established in 2008.

Writings

  • Rush, Benjamin (1773). "An Address to the Inhabitants of the British Settlements in America, Upon Slave-keeping". Philadelphia: J. Dunlap. Retrieved January 1, 2017.

Archival collections

The Presbyterian Historical Society in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, has a collection of Benjamin Rush's original manuscripts.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d "Benjamin Rush: 1745–1813: Representing Pennsylvania at the Continental Congress". Signers of the Declaration of Independence. ushistory.org. Archived from the original on February 7, 2018. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
  2. ^ Renker, Elizabeth M. (1989). "'Declaration-Men' and the Rhetoric of Self-Presentation". Early American Literature. 24 (2): 123 and n. 10 there. JSTOR 25056766.
  3. ^ Rush, Benjamin (1970) [1948]. George Washington Corner (ed.). The autobiography of Benjamin Rush; his Travels through life together with his Commonplace book for 1789–1813. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
  4. ^ a b "Benjamin Rush (1746–1813)". University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved August 20, 2011.
  5. ^ Muccigrosso, Robert, ed. (1988). Research Guide to American Historical Biography. 3. pp. 1139–42.
  6. ^ Irvine, James (1893). "Descendants of John Rush". The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. 17 (3): 334. JSTOR 20083549.
  7. ^ "About the Author: Benjamin Rush (1745–1813)". Their Own Words. deila.dickinson.edu. July 9, 2004. Archived from the original on January 26, 2004. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
  8. ^ The identity of Rush's siblings is confused: there are web pages saying Rush and one brother were responsible for the entire family, and also giving Rush's brothers names as William (a lawyer) and Samuel "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 9, 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-30.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) lists Rush's siblings as Jacob, James, John, Rebecca, Rachel, and Stephenson. Most likely, though William and Samuel were relatives and close friends, for Benjamin was a 5th generation removed from the Cromwell era Rush and Benjamin's father's family lived in the Byberry area for generations.
  9. ^ "Benjamin Rush". Signers of the Declaration of Independence. Archived from the original on June 29, 2015. Retrieved December 7, 2014.
  10. ^ Goodrich, Rev. Charles A. (1856). "Benjamin Rush, 1745–1813".
  11. ^ a b c d e Hawke, David Freeman (1971). Benjamin Rush: Revolutionary Gadfly. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Binger, Carl (1966). Revolutionary Doctor / Benjamin Rush (1746–1813). New York: Norton & Co.
  13. ^ North RL (2000). "Benjamin Rush, MD: assassin or beloved healer?". Proc Bayl Univ Med Cent. 13 (1): 45–9. doi:10.1080/08998280.2000.11927641. PMC 1312212. PMID 16389324.
  14. ^ "The Death of General Mercer at the Battle of Princeton, January 3, 1777". Yale University Art Gallery.
  15. ^ Gillette, Mary (1981). The Army Medical Department 1775–1818. Army Medical Department Office of Medical History. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
  16. ^ Rush, Benjamin (1808). Directions for preserving the health of soldiers : addressed to the officers of the Army of the United States. Philadelphia: Thomas Dobson.
  17. ^ Bayne-Jones, Stanhope (1968). Evolution of Preventative Medicine in the United States Army 1607–1939. Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
  18. ^ a b c d e Brodsky, Alyn (2004). Benjamin Rush: Patriot and Physician. New York: Truman Talley Books/St. Martin's Press.
  19. ^ McCullough, David G (2006). 1776: America and Britain at war. London: Penguin.
  20. ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter R" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
  21. ^ Rabin, Alex (January 25, 2017). "With a Penn graduate in the Oval Office for the first time, here's a look at former President William Henry Harrison's time at the University". The Daily Pennsylvanian. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
  22. ^ "The Prison Society – About Us". The Pennsylvania Prison Society. Archived from the original on November 5, 2008. Retrieved November 16, 2008.
  23. ^ "The Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons". The Library Company of Philadelphia. World Digital Library. Retrieved January 1, 2014.
  24. ^ McCullough, David (2008) [2001]. John Adams. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 470.
