To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Total population
c.331.4 million[1]
(2020 U.S. census)
Regions with significant populations
American diaspora:
c.2.996 million (by U.S. citizenship)[2][3]
United Kingdom171,000+[2][3]
Saudi Arabia70,000-80,000[8][9]
South Korea68,000+[2][3]
American English, Spanish, Native American languages and various others
Christianity (Protestantism, Roman Catholicism, Mormonism and other denominations)[10]
Irreligion, Judaism, Buddhism, Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism, and various others[10]

Americans are the citizens and nationals of the United States of America.[11][12] The United States is home to people of many racial and ethnic origins; consequently, American culture and law do not equate nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and an oath of permanent allegiance.[13][14][15][16]

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    147 502
    79 388
    2 591 798
    96 679
    130 642
  • MotoAmerica Mission King of the Baggers Race 1 at Road America 2023
  • America's Day at the Races - May 21, 2023
  • Americans Want You to Forget About This Race (Jeffrey Herlings vs. Eli Tomac)
  • America's Day at the Races - June 17, 2023
  • America's Day at the Races - June 9, 2023



The majority of Americans or their ancestors immigrated to the United States or are descended from people who were brought as slaves within the past five centuries, with the exception of the Native American population and people from Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippine Islands,[17] who became American through expansion of the country in the 19th century;[18] additionally, America expanded into American Samoa, the U.S. Virgin Islands and Northern Mariana Islands in the 20th century.[19][12]

Despite its multi-ethnic composition,[20][21] the culture of the United States held in common by most Americans can also be referred to as mainstream American culture, a Western culture largely derived from the traditions of Northern and Western European colonists, settlers, and immigrants.[20] It also includes significant influences of African-American culture.[22] Westward expansion integrated the Creoles and Cajuns of Louisiana and the Hispanos of the Southwest and brought close contact with the culture of Mexico. Large-scale immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from Southern and Eastern Europe introduced a variety of elements. Immigration from Asia, Africa, and Latin America has also had impact. A cultural melting pot, or pluralistic salad bowl, describes the way in which generations of Americans have celebrated and exchanged distinctive cultural characteristics.[20]

In addition to the United States, Americans and people of American descent can be found internationally. As many as seven million Americans are estimated to be living abroad, and make up the American diaspora.[23][24][25]

Racial and ethnic groups

2020 U.S. Census[26]
Self-identified race and ethnicity Percent of population
Non-Latino White Americans (mainly European-Americans, but also includes Middle Eastern-Americans and North African-Americans)
Latino Americans (mainly Hispanic-Americans, but also includes Brazilian-Americans)
Black or African Americans (Sub-Saharan African Americans)
Asian or Asian Americans (East Asian-Americans, Southeast Asian-Americans and South-Asian Americans)
Indigenous Americans (including Alaska Natives)
Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders
Two or more races
Some other race

The United States of America is a diverse country, racially, and ethnically.[27] Six races are officially recognized by the U.S. Census Bureau for statistical purposes: Alaska Native and American Indian, Asian, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, White and people of two or more races. "Some other race" is also an option in the census and other surveys.[28][29][30]

The United States Census Bureau also classifies Americans as "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino", which identifies Hispanic and Latino Americans as a racially diverse ethnicity that comprises the largest minority group in the nation.[28][29][30]

White and European Americans

People of European descent, or White Americans (also referred to as European Americans and Caucasian Americans), constitute the majority of the 331 million people living in the United States, with 191,697,647 people or 57.8% of the population in the 2020 United States Census.[a][32][33] They are considered people who trace their ancestry to the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa.[32] Non-Hispanic Whites are the majority in 45 states. There are five minority-majority states: California, Texas, New Mexico, Nevada, and Hawaii.[34][35] In addition, the District of Columbia and the five inhabited U.S. territories have a non-white majority.[32] The state with the highest percentage of non-Hispanic White Americans is Maine.[36]

Europe is the largest continent that Americans trace their ancestry to, and many claim descent from various European ethnic groups.[37]

The Spaniards were the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now the continental United States in 1565.[38] Martín de Argüelles born 1566, San Agustín, La Florida then a part of New Spain, was the first person of European descent born in what is now the continental United States.[39] Virginia Dare, born 1587 Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina, was the first child born in the original Thirteen Colonies to English parents. The Spaniards also established a continuous presence in what over three centuries later would become a possession of the United States with the founding of the city of San Juan, Puerto Rico, in 1521.

In the 2017 American Community Survey, German Americans (13.2%), Irish Americans (9.7%), English Americans (7.1%) and Italian Americans (5.1%) were the four largest self-reported European ancestry groups in the United States forming 35.1% of the total population.[40] However, the English Americans and British Americans demography is considered a serious under-count as they tend to self-report and identify as simply "Americans" (since the introduction of a new "American" category in the 1990 census) due to the length of time they have inhabited America. This is highly over-represented in the Upland South, a region that was settled historically by the British.[41][42][43][44][45][46]

Overall, as the largest group, European Americans have the lowest poverty rate[47] and the second highest educational attainment levels, median household income,[48] and median personal income[49] of any racial demographic in the nation.

European ancestry in the US by county (self-reported) in 2018
White and European Americans by ancestry group
Rank Ancestry group % of total population Pop. estimates Ref(s)
1 German 13.2% 43,093,766 [40]
2 Irish 9.7% 31,479,232 [40]
3 English 7.1% 23,074,947 [40]
4 American 6.1% 20,024,830 [40]
5 Spanish 5.9% 10,017,244-17,300,000 [50][51][52]
6 Italian 5.1% 16,650,674 [40]
7 Polish 2.8% 9,012,085 [40]
8 French (except Basque)
French Canadian
9 Scottish
10 Norwegian 1.3% 4,295,981 [40]
11 Dutch 1.2% 3,906,193 [40]
Total White and European American 58% 204,277,273 [26]
Source:[53][54] 2020 United States Census, 2017 American Community Survey and 1990 United States Census

Middle Easterners and North Africans

According to the American Jewish Archives and the Arab American National Museum, the first Middle Easterners and North Africans (viz. Jews and Berbers) to arrive in the Americas landed in the late 15th to mid-16th centuries.[55][56][57][58] Many fled ethnic or ethnoreligious persecution during the Spanish Inquisition;[59][60] a few were taken to the Americas as slaves.[56]

In 2014, The United States Census Bureau began finalizing the ethnic classification of people of Middle Eastern and North African ("MENA") origins.[61] According to the Arab American Institute (AAI), Arab Americans have family origins in each of the 22 member states of the Arab League.[62] Following consultations with MENA organizations, the Census Bureau announced in 2014 that it would establish a new MENA ethnic category for populations from the Middle East, North Africa and the Arab world, separate from the "white" classification that these populations had previously sought in 1909. The groups felt that the earlier "white" designation no longer accurately represents MENA identity, so they successfully lobbied for a distinct categorization.[63] This new category would also include Israeli-Americans.[64] The Census Bureau does not currently ask about whether one is Sikh, because it views them as followers of a religion rather than members of an ethnic group, and it does not combine questions concerning religion with race or ethnicity.[65] As of December 2015, the sampling strata for the new MENA category includes the Census Bureau's working classification of 19 MENA groups, as well as Turkish, Sudanese, Djiboutian, Somali, Mauritanian, Armenian, Cypriot, Afghan, Azerbaijani and Georgian groups.[66] In January 2018, it was announced that the Census Bureau would not include the grouping in the 2020 Census.[67]

Middle Eastern Americans in the 2000[68] - 2010 U.S. Census,[69] the Mandell L. Berman Institute, and the North American Jewish Data Bank[70]
Ancestry 2000 2000 (% of US population) 2010 2010 (% of US population)
Arab 1,160,729 0.4125% 1,697,570 0.5498%
Armenian 385,488 0.1370% 474,559 0.1537%
Iranian 338,266 0.1202% 463,552 0.1501%
Jewish 6,155,000 2.1810% 6,543,820 2.1157%
Total 8,568,772 3.036418% 9,981,332 3.227071%

Hispanic and Latino Americans

Hispanic or Latino Americans constitute the largest ethnic minority in the United States. They form the second largest group in the United States, comprising 62,080,044 people or 18.7% of the population according to the 2020 United States census.[b][71][72]

Hispanic and Latino Americans are not considered a race in the United States census, instead forming an ethnic category.[73][74][75][76]

People of Spanish or Hispanic and Latino descent have lived in what is now United States territory since the founding of San Juan, Puerto Rico (the oldest continuously inhabited settlement on American soil) in 1521 by Juan Ponce de León, and the founding of St. Augustine, Florida (the oldest continuously inhabited settlement in the continental United States) in 1565 by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés. In the State of Texas, Spaniards first settled the region in the late 1600s and formed a unique cultural group known as Tejanos.

Hispanic and Latino American population by national origin[77][78]
Rank National origin % of total population Pop. Ref(s)
1 Mexican 10.29% 31,798,258 [78]
2 Puerto Rican[c] 1.49% 4,623,716 [78]
3 Cuban 0.57% 1,785,547 [78]
4 Salvadoran 0.53% 1,648,968 [78]
5 Dominican 0.45% 1,414,703 [78]
6 Guatemalan 0.33% 1,044,209 [78]
7 Colombian 0.3% 908,734 [78]
8 Spanish 0.2% 635,253 [78]
9 Honduran 0.2% 633,401 [78]
10 Ecuadorian 0.1% 564,631 [78]
11 Peruvian 0.1% 531,358 [78]
All other 2.62% 7,630,835
Hispanic and Latino American (total) 18.7% 62,080,044
2020 United States census

Black and African Americans

Black and African Americans are citizens and residents of the United States with origins in Sub-Saharan Africa.[79] According to the Office of Management and Budget, the grouping includes individuals who self-identify as African American, as well as persons who emigrated from nations in the Caribbean and Sub-Saharan Africa.[80] The grouping is thus based on geography, and may contradict or misrepresent an individual's self-identification since not all immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa are "Black". Among these racial outliers are persons from Cape Verde, Madagascar, various Arab states and Hamito-Semitic populations in East Africa and the Sahel, and the Afrikaners of Southern Africa.[79] African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans, and formerly as American Negroes) are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa.[81] According to the 2020 United States Census, there were 39,940,338 Black and African Americans in the United States, representing 12.1% of the population.[82][d][83] Black and African Americans make up the third largest group in the United States, after White and European Americans, and Hispanic and Latino Americans.[71] The majority of the population (55%) lives in the South; compared to the 2000 Census, there has also been a decrease of African Americans in the Northeast and Midwest.[83]

Most African Americans are the direct descendants of captives from West Africa and Central Africa, from ancestral populations in countries like Nigeria, Benin, Sierra Leone, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal and Angola,[84] who survived the slavery era within the boundaries of the present United States.[85]As an adjective, the term is usually spelled African-American.[86] Montinaro et al. (2014) observed that around 50% of the overall ancestry of African Americans traces back to the Niger-Congo-speaking Yoruba of southwestern Nigeria and southern Benin (before the European colonization of Africa this people created the Oyo Empire), reflecting the centrality of this West African region in the Atlantic Slave Trade.[87] Zakharaia et al. (2009) found a similar proportion of Yoruba associated ancestry in their African-American samples, with a minority also drawn from Mandenka populations (founders of the Mali Empire), and Bantu populations (who had a varying level of social organization during the colonial era, while some Bantu peoples were still tribal, other Bantu peoples had founded kingdoms such as the Kingdom of Kongo).[88].

The first West African slaves were brought to Jamestown, Virginia in 1619. The English settlers treated these captives as indentured servants and released them after a number of years. This practice was gradually replaced by the system of race-based slavery used in the Caribbean.[89] All the American colonies had slavery, but it was usually the form of personal servants in the North (where 2% of the people were slaves), and field hands in plantations in the South (where 25% were slaves);[90] by the beginning of the American Revolutionary War 1/5th of the total population was enslaved.[91] During the revolution, some would serve in the Continental Army or Continental Navy,[92][93] while others would serve the British Empire in Lord Dunmore's Ethiopian Regiment, and other units.[94] By 1804, the northern states (north of the Mason–Dixon line) had abolished slavery.[95] However, slavery would persist in the southern states until the end of the American Civil War and the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment.[96] Following the end of the Reconstruction Era, which saw the first African American representation in Congress,[97] African Americans became disenfranchised and subject to Jim Crow laws,[98] legislation that would persist until the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act due to the Civil Rights Movement.[99]

According to US Census Bureau data, very few African immigrants self-identify as African American. On average, less than 5% of African residents self-reported as "African American" or "Afro-American" on the 2000 US Census. The overwhelming majority of African immigrants (~95%) identified instead with their own respective ethnicities. Self-designation as "African American" or "Afro-American" was highest among individuals from West Africa (4%-9%), and lowest among individuals from Cape Verde, East Africa and Southern Africa (0%-4%).[100] African immigrants may also experience conflict with African Americans.[101]

Black and African American population by ancestry group[53][80]
Rank Ancestry group Percentage
of total est. population
Pop. estimates
1 Jamaican 0.31% 986,897
2 Haitian 0.28% 873,003
3 Nigerian 0.08% 259,934
4 Trinidadian and Tobagonian 0.06% 193,233
5 Ghanaian 0.03% 94,405
6 Barbadian 0.01% 59,236
Sub-Saharan African (total) 0.92% 2,864,067
West Indian (total) (except Hispanic groups) 0.85% 2,633,149
Black and African American (total) 12.1% 39,940,338
2020 United States Census

Asian Americans

Another significant population is the Asian American population, comprising 19,618,719 people in 2020, or 5.9% of the U.S. population.[e][102][103] California is home to 5.6 million Asian Americans, the greatest number in any state.[104] In Hawaii, Asian Americans make up the highest proportion of the population (57 percent).[104] Asian Americans live across the country, yet are heavily urbanized, with significant populations in the Greater Los Angeles Area, New York metropolitan area, and the San Francisco Bay Area.[105]

The U.S. census defines Asian Americans as those with origins to the countries of East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia. Although Americans with roots in Western Asia were once classified as "Asian", they are now excluded from the term in modern census classifications.[106] The largest sub-groups are immigrants or descendants of immigrants from Cambodia, Mainland China, India, Japan, Korea, Laos, Pakistan, the Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Asians overall have higher income levels than all other racial groups in the United States, including whites, and the trend appears to be increasing in relation to those groups.[107] Additionally, Asians have a higher education attainment level than all other racial groups in the United States.[108][109] For better or for worse, the group has been called a model minority.[110][111][112]

While Asian Americans have been in what is now the United States since before the Revolutionary War,[113][114][115] relatively large waves of Chinese, Filipino, and Japanese immigration did not begin until the mid-to-late 19th century.[115] Immigration and significant population growth continue to this day.[116] Due to a number of factors, Asian Americans have been stereotyped as "perpetual foreigners".[117][118]

Asian American ancestries[102]
Rank Ancestry Percentage
of total population
1 Chinese 1.2% 3,797,379
2 Filipino 1.1% 3,417,285
3 Indian 1.0% 3,183,063
4 Vietnamese 0.5% 1,737,665
5 Korean 0.5% 1,707,027
6 Japanese 0.4% 1,304,599
Other Asian 0.9% 2,799,448
Asian American (total) 5.9% 19,618,719
2020 United States Census