  25. ^ Woodger, Elin; Toropov, Brandon (2009). Encyclopedia of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Infobase Publishing. pp. 304–06. ISBN 9781438110233.
  26. ^ D'Elia, Donald J (1969). "Dr. Benjamin Rush and the Negro". Journal of the History of Ideas. 30 (3): 413–22. doi:10.2307/2708566. JSTOR 2708566.
  27. ^ Webb, Stephen H. (March 2002). "Introducing Black Harry Hoosier: The History Behind Indiana's Namesake". Indiana Magazine of History. Trustees of Indiana University. 98 (1): 30–42. Archived from the original on September 5, 2014. Retrieved February 20, 2017.
  28. ^ Dolbeare, Kenneth M.; Cummings, Michael S. (2010). American political thought (6 ed.). p. 44.
  29. ^ Omi, M.; Winant, H. (1986). Racial formation in the United States : from the 1960s to the 1980s. New York; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  30. ^ Carson, Clayborne (2005). African American Lives. New York: Pearson Longman. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-321-02586-9.
  31. ^ "Amendment VIII: Benjamin Rush, On Punishing Murder by Death". press-pubs.uchicago.edu. Retrieved September 4, 2018.
  32. ^ a b "The Founders' Constitution, Volume 5, Amendment VIII, Document 16". The University of Chicago Press.
  33. ^ Manion, Jen (2015). Liberty's Prisoners: Carceral Culture in Early America. University of Pennsylvania Press.
  34. ^ Savin, Marion B.; Abrahams, Harold J. (1957). "The Young Ladies' Academy of Philadelphia". History of Education Journal. 8 (2): 58–67.
  35. ^ Straub, Jean S (1987). "Benjamin Rush's View on Women's Education". Pennsylvania History. 34 (2): 147–57.
  36. ^ Rush, Benjamin (1815). "A Defence of Blood-letting, as a Remedy for Certain Diseases". Medical Inquiries and Observations. 4. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
  37. ^ "Introduction: Thomas Jefferson to Meriwether Lewis: "bring back your party safe"". University of Virginia: Historical Collections at the Claude Moore Health Sciences Library:Medicine and Health on the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia. 2007. Archived from the original on October 20, 2017. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
  38. ^ "Benjamin Rush and the State of Medicine in 1803". Jefferson National Expansion Memorial. National Park Service: United States Department of the Interior. April 10, 2015. Archived from the original on October 17, 2015. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
  39. ^ Rush, Benjamin, M.D. (1794). An account of the bilious remitting fever, as it appeared in Philadelphia in the year 1793. Philadelphia, Pa.: Thomas Dobson.
  40. ^ Brown, David E. (June 6, 1999). "What They Carried". The New York Times. Retrieved March 7, 2015.
  41. ^ Rush, Benjamin (1799). "Observations Intended to Favour a Supposition That the Black Color (As It Is Called) of the Negroes Is Derived from the Leprosy". Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. 4: 289. doi:10.2307/1005108. JSTOR 1005108.
  42. ^ J. Kunitz; Benjamin Rush (1970). "Benjamin Rush on Savagism and Progress Stephen". Ethnohistory. Duke University Press. 17 (1/2): 31–42. JSTOR 481523.
  43. ^ "Rush, Benjamin. Medical Inquiries and Observations, Upon the Diseases of the Mind: Philadelphia: Published by Kimber & Richardson, no. 237, Market Street; Merritt, printer, no. 9, Watkins Alley, 1812". Their Own Words. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College. July 17, 2003. OCLC 53177922. Archived from the original on January 7, 2004. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
  44. ^ Rush, Benjamin (1835). Medical Inquiries and Observations Upon the Diseases of the Mind (Fifth ed.). Philadelphia: Grigg and Elliott, No. 9 North Fourth Street. OCLC 2812179. Retrieved October 20, 2017 – via Google Books.
  45. ^ Beam, Alex (2001). Gracefully Insane: Life and Death Inside America's Premier Mental Hospital.
  46. ^ Deutsch, Albert (2007). The Mentally Ill in America: A History of Their Care and Treatment From Colonial Times.
  47. ^ Rush, Benjamin (1830). Medical Inquiries and Observations upon Diseases of the Mind (4 ed.). Philadelphia: John Grigg. pp. 98, 197.
  48. ^ Gamwell, Lynn; Tomes, Nancy (1995). Madness in America: Cultural and Medical Perceptions of Mental Illness before 1914. State University of New York at Binghamton.