Native American and Alaska Natives

According to the 2020 Census, there are 2,251,699 people who are Native Americans or Alaska Natives alone; they make up 0.7% of the total population.[f][119] According to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), an "American Indian or Alaska Native" is a person whose ancestry have origins in any of the original peoples of North, Central, or South America.[119] 2.3 million individuals who are American Indian or Alaskan Native are multiracial;[119] additionally the plurality of American Indians reside in the Western United States (40.7%).[119] Collectively and historically this race has been known by several names;[120] as of 1995, 50% of those who fall within the OMB definition prefer the term "American Indian", 37% prefer "Native American" and the remainder have no preference or prefer a different term altogether.[121]

Among Americans today, levels of Native American ancestry (distinct from Native American identity) differ. The genomes of self-reported African Americans averaged to 0.8% Native American ancestry, those of European Americans averaged to 0.18%, and those of Latinos averaged to 18.0%.[122][123]

Native Americans, whose ancestry is indigenous to the Americas, originally migrated to the two continents between 10,000 and 45,000 years ago.[124] These Paleoamericans spread throughout the two continents and evolved into hundreds of distinct cultures during the pre-Columbian era.[125] Following the first voyage of Christopher Columbus,[126] the European colonization of the Americas began, with St. Augustine, Florida becoming the first permanent European settlement in the continental United States.[127] From the 16th through the 19th centuries, the population of Native Americans declined in the following ways: epidemic diseases brought from Europe;[128] genocide and warfare at the hands of European explorers, settlers and colonists,[129][130] as well as between tribes;[131][132] displacement from their lands;[133] internal warfare,[134] enslavement;[135] and intermarriage.[136][137]

Native American and Alaska Native population by selected tribal groups[119][138]
Rank National origin Percentage
of total population
1 Cherokee 0.26% 819,105
2 Navajo 0.1% 332,129
3 Choctaw 0.06% 195,764
5 Chippewa 0.05% 170,742
6 Sioux 0.05% 170,110
All other 1.08% 3,357,235
American Indian (total) 0.7% 2,251,699
2020 United States Census

Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders

As defined by the United States Census Bureau and the Office of Management and Budget, Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders are "persons having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands".[139] Previously called Asian Pacific American, along with Asian Americans beginning in 1976, this was changed in 1997.[140] As of the 2020 United States Census there are 622,018 who reside in the United States, and make up 0.2% of the nation's total population.[g][141] 14% of the population have at least a bachelor's degree,[141] and 15.1% live in poverty, below the poverty threshold.[141] As compared to the 2000 United States Census this population grew by 40%;[139] and 71% live in the West; of those over half (52%) live in either Hawaii or California, with no other states having populations greater than 100,000. The U.S. territories in the Pacific also have large Pacific Islander populations such as Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands (Chammoro), and American Samoa (Samoan).[139] The largest concentration of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders, is Honolulu County in Hawaii,[141] and Los Angeles County in the continental United States.[139]

Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander by ancestries[139]
Rank Ancestry Percentage Pop.
1 Native Hawaiian 0.17% 527,077
2 Samoan 0.05% 184,440
3 Chamorro 0.04% 147,798
4 Tongan 0.01% 57,183
Other Pacific Islanders 0.09% 308,697
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (total) 0.2% 622,018
2020 United States Census

Two or more races

The United States has a growing multiracial identity movement.[142] Multiracial Americans numbered 7.0 million in 2008, or 2.3% of the population;[103] by the 2020 census the multiracial increased to 13,548,983, or 4.1% of the total population.[143] They can be any combination of races (White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, "some other race") and ethnicities.[144] The largest population of Multiracial Americans were those of White and African American descent, with a total of 1,834,212 self-identifying individuals.[143] Barack Obama, 44th President of the United States who is biracial- his mother is white (of English and Irish descent) and his father is of Kenyan birth-[145][146] only self-identifies as being African American.[147][148]

Population by selected Two or More Races Population[149]
Rank Specific Combinations Percentage
of total population
1 White; Black 0.59% 1,834,212
2 White; Some Other Race 0.56% 1,740,924
3 White; Asian 0.52% 1,623,234
4 White; Native American 0.46% 1,432,309
5 African American; Some Other Race 0.1% 314,571
6 African American; Native American 0.08% 269,421
All other specific combinations 0.58% 1,794,402
Multiracial American (total) 4.1% 13,548,983
2020 United States Census

Some other race

According to the 2020 United States Census, 8.4% or 27,915,715 Americans chose to self-identify with the "some other race" category, the third most popular option. Also, 42.2% or 26,225,882 Hispanic/Latino Americans chose to identify as some other race as these Hispanic/Latinos may feel the U.S. Census does not describe their European and American Indian ancestry as they understand it to be.[150] A significant portion of the Hispanic and Latino population self-identifies as Mestizo, particularly the Mexican and Central American community.[citation needed] Mestizo is not a racial category in the U.S. Census, but signifies someone who has both European and American Indian ancestry.

National personification

"Uncle Sam" is a national personification of the United States. The image bears a resemblance to the real Samuel Wilson and the pose used here is based on Lord Kitchener Wants You. The female personification, primarily popular during the 18th and 19th centuries, is "Columbia".

Uncle Sam is a national personification of the United States and sometimes more specifically of the American government, with the first usage of the term dating from the War of 1812. He is depicted as a stern elderly white man with white hair and a goatee beard, and dressed in clothing that recalls the design elements of the flag of the United States – for example, typically a top hat with red and white stripes and white stars on a blue band, and red and white striped trousers.

Columbia is a poetic name for the Americas and the feminine personification of the United States of America, made famous by African-American poet Phillis Wheatley during the American Revolutionary War in 1776. It has inspired the names of many persons, places, objects, institutions, and companies in the Western Hemisphere and beyond, including the District of Columbia, the seat of government of the United States.


Languages spoken at home by more than 1 million persons in 2010[151]
Language Percent of
Number of
English 80.38% 233,780,338
Combined total of all languages
other than English
19.62% 57,048,617
(excluding Puerto Rico and Spanish Creole)
12.19% 35,437,985
(including Cantonese and Mandarin)
0.9% 2,567,779
Tagalog 0.53% 1,542,118
Vietnamese 0.44% 1,292,448
French 0.44% 1,288,833
Korean 0.38% 1,108,408
German 0.38% 1,107,869

English is the de facto national language. Although there is no official language at the federal level, some laws—such as U.S. naturalization requirements—standardize English. In 2007, about 226 million, or 80% of the population aged five years and older, spoke only English at home. Spanish, spoken by 12% of the population at home, is the second most common language and the most widely taught second language.[152][153] Some Americans advocate making English the country's official language, as it is in at least twenty-eight states.[154] Both English and Hawaiian are official languages in Hawaii by state law.[155]

While neither has an official language, New Mexico has laws providing for the use of both English and Spanish, as Louisiana does for English and French.[156] Other states, such as California, mandate the publication of Spanish versions of certain government documents. The latter include court forms.[157] Several insular territories grant official recognition to their native languages, along with English: Samoan and Chamorro are recognized by American Samoa and Guam, respectively; Carolinian and Chamorro are recognized by the Northern Mariana Islands; Spanish is an official language of Puerto Rico.


Religious affiliation in the U.S. (2014)[158]
Affiliation % of U.S. population
Christian 70.6 70.6
Protestant 46.5 46.5
Evangelical Protestant 25.4 25.4
Mainline Protestant 14.7 14.7
Black church 6.5 6.5
Catholic 20.8 20.8
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 1.6 1.6
Jehovah's Witnesses 0.8 0.8
Eastern Orthodox 0.5 0.5
Other Christian 0.4 0.4
Non-Christian faiths 5.9 5.9
Jewish 1.9 1.9
Muslim 0.9 0.9
Buddhist 0.7 0.7
Hindu 0.7 0.7
Other Non-Christian faiths 1.8 1.8
Unaffiliated 22.8 22.8
Nothing in particular 15.8 15.8
Agnostic 4.0 4
Atheist 3.1 3.1
Don't know/refused answer 0.6 0.6
Total 100 100

Religion in the United States has a high adherence level compared to other developed countries, as well as a diversity in beliefs. The First Amendment to the country's Constitution prevents the Federal government from making any "law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof". The U.S. Supreme Court has interpreted this as preventing the government from having any authority in religion. A majority of Americans report that religion plays a "very important" role in their lives, a proportion unusual among developed countries, although similar to the other nations of the Americas.[159] Many faiths have flourished in the United States, including both later imports spanning the country's multicultural immigrant heritage, as well as those founded within the country; these have led the United States to become the most religiously diverse country in the world.[160]

The United States has the world's largest Christian population.[161] The majority of Americans (76%) are Christians, mostly within Protestant and Catholic denominations; these adherents constitute 48% and 23% of the population, respectively.[162] Other religions include Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism, which collectively make up about 4% to 5% of the adult population.[163][164][165] Another 15% of the adult population identifies as having no religious belief or no religious affiliation.[163] According to the American Religious Identification Survey, religious belief varies considerably across the country: 59% of Americans living in Western states (the "Unchurched Belt") report a belief in God, yet in the South (the "Bible Belt") the figure is as high as 86%.[163][166]

Several of the original Thirteen Colonies were established by settlers who wished to practice their own religion without discrimination: the Massachusetts Bay Colony was established by English Puritans, Pennsylvania by Irish and English Quakers, Maryland by English and Irish Catholics, and Virginia by English Anglicans. Although some individual states retained established religious confessions well into the 19th century, the United States was the first nation to have no official state-endorsed religion.[167] Modeling the provisions concerning religion within the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, the framers of the Constitution rejected any religious test for office, and the First Amendment specifically denied the federal government any power to enact any law respecting either an establishment of religion or prohibiting its free exercise, thus protecting any religious organization, institution, or denomination from government interference. The decision was mainly influenced by European Rationalist and Protestant ideals, but was also a consequence of the pragmatic concerns of minority religious groups and small states that did not want to be under the power or influence of a national religion that did not represent them.[168]


Apple pie and baseball are icons of American culture.

The American culture is primarily a Western culture, but is influenced by Native American, West African, Latin American, East Asian, and Polynesian cultures.

The United States of America has its own unique social and cultural characteristics, such as dialect, music, arts, social habits, cuisine and folklore.[21]

Its chief early European influences came from English, Scottish, Welsh, and Irish settlers of colonial America during British rule. British culture, due to colonial ties with Britain that spread the English language, legal system and other cultural inheritances, had a formative influence.[169] Other important influences came from other parts of Europe, especially Germany,[170] France,[171] and Italy.[172]

Original elements also play a strong role, such as Jeffersonian democracy.[173] Thomas Jefferson's Notes on the State of Virginia was perhaps the first influential domestic cultural critique by an American and a reaction to the prevailing European consensus that America's domestic originality was degenerate.[173] Prevalent ideas and ideals that evolved domestically, such as national holidays, uniquely American sports, military tradition,[174] and innovations in the arts and entertainment give a strong sense of national pride among the population as a whole.[175]

American culture includes both conservative and liberal elements, scientific and religious competitiveness, political structures, risk taking and free expression, materialist and moral elements. Despite certain consistent ideological principles (e.g. individualism, egalitarianism, faith in freedom and democracy), the American culture has a variety of expressions due to its geographical scale and demographic diversity.


Map of the American diaspora in the world (includes people with American citizenship or children of Americans):
  United States
  + 1,000,000
  + 100,000
  + 10,000
  + 1,000

Americans have migrated to many places around the world, including Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Chile, China, Costa Rica, France, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, South Korea, the United Arab Emirates, and the United Kingdom. Unlike migration from other countries, U.S. migration is not concentrated in specific countries, possibly as a result of the roots of immigration from so many different countries to the United States.[176] As of 2016, there were approximately 9 million U.S. citizens living outside of the United States.[177]

See also


  1. ^ Of the foreign-born population from Europe (4,817 thousand), in 2010, 61.8% were naturalized.[31]
  2. ^ Of the foreign-born population from Latin America and the Caribbean (21,224 thousand), in 2010, 32.1% were naturalized.[31]
  3. ^ 'Puerto Rican' is not a nationality, as Puerto Ricans are Americans. It is included here however as a distinct Latino cultural category.
  4. ^ Of the foreign-born population from Africa (1,607 thousand), in 2010, 46.1% were naturalized.[31]
  5. ^ Of the foreign-born population from Asia (11,284 thousand), in 2010, 57.7% were naturalized.[31]
  6. ^ Of the foreign-born population from Northern America (807 thousand), in 2010, 44.3% were naturalized.[31]
  7. ^ Of the foreign-born population from Oceania (217 thousand), in 2010, 36.9% were naturalized.[31]