  49. ^ Treffert, Darold A. (2009). "Savant Syndrome: An Extraordinary Condition: A Synopsis: Past, Present, Future" (PDF). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. The Royal Society Publishing. 364 (1522): 1351–1357. doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0326. PMC 2677584. PMID 19528017. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 23, 2016. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
  50. ^ Elster, Jon (1999). Strong Feelings: Emotion, Addiction, and Human Behavior. MIT Press. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-262-55036-9.
  51. ^ Durrant, Russil; Thakker, Jo (2003). Substance Use & Abuse: Cultural and Historical Perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  52. ^ Rush, Benjamin (1805). Inquiry into the Effects of Ardent Spirits upon the Human Body and Mind. Philadelphia: Bartam.
  53. ^ "Medical Inquiries and Observations Upon the Diseases of the Mind" Author Benjamin Rush. Published 1835. Page 209.
  54. ^ Madden, Etta (2006). "PhD". Early American Literature. 41 (2): 241–272, 396. doi:10.1353/eal.2006.0022. Retrieved October 23, 2016.
  55. ^ "American Psychiatric Association Logo". University of California, San Francisco. Archived from the original (JPEG) on October 20, 2017. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
  56. ^ Moran, Mike (May 28, 2015). "New APA Logo Unifies Image of Psychiatry". Psychiatric News. American Psychiatric Association. 50 (11): 1. doi:10.1176/appi.pn.2015.6a14. The seal features the profile of Benjamin Rush, M.D., who is considered the father of American psychiatry and was a signer of the Declaration of Independence. The seal will continue to be used for ceremonial purposes and some internal documents.
  57. ^ a b c Ozarin, Lucy D. (April 17, 1998). Ramchandam, Dilip (ed.). "History Notes: The Official Seal of the APA". Psychiatric News. American Psychiatric Association. Archived from the original on August 29, 2008. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
  58. ^ Wilson, James Grant (1893). The Memorial History of the City of New-York: From Its First Settlement to the Year 1892. New York History Company.
  59. ^ "History". Rush University. Retrieved September 30, 2015.
  60. ^ Hawke, p.5, citing Jeremiah's lament, "Woe is me, my mother, that thou has borne me, a man of strife, and a man of contention to the whole earth. I have neither lent on usury, nor have men lent to me on usury, yet every one of them doth curse me," in Letter to John Adams, December 26, 1811.
  61. ^ Letter to John Adams, April 5, 1808 in Butterfield, Letters of Benjamin Rush, pp. 2:962–963
  62. ^ "Benjamin Rush". Unitarian Universalist Association. July 8, 2010. Archived from the original on July 27, 2010. Retrieved July 8, 2010.
  63. ^ (1) "Dr. Benjamin Rush Diary". Retrieved July 23, 2013.
    (2) "Benjamin Rush, Signer of Declaration of Independence".
  64. ^ a b America's God and Country Encyclopedia of Quotations, by William Federer, 1999, ISBN 1-880563-09-6, p. 543
  65. ^ (1) Rush, Benjamin (1806). "A plan of a Peace-Office for the United States". Essays, Literary, Moral and Philosophical (2 ed.). Philadelphia: Thomas and William Bradford. pp. 183–88. Retrieved June 3, 2010.
    (2) Runes, Dagobert D., ed. (1947). "A Plan of a Peace-Office for the United States". The Selected Writings of Benjamin Rush. New York: Philosophical Library. pp. 19–24. Retrieved December 15, 2011.
  66. ^ Rush, Benjamin (July 16, 1776). "To: Patrick Henry". Delegates to Congress: Letters of Delegates to Congress, 1774–1789, Volume 4, May 16, 1776 – August 15, 1776. Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library. Archived from the original on December 15, 2012. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
  67. ^ To Elias Boudinot on July 9, 1788. Letters of Benjamin Rush L. H. Butterfield, ed., (American Philosophical; Society, 1951), Vol. I, p. 475.
  68. ^ Szasz, Thomas (2005). "A bogus Benjamin Rush quote: contribution to the history of pharmacracy". History of Psychiatry. 16 (1): 89–98. doi:10.1177/0957154X05044554.
  69. ^ "The Life, Experience, and Gospel Labours of the Rt. Rev. Richard Allen.
  70. ^ Brodsky, Alyn (2004). Benjamin Rush: Patriot and Physician. New York: Truman Talley Books/St. Martin's Press, pp. 124–126.
  71. ^ Hawke (1971), pp. 170–171
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  74. ^ Brodsky (2004), pp. 363–365
  75. ^ Clark, Edward L. (June 2012). A Record of the Inscriptions on the Tablets and Grave-stones in the Burial-grounds of Christ Church. Applewood Books. p. 464. ISBN 9781429093095.
  76. ^ [1] Accessed October 25, 2018

Further reading

External links

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