  1. ^ "Census Bureau's 2020 Population Count". United States Census. Retrieved April 26, 2021. The 2020 census is as of April 1, 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "International Migrant Stock". United Nations. Retrieved January 13, 2022.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Immigrant and Emigrant Populations by Country of Origin". Migration Policy Institute. February 10, 2014. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
  4. ^ Vidal, Roberto (2013). "Chapter III: Public Policies on Migration in Colombia" (PDF). In Chiarello, Leonir Mario (ed.). Public Policies on Migration and Civil Society in Latin America: The Cases of Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico (PDF) (1st ed.). New York: Scalabrini International Migration Network. pp. 263–410. ISBN 978-0-9841581-5-7. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 19, 2015. Retrieved December 26, 2017.
  5. ^ "U.S. Relations With the Philippines Bilateral Relations Fact Sheet". United States Department of State. Retrieved August 17, 2022.
  6. ^ US Embassy in Brazil US Embassy in Brazil. Retrieved March 29, 2020.
  7. ^ étrangères, Ministère de l'Europe et des Affaires. "Présentation des États-Unis". France Diplomatie : : Ministère de l'Europe et des Affaires étrangères.
  8. ^ Abizaid, John, U.S. Ambassador Abizaid's Message to American Citizens about COVID-19., U.S. Mission Saudi Arabia, retrieved March 10, 2022
  9. ^ "Houthi Terrorist Attack in Saudi Arabia". United States Department of State. Retrieved February 11, 2022.
  10. ^ a b Luis Lug; Sandra Stencel; John Green; Gregory Smith; Dan Cox; Allison Pond; Tracy Miller; Elixabeth Podrebarac; Michelle Ralston (February 2008). "U.S. Religious Landscape Survey" (PDF). Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Pew Research Center. Retrieved February 12, 2012.
  11. ^ 8 U.S.C. § 1401; 8 U.S.C. § 1408; 8 U.S.C. § 1452
  12. ^ a b * "U.S. nationals born in American Samoa sue for citizenship". NBC News. Associated Press. March 28, 2018. Retrieved October 1, 2018.
  13. ^
    • "Fernandez v. Keisler, 502 F.3d 337". Fourth Circuit. September 26, 2007. p. 341. The INA defines 'national of the United States' as '(A) a citizen of the United States, or (B) a person who, though not a citizen of the United States, owes permanent allegiance to the United States.'
    • "Robertson-Dewar v. Mukasey, 599 F. Supp. 2d 772". U.S. District Court for the Western District of Texas. February 25, 2009. p. 779 n.3. The [INA] defines naturalization as 'conferring of nationality of a state upon a person after birth, by any means whatsoever.'
  14. ^ "Permanent Allegiance Law and Legal Definition". USLegal.
  15. ^ * Christine Barbour; Gerald C Wright (January 15, 2013). Keeping the Republic: Power and Citizenship in American Politics, 6th Edition The Essentials. CQ Press. pp. 31–33. ISBN 978-1-4522-4003-9. Retrieved January 6, 2015. Who Is An American? Native-born and naturalized citizens
  16. ^ Petersen, William; Novak, Michael; Gleason, Philip (1982). Concepts of Ethnicity. Harvard University Press. p. 62. ISBN 9780674157262. Retrieved February 1, 2013. ...from Thomas Paine's plea in Henry Clay's remark in 1815... "It is hard for us to believe ... how conscious these early Americans were of the job of developing American character out of the regional and generational polaritities and contradictions of a nation of immigrants and migrants." ... To be or to become an American, a person did not have to be of any particular national, linguistic, religious, or ethnic background. All he had to do was to commit himself to the political ideology centered on the abstract ideals of liberty, equality, and republicanism. Thus the universalist ideological character of American nationality meant that it was open to anyone who willed to become an American.
  17. ^ Lifshey, Adam (2015). Subversions of the American Century: Filipino Literature in Spanish and the Transpacific Transformation of the United States. University of Michigan Press. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-472-05293-6. the status of Filipinos in the Philippines as American nationals existed from 1900 to 1946
    Rick Baldoz (February 28, 2011). The Third Asiatic Invasion: Empire and Migration in Filipino America, 1898-1946. NYU Press. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-8147-9109-7. Recalling earlier debates surrounding Filipinos' naturalization status in the United States, he pointed out that U.S. courts had definitively recognized that Filipinos were American "nationals" and not "aliens."
    "8 FAM 302.5 Special Citizenship Provisions Regarding the Philippines". Foreign Affairs Manual. United States Department of State. May 15, 2020. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
  18. ^ Fiorina, Morris P., and Paul E. Peterson (2000). The New American Democracy. London: Longman, p. 97. ISBN 0-321-07058-5;
  19. ^ U.S. Census Bureau. Foreign-Born Population Frequently asked Questions viewed January 19, 2015. The U.S. Census Bureau uses the terms native and native born to refer to anyone born in Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, or the U.S. Virgin Islands.
  20. ^ a b c Adams, J.Q., and Pearlie Strother-Adams (2001). Dealing with Diversity. Chicago: Kendall/Hunt. ISBN 0-7872-8145-X.
  21. ^ a b Thompson, William, and Joseph Hickey (2005). Society in Focus. Boston: Pearson. ISBN 0-205-41365-X.
  22. ^ Holloway, Joseph E. (2005). Africanisms in American Culture, 2d ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pp. 18–38. ISBN 0-253-34479-4. Johnson, Fern L. (1999). Speaking Culturally: Language Diversity in the United States. Thousand Oaks, California, London, and New Delhi: Sage, p. 116. ISBN 0-8039-5912-5.
  23. ^ Jay Tolson (July 28, 2008). "A Growing Trend of Leaving America". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved December 17, 2012. Estimates made by organizations such as the Association of Americans Resident Overseas put the number of nongovernment-employed Americans living abroad anywhere between 4 million and 7 million, a range whose low end is based loosely on the government's trial count in 1999.
  24. ^ "6.32 million Americans (excluding military) live in 160-plus countries". Association of Americans Resident Overseas. Archived from the original on November 19, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2012. The total is the highest released to date: close to 6.32 million.
  25. ^ "The American Diaspora". Esquire. Hurst Communications, Inc. September 26, 2008. Retrieved December 17, 2012. he most frequently cited estimate of nonmilitary U. S. citizens living overseas is between three and six million, based on a very rough State Department calculation in 1999--and never updated.
  26. ^ a b "A Breakdown of 2020 Census Demographic Data". NPR. August 13, 2021.
  27. ^ "Our Diverse Population: Race and Hispanic Origin, 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 24, 2008.
  28. ^ a b "Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity". Office of Management and Budget. Archived from the original on March 15, 2009. Retrieved May 5, 2008.
  29. ^ a b Grieco, Elizabeth M; Rachel C. Cassidy. "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 2, 2015.
  30. ^ a b "U.S. Census website". 2008 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved February 28, 2010.
  31. ^ a b c d e f Grieco, Elizabeth M.; Acosta, Yesenia D.; de la Cruz, G. Patricia; Gamino, Christina; Gryn, Thomas; Larsen, Luke J.; Trevelyan, Edward N.; Walters, Nathan P. (May 2012). "The Foreign Born Population in the United States: 2010" (PDF). American Community Survey Reports. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 9, 2015. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
  32. ^ a b c Karen R. Humes; Nicholas A. Jones; Roberto R. Ramirez (March 2011). "Percentage of Population and Percent Change by Race: 2010 and 2020" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 20, 2021.
  33. ^ Lindsay Hixson; Bradford B. Hepler; Myoung Ouk Kim (September 2011). "The White Population: 2010" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. Retrieved November 20, 2012.
  34. ^ "U.S. whites will soon be the minority in number, but not power – Baltimore Sun". The Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on August 8, 2017. Retrieved January 21, 2018.
  35. ^ "Minority population surging in Texas". NBC News. Associated Press. August 18, 2005. Retrieved December 7, 2009.
  36. ^ Bernstein, Robert (May 17, 2012). "Most Children Younger Than Age 1 are Minorities, Census Bureau Reports". United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
  37. ^ Ohio State University. Diversity Dictionary. 2006. September 4, 2006. Archived June 20, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  38. ^ "A Spanish Expedition Established St. Augustine in Florida". Library of Congress. Retrieved March 27, 2009.
  39. ^ D. H. Figueredo (2007). Latino Chronology: Chronologies of the American Mosaic. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-313-34154-0.
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Selected Social Characteristics in the United States (DP02): 2017 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 14, 2020. Retrieved November 20, 2018.
  41. ^ Ethnic Landscapes of America - By John A. Cross
  42. ^ Census and you: monthly news from the U.S. Bureau... Volume 28, Issue 2 - By United States. Bureau of the Census
  43. ^ Sharing the Dream: White Males in a Multicultural America By Dominic J. Pulera.
  44. ^ Reynolds Farley, 'The New Census Question about Ancestry: What Did It Tell Us?', Demography, Vol. 28, No. 3 (August 1991), pp. 414, 421.
  45. ^ Stanley Lieberson and Lawrence Santi, 'The Use of Nativity Data to Estimate Ethnic Characteristics and Patterns', Social Science Research, Vol. 14, No. 1 (1985), pp. 44-6.
  46. ^ Stanley Lieberson and Mary C. Waters, 'Ethnic Groups in Flux: The Changing Ethnic Responses of American Whites', Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 487, No. 79 (September 1986), pp. 82-86.
  47. ^ "Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004" (PDF).
  48. ^ "Median household income newsbrief, US Census Bureau 2005". Archived from the original on September 3, 2006. Retrieved September 24, 2006.
  49. ^ "US Census Bureau, Personal income for Asian Americans, age 25+, 2006". Archived from the original on September 29, 2006. Retrieved December 17, 2006.
  50. ^ Szucs, Loretto Dennis; Luebking, Sandra Hargreaves (January 1, 2006). The Source: A Guidebook to American Genealogy. Ancestry Publishing. p. 361. ISBN 9781593312770 – via Internet Archive. English US census 1790.
  51. ^ "1990 Census of Population: General Population Characteristics".
  52. ^ "Hispanic Americans: Census Facts".
  53. ^ a b "B04006, People Reporting Ancestry". 2009-2011 American Community Survey. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved November 23, 2012.
  54. ^ "Table 52. Population by Selected Ancestry Group and Region: 2009" (PDF). 2009 American Community Survey. United States Census Bureau. January 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 23, 2012. Retrieved November 20, 2012.
  55. ^ "History Crash Course #55: Jews and the Founding of America" Spiro, Rabbi Ken. Published December 8, 2001. Accessed December 12, 2015. "The first Jews arrived in America with Columbus in 1492, and we also know that Jews newly-converted to Christianity were among the first Spaniards to arrive in Mexico with Conquistador Hernando Cortez in 1519."
  56. ^ a b "Arab Americans: An Integral Part of American Society" Archived February 8, 2020, at the Wayback Machine Arab American National Museum. Published 2009. Accessed December 12, 2015. "Zammouri, the first Arab American...traveled over 6,000 miles between 1528 and 1536, trekking across the American Southwest."
  57. ^ "Timeline in American Jewish History" American Jewish Archives. Accessed December 12, 2015.
  58. ^ "The American Jewish Experience through the Nineteenth Century: Immigration and Acculturation" Golden, Jonathan, and Jonathan D. Sarna. National Humanities Center. Brandeis University. Accessed December 12, 2015.
  59. ^ Netanyahu, Benzion.The Origins of the Inquisition in Fifteenth Century Spain. New York: Random House, 1995. Hardcover. 1390 pages. p. 1085.
  60. ^ "Conversos & Crypto-Jews" Archived December 22, 2015, at the Wayback Machine City of Albuquerque. Accessed December 12, 2015.
  61. ^ "Lobbying for a 'MENA' category on U.S. Census" Wiltz, Teresea. USA Today. Published October 7, 2014. Accessed December 14, 2015.
  62. ^ "Arab American Institute – Texas" (PDF). Arab American Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 7, 2012. Retrieved December 12, 2015.
  63. ^ "Public Comments to NCT Federal Register Notice" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau; Department of Commerce. Retrieved December 13, 2015.
  64. ^ Cortellessa, Eric (October 23, 2016). "Israeli, Palestinian Americans could share new 'Middle Eastern' census category". Times of Israel. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
    Nussbaum Cohen, Debra (June 18, 2015). "New U.S. Census Category to Include 'Israeli' Option". Haaretz. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
    Cohen, Rick (August 12, 2015). "Simultaneously Jewish and Persons of Color: The Status of Mizrahi Jews". Nonprofit Quality. Boston. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
  65. ^ "2015 National Content Test" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. pp. 33–34. Retrieved December 13, 2015. The Census Bureau is undertaking related mid-decade research for coding and classifying detailed national origins and ethnic groups, and our consultations with external experts on the Asian community have also suggested Sikh receive a unique code classified under Asian. The Census Bureau does not currently tabulate on religious responses to the race or ethnic questions (e.g., Sikh, Jewish, Catholic, Muslim, Lutheran, etc.).
  66. ^ "2015 National Content Test" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. p. 60. Retrieved December 13, 2015.
  67. ^ Wang, Hansi Lo (January 29, 2018). "No Middle Eastern Or North African Category On 2020 Census, Bureau Says". National Public Radio. Retrieved June 9, 2018.
  68. ^ "Table 1. First, Second, and Total Responses to the Ancestry Question by Detailed Ancestry Code: 2000" (XLS). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved December 2, 2010.
  69. ^ "Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more ancestry categories reported: 2010 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved November 30, 2012.
  70. ^ Ira Sheskin; Arnold Dashefsky (2010). "Jewish Population in the United States, 2010" (PDF). Mandell L. Berman Institute North American Jewish Data Bank, Center for Judaic Studies and Contemporary Jewish Life, University of Connecticut. Brandeis University. Retrieved November 16, 2015.
  71. ^ a b Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results".[permanent dead link]
  72. ^ Humes, Karen R.; Jones, Nicholas A.; Ramirez, Roberto R. "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 28, 2011. "Hispanic or Latino" refers to a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race.
  73. ^ Grieco, Elizabeth M.; Rachel C. Cassidy. "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 27, 2008.
  74. ^ "T4-2007. Hispanic or Latino By Race [15]". 2007 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau.
  75. ^ "B03002. Hispanic or Latino origin by race". 2007 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. United States Census Bureau.
  76. ^ Tafoya, Sonya (December 6, 2004). "Shades of Belonging" (PDF). Pew Hispanic Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 28, 2008. Retrieved May 7, 2008.
  77. ^ Sharon R. Ennis; Merarys Ríos-Vargas; Nora G. Albert (May 2011). "The Hispanic Population: 2010" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
  78. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "2010 Census Shows Nation's Hispanic Population Grew Four Times Faster Than Total U.S. Population". United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. May 26, 2011. Archived from the original on September 8, 2012. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
  79. ^ a b "Race, Ethnicity, and Language data - Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement" (PDF). Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. Retrieved May 10, 2016.
  80. ^ a b Sonya Tastogi; Tallese D. Johnson; Elizabeth M. Hoeffel; Malcolm P. Drewery, Jr. (September 2011). "The Black Population: 2010" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
  81. ^ McKinnon, Jesse. "The Black Population: 2000 United States Census Bureau" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 22, 2007.
  82. ^ United States – ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2009 Archived February 11, 2020, at Retrieved December 9, 2010.
  83. ^ a b "2010 Census Shows Black Population has Highest Concentration in the South". United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. September 29, 2011. Archived from the original on September 15, 2012. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
  84. ^ Katarzyna Bryc; Eric Y. Durand; J. Michael Macpherson; David Reich; Joanna L. Mountain (January 8, 2015). "The Genetic Ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 96 (1): 37–53. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.11.010. PMC 4289685. PMID 25529636.
  85. ^ "The size and regional distribution of the black population". Lewis Mumford Center. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved October 1, 2007.
  86. ^ ""African American" in the American Heritage Dictionary". Yahoo. Archived from the original on September 27, 2014. Retrieved October 19, 2014.
  87. ^ Francesco Montinaro; George B.J. Busby; Vincenzo L. Pascali; Simon Myers; Garrett Hellenthal; Cristian Capelli (March 24, 2015). "Unravelling the hidden ancestry of American admixed populations". Nature Communications. 6: 6596. Bibcode:2015NatCo...6.6596M. doi:10.1038/ncomms7596. PMC 4374169. PMID 25803618.
  88. ^ Fouad Zakharia; Analabha Basu; Devin Absher; Themistocles L Assimes; Alan S Go; Mark A Hlatky; Carlos Iribarren; Joshua W Knowles; Jun Li; Balasubramanian Narasimhan; Steven Sidney; Audrey Southwick; Richard M Myers; Thomas Quertermous; Neil Risch; Hua Tang (2009). "Characterizing the admixed African ancestry of African Americans". Genome Biology. 10 (R141): R141. doi:10.1186/gb-2009-10-12-r141. PMC 2812948. PMID 20025784.
  89. ^ "New World Exploration and English Ambition". The Terrible Transformation. PBS. Archived from the original on June 14, 2007. Retrieved September 11, 2011.
  90. ^ Gomez, Michael A. (1998). Exchanging Our Country Marks: The Transformation of African Identities in the Colonial and Antebellum South. University of North Carolina Press. p. 384. ISBN 9780807846940.
  91. ^ Wood, Gordon S. (2002). The American revolution: a history. Modern Library. p. 55. ISBN 9780679640578.
  92. ^ Liberty! The American Revolution (Documentary) Episode II:Blows Must Decide: 1774-1776. ©1997 Twin Cities Public Television, Inc. ISBN 1-4157-0217-9
  93. ^ Foner, Philip Sheldon (1976). Blacks in the American Revolution. Volume 55 of Contributions in American history. Greenwood Press. p. 70. ISBN 9780837189468.
  94. ^ "Black Loyalists". Black Presence. The National Archives. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
  95. ^ Nicholas Boston; Jennifer Hallam (2004). "Freedom & Emancipation". Educational Broadcasting Corporation. Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
  96. ^ "13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution". National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
  97. ^ "The Fifteenth Amendment in Flesh and Blood". Office of the Clerk. United States House of Representatives. Archived from the original on December 11, 2012. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
  98. ^ Walter, Hazen (2004). American Black History. Lorenz Educational Press. p. 37. ISBN 9780787706036. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
  99. ^ "The Prize". We Shall Overcome. National Park Service. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
  100. ^ Kusow, AM. "African Immigrants in the United States: Implications for Affirmative Action". Iowa State University. Retrieved May 10, 2016.
  101. ^ Mwakikagile, Godfrey (2007). Relations Between Africans and African Americans: Misconceptions, Myths and Realities. New Africa Press. p. 196. ISBN 978-0980253450. Retrieved May 10, 2016.
  102. ^ a b "2010 United States Census statistics" (PDF).
  103. ^ a b "B02001. RACE – Universe: TOTAL POPULATION". 2008 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 28, 2010.
  104. ^ a b "Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month: May 2011". Facts for Features. U.S. Census Bureau. December 7, 2011. Retrieved January 4, 2012.
  105. ^ Shan Li (May 3, 2013). "Asian Americans had higher poverty rate than whites in 2011, study says". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 6, 2013. In 2011, for example, nearly a third of Asians in the U.S. lived in the metropolitan regions around Los Angeles, San Francisco and New York.
    "Selected Population Profile in the United States". U.S. Census. U.S. Department of Commerce. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved June 25, 2011.
  106. ^ "Israeli, Palestinian Americans could share new 'Middle Eastern' census category". The Times of Israel. October 23, 2016. Retrieved January 28, 2022. This derives from a 1915 court ruling in Dow v. United States, in which a Syrian American, George Dow, appealed his being classified by the government as Asian. At the time, such a designation resulted in the denial of citizenship under the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act.
  107. ^ Meizhu Lui; Barbara Robles; Betsy Leondar-Wright; Rose Brewer; Rebecca Adamson (2006). The Color of Wealth. The New Press.
  108. ^ "US Census Bureau report on educational attainment in the United States, 2003" (PDF). Retrieved July 31, 2006.
  109. ^ "The American Community-Asians: 2004" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. February 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 26, 2007. Retrieved September 5, 2007.
  110. ^ Chou, Rosalind; Joe R. Feagin (2008). The myth of the model minority: Asian Americans facing racism. Paradigm Publishers. p. x. ISBN 978-1-59451-586-6. Retrieved February 9, 2011.
  111. ^ Tamar Lewin (June 10, 2008). "Report Takes Aim at 'Model Minority' Stereotype of Asian-American Students". The New York Times. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
  112. ^ Tojo Thatchenkery (March 31, 2000). "Asian Americans Under the Model Minority Gaze". International Association of Business Disciplines National Conference. Archived from the original on March 18, 2012. Retrieved February 26, 2012.
  113. ^ "The Journey from Gold Mountain: The Asian American Experience" (PDF). Japanese American Citizens League. 2006. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 12, 2019. Retrieved November 27, 2016.
  114. ^ "California Declares Filipino American History Month". San Francisco Business Times. September 10, 2009. Retrieved February 14, 2011.
  115. ^ a b Hune, Shirley; Takeuchi, David T.; Andresen, Third; Hong, Seunghye; Kang, Julie; Redmond, Mavae'Aho; Yeo, Jeomja (April 2009). "Asian Americans in Washington State: Closing Their Hidden Achievement Gaps" (PDF). Commission on Asian Pacific American Affairs. State of Washington. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 3, 2010. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
  116. ^ Nicole Duran (November 3, 2011). "Asian-Americans Are Fastest-Growing Minority Population". National Journal. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
  117. ^ Lien, Pei-te; Mary Margaret Conway; Janelle Wong (2004). The politics of Asian Americans: diversity and community. Psychology Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-415-93465-7. Retrieved February 9, 2012. In addition, because of their perceived racial difference, rapid and continuous immigration from Asia, and on going detente with communist regimes in Asia, Asian Americans are construed as "perpetual foreigners" who cannot or will not adapt to the language, customs, religions, and politics of the American mainstream.
  118. ^ Wu, Frank H. (2003). Yellow: race in America beyond black and white. Basic Books. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-465-00640-3. Retrieved February 9, 2012. asian americans perpetual foreigners.
  119. ^ a b c d e Tina Norris; Paula L. Vines; Elizabeth M. Hoeffel (January 2012). "The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
  120. ^ Kathryn Walbert. "American Indian vs. Native American: A note on terminology". Kearn NC. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
  121. ^ Clyde Tucker; Brian Kojetin; Rodrick Harrison (1996). "A Statistical Analysis of the CPS Supplement on Race and Ethnic Origin" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
  122. ^ Bryc, Katarzyna; Durand, Eric Y.; Macpherson, J. Michael; Reich, David; Mountain, Joanna L. (January 2015). "The Genetic Ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 96 (1): 37–53. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.11.010. ISSN 0002-9297. PMC 4289685. PMID 25529636.
  123. ^ Carl Zimmer (December 24, 2014). "White? Black? A Murky Distinction Grows Still Murkier". The New York Times. Retrieved October 21, 2018. The researchers found that European-Americans had genomes that were on average 98.6 percent European, .19 percent African, and .18 Native American.
  124. ^ Axelrod, Alan (2003). The Complete Idiot's Guide to American History. Complete Idiot's Guide to. Penguin. p. 4. ISBN 9780028644646. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
  125. ^ Magoc, Chris J. (2011). Chronology of Americans and the Environment. ABC-CLIO. p. 1. ISBN 9781598844115. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
  126. ^ Columbus, Christopher; de las Casas, Bartolomé; Dunn, Oliver; Kelley, James Edward (1991). de las Casas, Bartolomé; Dunn, Oliver (eds.). The Diario of Christopher Columbus's First Voyage to America, 1492-1493. Volume 70 of American Exploration and Travel Series. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 491. ISBN 9780806123844. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
  127. ^ Rodriguez, Arturo B. (2000). U.S. Citizenship Guidebook. Sinagtala Educational Resources. p. 82. ISBN 9780967989808. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
  128. ^ Bianchine, Peter J.; Russo, Thomas A. (1992). "The Role of Epidemic Infectious Diseases in the Discovery of America". Allergy and Asthma Proceedings. OceanSide Publications, Inc. 13 (5): 225–232. doi:10.2500/108854192778817040. PMID 1483570.
  129. ^ Thornton, Russell (1987). American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A Population History Since 1492. Volume 186 of Civilization of the American Indian Series. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 49. ISBN 9780806122205. Retrieved September 9, 2012. genocide warfare europeans american indians.
  130. ^ Kessel, William B.; Wooster, Robert (2005). Encyclopedia Of Native American Wars And Warfare. Facts on File library of American History. Infobase Publishing. p. 398. ISBN 9780816033379. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
  131. ^ Thornton, Russell (1987). American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A Population History Since 1492. Volume 186 of Civilization of the American Indian Series. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 132. ISBN 9780806122205. Retrieved September 9, 2012. From whatever cause wars may be brought on, either between different Indian tribes or between indians and whites, they are very destructive, not only of the lives of the warriors engaged in it, but of the women and children also, often becoming a war of extermination.
  132. ^ "Early History, Native Americans, and Early Settlers in Mercer County". Mercer County Historical Society. Archived from the original on June 25, 2012. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
  133. ^ R. David Edmunds (March 14, 2006). "Native American Displacement Amid U.S. Expansion". KERA. Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
  134. ^ Blond, Becca; Dunford, Lisa; Schulte-Peevers, Andrea (2008). Southwest USA. Country Regional Guides. Lonely Planet. p. 37. ISBN 9781741047134. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
  135. ^ Gallay, Alan (2010). Indian Slavery in Colonial America. University of Nebraska Press. p. 448. ISBN 9780803222007. Retrieved September 8, 2012.
  136. ^ Woods Weierman, Karen (2005). One Nation, One Blood: Interracial Marriage In American Fiction, Scandal, and Law, 1820-1870. University of Massachusetts Press. p. 44. ISBN 9781558494831. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
  137. ^ Mann, Kaarin (2007). "Interracial Marriage In Early America: Motivation and the Colonial Project" (PDF). Michigan Journal of History. University of Michigan (Fall). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 15, 2013. Retrieved September 8, 2012.
  138. ^ "American Indian and Alaska Native Heritage Month: November 2011". United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. November 1, 2011. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
  139. ^ a b c d e Lindsay Hixson; Bradford B. Hepler; Myoung Ouk Kim (May 2012). "The Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Population: 2010" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
  140. ^ "Fact Sheet:What You should Know About Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI's)" (PDF). White House Initiative on Asian Americans & Pacific Islanders (WHIAAPI). United States Department of Education. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
  141. ^ a b c d "Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month: May 2011". United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. April 29, 2011. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
  142. ^ Jon M. Spencer (August 2000). The New Colored People: The Mixed-Race Movement in America. NYU Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-8072-5.
    Loretta I. Winters; Herman L. DeBose (2003). New Faces in a Changing America: Multiracial Identity in the 21st Century. SAGE. ISBN 978-0-7619-2300-8.
  143. ^ a b Karen R. Humes; Nicholas A. Jones; Roberto R. Ramirez (March 2011). "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010" (PDF). 2010 Census Briefs. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 22, 2013.
  144. ^ Jones, Nicholas A.; Amy Symens Smith. "The Two or More Races Population: 2000. Census 2000 Brief" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 8, 2008.
  145. ^ Ewen MacAskill; Nicholas Watt (May 20, 2011). "Obama looks forward to rediscovering his Irish roots on European tour". The Guardian. London. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
  146. ^ Mason, Jeff (May 23, 2011). "Obama visits family roots in Ireland". Reuters. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
  147. ^ Oscar Avila (April 4, 2010). "Obama's census-form choice: 'Black'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 22, 2013.
  148. ^ Sam Roberts; Peter Baker (April 2, 2010). "Asked to Declare His Race, Obama Checks 'Black'". The New York Times. Retrieved February 22, 2013.
  149. ^ Nocholas A. Jones; Jungmiwka Bullock (September 2012). "The Two or More Races Population: 2010" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. Retrieved November 18, 2014.
  150. ^ "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010" (PDF).
  151. ^ "United States". Modern Language Association. Retrieved September 2, 2013.
  152. ^ "Table 53—Languages Spoken at Home by Language: 2007" (PDF). Statistical Abstract of the United States 2010. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 27, 2010. Retrieved September 21, 2009.
  153. ^ "Foreign Language Enrollments in United States Institutions of Higher Learning" (PDF). MLA. Fall 2002. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 27, 1999. Retrieved October 16, 2006.
  154. ^ Feder, Jody (January 25, 2007). "English as the Official Language of the United States—Legal Background and Analysis of Legislation in the 110th Congress" (PDF). (Congressional Research Service). Retrieved June 19, 2007.
  155. ^ "The Constitution of the State of Hawaii, Article XV, Section 4". Hawaii Legislative Reference Bureau. November 7, 1978. Archived from the original on July 5, 2007. Retrieved June 19, 2007.
  156. ^ Dicker, Susan J. (2003). Languages in America: A Pluralist View. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. pp. 216, 220–25. ISBN 1-85359-651-5.
  157. ^ "California Code of Civil Procedure, Section 412.20(6)". Legislative Counsel, State of California. Archived from the original on July 22, 2010. Retrieved December 17, 2007. "California Judicial Council Forms". Judicial Council, State of California. Retrieved December 17, 2007.
  158. ^ "America's Changing Religious Landscape". The Pew Forum. May 12, 2015. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
  159. ^ "U.S. Stands Alone in its Embrace of Religion". Pew Global Attitudes Project. December 19, 2002. Archived from the original on February 8, 2007. Retrieved January 1, 2007.
  160. ^ Eck, Diana (2002). A New Religious America: the World's Most Religiously Diverse Nation. HarperOne. p. 432. ISBN 978-0-06-062159-9.
  161. ^ ANALYSIS (December 19, 2011). "Global Christianity". Retrieved August 17, 2012.
  162. ^ Newport, Frank (December 23, 2016). "Five Key Findings on Religion in the U.S." Gallup. Retrieved April 5, 2018.
  163. ^ a b c Barry A. Kosmin and Ariela Keysar (2009). "American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS) 2008" (PDF). Hartford, Connecticut, US: Trinity College. Retrieved April 1, 2009.
  164. ^ "CIA Fact Book". CIA World Fact Book. 2002. Retrieved December 30, 2007.
  165. ^ "Religious Composition of the U.S." (PDF). U.S. Religious Landscape Survey. Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. 2007. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 6, 2009. Retrieved May 9, 2009.
  166. ^ Newport, Frank (July 28, 2008). "Belief in God Far Lower in Western U.S." The Gallup Organization. Archived from the original on August 28, 2010. Retrieved September 4, 2010.
  167. ^ Feldman, Noah (2005). Divided by God. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, pg. 10 ("For the first time in recorded history, they designed a government with no established religion at all.")
  168. ^ Marsden, George M. 1990. Religion and American Culture. Orlando: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, pp.45–46.
  169. ^ Carlos E. Cortés (September 3, 2013). Multicultural America: A Multimedia Encyclopedia. SAGE Publications. p. 220. ISBN 978-1-4522-7626-7. The dominance of English and Anglo values in U.S. culture is evident in the country's major institutions, demonstrating the melting pot model.
  170. ^ Kirschbaum, Erik (1986). The eradication of German culture in the United States, 1917-1918. H.-D. Heinz. p. 155. ISBN 3-88099-617-2.
  171. ^ Peter J. Parish (January 1997). Reader's Guide to American History. Taylor & Francis. p. 276. ISBN 978-1-884964-22-0. However, France was second only to Britain in its influence upon the formation of American politics and culture.
  172. ^ Marilyn J. Coleman; Lawrence H. Ganong (September 16, 2014). The Social History of the American Family: An Encyclopedia. SAGE Publications. p. 775. ISBN 978-1-4522-8615-0. As the communities grew and prospered, Italian food, entertainment, and music influenced American life and culture.
  173. ^ a b "Mr. Jefferson and the giant moose: natural history in early America", Lee Alan Dugatkin. University of Chicago Press, 2009. ISBN 0-226-16914-6, ISBN 978-0-226-16914-9. University of Chicago Press, 2009. Chapter x.
  174. ^ M. D. R. Evans; Jonathan Kelley (January 2004). Religion, Morality and Public Policy in International Perspective, 1984-2002. Federation Press. p. 302. ISBN 978-1-86287-451-0.
  175. ^ "America tops in national pride survey finds". NBC News. Associated Press. June 27, 2006. Retrieved October 22, 2014.
    Elizabeth Theiss-Morse (July 27, 2009). Who Counts as an American?: The Boundaries of National Identity. Cambridge University Press. p. 133. ISBN 978-1-139-48891-4.
  176. ^ Dam, Andrew Van (December 23, 2022). "Why have millions of Americans moved to these countries instead?". Washington Post. Retrieved April 4, 2023.
  177. ^ "CA by the Numbers" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 16, 2016.
This page was last edited on 26 September 2023, at 01:01
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.